|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||113 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||297.8 km 2|
|Resident:||597,493 (Dec 31, 2020)|
|Population density :||2006 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||0341, 034297 , 034298|
|License plate :||L.|
|Community key :||14 7 13 000|
|LOCODE :||DE LEJ|
|City structure:||10 districts with 63 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Burkhard Jung ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Leipzig in Saxony|
Leipzig ( [ˈlaɪ̯pt͡sɪç] ; in the Saxon dialect also Leibzsch [ˈlaɪ̯bt͡sʃ] ) is an independent city and with 597,493 inhabitants (December 31, 2020) the most populous city in the Free State of Saxony and ranked eighth in the list of major cities in Germany in 2020 . For Central Germany it is a historical center of the economy, trade and transport, administration, culture and education as well as currently a center for the “ creative scene ”.
Leipzig is one of the six regional centers in Saxony and, together with the city of Halle (Saale) in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, which is around 35 kilometers away, forms the transnational conurbation of Leipzig-Halle , in which around 1.1 million people live. With Halle and other cities in the states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia , Leipzig is part of the polycentric metropolitan region of Central Germany .
After the city charter and market privileges were granted around 1165, Leipzig developed into an important trading center during the German settlement in the east . Leipzig's tradition as an important trade fair location in Central Europe with one of the oldest trade fairs in the world dates back to 1190 and was closely linked to Leipzig's long-standing role as an international center of the fur trade . In the time of National Socialism , Leipzig officially carried the city's honorary title Reichsmesse City from 1937 to 1945 . The city is a historic center of book printing and trade. In addition, Leipzig is home to one of the oldest universities and the oldest colleges for both commerce and music in Germany. Leipzig has a great musical tradition, which goes back above all to the work of Johann Sebastian Bach and Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and is based, among other things, on the importance of the Gewandhaus Orchestra and the St. Thomas' Choir .
In the course of the Monday demonstrations in 1989 , which gave a decisive impetus for the turning point in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) , Leipzig was described as a city of heroes . The informal award for the courageous and peaceful commitment of many Leipzig citizens in the vicinity of Leipzig's Nikolaikirche shaped the city's reputation after the fall of the Wall and is taken up in the city's marketing under the motto "Leipziger Freiheit". In addition, Leipzig is known for its wealth of extensively renovated or reconstructed cultural monuments and urban canals , the species-rich zoo and the Leipzig New Lake District, which is created through the recultivation of former lignite opencast mines, and the Bundesliga club RB Leipzig .
The Federal Administrative Court , the 5th and 6th Criminal Senate of the Federal Court of Justice and, since October 1, 2018, the Federal Highways Office , which began operating on January 1, 2021, have their headquarters in Leipzig .
Location and morphology
Leipzig is located in the center of the Leipzig lowland bay , which forms the southernmost part of the North German lowlands , and at the confluence of the Weißer Elster , Pleiße and Parthe rivers . The rivers are branched in many ways in the urban area and thus form the Leipzig water junction , which is accompanied by a large alluvial forest area (see following section). The area around Leipzig is poor in forests. In the 20th century, the area was characterized by extensive open- cast lignite mining, as a result of which numerous lakes are now being created.
The expansion of the city is 23.4 kilometers in north-south direction and 21.3 kilometers in east-west direction. The length of the city limits is 128.7 kilometers. In the north the district of North Saxony borders the city, in the south the district of Leipzig .
Magdeburg (130 km)
Halle (Saale) (35 km)
Rostock (380 km)
Berlin (190 km)
Wittenberg (70 km)
Kassel (230 km)
Nordhausen (120 km)
Merseburg (30 km)
Dresden (110 km)
Görlitz (220 km)
( Polish border )
Erfurt (140 km)
Frankfurt am Main (390 km)
Zwickau (85 km)
Hof (Saale) (150 km)
Chemnitz (80 km)
Prague (260 km)
* Distances are rounded road kilometers to the town center.
The difference in altitude in the urban area is about 60 meters. The higher parts are in the southeast and the lower parts in the northwest. The lowest point at 97 meters above sea level is on the Neue Luppe near Gundorf . The highest natural points in the city are the Monarch Hill at 159 meters and the Galgenberg in Liebertwolkwitz at 163 meters . The Monarchenhügel is surpassed by the Seehausen ( ) and Liebertwolkwitz ( ) landfills , an elevation close to the city center is the Schuttberg called Fockeberg ( ).
Although the White Elster is the most water-rich of the three rivers in the city, the Pleiße is mainly associated with Leipzig, as it comes closest to the city center with its tributary, the Pleißemühlgraben .
The graphic shows the shares of land use in the urban area in 2014.
nature and environment
An extensive alluvial forest area runs along the rivers in a north-south direction through the city, some of which has been converted into parks in the central area. The alluvial forest forms a climatically, ecologically and recreationally relevant green connection from the Leipzig area to the city center and, despite the centuries-long direct anthropogenic influence, has preserved flora and fauna that have become rare. The close connection between alluvial forest and urban development is a unique selling point of Leipzig in Europe .
Since there are significant lignite deposits under Leipzig and its surrounding area , the industrial mining of this raw material in open-cast mining began as early as the 1930s . Mining, which continued to expand during the GDR era ( lignite was the main source of energy in the GDR), destroyed parts of the alluvial forest south of Leipzig. Numerous flood protection measures, including the construction of the Elster basin and the relocation of natural rivers, as well as lowering of the groundwater level associated with lignite mining, led to disruption of the highly specialized ecosystem that originally served as a natural flood plain.
The city is located in the middle of the Leipzig water junction , a former inland delta that z. B. was often redesigned by the creation of mill ditches and flood protection systems. In the 1950s, the Pleißemühlgraben and part of the Elstermühlgraben - in the Middle Ages artificially created tributaries of the two rivers Pleiße and Weisse Elster - were piped or backfilled due to pollution from industrial wastewater from lignite processing south of Leipzig, so that Leipzig partially lost its character as a river town. The discharge of the highly toxic wastewater had made the rivers biologically dead. Since the end of the water-polluting industry at the beginning of the 1990s, both rivers have been gradually exposed again. Around 141 kilometers of constantly water-bearing watercourses run across the urban area, with only temporary water-bearing brooks and ditches.
In addition to water pollution, the lignite firing of obsolete industrial plants, some of which still corresponded to the pre-war standard, as well as domestic furnace heating resulted in very high levels of air pollution. The sulfur and phenol-containing air and the associated acid rain attacked parts of the building, especially those made of sandstone . In the 1970s and 1980s, Leipzig was one of the most polluted cities in Europe with environmental toxins. After the "turnaround", the shutdown of the old industry and the modernization of the power plants and domestic heating systems very quickly led to significantly improved water and air conditions and to a visible recovery of the flora and fauna. With its numerous city parks, such as the Clara-Zetkin-Park close to the center and the Rosental , many newly created facilities in the residential areas and the traditional allotment garden associations, Leipzig is one of the greenest cities in Germany. The proportion of green space is estimated at around 50% and the proportion of forest around 7%. By 2015, the proportion of forests is to be increased to 10% and biotope networks are to be expanded. Leipzig has been a model region for the testing and development project "Urban Forest Areas" of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation since 2007 , whereby, in cooperation with the responsible city authorities, forests of various types are to be created on urban wasteland and their effects on the climate, recreational provision and nature conservation are to be investigated. There is potential for space of around 1850 hectares in the inner-city area.
The street trees play a major role in Leipzig's urban greenery, fulfilling both creative and ecological functions. 57,732 street trees are currently registered in the city's tree cadastre. That is more than the registered park trees. More than 35% of the street trees are linden trees, matching the origins of the city's name. 38% of the street trees are younger than 20 years, which results from the addition of old stands as well as from the immediate planting of new streets. Since the start of the Tree-Strong City campaign in 1996, donations (from EUR 250 per tree) have allowed up to 150 trees to be planted annually.
At the beginning of the 1990s, the lignite mining was stopped and the recultivation of the remaining opencast mining holes and the renaturation of the surrounding area began. In the meantime, several lakes with very good water quality have emerged from the flooded opencast mines. Other opencast mines are still being flooded. The Kulkwitzer and Cospudener See are closest to the Leipzig city center, they serve as a very well developed local recreation area. In addition, the Leipzig urban area also borders the Zwenkauer See , which is to be connected to the Cospudener See by a canal. The resulting large-scale recreational area will be marketed to tourists as " Leipziger Neuseenland " and should cover 70 km² of water when completed. In the urban area itself there are around 130 standing water bodies with a total area of 80 hectares under municipal administration. In order to develop and experience the nature and landscape of the region together with the surrounding municipalities and districts, Leipzig has been a member of the Green Ring Leipzig since 1996 .
On March 1, 2011, a large part of the city was declared an environmental zone of pollutant group 4.
City structure and neighboring communities
Since 1992, Leipzig has been administratively divided into ten districts , which contain 63 districts . In contrast to this, districts are areas of the city that were created through the incorporation of previously independent villages. Therefore, the boundaries of city and districts are not always identical. To reach administrative units of roughly the same size, two districts sometimes form a district, or a district is divided into several districts. If not created by incorporation, sometimes a district does not correspond to any district.
Leipzig lies in the temperate climate zone , in the transition area from the oceanic climate of Western Europe to the continental climate of Eastern Europe. The average annual temperature is 8.4 ° C and the average annual rainfall is 507 mm (average 1972-2001). On average, there were 77 days with frost , 37 summer days and over seven hot days in the same period . Most of the precipitation falls in the summer months of June to August with a peak of 58.6 mm in August. In February the lowest precipitation falls with 27 mm, in the other winter months it is around 30 mm.
The rain shadow of the Harz reaches its southeastern border in the Leipzig city area. To the south, the rain accumulation of the Erzgebirge adjoins. This manifests itself in a significant precipitation gradient in the vicinity of the city, but also within the city area. The driest is the north of Leipzig, most of the precipitation falls in the southern area of the city, whereby the annual difference is about 100 mm. For comparison: In the city of Halle (Saale), which is completely in the rain shadow, there is only about 450 mm of precipitation per year.
The highest value was measured in Leipzig on June 30, 2019 with 38.7 ° C. The lowest recorded temperature was recorded on January 14, 1987 at −24.1 ° C.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Leipzig
Source: DWD, data: 2015–2020
Around the year 900, a Slavic settlement was established on both banks of the Parthe , as confirmed by excavations by Herbert Küas in the area of today's Matthäikirchhof. Leipzig was first mentioned in 1015, when Thietmar von Merseburg reported on an urbs Libzi (city of lime trees; Sorbian lipa = "lime tree") (Chronikon VII, 25). The city is called Lipsk ("Lindenort") in Sorbian and Polish . Though founded in the city of 1165 applies in which Margrave Otto the Rich of Meissen the location at the intersection of Via Regia with the Via Imperii the city charter and market rights granted. When the city was founded, the two large churches were built - the Thomaskirche and the St. Nikolaikirche . The first evidence of the Leipzig mint was provided with bracteates with the inscription MARCHIO OTTO DE LIPPI or OTTO MARCHIO DE LIPPZINA of Margrave Otto the Rich.
