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An agglomeration - from Latin agglomerare `` firmly connect '', ( synonymous also: English urban area and largely synonymous in German: conurbation , conurbation , urban region or agglomeration ) - describes a concentration of settlements consisting of several, mutually intertwined communities , which are opposite to their Surrounding area is characterized by a higher settlement density and a higher proportion of settlement area.

As a rule, an agglomeration is grouped around one or more core cities , which are surrounded by a narrower, densely built-up suburban suburban belt and a geographically more extensive, partly rural catchment area. Major cities and their extensive catchment areas form metropolitan regions , the area of ​​which is usually larger than that of the agglomeration in them. One example is the area of Hovedstadsområdet around the Danish capital and the surrounding Öresund region , the region in and around the cities of Copenhagen and Malmö . The term regiopole is also used for metropolitan areas with a regional focus outside of metropolises , the surrounding area is called the regiopole region .

Depending on whether one or more regional centers exist in an agglomeration, a distinction is made between monocentric and polycentric agglomerations.

The tendency towards regional dispersion of the settlement in the surrounding area of ​​agglomerations is called deglomeration or suburbanization , the dissolution of agglomerations is called deagglomeration .



Other frequently used terms for such an area are, as mentioned, e.g. B. City region , metropolitan area and metropolitan area . Although these terms essentially refer to the same thing, there are minor nuances of meaning depending on how they are interpreted. In contrast to the broader terms of the greater region , metropolitan region or economic region , the urban region does not include the rural, peripheral sub-areas, but only the immediate, densely built-up area around the city center. But also settlements that are not directly adjacent to the core city can be counted as part of the urban region if the majority of the inhabitants work in the core city.

The criteria according to which figures are calculated for all of these terms ultimately depends on the delimitation method used in each case. There is no reliable standardization for these procedures, which is why the figures for different regions are only partially comparable.


United Nations


According to the definition of the United Nations (UNO) from 1998, an agglomeration is a core city including its suburban surrounding area or at least the densely populated surrounding area that lies outside the city limits but is directly adjacent to them. Such an agglomeration consists of one or more cities and their suburban communities, which form the agglomeration belt (the surrounding area is also known as the so-called bacon belt ). Agglomeration describes a “city” in the purely settler sense ( de facto ), without considering administrative boundaries ( de jure ).

European Union

In legal texts and other publications of the European Union was held in the German translations of the term conurbation input, while in English texts agglomeration is used. In the EU directive on air quality (2008/50 / EG) , agglomeration and metropolitan area are defined equally:

English - Agglomeration shall mean a zone that is a conurbation with a population in excess of 250,000 inhabitants or, where the population is 250,000 inhabitants or less, with a given population density per km² to be established by the Member States German - agglomeration is an urban area with a population of more than 250,000 inhabitants or, if 250,000 or fewer inhabitants live in the area, with a population density per km² to be determined by the member states

Functional urban area

The Statistical Office of the European Union uses the term Functional Urban Area (FUA), until 2014 also Larger Urban Zone (LUZ), to denote the functionally delimited urban area in the vicinity of a core city . In Brussels, for example, a distinction is made between the city (in the English sense, not the municipality of Brussels , but the capital region of Brussels ) with 1.2 million inhabitants and the functional urban area with 2.6 million inhabitants. According to a harmonized procedure, 323 urban regions in the European Union and 47 cities in Norway , Switzerland , Turkey and Croatia are currently defined, for which statistical data and indicators for quality of life have been collected and published as part of the Urban Audit since 2003/2004 .

Metropolitan area

Agglomeration is an ( urban ) area with a high population density. The otherwise largely synonymous term agglomeration is linguistically more precise because it is internationally standardized .

In the European Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49 / EC as a metropolitan area defines a zusammhängendes settlement area. This definition was adopted when the directive was implemented in German law through Section 47b of the Federal Immission Control Act . There is only an immediate legal consequence for the noise mapping or the information obligation of the authorities. Further legal claims - at least according to German law - cannot yet be derived from this.

The same order of magnitude can be found in the European guidelines for the clean air plan. According to this, the air quality should be recorded with measurements in all cities or urban agglomerations.

As a metropolitan area closed settlements apply accordingly

  • in which at least 250,000 people live (in Germany at least 100,000)
  • in which the population density in relation to the entire area is more than 1000 people per square kilometer
  • and spread over a total area of ​​more than 100 km² (see Annex V and IX of Directive 2008/50 / EC on air quality and cleaner air for Europe ).

According to § 47 para. 1 i. V. m. Sections 27 to 29 of the 39th BImSchV stipulate air pollution control measures and can also be enforced by citizens and associations.

The metropolitan areas can, but do not have to, correspond to the respective political or administrative boundaries.

According to the “ Anthrome ” model published in 2008 by the two American geographers Erle C. Ellis and Navin Ramankutty , around 30% of all people on earth live in urban areas. While in the past metropolitan areas mainly formed around ports, storage facilities, industry and transport hubs, a strong change in the economic value creation causes the formation of metropolitan areas around research institutions and the associated economic networks.

Term agglomeration


In addition to the above-mentioned methodologies used by the UN and the EU, there are different definitions and delimitation criteria in different countries, legal norms and plans.


In Germany, the term agglomeration is hardly standardized, but it is used in different contexts. With regard to the number of inhabitants of cities in Germany, the number of inhabitants of the respective core city is usually given, figures from agglomerations or urban regions are less common. From a spatial planning perspective, however, there are two important spatial structural classification systems:

  1. The regional, district and community types of the Federal Office for Building and Regional Planning (BBR) as well as
  2. the BIK regions (formerly BIK city regions) of BIK Aschpurwis + Behrens GmbH.

Both classifications represent a further development of the 70 city regions developed by Olaf Boustedt in the 1950s . Boustedt assumed that the cities would grow beyond their administrative boundaries, while at the same time the surrounding municipalities of the city adopt similar characteristics and thus form a coherent agglomeration. Both the BBR classification and the BIK regions are based on the data on commuter integration for employees subject to social insurance from the Federal Employment Agency . They differ with regard to the underlying structural level. While the typifications of the BBSR are based on the municipal associations, the BIK regions are based on the smallest administrative structure level, the municipalities.


In Switzerland, the term “agglomeration” is defined by the Federal Statistical Office . The basis is the development of a spatial structure for Switzerland, which differentiates between institutional structures, analysis regions, spatial and regional political typologies. The term agglomeration was last defined in 2012; an earlier definition dates from 2000. The definition of agglomeration in 2012 is a multi-stage process: densities of residents, employees and overnight stays are examined in order to identify potential agglomeration cores. Then agglomeration belts are sought, whereby the commuter intensities directed towards the cores are decisive. The core area and belt together must have a certain size in order to be considered an agglomeration. According to these criteria (as of January 1, 2016), 430 municipalities are classified as core agglomeration municipalities, 662 as belted municipalities and 1202 municipalities do not belong to any agglomeration. These form a total of 49 agglomerations and 28 cores outside of agglomerations.


As concentrations of living and working functions, the agglomerations are engines of economic development and arenas of cultural life and are therefore of importance for the entire country. As a room category, agglomeration or compression areas form the type of room with the highest density of use and form the opposite pole to the sparsely populated rural areas. The connecting axes between the agglomerations, some of which extend through the rural area, are called corridors.

Ratio within an agglomeration

Agglomerations are rarely grouped together in a single political administrative unit. As a rule, there is a strong political contrast between the core city and the politically independent suburbs, which is intensified in some cases by traditional rivalries, but almost always by the social , fiscal and settlement-structural effects of suburbanization .

Due to the ongoing intraregional shift in importance and population in favor of the surrounding area, the accumulation of socially disadvantaged people in the core cities, the provision or financing of infrastructure of regional importance (e.g. transport networks, cultural and leisure facilities) by the core cities without the financial participation of the suburbs benefiting from it as well as the ruinous competition for the settlement of companies ( trade tax dumping) the core cities get into ever greater difficulties. The financial and functional depletion can weaken a core city so much that it is no longer able to fulfill its central regional functions, which ultimately damages the entire urban region including the suburbs.

To create a fair balance of interests within the urban region and to coordinate the urban region in supraregional competition, there are institutions for inter-municipal cooperation in numerous urban regions :

Voluntary cooperation
  • Joint cooperation under private law ( GmbH and others)
  • Regional conferences, regional forums, etc. a.
Association models
Local government models

Agglomerations in individual European countries


Since cities in Germany are divided uniformly into upper and middle centers in the regional planning , agglomerations in Germany can be divided into poly- and monocentral areas.