Leipzig was part of the Margraviate of Meißen , which became part of the Electorate of Saxony in 1439 . The electorate was divided up as early as 1485 by the two brothers Albrecht the Courageous and Ernst with the division of Leipzig . Leipzig then belonged to the Duchy of Saxony , whose capital was Dresden, which until then was insignificant compared to Leipzig or Meißen . Leipzig was often the meeting place for the state parliament . After the administrative reform in 1499, Leipzig was a so-called district office of Leipzig in the Leipzig district , in addition to which there were seven others in the electorate.
On December 2, 1409, the University of Leipzig was founded as " Alma Mater Lipsiensis" and is one of the three oldest universities in Germany. The foundation day is the dies academicus of the university. In 1519 Martin Luther , Andreas Karlstadt and Philipp Melanchthon met with the Catholic theologian Johannes Eck at the invitation of the university in Pleißenburg for a debate that went down in history as the Leipzig disputation .
After it was raised to the status of an imperial trade fair city in 1497 and the stacking rights were extended to a radius of 115 kilometers ten years later by the later Emperor Maximilian I , Leipzig became a trade fair city of European standing. It developed into the most important German trading center for the exchange of goods between Eastern and Western Europe. The fur trade and processing into semi-finished fur products for skinning and the manufacture of the associated tools and machines were particularly important for the later development into a trade fair city . Alongside London, Leipziger Brühl became an international trading center for the fur industry, and the important role played by the Leipzig Jewish community was closely linked to it. In 1913, the fur industry still accounted for 40 percent of Leipzig's tax revenue.
In 1539 the Reformation was finally introduced in Leipzig by Luther and Justus Jonas . Leipzig was affected by the Schmalkaldic War in 1546 and 1547, in which Leipzig and Saxony were primarily concerned with equality of the Protestant denominations. As a result of the war, in which Duke Moritz was on the imperial (Catholic) side, the electoral dignity in Saxony changed from the Ernestine to the Albertine line, in whose duchy Leipzig was. During these years the development of Leipzig was mainly characterized by the steadily improving living conditions. As an increasingly important trade and trade fair city, Leipzig benefited from the wealthy Leipzig trade bourgeoisie . A drinking water supply was established as early as the 16th century. In 1650, the Incoming Newspapers appeared six times a week for the first time . This makes them the oldest daily newspaper in the world.
The Thirty Years War was a serious turning point in the prosperous development of the city, the population fell from 18,000 to 12,000. Between 1631 and 1642 the city was besieged five times, from 1642 to 1650 it was occupied by the Swedish. On September 17, 1631, the Leipzig area with the Battle of Breitenfeld was the scene of one of the greatest defeats of the imperial army under Tilly in the Thirty Years' War. In the former Rittergut Breitenfeld belonging to Leipzig , a Gustav Adolf monument commemorates the Swedish military leader. A year later, on November 16, 1632, Gustav Adolf was killed in the battle of Lützen , about ten kilometers southwest of today's Leipzig city limits.
Street lighting was introduced in Leipzig in 1701 . The approximately 700 lanterns, made based on the Amsterdam model and operated with oil, were lit for the first time on the evening of December 24, 1701. For this purpose, the city hired so-called lantern keepers who, according to a fixed burning schedule, had to ensure that the lanterns were lit and extinguished in good time. During the Seven Years' War Leipzig was occupied by Prussia from 1756 to 1763 .
In 1813 the Battle of Nations near Leipzig took place in the course of the so-called Wars of Liberation . The allied armies of the Austrians , Prussians, Russians and Swedes brought Napoleon's troops and their allies, including the Kingdom of Saxony , the decisive defeat in this battle , which ultimately led to Napoleon's exile to the island of Elba .
On April 20, 1825, the German Booksellers Association was founded, at which time Leipzig was one of the centers of the German book trade and publishing industry.
As the first German long-distance railway line, the Leipzig-Dresden Railway was opened in 1839 . Leipzig gradually developed into the most important traffic junction in Central Germany , which was also reflected in the fact that Leipzig Central Station was built from 1902 to 1915 as one of the largest terminal stations in Europe at the time .
On April 2, 1843, Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy founded the first music academy in Germany with the Conservatorium der Musik , and the first edition of the Illustrirten Zeitung appeared in the same year .
As a result of industrialization , but also the diverse incorporation of the suburbs, the population rose rapidly at the end of the 19th century. In 1871 Leipzig became a major city with 100,000 inhabitants. The German Football Association was established in Leipzig in 1900 . The VfB Leipzig was in 1903 the first German football champions.
On October 1, 1879, the Reichsgericht was established in Leipzig as the highest civil and criminal court of the German Empire , which was founded in 1871 . It had the function of today's Federal Court of Justice and from 1895 was housed in the new Imperial Court building (seat of the Federal Administrative Court ). During the Leipzig trials , attempts were made there to solve the crimes of the First World War and to convict the perpetrators. During the Weimar Republic , the Reichsgericht played a controversial role on the National Socialists' path to power with its judgment on the so-called Prussian Strike of October 25, 1932 . With the seizure of power by the Nazis in 1933 the Supreme Court has been increasingly exploited by the regime of Hitler. In December 1933, it negotiated the Reichstag fire against Marinus van der Lubbe . He was sentenced to death and executed in Leipzig in January 1934. The acquittal of other defendants led to the establishment of the People's Court in order to centralize the judiciary in the offenses of high treason and treason. By the end of the war, penal practice at the Reichsgericht was tightened, and many sentences were revised to death sentences. The court was dissolved in 1945.
Leipzig's dominant role in the German-language publishing and book trade reached its climax in the late 19th century and up until the First World War. In 1914, around a tenth of the city's population of around 600,000 worked in these areas. The local commission bookstore overshadowed all other cities. In 1914 the Statistical Yearbook alone recorded 323 printing works with 18,307 employees. A number of well-known publishers such as Reclam , Teubner , Brockhaus , the Bibliographisches Institut , Seemann , Baedeker , Hirzel , Barth and Velhagen & Klasing , in the music trade Breitkopf & Härtel , CF Peters and Friedrich Hofmeister , had their headquarters here. With the German bookseller's house , the German Buchgewerbehaus and the Deutsche Bücherei were also the central institutions of the book industry and libraries in Leipzig, where they were particularly concentrated in the so-called graphic quarter east of the old town, the densest concentration of such businesses and institutions in Europe. In addition, there were various supplier industries for machines, paints, paper, bindings, etc.
During the Second World War , there were frequent air raids on the city from 1943 to 1945 , which led to considerable destruction of the inner city - up to 60 percent of the buildings were affected - and claimed around 6,000 victims. On April 18, 1945, units of the 1st US Army reached the city and set up their headquarters in the Hotel Fürstenhof . Due to the 1st London Zone Protocol of 1944 and the resolutions of the Yalta Conference , Saxony belonged to the Soviet Occupation Zone (SBZ) and the Red Army took over Leipzig on July 2, 1945. The Soviet Military Administration in Germany (SMAD) formed the city council and the city council , whose composition was dictated by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) when the GDR was founded .
After the Second World War, the economic importance of Leipzig fell sharply due to the situation in the Soviet occupation zone and the GDR, which was felt in a continuous decline in the number of inhabitants. Only after the completion of the division of Germany with the construction of the Berlin Wall in 1961 did the population recover somewhat until the mid-1960s. Between 1950 and 1989, the population decreased by a total of around 87,000 (over 14 percent) to 530,000 people.
From 1952 to 1990 Leipzig was the capital of the district of the same name and, in terms of population, the second largest city in the GDR. Most of the combine lines and parent companies were established in the major cities of Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden , so that Leipzig's economic importance in relation to the GDR was maintained until 1990.
In 1989 the Monday demonstrations that started in the Nikolaikirche heralded the end of the GDR. Since the GDR authorities exploited violence against the state order and destruction for propaganda purposes, the Monday demonstrations in Leipzig took place under the slogan “No violence”. In 1990 Leipzig and most of the Leipzig district were assigned to the Free State of Saxony. Leipzig has since been the seat of the administrative district of Leipzig , the August 1, 2008 in Direktionsbezirk Leipzig has risen and was disbanded on 1 March 2012 found.
On September 23, 2008, the city received the title “ Place of Diversity ” awarded by the federal government . In 2016, Leipzig was awarded the honorary title of “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .
Name development The first written evidence of Leipzig was in the chronicle of Thietmar von Merseburg from the year 1015 and reads in urbe Libzi vocatur .
Further evidence shows the name as Lipz or Lipsk . The etymology of the place name Leipzig is generally accepted as coming from the Sorbian word Lipsk (derived from Old Sorbian). It means " Linden place". Lipsk is still in use in Sorbian and Polish , the Czech name of Leipzig is Lipsko . It is possible - but not supported by solid evidence - that an older, old European root is hidden in the place name, which later became Lipsk . Hans Walther suggests the interpretation of the name "Libz (i)" from the ancient Slavic root "lib-" as "waver, sway" or from Germanic "lib-ia" ("soft, swaying, water-containing soil / terrain") and takeover to “Lib-c” in Old Sorbian, after which the name denotes a “place on water-rich, muddy, loamy soil” (referring to the meadow landscape, which is also reflected in the names of today's districts: e.g. Lausen, Leutzsch, Mockau, Schleußig ).
over the years:
In the tragedy Faust , Goethe immortalized his place of study in Leipzig as Little Paris in a scene in Auerbach's cellar . Goethe has a student say: I praise my Leipzig! It's a little Paris and educates its people. The name established itself in the colloquial language of 19th century Leipzig, which was emerging as a metropolis and progressive.
In the more recent times after the reunification, the fashion word Hypezig was coined in press reports as a suitcase word from hype and Leipzig . The blogger André Herrmann created the term as a criticism of the Leipzig hype, which was expressed primarily through Berlin-Leipzig comparisons.
After extensive incorporations at the end of the 1990s, Leipzig is one of the largest cities in Germany .
Before that, it was, in contrast, one of the most compact cities, which in 1870 became a large city with 100,000 inhabitants . Leipzig reached its current population size before 1914. At the end of the 19th and in the first years of the 20th century, Leipzig's population jumped to the largest cities: Before the beginning of the First World War , it was the fourth largest city in Germany with almost 590,000 inhabitants . By 1930 the population had reached a historic high of just over 700,000.
After a decline due to the war, the population in Leipzig rose again to around 600,000 in the 1960s. Especially since the late 1980s, but as early as the 1970s, the city experienced a significant decline in population. At the time of reunification, almost 9,000 foreigners lived in the city due to the restrictive migration policy of the GDR. The low of the total population was reached in the mid-1990s with a little less than 440,000 inhabitants. The population decline is due on the one hand to emigration to regions in the western federal states and on the other hand to the onset of suburbanization . Like all larger cities, Leipzig tries to actively increase the population in order to increase the income from the municipal financial equalization, which is calculated via the key allocation. Through extensive incorporations in 1999, Saxony tried to counteract the suburbanization of Leipzig. Several large industrial communities were added, which means that the area of the city has roughly doubled. As a result of these incorporations, increasing birth rates and a positive balance of immigration and emigration, the population of Leipzig began to grow again so that in 2005 the half-million-inhabitant limit was exceeded. As of 2010, Leipzig was one of the fastest growing cities in Germany and experienced an annual increase of around 10,000 people up to and including 2017, which corresponded to annual growth rates of over 2 percent. Between 2012 and 2014 Leipzig was the fastest growing city in Germany and the actual development exceeded any forecasts. The strong growth is explained by the influx of young people, because of work, with new large employers and the birth surplus in 2013 and 2014. Before that, Leipzig had a birth surplus for the last time in 1965. The absolute number of births also peaked. As many children were born in 2014 as the last time in 1988. This unexpectedly high growth caused difficulties in finding crèches, kindergartens and schools.
In 2015 the population increased by almost 16,000 and in 2016 by 10,000. In the course of the refugee crisis in Germany in 2015/2016 , there was an increase in the foreign population and the population with a migration background. As of December 31, 2013, for example, 919 residents with a Syrian migration background were registered in Leipzig. As of December 31, 2019, there were 9,498. In 2017, more than 7,000 residents were added. Since then, population growth has declined slightly, but the population is increasing by several thousand every year. According to the population register of the city of Leipzig, the population grew by 5,151 in 2019 and therefore had 601,668 inhabitants at the end of 2019, which again reached the 600,000 mark. The official population figure published by the State Statistical Office of Saxony on December 31, 2019 was 593,145, which is more than 6,000 below 600,000. According to the population register, the population rose by 3,739 to 605,407 in 2020. With the highest German population growth rate from 2014 to 2017 (6.9%), Leipzig became the eighth largest city in Germany in 2018. According to forecasts, Leipzig will remain the fastest growing city in Germany in percentage terms, with a population growth of 16% in the years 2017 to 2035.
On December 31, 2019, Leipzig recorded a share of the population with a migration background of 15.4%. The proportion of foreigners was 10.2%. Behind Berlin, Leipzig thus has the highest proportion of the population with a migration background among the major cities in eastern Germany. In comparison with major western German cities, it is still a low value. As of December 31, 2019, the largest groups of Leipzig residents with a migration background came from Russia (9,712), Syria (9,498), Poland (6,279), Romania (4,672), Vietnam (3,498) and Ukraine (3,450). The districts with the highest proportions of migrants as of December 31, 2019 were Volkmarsdorf (42.2%) and Neustadt-Neuschönefeld (38.0%) and Grünau-Mitte (27.4%).
Until the Reformation, Leipzig belonged to the diocese of Merseburg . Four monasteries arose in Leipzig in the 13th century: St. Paul ( Dominican ), St. Thomas ( Augustinian Canons ), Zum Heiligen Geist ( Franciscan ) and St. Georg ( Cistercian and Benedictine Sisters ).
The first Lutheran sermons were given in 1522, and the Reformation was introduced in 1539 . Currently, all Lutheran include parishes of the city to the church district of Leipzig, the Saxon church or each include altkonfessionellen Evangelical Lutheran Free Church or the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church of. The church district of the Saxon regional church also includes parishes outside the city.
Catholic church services have been held in Leipzig again since 1697 . In 1921 the diocese of Meißen (now Dresden-Meißen ) was re-established, in which the trade fair city is the seat of a deanery . The main Catholic church in the city is the Provost Church of St. Trinity . In 2016, the 100th German Catholic Day took place in Leipzig at the invitation of the Dresden-Meißen diocese . Contrary to the nationwide trend, for example, the main Catholic community in the trade fair city is growing by 150 members a year. The largest new church in eastern Germany since 1990 was also realized there.
In addition to the two large churches, there is a congregation of the Old Catholic Church and congregations of Protestant Free Churches such as the Free Evangelical Church , the Baptists , Methodists , Mennonites and the Seventh-day Adventists in Leipzig . Leipzig is the seat of the federal administrative office of the ChristForums Germany in the BEFG.
The first mention of Jewish life in Leipzig comes from a document from Heinrich the Illustrious from 1248. After 1800, a Jewish community was formed for the first time . Until the time of National Socialism , Jewish citizens had a major impact on the city as entrepreneurs, scientists, artists and donors. In 1912, Rabbi Ephraim Carlebach founded the Higher Israelite School as the first Jewish school in Saxony. It existed until 1942. In 1929, Leipzig had the largest Jewish community in Saxony with over 14,000 members and one of the largest in Germany. From 1933 the systematic extermination of Jewish life in the city began, which came to an end with the deportation and murder of almost all Leipzig Jews. The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists 4904 Jewish residents of Leipzig who were deported and mostly murdered . The stumbling blocks of Gunter Demnig's art project also remind us of this in various parts of the city .
After the war, the Jewish community only consisted of 24 members. The number of members stagnated until the early 1990s. In 2004 the "Israelite Religious Community of Leipzig" had more than 1,300 members again, particularly due to the immigration of Russian Jews. In 2009 a new culture and meeting center was built in the Ariowitsch House.
The Muslim community in Leipzig is very young, and the proportion of Muslims in the population is far below that of the big cities in the old federal states, but Islam is the second largest religion in the city after Christianity. In 2009, around 10,000 Muslims were counted in Leipzig, which corresponds to around 2.0% of the total population. The largest mosque is the Ar-Rahman Mosque . There is a Turkish community, which is under the umbrella organization of the Turkish-Islamic Union of the Institute for Religion (DİTİB).
According to the 2011 census , 11.8% of the population were Protestant , 4.0% Roman Catholic and 84.2% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Protestants has decreased since then, and the number of Catholics has increased since then. At the end of 2019, Leipzig had 601,668 inhabitants, 4.4% (plus 0.4%) Catholics, 11.1% (minus 0.7%) Protestants and 84.4% either had another religion or no religion at all.
According to the police crime statistics published by the Federal Criminal Police Office on April 24, 2017 , Leipzig ranks second after Berlin in terms of registered crime in German cities with more than 200,000 inhabitants. In 2016, 15,811 crimes occurred per 100,000 inhabitants. There are major differences between the individual districts of Leipzig . In 2016, the crime atlas of the State Criminal Police Office of Saxony certified the district of Leipzig Zentrum with the highest crime rate with 2,664 crimes per 1,000 inhabitants (a total of 6082 cases), followed by Leipzig Zentrum-Ost with 728 crimes per 1,000 inhabitants (a total of 3,072).
All around the area of Eisenbahnstrasse, including the Rabet park , a gun ban zone has been in effect in Leipzig since November 5, 2018 according to the Saxon gun ban zone ordinance Leipzig . According to the Weapons Act, people are not allowed to carry weapons with them, exceptions apply to professional weapon carriers. Anyone who carries a weapon in accordance with Section 1 (2) of the Weapons Act is committing an administrative offense that can be punished with a fine .
After the turning point of 1989, the “City Council” ( city council again since 1991 ) was freely elected again. The first chairman was the mayor Friedrich Magirius (independent) from 1990 to 1994 . The mayor has been chairman of the city council since 1994. Initially, the city council elected the mayor , but since 1994 he has been elected directly by the citizens of Leipzig. Burkhard Jung (SPD) has been Lord Mayor of the city since March 2006 . He replaced Wolfgang Tiefensee (SPD), who ran the city from 1998 to 2005, but resigned from office on November 22, 2005 because of his appointment as Federal Minister of Transport . The Lord Mayor is supported by eight full-time councilors who bear the official title of mayor and are elected by the city council for a term of seven years.
Result of the city council election on May 26, 2019
The Leipzig city council has a total of 70 seats. Since the local elections in 2019 , the Left and the Greens have been the strongest parties in Leipzig's city council, each with 15 seats. They replaced the CDU, which had 19 seats in the 2014-2019 electoral period and lost six seats in 2019. The strongest parliamentary group , on the other hand, is the Left, which forms a joint parliamentary group with the PARTY and has a total of 17 seats.
A total of nine parties are represented in the current city council, which form six parliamentary groups.
The results of the 2019 city council elections were as follows:
|Parties and voter communities||Percent
|THE LEFT.||THE LEFT.||21.4||15th||24.2||18th||23.1||17th||26.1||19th|
|GREEN||Alliance 90 / The Greens||20.7||15th||15.0||11||14.7||10||10.0||7th|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||17.5||13||24.9||19th||23.6||17th||25.5||19th|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||14.9||11||6.0||4th||-||-||-||-|
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||12.4||9||18.4||13||20.4||14th||26.9||19th|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||4.8||3||2.9||2||9.6||7th||4.5||3|
|The party||Party for work, rule of law, animal welfare, elite support and grassroots initiative||3.8||2||1.1||-||-||-||-||-|
|WVL||Electoral Association Leipzig||2.5||1||1.8||1||3.0||2||-||-|
|PIRATES||Pirate Party Germany||1.4||1||2.0||1||-||-||-||-|
|NPD||National Democratic Party of Germany||-||-||2.5||1||2.9||2||-||-|
|NEW FORUM||NEW FORUM||-||-||1.1||-||1.7||1||1.6||1|
|DSU||German Social Union||-||-||-||-||1.0||-||1.8||1|
|Turnout in percent||59.7||41.8||41.4||38.6|
After the city council election in 2019, the following factions were formed: DIE LINKE (17 members, including Die PARTTEI), GRÜNE (16 members, including WVL), CDU (13 members), AfD (11 members), SPD (9 members), Buccaneers (4 members, including FDP + PIRATES).
Result of the last mayor election
The last mayor elections took place in spring 2020. In the first ballot on February 2, 2020, incumbent Burkhard Jung (SPD) met seven competitors. The turnout was 49.1 percent. Since no candidate was able to win an absolute majority of the votes in the first ballot, the second ballot was required, in which the top two from the first ballot competed against each other after the other parties had withdrawn their candidates with regard to the support of Burkhard Jung, although they would have been allowed to run for the second ballot according to the Saxon municipal electoral law. The second ballot, in which a simple majority is sufficient, took place on March 1, 2020. Burkhard Jung was elected Lord Mayor of Leipzig for the third time in a row, with a turnout of 48.4%.
|Applicants||Political party||First ballot||Second ballot|
|Franziska Riekewald||The left||13.5%||not started|
|Catherine Subat||The party||2.4%|
|Ute Elisabeth Gabelmann||non-partisan||0.9%||3.3%|
Bundestag and federal politics
The urban area is congruent with the constituencies 153 Leipzig I with a good 200,000 eligible voters and 154 Leipzig II with a good 210,000 eligible voters. From 2009 to 2017 Bettina Kudla (CDU) represented the constituency of Leipzig I and Thomas Feist (CDU) represented the constituency of Leipzig II . For the first time since 1998, the Leipzig direct mandates did not go to the SPD. In 2017, Jens Lehmann (CDU) in the Leipzig I constituency and Sören Pellmann (Die Linke) in the Leipzig II constituency were elected as direct candidates.