Many of the agglomerations in Germany are part of a larger European metropolitan region . Due to the frequent amalgamation of agglomerations, there are hardly any monocentral metropolitan regions in Germany, whereas it is more the rule in agglomerations that they are only formed around a regional center. According to the state planning, Aachen, Dresden, Hamburg, Munich and Stuttgart are the only regional centers in their agglomerations. In geographic reality, however, these formal definitions are opposed to large sub-centers within the urban areas of large cities, some of which achieve the functional importance of regional centers (including Berlin-Spandau , Frankfurt-Höchst , Hamburg-Harburg or Munich-Pasing ).

There are also cross-border metropolitan areas on German territory that have their center in a city outside Germany, such as Stettin and Basel ( TEB ). A special form of cross-border cooperation in metropolitan areas are the Eurodistricts , including Strasbourg-Ortenau , PAMINA , Saar-Moselle and the Freiburg / southern Alsace region .

rank Agglomeration lies in the metropolitan area Inhabitants of the
Regional centers Most important middle centers
01 Ruhr area Rhine-Ruhr 5,612,300 Bochum , Dortmund , Duisburg , Essen , Hagen Bottrop , Gelsenkirchen , Hamm , Herne , Moers , Mülheim an der Ruhr , Oberhausen , Recklinghausen
02 Cologne-Düsseldorf Rhineland 4,909,200 Cologne , Düsseldorf , Bonn , Wuppertal Bergheim , Bergisch Gladbach , Leverkusen , Neuss , Ratingen , Troisdorf , Remscheid , Solingen
03 Berlin Berlin / Brandenburg 4,613,400 Berlin , Potsdam Bernau near Berlin , Falkensee , Königs Wusterhausen , Oranienburg , Strausberg , Teltow
04th Frankfurt a. M. -Wiesbaden-Darmstadt Frankfurt / Rhine-Main 3,187,300 Frankfurt am Main , Mainz - Wiesbaden , Darmstadt , Offenbach am Main , Hanau , Aschaffenburg Rüsselsheim am Main , Bad Homburg vor der Höhe
05 Hamburg Hamburg 2,815,500 Hamburg Elmshorn , Norderstedt , Pinneberg , Wedel
06th Stuttgart Stuttgart 2,357,600 Stuttgart Böblingen / Sindelfingen , Esslingen am Neckar , Ludwigsburg / Kornwestheim , Waiblingen / Fellbach
07th Munich Munich 2,211,800 Munich Dachau , Germering , Gilching , Fürstenfeldbruck
08th Mannheim-Ludwigshafen-Heidelberg Rhine-Neckar 1,548,300 Mannheim , Heidelberg , Ludwigshafen am Rhein Worms , Neustadt an der Weinstrasse , Speyer , Frankenthal , Weinheim
09 Nuremberg Nuremberg 1,206,200 Nuremberg , Erlangen , Fürth Schwabach , Herzogenaurach , Lauf an der Pegnitz , Hersbruck , Roth
10 Hanover Hanover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg 1,131,900 Hanover , Hildesheim Garbsen , Langenhagen , Neustadt , Lehrte , Wunstorf
11 Bremen northwest 988,500 Bremen Delmenhorst , Syke , Achim , Stuhr
12 Bielefeld-Herford no 932,600 Bielefeld Gutersloh , Herford
13 Dresden no 827,000 Dresden Freital , Pirna , Radebeul
14th Saarbrücken no 824,000 Saarbrücken Homburg , Neunkirchen , Saarlouis , St. Ingbert , Völklingen
15th Leipzig Central Germany 735,300 Leipzig Markkleeberg , Markranstädt , Schkeuditz , Taucha
16 Chemnitz-Zwickau Central Germany 624,600 Chemnitz , Zwickau Limbach-Oberfrohna , Glauchau , Werdau , Crimmitschau
17th Aachen no 571,600 Aachen Alsdorf , Eschweiler , Herzogenrath , Stolberg (Rhineland) , Würselen , Übach-Palenberg
18th Karlsruhe Upper Rhine 512.100 Karlsruhe Bruchsal , Ettlingen , Rastatt , Wörth am Rhein
19th augsburg Munich 510.100 augsburg Friedberg , Königsbrunn , Neusäß , Gersthofen
20th Mönchengladbach Rhine-Ruhr 500,300 Mönchengladbach Viersen

Reference dates: December 31, 2018 (estimate)


The Statistics Austria has defined 34 statistical city regions on a core area of the city (as central site ) and its surrounding communities, and an outer zone based.

Together they comprised 5.567 million inhabitants (as of January 1, 2001), which is around 64% of the total population of Austria . Three quarters of this (3.81 million) were in the core zones and around 1.35 million in the outer zones.

According to the population of the urban region, four size classes can be distinguished:

  • City region Vienna, with satellite cities Baden, Bad Vöslau, Klosterneuburg, Korneuburg, Stockerau
  • 6 other metropolitan regions with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the core zone
  • 9 medium-sized city regions with 40,000 to 100,000 inhabitants in the core zone
  • 18 small town regions with fewer than 40,000 inhabitants in the core zone

The last delimitation was made in 2001.

Eurostat divides Austria into five major metropolitan regions, Vienna being the largest and Innsbruck the smallest.

code Urban region Area
in ha (1.1.2012)
Inhabitants (Eurostat definition)
SR010 Vienna 497,523.76 2,376,143 2,680,667
SR020 Graz 150,388.37 465.296 605.143
SR030 Linz 158,091.28 449,896 765,589
SR040 Salzburg 122,739.58 327,349 350.159
SR050 innsbruck 144,494.08 264.179 294.209
SR060 Bregenz 42,709.93 168,959
SR070 Klagenfurt 78,697.16 150.261
SR080 Feldkirch 28,573.13 111,866
SR090 catfish 44,941.10 124,482
SR100 Leoben 110,625.92 104.501
SR110 Villach 70,312.12 98,794
SR120 Wiener Neustadt 33,999.95 81,296
SR130 Steyr 36,493.47 74,936
SR140 Knittelfeld 88,779.75 61,931
SR150 St. Polten 55,918.72 89.051
SR160 Vöcklabruck 34,253.68 63.217
SR170 Gmunden 29,042.62 48,080
SR180 Voitsberg 25,140.38 31,826
SR190 Krems at the Donau 33,483.78 46,772
SR200 Wolfsberg 56,152.14 39,010
SR210 Bludenz 24,323.11 33,120
SR220 Amstetten 32,905.45 46,972
SR230 Lienz 37,250.06 26,111
SR240 Spittal an der Drau 45,989.37 36,360
SR250 Worgl 10,722.38 27,012
SR260 St. Johann iP 12,767.31 21.092
SR270 black 25,409.13 21,359
SR280 Ternitz 8,142.53 18,796
SR290 Leibnitz 10,207.37 25,041
SR300 Ried iI 18,258.15 29.094
SR310 Wheat 15,950.93 23,799
SR320 Braunau aI 16,238.13 25,391
SR330 Kufstein 16,666.24 22,719
SR340 Eisenstadt 25,024.58 32,542


Since 1930, the urban agglomerations have been statistically delimited every ten years based on the results of the censuses . Since 1980, municipalities located abroad have also been taken into account in cross-border agglomerations, which is important for Basel , Geneva and Lugano .

The Federal Statistical Office describes a total of 50 agglomerations in Switzerland . The population and economic output of Switzerland are concentrated in these areas - around 72% of the country's residents live in these areas. The agglomeration communities cover 21% of the country's area.

The Federal Statistical Office defines five metropolitan regions with associated agglomerations.

The following table shows the ten largest agglomerations (2000 / in brackets the population without the foreign part):

rank Urban region Population
1. Zurich 1,080,728
2. Basel 830,000
3. Geneva 645,608
4th Bern 349,096
5. Lausanne 311,441
6th Lucerne 196'550
7th St. Gallen 146'385
8th. Lugano 136,032
9. Winterthur 123'416
10. Baden-Brugg 106,736
Total in the ten
city ​​regions
approx. 3.9 million

Development of residents in agglomerations in Switzerland (2010-2014 / source: Federal Statistical Office (FSO)):

Spatial distribution: agglomerations, urban and rural areas

Permanent resident population in urban and rural areas - 2010–2014
year-end, in thousands

2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Total 7,870.1 7,954.7 8,039.1 8,139.6 8,237.7

Urban areas 1) 6,636.9 6,711.9 6,785.6 6,873.6 6,959.1
Rural areas 1) 1'233.3 1,242.7 1,253.5 1,266.0 1,278.6

The largest agglomerations 1)
       Zurich agglomeration 1,249.8 1,266.3 1'280.9 1,296.6 1'315.7
Geneva agglomeration 544.8 549.4 552.3 560.3 570.2
Basel agglomeration 521.2 524.0 527.2 532.2 537.1
Bern agglomeration 391.9 394.6 398.9 403.1 406.9
Lausanne agglomeration 379.2 385.7 389.6 397.5 402.9