The long-time Lord Mayor of Leipzig, Wolfgang Tiefensee , was Federal Minister for Transport, Building and Urban Development in the Merkel cabinet from 2005 to 2009 , as well as the Federal Government Commissioner for the new federal states . After the elections in 2002 he received an offer from Gerhard Schröder for this ministerial post , but turned it down on the grounds that he was connected to his work in Leipzig.
Leipzig is divided into a total of seven state electoral districts. Since the state elections in 2019 , the CDU has held four of the seven direct mandates, the rest are divided between the Greens (two mandates) and the Left (one mandate).
badges and flags
The coat of arms of the city of Leipzig shows in a split shield heraldic right in gold a red-tongued and red- armored black Meißner lion rising to the right, two blue Landsberg stakes in gold on the left .
The lion of the Mark Meißen and the stakes of the margraves of Landsberg are old Wettin coats of arms, which indicate the integration of the city of Leipzig into their dominion. The current coat of arms can be proven for the first time as a seal in 1468, before (around 1287) only a castle or a castle with the lion of the margraves could be seen on it. In the vernacular of the 17th century, the following legend was told: The lion once looked in the other direction and grabbed the stakes with its paws, but was later turned around "as a punishment". Indeed, on 15th century pennies, the lion turns to the stakes.
The only difference to the Dresden coat of arms is the tinging of the Landsberg piles, that of the Chemnitz and Delitzsch coat of arms in the arrangement of the shields. In the coat of arms of the former district of Leipziger Land , a river was added to the Leipzig coat of arms.
The city colors are blue and yellow according to the coat of arms.
The city's flag consists of two horizontal stripes of equal size - blue at the top and yellow at the bottom - with the city's coat of arms on top.
The city of Leipzig is related to:
- Kiev , Ukraine - since 1961, renewed in 1992
- Bologna , Italy - since 1962, renovated in 1997
- Krakow , Poland - since 1973, renovated in 1995
- Brno , Czech Republic - since 1973, renovated in 1999
- Lyon , France - since 1981
- Thessaloniki , Greece - since 1984, renovated in 2008
- Hanover , Germany - since 1987
- Nanjing , People's Republic of China - since 1988
- Frankfurt am Main , Germany - since 1990
- Birmingham , United Kingdom - since 1992
- Houston , United States - since 1993
- Travnik , Bosnia and Herzegovina - since 2003
- Addis Ababa , Ethiopia - since 2004
- Herzliya , Israel - since 2011
- Ho Chi Minh City , Vietnam - since 2021
Consulates and missions abroad
There are several foreign representations in the city. Of the 40 or so consulates that existed in Leipzig before the Second World War, only very few returned after the fall of the Wall. The United States and Russia, for example, have a consulate general in Leipzig. Poland had a consulate general until 2008 and Greece until the end of 2010. Poland replaced this with an honorary consulate. Other countries that have set up honorary consulates in Leipzig are Bosnia-Herzegovina, Costa Rica, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, France, Italy, Kosovo, Liberia, Mongolia, Norway, Romania, the Slovak Republic, Sri Lanka and the Ukraine. Poland maintains a Polish Institute in Leipzig as a branch of the Polish Institute Berlin. There is also a British Council , an Institut français and a Confucius Institute in Leipzig . In addition, the Netherlands opened a “Netherlands Business Support Office” (NBSO) in Leipzig in 2008, which is responsible for business contacts between the region and the Netherlands.
In order to deepen the cultural, economic or political exchange between Leipzig and other regions or states, several associations were founded, such as the German-Arab House of Culture, the German-Iraqi Association or the German-British Association.
From March 23 to 29, 2015, the first youth parliament in Leipzig was elected in an online vote. The 20 elected parliamentarians between the ages of 14 and 21 should represent the interests of young people in the city. After Stuttgart and Trier, Leipzig is the third major city in Germany to bring such an institution into being. The legislative period lasts 2 years, so elections were held again in 2017, 2019 and 2021.
The youth parliament has the right to speak and propose to the Leipzig city council via the additionally established youth advisory council, which consists of 8 members of the youth parliament and one representative for each city council group. The management of the public meetings of the committee as well as any organizational tasks that arise are taken over by a "spokesperson" elected by the members. The thematic work takes place mainly in the working groups, which are composed of members of the youth parliament and interested young people. Parliament is also supported by educational support and an office. Furthermore, the committee has a youth fund through which projects by and for young people with a maximum of 500 euros as part of the federal program Live Democracy! can be funded.
In Leipzig there are ten district councils, 14 local councils and ten specialist councils. They are each made up of members of the city administration and elected or appointed knowledgeable residents. The advisory councils cannot make a legally binding decision, but they have an obligation to be heard and the opportunity to bring forward matters that the city council's committees have to deal with.
There are the following advisory boards: Drugs Advisory Board, Advisory Board for Equality, Child and Family Advisory Board, Migrant Advisory Board, Psychiatry Advisory Board, Senior Citizens Advisory Board, Disability Advisory Board, Animal Welfare Advisory Board and Allotment Garden Advisory Board.
The Migrants Advisory Board was founded in 2009 and is elected every five years (last election in 2021). It consists of 22 members, including six parliamentary group representatives and 16 migrants. The office of the Advisory Board is the responsibility of the Department for Migration and Integration.
All foreigners who have a valid residence permit or a Duldung, naturalized persons and ethnic German repatriates who have reached the age of 18 on election day and have had their permanent residence in Leipzig for at least three months are entitled to vote.
Ten members are freely chosen based on their regions of origin (North Africa, West and Central Asia, South and Central America, North, West and Central Europe, Southeast Asia and other Asia, South and East Europe, North America, Australia, Oceania and Sub-Saharan Africa). Anyone entitled to vote can apply. The remaining twelve members are made up of six representatives from the city council groups and six people appointed by the city administration.
Economy and Infrastructure
Development until 1990
Before the Second World War, Leipzig was not only an important trading center ( Leipziger Messe ), but also an important industrial location. The publishing industry (e.g. Reclam , Teubner , Brockhaus , the Bibliographisches Institut , Seemann , Baedeker , Hirzel , Barth and Velhagen & Klasing , Insel Verlag , for the music products Breitkopf & Härtel , CF Peters and Friedrich Hofmeister ) and the printing industry were traditional here , Mechanical engineering ( Pittler lathes, Brehmer stitching machines), conveyor system and cable car construction ( Adolf Bleichert & Co. ), agricultural machinery construction ( plow factory Rud. Sack ), fur industry, textile industry ( Leipzig cotton spinning mill , Buntgarnwerke Leipzig ). Piano construction ( Blüthner , Hupfeld , Schimmel , Feurich , Zimmermann ) was also represented.
During the GDR era, Leipzig remained an important business location. In 1972, the Leipzig district contributed 9.3 percent to the GDR's industrial production. In addition to the industries already mentioned, lignite mining, power generation and the chemical industry south of Leipzig were particularly expanded. With the formation of combines , Leipzig became the headquarters of the combines for construction machinery, complete systems and earthmoving machines (Baukema), foundry plant construction and cast products ( Gisag ), polygraphic machine construction , radio and telecommunication technology (RFT), technical building equipment (TGA), opencast mining equipment, cranes and conveyor systems ( TAKRAF ) and chemical plant construction ( Chemieanlagenbau Leipzig-Grimma , CLG). Robotron built in its Leipzig branch operation (VEB Robotron-Anlagenbau Leipzig), especially mainframes for the industry. The fertile soils of the Leipzig lowland bay in the Leipzig area were used intensively for agriculture.
In 2016, Leipzig achieved a gross domestic product (GDP) of 19.872 billion euros, making it 17th in the list of German cities by economic output . The share in the economic output of the federal state of Saxony was 16.8 percent. In the same year, GDP per capita was 35,123 euros (Saxony: 28,947 euros, Germany 38,180 euros). In 2016 there were around 328,700 employed people in the city. The unemployment rate was 6.1 percent in December 2018, slightly above the average for Saxony of 5.6 percent.
There are currently over 38,000 companies registered with the Leipzig Chamber of Commerce and Industry and more than 5,100 craft businesses (as of 2011).
There are 58,704 existing businesses in Leipzig. Of these, 90.3% have German operators and 9.7% foreign operators (as of 2019).
In the Future Atlas 2016 , the city of Leipzig was ranked 137th out of 402 districts, municipal associations and cities in Germany, making it one of the regions with “future opportunities”. In the 2019 edition, it was ranked 104 out of 401.
Public Investment and Subsidies
As in all cities and municipalities in the East German federal states, large sums of state money flowed to Leipzig. The structure of the investments and subsidies differ somewhat. The "company-related infrastructure" was promoted comparatively strongly - in the period from 1990 to 2005 with around 750 million euros. According to the Leipzig Economic Development Agency, subsidies for the commercial economy can mainly be used for large-scale investments due to the economic structure in Leipzig. From 1990 to 2005 they amounted to around 650 million euros. Comparatively little was spent on technology funding, it totaled 81 million euros in the period from 1990 to 2005.
Leipzig is located in an “Objective 1 region” of the European Regional Development Fund . In the course of the EU's eastward expansion, the Saxon regions reach the funding limit, which is measured by the gross domestic product per inhabitant relative to the EU average. The disadvantage of Leipzig could develop into the fact that the other major cities in Saxony could remain in a “Objective 1 region” for longer due to structurally weak regions such as the Ore Mountains or Upper Lusatia. The funding regions correspond to the Saxon government districts .
Debt of the city of Leipzig
The city of Leipzig's debt began in 1992 and peaked at the end of 2004 with a debt level of EUR 911.6 million. In the following years, the debt was continuously reduced, with the biggest leap in 2009, among other things, through the repayment of the city bond of 100 million euros. As of December 31, 2011, the loan portfolio consisted of 101 loans with a volume of around EUR 733 million. From 2011 to 2012 the debt level of the city of Leipzig increased by the net new debt of around 4 million euros from 733 million euros to 737 million euros. The city of Leipzig plans to fully reduce its debt in the next 25 years.
With the fall of the Wall, as in almost all regions of the former GDR, almost all industrial production collapsed. Few companies survived after privatization. The mechanical engineering companies Kirow Ardelt GmbH (a manufacturer of railway cranes with around 180 employees), TAKRAF GmbH (a subsidiary of Tenova SpA and manufacturer of opencast mining equipment and facilities with around 400 employees in Leipzig and Lauchhammer ) and the Leipzig and Lauchhammer ball and roller bearing plant continue to exist (a manufacturer of rolling bearings with around 192 employees). Of the piano manufacturers, the Julius Blüthner Pianofortefabrik still exists . The Typographisches Kunst-Institut Giesecke & Devrient , founded in Leipzig in 1852 , was nationalized in 1948 as VEB Wertpapierdruckerei and is now back in Leipzig as Giesecke & Devrient GmbH, Wertpapierdruckerei Leipzig .
After the fall of the Wall, some large industrial settlements were also established, including Siemens (around 1,700 employees), Porsche (around 4,300 employees at Porsche Leipzig and another 800 in service companies) and BMW (3,700, with partners and suppliers over 6,500 employees at the Leipzig location ). With the settlement of the latter two, the city was able to establish itself as a new automotive location. In 2005, the Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe (LVB) entered rail vehicle construction. The subsidiary HeiterBlick initially built the Leoliner tram for its own use, which should also open up the Eastern European market with a competitive price and its robustness. In 2010, Kirow Ardelt took over the company completely and manufactures various tram models for other German cities in the Lindenau district. LVB employ over 2,300 people.
Communication and information technology companies such as Comparex , Softline AG or the national cable network operator Primacom with its largest East German branch are also based in Leipzig. The Unister Holding GmbH , a specialist on the operation and marketing of web portals e-business provider, had its headquarters in the center of Leipzig. This building has belonged to the Hamburg real estate investment and development company DC Values since April 2017. The buw Holding GmbH , a communications services provider, engaged in Leipzig around 1,100 employees in call centers. The Mercateo Group relocated its headquarters from Munich to Leipzig at the beginning of 2020.
In addition to Frankfurt am Main, Munich and Stuttgart, Leipzig is also considered to be a nationwide important banking and finance location. The Free State's development bank , the Sächsische Aufbaubank (SAB), has had its headquarters in Leipzig since 2017 . In addition to the Sparkasse Leipzig , one of the largest in Central Germany, there are small areas of the Landesbank Baden-Württemberg in Leipzig , after it had taken over the Landesbank Sachsen in 2008.
The entire Leipzig region is an important center of the energy industry and Leipzig is the energy metropolis of Leipzig . Leipzig operates the Energy and Environment Cluster and has a focus on economic development there. In 2008 the German Biomass Research Center (DBFZ) was opened in Leipzig. The high-turnover energy supplier VNG - Verbundnetz Gas , which provides natural gas for municipal utilities and municipal energy suppliers, is based in Leipzig. The European Energy Exchange (EEX), the largest energy exchange in continental Europe, is operated in the city. The administration and board of directors of Verbio Vereinigte Bioenergie AG are also based in Leipzig . With Stadtwerke Leipzig, Leipzig owns one of the eight large municipal utilities that are organized in the 8KU . The Lippendorf power plant as well as the Waldpolenz solar park in Brandis and the Espenhain solar power plant are in the immediate vicinity of Leipzig, and there are several smaller solar power plants in Leipzig itself. There is also an administrative office for Veolia Wasser in the city itself .
Due to its central location, Leipzig developed into a traffic and logistics center. Logistics is organized as an economic focus in the Leipzig-Halle Logistics Network. In addition to the Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe, the Central German Transport Association also has its headquarters in Leipzig. The DB Netz coordinated from the regional area southeast of Leipzig. The subsidiary of Transdev GmbH , Transdev Regio Ost and its brand Mitteldeutsche Regiobahn , are based in Leipzig. The logistics industry is now one of the fastest growing regions in Germany. Shortly after the fall of the Wall, a Quelle shipping center was opened near the exhibition center, which, however, had to close in the course of the company's insolvency in 2009. This was reactivated in 2012 and is fully let again. These include companies such as Momox and various automotive suppliers. In autumn 2006, Amazon completed its second and largest German logistics center. 2008 was European air hub of the post-freight subsidiary DHL at Leipzig-Halle airport into operation, which had been based in Brussels. This has created 3,500 jobs directly at the airport and around 7,000 in the surrounding area. The capacity of the DHL HUB will be doubled from 2014, which should create a further 400 jobs. In the north of the city, ProLogis built a 50,000 m² logistics center, which has created 350 jobs. In the north, a DB Schenker logistics center was created with 145,000 m² and around 800 workplaces.
With its economic strategy, the city is committed to the Healthcare & Biotechnology Cluster , supported by the Association for the Promotion of the Healthcare Industry in the Leipzig Region e. V. The city is a member of the nationwide Healthy Cities Network .
The Heart Center Leipzig, which was founded in 1994 and is sponsored by the Helios Kliniken , functions as a university clinic and is a specialist hospital with the care contract for cardiac surgery, cardiology and pediatric cardiology. With the capacity for 420 inpatients and 10 outpatients, it is the largest heart center in the world.
The St. Georg Clinic , which was taken over by the city as a hospital in 1439, celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2012. The clinic is a specialized care hospital and employs over 3,000 people. The Infection Center and the Severe Burn Injury Center are of national importance. In 2006 St. Georg took over the Hubertusburg specialist hospital in Wermsdorf . In 2011, St. Georg was awarded the contract for the construction of a septic surgery by the Free State.
In the immediate vicinity of the heart center is the Park-Klinikum , the largest hospital for standard care (626 beds, 98 semi-inpatient, 154 rehabilitation places) in Saxony, another facility of the Helios-Kliniken.
In Leipzig there are still two standard care hospitals, the Protestant Diakonissenkrankenhaus and the St. Elisabeth Hospital, which was inaugurated in 1931 (under Catholic ownership). The latter is one of the most popular hospitals in Saxony. The until 2007 operated Military Hospital in Wiederitzsch the acquirer wants to develop together with the former. Amberger military hospital to a specialist clinic.
Leipzig has two certified stroke units (St. Georg, Uni), two breast cancer centers (St. Elisabeth, St. Georg), three colon cancer centers (Diako, Park-Klinikum, Uni), a prostate cancer center (Uni) and a skin cancer center (Uni) .
The Medica clinic for outpatient rehabilitation and sports medicine is one of the largest facilities for outpatient rehabilitation in Germany and an academic teaching hospital of Leipzig University.
The Hospital Society of Saxony, the Association of Private Clinics in Saxony and Saxony-Anhalt and the State Office of Saxony of the Barmer GEK have their headquarters in Leipzig. In 1900 the Hartmannbund , a free professional association of all doctors, dentists and medical students in Germany, was founded in Leipzig .
DAVASO GmbH in Mölkau , a technology provider and service provider for statutory health insurances, is one of the 15 largest companies in the region with around 1300 employees.
Bio City Leipzig was built in 2003 on the edge of the old exhibition center to attract biotechnology companies . The Biotechnological-Biomedical Center of the University of Leipzig and various companies are located here. I.a. belonged Vita 34 International , Europe's first and largest private cord blood bank , and Haema , the largest independent blood transfusion service in Germany, one of the first tenants. The Leipzig-pharmaceutical factory went from a 1926 Paunsdorf built permanent establishment of the company Dr. Willmar Schwabe , in 2000 it was taken over by Riemser and sold on to the Prange Group in 2013.
The city of Leipzig is known beyond the borders of Germany for the Leipziger Messe . It is considered to be one of the oldest trade fair venues in the world, the tradition of which goes back to the market rights granted by the Meissen Margrave Otto the Rich in 1165. In 1190 the Jubilate market (Easter market) and the Michaelismarkt were confirmed by the Meissen margrave Albrecht the proud. From 1218 the first officially named merchants and craftsmen settled in Leipzig.
In 1341 the cloth makers bought their own building on Leipziger Markt, the first Gewandhaus . Also from the 13th century, goods were traded in Leipzig with Polish and in the 14th century with Bohemian merchants. From 1420 the market was used as a transshipment point for Nuremberg merchants to Poland. In 1458 Elector Friedrich II gave the city the right to hold the New Year's market. From this point on, the city was an important trading center for metals, furs, silk, precious stones, tin and Saxon silver. In 1497, the Roman-German king and later Emperor Maximilian I granted Leipzig the privilege of imperial fair . In 1507 the city received the stacking privilege, which means that no trade fairs were allowed to be held within a radius of 115 kilometers. It was also forbidden to store goods in front of the city. Since 1573 the city had succeeded in establishing solid trade relations with Moscow. In 1824 Leipzig became a world trading center when traders from North America, Brazil, Argentina and India also took part in the fair. In 1833 all privileges were declared invalid by the German Customs Union . However, Leipzig had already established itself as a trade fair location at that time, which is why the largest competitor ( Frankfurt ) could not prevail.
In the spring of 1895, the changeover from a goods fair to the world's first sample fair took place . During the Nazi era , the Leipzig Fair was subordinated to the Reich Ministry for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda and declared the only “General International Fair on German soil”. In 1937 Leipzig was named a city for the Reichsmesse . During the GDR era, the spring and autumn fairs were an important meeting point for trade between East and West. With the reunification, the two seasonal universal fairs were replaced by specialist fairs.
In 1996, a new and modern exhibition center was built on the outskirts of the city and the search for new users for the Alte Messe Leipzig began. Since then, the exhibition company has been competing nationally with many, often considerably larger, locations such as Hanover, Frankfurt or Düsseldorf and has to assert itself in a narrow market. The most important trade fairs of the year include the Leipzig Book Fair , the Z supplier fair and the Intec industry fair , the Haus Garten Freizeit public fair, the Touristik & Caravaning International fair and Auto Mobil International . With the Games Convention (GC) it was possible for the first time to establish a trade fair that has unique selling points in Europe. However, the GC was relocated to Cologne as gamescom in the summer of 2008 by the industry association BIU , on the grounds that there were better opportunities for growth there. The Leipziger Messe had initially decided not to give up this entertainment sector entirely and founded the Games Convention Online in 2009 , a trade fair that was exclusively focused on online games. However, it was not possible to establish this fair, so that it has not taken place since 2011 after only two editions.
With the Congress Center Leipzig, a congress center for the fields of medicine, industry and services belongs to the Leipziger Messe . In addition to the exhibition grounds in the north of Leipzig, Leipziger Messe GmbH has been operating the congress hall at the zoo in a Wilhelminian-style building built in 1900 in the center of Leipzig since 2015 .
Radio and television transmitters
Leipzig is the headquarters of the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk (MDR). The Media City Leipzig , a studio complex for television and film productions in which the MDR is involved, is in the immediate vicinity. The private broadcasters Radio PSR , Energy Sachsen , R.SA and Radio Leipzig with two programs, Leipzig one , Germany's first licensed university radio Mephisto 97.6 and the free radio Radio Blau produce their programs here. But new media such as internet radio and podcast label detektor.fm also have their studios in Leipzig. Radio station 90elf also broadcasted from the studio of Radio PSR until January 31, 2014 , reporting on Bundesliga matches 24 hours a day. Leipzig television and formerly info tv leipzig are or were local television stations.