The biggest cities
Zurich 372.9 377.0 380.8 384.8 391.4
Geneva 187.5 188.2 189.0 191.6 194.6
Basel 163.2 164.5 165.6 167.4 168.6
Bern 124.4 125.7 127.5 128.8 130.0
Lausanne 127.8 129.4 130.4 132.8 133.9

1) According to the FSO typology of urban spaces 2012 / source: STATPOP

The largest agglomerations with a foreign core city, but moving into Switzerland (2000 / source: Federal Statistical Office (FSO)):

rank Urban region Swiss share Population
1. ItalyItaly Como Chiasso / Mendrisio 273,801
2. AustriaAustria Dornbirn Heerbrugg 158,102
3. GermanyGermany Constancy Kreuzlingen 110,531

The metropolitan regions - division into five according to FSO (2004 / source: Federal Statistical Office (FSO)):

Metropolitan area Areas associated Swiss agglomerations (cities) Population million (2004) Area (km²)
Zurich Canton of Zurich and neighboring areas Zurich , Winterthur , Frauenfeld , Wetzikon - Pfäffikon , Rapperswil-Jona - Rüti , Lachen , Zug , Lenzburg , Wohlen , Baden - Brugg , Schaffhausen and the single town of Einsiedeln 1.68 2,104
Geneva-Lausanne Lake Geneva region / Riviera , some parts of the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region (F) Geneva (CH / F), Lausanne , Yverdon-les-Bains , Vevey - Montreux 1.20 1,014
Basel Northwestern Switzerland (CH), southeast of the Haut-Rhin (F) department, Lörrach district (D) Basel , Delémont 0.80 -
Bern part of the Espace Mittelland Bern , Burgdorf , Thun , Biel / Bienne , Freiburg , individual town Lyss 0.70 938
Ticino Southern Ticino, Como (I) Locarno , Bellinzona , Lugano , Chiasso - Mendrisio 0.53 731
Total of
them in Switzerland
approx. 5  
approx. 4.5

Agglomerations worldwide

The largest agglomerations on earth with over ten million inhabitants are:

rank Urban region Residents includes country
1 Guangzhou 45.6 million Dongguan , Foshan , Jiangmen , Shenzhen , Zhongshan China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China
2 Tokyo - Yokohama 39.9 million Kawasaki , Saitama , Chiba , Maebashi , Sagamihara , Utsunomiya JapanJapan Japan
3 Jabodetabek 30.3 million Jakarta , Bogor , Depok , Tangerang , Tangerang Selatan , Bekasi IndonesiaIndonesia Indonesia
4th Shanghai 29.5 million Suzhou China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China
5 Delhi 28.5 million Faridabad , Ghaziabad , Gurgaon IndiaIndia India
6th Seoul 24.6 million Bucheon , Goyang , Incheon , Seongnam , Suwon Korea SouthSouth Korea South Korea
6th Manila 24.6 million Caloocan , Quezon City PhilippinesPhilippines Philippines
8th Mumbai 24.2 million Bhiwandi , Kalyan , Thane , Ulhasnagar , Vasai-Virar IndiaIndia India
9 Mexico city 22.6 million Nezahualcóyotl , Ecatepec , Naucalpan MexicoMexico Mexico
10 new York 22.2 million Bridgeport , Newark , New Haven United StatesUnited States United States
11 São Paulo 22.1 million Guarulhos BrazilBrazil Brazil
12 Beijing 20.0 million China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China
13 Dhaka 18.8 million BangladeshBangladesh Bangladesh
14th Bangkok 18.4 million ThailandThailand Thailand
15th Cairo 18.2 million Giza , Helwan , Shubra al-Khaimah EgyptEgypt Egypt
16 Lagos 18.2 million NigeriaNigeria Nigeria
17th los Angeles 17.7 million Riverside , Anaheim United StatesUnited States United States
17th Osaka 17.7 million Kobe , Kyoto , Himeji , Sakai JapanJapan Japan
19th Moscow 17.0 million RussiaRussia Russia
20th Karachi 16.9 million PakistanPakistan Pakistan
21st Calcutta 16.4 million Haora IndiaIndia India
22nd Buenos Aires 16.1 million San Justo , La Plata ArgentinaArgentina Argentina
23 Istanbul 14.8 million TurkeyTurkey Turkey
24 Tehran 14.7 million Karaj IranIran Iran
25th London 14.6 million United KingdomUnited Kingdom United Kingdom
26th Johannesburg 13.4 million East Rand , Evaton , Pretoria , Soshanguve , Soweto , Vereeniging , West Rand South AfricaSouth Africa South Africa
27 Rio de Janeiro 12.8 million Nova Iguaçu , São Gonçalo BrazilBrazil Brazil
28 Tianjin 12.7 million China People's RepublicPeople's Republic of China People's Republic of China
29 Lahore 12.2 million PakistanPakistan Pakistan
30th Kinshasa 11.6 million Congo Democratic RepublicDemocratic Republic of Congo DR Congo
31 Bangalore 11.5 million IndiaIndia India
32 Paris 11.3 million FranceFrance France
33 Chennai 10.7 million IndiaIndia India
34 Nagoya 10.5 million JapanJapan Japan
35 Lima 10.3 million PeruPeru Peru