Leipzig is the seat of the Saxon State Authority for private broadcasting and new media .
Leipzig has a long tradition as a press city with numerous newspaper and magazine publishers and editorial offices. Here was Timothy Ritzsch of 1650 to the daily section of Leipzig incoming messages as the first newspaper in the world out; from 1660 onwards it bore the title New incoming message from war and world deals . The importance of Leipzig as a press city is emphasized by a study carried out by the Leipzig Institute for Communication and Media Studies, the German Press Research at the University of Bremen and the German Research Foundation and led by Holger Böning .
The Leipziger Volkszeitung is currently the only daily newspaper with a history going back to 1894, as well as a regional edition of the Bild newspaper . The online news magazine Leipziger Internet Zeitung has been published since 2004, and the editorial team has also been publishing the printed LZ Leipziger Zeitung since 2015 - initially as a weekly newspaper and then switched to monthly publication. The Dresdener Morgenpost maintains a local editorial office under the Tag 24 brand .
Book city Leipzig
The history of Leipzig as a place of printing goes back to the 16th century. From the 17th century onwards, the Leipzig Book Fair became more important. In the course of the 19th century, Leipzig had established itself as the central interface and main hub of the German book trade. Around 1500 companies from the manufacturing and selling book trade, the printing industry and the central industry associations were based here. The center of this was the graphic quarter . These included publishers such as Baedeker ( Fritz Baedeker ), Brockhaus ( Bibliographisches Institut & FA Brockhaus ), S. Hirzel Verlag , Insel Verlag , Gustav Kiepenheuer Verlag , CF Peters ( Edition Peters ), Reclam-Verlag , E. A. Seemann , BG Teubner and Georg Thieme , as well as large companies in the intermediate book trade, mechanical engineering companies, bookbinders, graphic institutions and printing companies (Giesecke & Devrient, Offizin Haag-Drugulin and many others). Almost every tenth inhabitant worked in one of these trades. Carl Berendt Lorck gives an example of a particularly versatile representative of the branch ; He was active as a bookseller, book and press publisher, book historian, typographer, printer and author. The book city of Leipzig was known abroad as the City of Books .
It had its heyday at the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th century. During the Second World War, the publishing houses suffered from severe restrictions. The so-called graphic quarter , in which a large part of the companies were concentrated, was almost completely destroyed in the hail of bombs. The division of Germany led to the division of publishers and other companies, which from then on operated in parallel in West Germany and Leipzig. In the GDR, Leipzig could still assert itself as a book city, but no longer with its former importance. After reunification, the Leipzig parallel publishers were restituted to their former West German owners and partly continued as branches, but sooner or later closed (Brockhaus, Hirzel, Insel, List, Reclam, Teubner, Thieme). Other publishers were sold and some of them are still based in Leipzig (EA Seemann, St. Benno, Koehler & Amelang, Buchverlag für die Frau u. A.).
At the same time, there were many new establishments and relocations after 1989 (e.g. Klett-Verlag, Connewitzer Verlagbuchhandlung, Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Voland & Quist, Faber & Faber, Lehmstedt). The Leipzig Book Fair with the largest reading festival in Europe Leipzig Liest , the German National Library, numerous training centers, permanent exhibitions and museums still bear witness to the book city of Leipzig.
The city was of great importance in the German encyclopedia. For decades, the FA Brockhaus publishing house and the Bibliographical Institute, the two most important German lexicon publishers, had their headquarters in the city. The Leipzig College of Graphics and Book Art , whose origins go back to 1764, has a long tradition .
The Society for Contemporary Poetry is based in Leipzig . It organizes readings and poetological conferences, re-publishes the literary magazine Poesiealbum and makes the Leipzig Poetry Library one of the largest collections of international contemporary poetry in Germany available to the public.
Leipzig has a dense network of social and ecological infrastructures. Worth mentioning are in the food sector fair division of food sharing , and the numerous Solidarity farms (SoLawi) in the textile sector of Umsonstladen in Plagwitz, a number of bicycle self-help workshops, computing the Hacker Space The distributed . and in the repair area, the cafe is broken
The Federal Administrative Court was relocated from Berlin to Leipzig on August 26, 2002 and has its seat in the Reich Court building . The 5th Criminal Senate of the Federal Court of Justice and an office of the Federal Public Prosecutor are also located in Leipzig. In addition, the Saxon Finance Court and Constitutional Court are located in Leipzig, and there are also several lower-level courts such as the regional court , district court , social court , administrative court and a labor court .
The Federal Network Agency for Electricity, Gas, Telecommunications, Post and Railways has a branch in Leipzig. Other public institutions are the Chamber of Crafts and the Leipzig Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The main administration of the Deutsche Bundesbank for the Free States of Saxony and Thuringia is also located in the city. The Sparkasse Leipzig , which is responsible for the city of Leipzig and the surrounding districts of Leipziger Land and Northern Saxony, is the most important public institution in the financial sector. Landesbank Sachsen , which expired in 2008 , also had its headquarters here. The resulting Sachsen Bank , a legally dependent institution under public law of the Landesbank Baden-Württemberg (LBBW) based in Leipzig, has existed since April 1, 2008 . The Deutsche Rentenversicherung Mitteldeutschland and the Kommunale Sozialverband Sachsen (KSV) also have their main offices in Leipzig. As a result of the announced planned changes and restructuring within the Saxon administration, the Sächsische Aufbaubank will relocate its headquarters from Dresden to Leipzig in the coming years in order to strengthen Leipzig's financial sector and banking location. As part of the reform, the Saxon Court of Auditors will move from Leipzig to Döbeln in 2020.
Leipzig is home to three Max Planck Institutes (for Evolutionary Anthropology (MPI-EVA), Cognitive and Neurosciences (MPI-CBS) and Mathematics in Natural Sciences (MPI-MIS)), the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) , the Fraunhofer Center for Central and Eastern Europe (MOEZ), the Leibniz Institutes for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS), Surface Modification (IOM), for Jewish History and Culture - Simon Dubnow (DI), for the History and Culture of Eastern Europe (GWZO ) and regional geography (IfL) as well as the Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research - UFZ . Since 2008, the German Biomass Research Center (DBFZ), the Research and Transfer Institute Institute for Applied Computer Science (InfAI) and the German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) have also been in Leipzig. The city of Leipzig continues to be a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society . The German Weather Service also operates a branch in Leipzig.
The Saxon Academy of Sciences was founded as a scientific organization in Leipzig in 1846 and is based here at the site of the Saxon State University.
Leipzig still has a considerable part of the pre-war buildings that arose during the founding period , around the turn of the century and during the Weimar Republic. These compact old building districts were neglected and fell into disrepair during the GDR era. Instead, between 1960 and 1980, large estates such as Grünau and Paunsdorf were used , which make up around 40 percent of the apartments built in Leipzig after 1945. A change in the housing policy towards the principle of "urban renewal in the existing" now aims to restore the Wilhelminian style districts on a large scale. In 1990, Leipzig faced the problem that 196,000 of the 257,000 apartments were in need of renovation. This affected 103,000 apartments in the Wilhelminian-style districts. Most of the quarters in Plagwitz , Reudnitz and Connewitz were dilapidated and threatened to collapse. The roofs were only sparsely repaired, several streets were completely and permanently scaffolded to protect passers-by from falling parts of the building. With the political change in the GDR, the media took on this problem. In November 1989, GDR television broadcast the sensational report "Is Leipzig still to be saved?"
In total, urban renewal in the area of Wilhelminian style development was concentrated on 13 areas with 464 hectares and 29,000 apartments. One example of this is the Waldstrasse district located between the city center and the Rosental . It is one of the few completely preserved Wilhelminian style residential areas in Germany. On an area of over 100 hectares, 626 of the 845 buildings are identified as individual monuments. For its strategy to preserve this ensemble, the city received a gold medal in the federal competition from the Federal Ministry for Spatial Planning, Building and Urban Development in 1994.
Much of the old building was renovated in the first few years after 1990. Direct and indirect state subsidy models such as investment grants and special depreciation significantly advanced the redevelopment process. The proportion of new residential construction remained very low compared to the number of renovations of old structures. Intensive construction activity particularly affected the Leipzig city center in the early 1990s; Related to this is the work of Jürgen Schneider , who caused a real estate scandal and still enjoys a certain nimbus as a savior of historical buildings, even though valuable historical buildings such as Barthel's court were largely gutted under the renovation started by Schneider ; Thiemes Hof was not renovated and was later demolished. In the following years, the inner city was extensively renovated, but numerous historical buildings were gutted, so that the historical cityscape is often limited to the facade (cf.). With the onset of suburbanization as a result of newly built single-family housing estates and supra-regional emigration in the 1990s, there was a large excess of living space due to a lack of control measures. As a result, the Leipzig housing market was very saturated. Investments in remaining unrenovated properties decreased considerably in line with the market situation and have since been made in a much more targeted manner, mostly in the more attractive residential areas, which enable higher basic rents due to the higher demand for living space there. There was a general preference for less attractive areas (as of 2011), although the investment potential in the more attractive areas with a high level of redevelopment has almost been exhausted. As a result, a heterogeneous development between more attractive locations and those old building districts that lag behind in their development and renewal has been discernible since 1997. While around 2 percent of the Wilhelminian style apartments that were refurbished were empty in 2000, 71 percent of the unrenovated apartments were uninhabited. In 2004 around 3,000 Wilhelminian style houses had not yet been renovated. The urban redevelopment east program tried to counteract the vacancy rate . Since this did not rule out the demolition of historically valuable buildings, there was a veritable wave of Wilhelminian-style houses being demolished in the 2000s, not only in Leipzig. By 2006, 446 of the listed Wilhelminian style houses disappeared here, including the Kleine Funkenburg or the so-called Märchenhaus , which led to protests in the population and the establishment of the Stadtforum Leipzig e. V. led. With the onset of population growth in the following years, the demand for Wilhelminian style apartments increased again sharply.
Due to their higher structural and architectural quality and the often better location, the refurbished old building sites were preferred to the now largely refurbished large housing estates. This leads to the incipient desolation of the new prefabricated district . There an attempt was made to restore the real estate structure in the city by partially dismantling and upgrading the area. With the population growth, this trend is weakening, and the prefabricated building districts are even experiencing selective densification due to new buildings.
Education and Research
University of Leipzig
The University of Leipzig (Alma Mater Lipsiensis) , founded in 1409, is the second oldest continuously existing university in what is now the Federal Republic of Germany. It was renamed Karl Marx University in 1953, and in 1991 the addition to the name was removed again. At the beginning of the 1990s, after the closure of the German University for Physical Culture (DHfK), a sports faculty was founded as a replacement and the former "Clara Zetkin" college of education was connected. The university has 14 faculties and some affiliated institutes such as the Herder Institute and the German Literature Institute (DLL), which emerged from the GDR literature institute "Johannes R. Becher" . At this educational institution, which is unique in the German-speaking world, writers are trained in an artistic course. In 2009, the anniversary celebrations for the 600th birthday of the Alma Mater Lipsiensis took place from May 9th to mid-December.
In the 2019/2020 winter semester, 3,248 (11.2%) of the students enrolled at the University of Leipzig were foreign students.
Some groundbreaking research was achieved at Leipzig University. The Nobel Prize winners Werner Heisenberg , Gustav Hertz , Nathan Söderblom and Wilhelm Ostwald as well as the founder of experimental psychology, Wilhelm Wundt, taught here . A so-called " Leipzig School " was founded here in the subjects of sociology and psychology . Prominent students at the university included Georgius Agricola , Tycho Brahe , Johann Gottlieb Fichte , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Ulrich von Hutten , Erich Kästner , Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , Gotthold Ephraim Lessing , Karl Liebknecht , Angela Merkel , Thomas Müntzer , Friedrich Nietzsche , Novalis , Leopold von Ranke , Ferdinand de Saussure , Robert Schumann , Johann Gottfried Seume , Georg Philipp Telemann and Richard Wagner .
The Leipzig School of Graphics and Book Art (HGB) was founded in 1764 as a drawing, painting and architecture academy . One of her most famous students was Johann Wolfgang Goethe. In 1901 the facility was renamed the Royal Academy for Graphic Arts and Book Industry , and in 1947 it was given its current form. The HGB is one of the most renowned art universities in Germany. After the Leipzig School established its own trend in painting in the 1970s and 1980s, works by Neo Rauch and other artists were referred to as the “ New Leipzig School ” at the end of the 1990s .
The "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy" University of Music and Theater in Leipzig was founded in 1843 as the Leipzig Conservatory and was the first higher musical education institution in Germany. One of its co-founders was Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy . In 1992 the training profile was expanded with the incorporation of the “Hans Otto” theater school .
The Leipzig Graduate School of Management (HHL) was founded on April 25, 1898. In addition, the design college is a private academy for the bachelor's degree programs in game , graphic and fashion design in Leipzig.
The British Lancaster University operates a study location in Leipzig under the name Lancaster University Leipzig.
Universities of applied sciences
The University of Technology, Economics and Culture Leipzig (HTWK) has had its current name since 1992 and emerged from the Technical University of Leipzig . The latter was formed in 1977 through the amalgamation of the Leipzig University of Civil Engineering, the Leipzig University of Engineering , the Technical School for Librarians and Booksellers , the Technical School for Scientific Librarianship and the Institute for Museology . With around 6300 (as of summer semester 2009) enrolled students, the HTWK Leipzig is the largest university of applied sciences in Saxony.
The Hochschule für Telekommunikation (HfTL) is a privately owned technical college of Deutsche Telekom AG and was officially recognized by the Free State of Saxony in 1991 as a technical college of the Deutsche Bundespost TELEKOM .
Other higher education institutions are the AKAD University of Applied Sciences Leipzig , the University for Creativity Pedagogy (HfK), the Diploma University and the Study Academy Leipzig , a branch of the University of Cooperative Education in Saxony. In 2008 the Essen FOM - University of Economics and Management opened a study center in Leipzig. The German University for Prevention and Health Management also operates a study center in the city. In November 2017, the SRH Fernhochschule - The Mobile University will open a study center in downtown Leipzig.
General education schools
Due to the growing number of residents, the number of general education schools has risen again in recent years. The city currently houses 76 elementary schools, 28 secondary schools, 21 grammar schools, 18 special schools and a free Waldorf school . Due to the population development, there will soon be a shortage of 80 schools and 30 kindergartens. Leipzig is one of the locations of the Bernd Blindow School , where professional training and further education, the technical college entrance qualification, the Abitur and even various courses of study are offered.
German National Library Leipzig
The German Library was founded in 1912 in Leipzig and served until the division of Germany as the only gathering place for the entire German-language literature from 1913. In 1990, she in the German library built since 2006, she is part of the German National Library (DNB) to which the 1947 founded German library in Frankfurt am Main and founded in 1970, German music Archives are. The latter has now moved from Berlin to Leipzig.
The first German long-distance line of the Leipzig-Dresden Railway Company has been running from Leipzig to Dresden since 1839 . In particular, thanks to the funds invested after the political change in 1989/1990 for the modernization and expansion of the trunk road, rail and air traffic connections, Leipzig can boast an excellent transport infrastructure.
The following table shows the distribution of journeys made in the city among the various modes of transport (the so-called modal split ) in selected years since 2003:
|means of transport||2003||2008||2013||2015|
|Car as a driver||34.1%||28.6%||30.5%||30.4%|
|Car as a passenger||9.9%||11.0%||7.8%||9.3%|
It can be seen that the proportion of journeys made by car has decreased, while the proportion of walking, cycling and public transport has increased. The responsible mayor Martin zur Nedden speaks of a "positive development in terms of the guidelines".
The Leipzig main station , which opened in 1915, is the largest terminal station in Europe in terms of the built-up area . At the same time, it is an important supraregional hub in the ICE and intercity network of Deutsche Bahn as well as a junction point for S-Bahn and regional transport in the Leipzig-Halle conurbation . In the early phase of industrialization, Leipzig was chosen to be the center of German long-distance rail transport according to the plans of the economist Friedrich List, so the first German long-distance route (Leipzig-Dresden) was opened here in 1839. In addition, the city has one of the oldest European terminal stations with the porticus of the Bavarian train station (traffic closed).
In Leipzig, the Intercity Express routes ( Hamburg -) Berlin –Leipzig– Erfurt - Nuremberg - Munich and Dresden –Leipzig – Erfurt– Frankfurt am Main - ( Wiesbaden / Saarbrücken ) cross and travel together on the VDE high-speed line between Erfurt and Leipzig 8 via Leipzig / Halle Airport . In addition, Leipzig is the starting point of the intercity lines Leipzig - Halle (Saale) - Magdeburg - Braunschweig - Hanover - Dortmund - Cologne or Bremen - Oldenburg (- Norddeich Mole ). Both lines complement each other every hour and stop at Leipzig / Halle Airport.
Most of the large and medium-sized cities in Saxony and in southern Saxony-Anhalt can be reached by regional transport without having to change trains. There are also direct connections with Regional Express lines in the direction of Falkenberg / Elster - Cottbus or Hoyerswerda and Dessau - Magdeburg and Chemnitz . The neighboring Halle (Saale) can be reached via two S-Bahn lines, one of which runs hourly via Leipzig / Halle Airport. The Leipzig area is opened up by numerous regional train and S-Bahn lines.
The city's rail connection is currently being greatly improved through major construction projects, particularly as part of the German Unity transport projects. The route to Berlin was expanded and has been passable at 200 km / h since 2006. On December 13, 2015, the high-speed line from Leipzig to Erfurt, designed for 300 km / h, went into operation. Its continuation to Nuremberg was completed in December 2017. This integration into the high-speed network has significantly reduced the ICE travel times from Leipzig to Nuremberg, Munich and Frankfurt am Main. The Leipzig – Dresden line , which was the first German long-distance line to go into operation in 1839, is also being expanded to a speed of 200 km / h. The most important construction project in regional traffic was the four-kilometer-long city tunnel that went into operation in December 2013 as the main line of the Central German S-Bahn .
There are freight stations in the districts of Wahren and Engelsdorf for freight traffic . In addition, a large freight transport center was set up near the Schkeuditzer Kreuz for goods handling between road and rail, as well as a freight station on the premises of the DHL hub at Leipzig / Halle Airport .
Leipzig is the core of the S-Bahn network in Central Germany. Six of the ten lines, together with the tram, form the backbone of local public transport and provide an important link to the region and to neighboring Halle. The main route of the S-Bahn is formed by the underground S-Bahn stations (Hauptbahnhof (deep), Markt, Wilhelm-Leuschner-Platz and Bayerischer Bahnhof ) connected by the City Tunnel, as well as the above-ground station Leipzig MDR. There are a total of 30 S-Bahn stations in the Leipzig city area. Endpoints of the S-Bahn lines include Oschatz , Zwickau , Geithain and Bitterfeld . There are two lines to Halle, one of them via Leipzig / Halle Airport . In 2015 the network was expanded to Dessau and Lutherstadt Wittenberg .
With the timetable change in December 2004, the networks from Leipzig and Halle were combined to form the Leipzig-Halle S-Bahn . However, this network only served as a temporary solution and was replaced on December 15, 2013 by the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland . At the same time, the main line tunnel marketed as the Leipzig City Tunnel went into operation. The almost four kilometer long tunnel crosses the entire city center from the main train station to the Bavarian train station . The S-Bahn stations are up to 22 meters underground. With the construction, a continuous north-south axis was created for the first time, which previously did not exist due to the north-facing terminus. The connection to the south of the city and the state will be greatly improved.
Tram and bus
The Leipziger Verkehrsbetriebe (LVB), which has existed since January 1, 1917, maintains a total of 13 tram lines and 51 bus routes in the city . This will gradually be promoted on important tram routes that allow urban railway expansion. This expansion has already taken place on lines 15 (with the exception of two sections) and 16. Lines 11 and 7 (eastern section) are the next routes on which the urban railway expansion is planned. In addition, expansion work is taking place on other lines. However, some less frequented tram lines have been discontinued. The northern section of line 14 was abandoned in December 2008 - on the other hand, the western section of the same line has been preserved. In October 2010, as part of the introduction of the new bus network, lines 2 and 8 were shortened by a few stops on their respective western sections. The bus network reform of October 2010 was a reaction to the shifting population distribution in the city districts as well as the upcoming changes in the S-Bahn network. After the introduction of the new Central Germany S-Bahn, tram line 9 between Connewitz and Markkleeberg-West was discontinued in 2015.
In total, the tram network covers a route length of 146 kilometers, making it the largest in Saxony before Dresden with 134.3 kilometers and the second largest in Germany (after Berlin with 193.6 km). The longest line in the Leipzig network is line 11, which connects Schkeuditz with Markkleeberg-Ost for 22 kilometers and is the only Leipzig tram line to travel in three tariff zones of the Central German Transport Association . LVB has been modernizing its fleet for years, in particular with the NGT12 ("Classic XXL") , the Leoliner and the Tramino ("XL") .
The night bus routes N1 to N9 and the night tram N17 operate at night. The tram line N10 and the bus line N60 also operate on Saturdays, Sundays and public holidays. The central transfer point between the bus and tram lines as well as the S-Bahn is Leipzig Central Station.
The share of cycling in the total traffic volume in Leipzig was 14.4 percent in 2008 and should be increased to 20 percent by 2020 [obsolete] . In 2015, 17.3 percent was achieved. Once a month there is a critical mass ride in Leipzig for better conditions for cyclists.