Reference date: January 1, 2018

The distribution of agglomeration on earth: urban agglomerations and their extended surrounding areas

Demarcation problems and comparability

The data given can hardly be compared as different definitions were used depending on the city.

For US cities, for example, the figures for the expanded metropolitan regions, the Combined Statistical Areas, are shown, while for the agglomerations, however, the areas designated as Urban Areas would actually have to be used, whose population is significantly lower (in the case of Los Angeles, for example, 12 instead of 18 million ).

Another problem is the national delimitation of agglomerations. In the above list, for example, the Aachen agglomeration is only described using the German side of the urban area, although cities such as Heerlen or Kerkrade in the Netherlands are also included in this area.

See also


  • United Nations (Ed.): Principles and recommendations for population and housing censuses , 1998.
  • Stephan Burgdorff, Hauke ​​Janssen: Yearbook 2003 - The world in numbers, data analyzes. Spiegel-Buchverlag, Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, p. 490 f.
  • Häußermann, Hartmut : Big city: sociological keywords. Leske + Budrich Verlag, Opladen 1998, ISBN 3-8100-2126-1 .
  • Antonia Milbert: City- Surroundings Definitions in Spatial Observation . In: Urban research and statistics: Journal of the Association of German Urban Statisticians. 33 (1), 2020, pp. 2-11 ( [2] ).

Web links

Wiktionary: Agglomeration  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wiktionary: metropolitan area  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Directive 2008/50 / EC (PDF)
  2. What is a city? - Spatial units. Retrieved January 18, 2016 .
  3. → Source data for figures and maps (MS Excel) = Eurostat Regional Yearbook 2017: Chapter 13 - Focus on cities , Figure 1: Twenty cities in the EU with the largest number of inhabitants, 2015
  4. Eurostat - Urban Audit. Retrieved October 2, 2019 .
  5. ^ Lawsuits against the State of Hesse due to changes to the clean air plan at the Wiesbaden Administrative Court on October 10, 2011.
  6. cf. Christoph Keese: Silicon Valley (2014), p. 288.
  7. Rico Wittwer: Spatial structural influences on traffic behavior - usability of the results of large-scale and local household surveys for macroscopic traffic planning models (PDF) Retrieved May 29, 2020.
  8. Ongoing city observation - spatial delimitation . Archived from the original on July 9, 2012. Retrieved on August 12, 2012.
  9. BIK regions and areas of integration . BIK Aschpurwis + Behrens GmbH, Hamburg. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  10. ^ Boustedt, Olaf (1953): The city region. A contribution to the delimitation of urban agglomerations. General Statistical Archive 37, 13–26.
  11. Spatial structure on
  12. Evaluations by agglomerations on
  13. ↑ Major regions and definition of agglomerations 2012 on analysis regions
  14. The 49 agglomerations and 28 cores outside of agglomerations in Switzerland on December 18, 2014 (by municipalities) on
  15. Source:
  16. Stadtregionen ( Memento of May 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), → Classifications ; Urban regions 2001 ( Memento of November 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
  17. Stadtregionen ( Memento of May 8, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), → Classifications ; Urban regions delimitation 2001 - allocation of the municipalities as of January 1, 2012 ( Memento from June 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF)
  19. Schwick, Jaeger, Bertiller, Kienast: Urban Sprawl - Unstoppable? Quantitative analysis 1935 to 2002 and conclusions for spatial planning . Bristol Foundation, Zurich 2010.
  20. Agglomerations ( Memento of May 4, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) , Federal Statistical Office, at
  21. Thomas Brinkhoff: Major Agglomerations of the World, ( [1] )