A bike rental system has been in place with Nextbike since 2004 . Borrowing and returning is possible via smartphone app or by phone. Since 2018, the system has enabled flexible borrowing and return in the inner city area; In this way, bikes can be returned and rented at almost every street corner in this zone. Outside these zones there are stations where bikes are available. The current locations of the bikes can be seen in the app. There are cooperation offers with the Leipzig transport company and car sharing in order to offer a mobility chain that is as seamless as possible.
Several federal highways run past Leipzig : the one in the north , the one in the west and the one in the south . The three motorways form a triangular partial ring of the double ring of the Central German Loop around Halle and Leipzig. In the south to Chemnitz , the one to Rötha is still under construction. In addition, a near-existing re-routing of the in Taucha is currently planned. The line to Merseburg is also to be re-routed.
Through the city run the federal highways , , , , and .
The ring , which corresponds to the course of the old city fortifications, surrounds the inner city of Leipzig, which is largely traffic-calmed.
The Leipzig / Halle Airport is the international airport in the region of the same name. It is located at the Schkeuditzer Kreuz northwest of Leipzig, halfway between the two major cities. The easternmost section of the new Erfurt – Leipzig / Halle line gave the airport a long-distance train station, which was integrated into the ICE network when it was completed in 2015.
In the passenger area, the major German hub airports, European metropolises and holiday destinations, especially in the Mediterranean region and North Africa, are approached. The airport is of international importance in the freight sector. Here it ranks second in Germany after Frankfurt am Main , fifth in Europe and 26th worldwide (as of 2015). DHL uses the airport as a central European hub . It is also the home base of the cargo airlines Aerologic and European Air Transport Leipzig .
The new terminal has nine covered bus platforms - so-called gates. In addition to a large number of national lines, some international lines serve Leipzig. The cities of Bregenz , Budapest , Milan , Prague , Sofia or Zurich , among others , can be reached without changing trains. Around 30,000 journeys and 1.5 million passengers are expected at the new bus station per year.
Some lines use the Leipzig / Halle Airport, located at the A9 / A14 motorway junction, and the Leipziger Messe for a stop. From there, passengers can take the S-Bahn to the city center.
In the first half of the 20th century, the construction of the Elster-Saale Canal , which was supposed to connect the White Elster and the Saale , began to connect Leipzig to the waterway network. The outbreak of the Second World War stopped work. The Lindenau harbor was almost completed, but not yet connected to the Elster-Saale Canal and only in 2015 to the Karl-Heine Canal . The Leipzig rivers (White Elster, Neue Luppe , Pleiße , Parthe ) have mostly artificial river beds in the urban area and are supplemented by a few canals. These waterways are only suitable for muscle-powered boats.
The construction of new and expansion of existing ditches and rivers in the south of the city and the connection of flooded open-cast mining holes are intended to create a river network.
The completion of the Elster-Saale Canal was planned several times. Such a step would enable sport boats to travel from Leipzig to the Elbe ( from the Elster to the Alster ). A potential analysis was presented in February 2012. She sees opportunities for tourism in the region. Half a million tourists are being discussed annually and costs around 100 million euros.
Leipzig is a popular destination for city trips and has a well-developed tourist infrastructure. In 2016 around 1.5 million tourists visited the city with around 2.8 million overnight stays; there were 122 hotels / guesthouses with 15,000 beds. The numbers have increased steadily since 2012. The turnover in the hospitality industry and the additional turnover from guests in the city amounted to 1.1 billion euros (2012). Most of the tourists (2012 values) come from other parts of Germany (approx. 840,000). Guests from other European countries mostly come from Great Britain (approx. 11,800) and the Netherlands (approx. 11,000), while the Americans (approx. 25,000) and the Japanese (approx. 5600) are most strongly represented on the intercontinental level.
Culture and sights
In Leipzig, some Eastern languages are spoken. This dialect belongs to the Thuringian-Upper Saxon dialect group . A song in the Leipzig language well-known beyond the borders of Saxony was “Sing, mei Sachse, sing” by cabaret artist Jürgen Hart . The Leipzig cabaret stages regularly offer programs in the Saxon language, for example the well-known Academixer as well as Bernd-Lutz Lange and Gunter Böhnke with their stage partners. Of the authors who write in Leipzig dialect, Lene Voigt in particular is known to a wider audience.
In the local dialect, the name of the city sounds something like “Laibzsch”.
Leipzig has several local specialties to offer, including Leipziger Allerlei , Leipziger Lerche and Leipziger Gose . Leipziger Allerlei is a mixed vegetable that was served in the original version with crayfish , crab butter and bread dumplings. The Leipzig larks were actually made from songbirds in the 18th and 19th centuries . These were served as filled pies, for example. After a ban on catching songbirds was imposed in 1876, resourceful bakers developed a fine pastry made of shortcrust pastry with a marzipan filling , the shape of which is reminiscent of the pies of that time. A lesser-known sweet delicacy are the Leipziger Räbchen , prunes fried in hot oil and filled with marzipan. The Gose is originally from Goslar derived top-fermented beer that was barely brewed in GDR times, but is now again increasingly served as a specialty in restaurants. There is also the Leipziger Allasch , a caraway liqueur originally from the Baltic States . This is often mixed with the Gose to create the "umbrella".
Museums and exhibitions
Because of its history as an old university and trade fair city with a wealthy bourgeoisie, there are a large number of important collections and exhibitions in Leipzig. The city of Leipzig's museum concept for 2030 provides, among other things, that visits to the four city museums will be free in the future.
The German Museum of Books and Writing of the Deutsche Bücherei Leipzig is the world's oldest specialist museum for the culture of books, writing and paper and, together with the Museum of Printing Art, is a reminder of Leipzig's tradition as a book city. The Reclam Museum was opened in 2018, with the Reclams Universal Library , founded in 1876, at its center .
The University of Leipzig has a number of important collections. Some, such as the Egyptian Museum , the Museum of Ancient Art and the Museum of Musical Instruments , the public are permanently accessible. On the occasion of the Museum Night of the City of Leipzig, the university presents its teaching collections to a wide audience. The HTWK maintains an automatic museum.
The city history museum is located in the old town hall . It also has branches with the oldest coffee house in Germany, Zum Arabischen Coffe Baum , the Schillerhaus , in which Friedrich Schiller spent the summer of 1785, the Leipzig Sports Museum founded in 1977 and the Monument to the Battle of the Nations . As a federal institution, the contemporary history forum in the city center is subordinate to the Federal Chancellery. It depicts the history of Germany from the Second World War to the present with a focus on the history of the GDR. The Museum memorial in the "Round Corner" in the former seat of the district administration of the Ministry for State Security works on the mechanisms of the repressive apparatus in the GDR. There are other museums on the theme of the Battle of the Nations in Leipzig and the surrounding area, such as the tin figure museum in Torhaus Dölitz , the Seifertshain medical and hospital museum , the Körnerhaus Großzschocher, the memorial museum Liebertwolkwitz and the regional museum in the Torhaus Markkleeberg .
In addition to the Museum of Musical Instruments, the Museum of Applied Arts and the Museum of Ethnology in Leipzig are located in the Grassi Museum complex . The Natural History Museum Leipzig has a large collection of dermoplastics and supplements this offer with changing special exhibitions on natural topics. The German allotment gardening museum is located in the club house of the world's first allotment garden association, founded in 1864.
The largest panorama painting in the world can be seen in the Panometer , a gasometer built in 1910 and closed in 1977 . Yadegar Asisi showed the panorama 8848Everest360 ° of Mount Everest from 2003 to 2005 and from 2005 to February 2009 Rome CCCXII and between March 2009 and August 2013 Amazonia . From March to June 2012, EVEREST - an experience between expedition and tradition, a revised version of the Everest panorama from 2003 could be seen again. From August to September 2013 Leipzig could be visited in 1813 , then the Great Barrier Reef, since January 2017 the wreck of the Titanic and since the beginning of 2019 Carola's garden.
The Children's Museum Leipzig , which opened in 2010, offers changing exhibitions on topics that interest children. The Mitspielzeugmuseum also has a large collection of historical toys from the GDR and the former states of the Eastern Bloc.
There is also the Saxon Psychiatry Museum , the Saxon Pharmacy Museum, the Medical History Collection of the Karl Sudhoff Institute, the School Museum , the Railway Museum , the N'Ostalgiemuseum , the Medieval Crime Museum and the Imperial Court Museum.
The Haus der Computerspiele private museum has no permanent premises, but as a traveling exhibition at trade fairs and festivals, it reaches several hundred thousand visitors a year.
The Museum of Fine Arts , founded in 1837 by the Leipziger Kunstverein , has one of the most impressive collections of images in Germany, showing around 58,500 exhibits from the late Middle Ages to the modern age, including some exhibits from the New Leipzig School , of which Neo Rauch is probably the best-known representative . The gallery for contemporary art , founded in 1990, complements this offer with changing exhibitions of modern and contemporary art.
In May 2005 a gallery center opened in the cotton mill in Lindenau . Eleven commercial and two non-commercial art spaces present contemporary works. Around 80 artists maintain studios on the premises. Further commercial art centers are located in the Tapetenwerk Leipzig, the Alte Handelsschule with the LSOD Leipzig School of Design , the Westwerk and the Kunstkraftwerk on the Karl-Heine Canal. The first Leipzig art fair opened in 2015 and has been held annually since then. In addition, there are numerous galleries, art associations and temporary projects in the urban area that ensure a lively exhibition activity, such as the university with a permanent exhibition of pieces from its art collection and the art hall of the Sparkasse Leipzig . The G2 Kunsthalle am Thomaskirchhof opened in March 2015 as a private museum and shows positions on contemporary art.
Music and theater
Theater and opera
From Leipzig, Friederike Caroline Neuber and Johann Christoph Gottsched reformed the German theater landscape in the 18th century . The Schauspiel Leipzig has several venues. In addition to the large stage in the theater, the city's operations also include smaller venues such as the discotheque , the construction site and the residence . The Schauspiel Leipzig has been directed by Enrico Lübbe since 2013/2014 and is one of the leading theaters in German-speaking countries with invitations to the Berlin Theatertreffen , the Mülheim Theatertage , Ruhrfestspiele Recklinghausen , Autorentheatertage Berlin, Heidelberger Stückemarkt and the Venice Biennale . There is also a lively off-theater scene in Leipzig with numerous independent theater groups and several smaller venues ( LOFFT , Schaubühne Lindenfels , Ost-Passage Theater and others). A number of freelance choreographers and dancers ensure ambitious dance theater; the Leipzig dance theater has existed since 1967 . Parts of the off-culture have come together to form the Leipzig Free Scene Interest Group . Children's and youth theater has a long tradition in Leipzig. The main sponsor is the theater of the young world , there are also some puppet and marionette theaters. Leipzig was and is still partially one of the centers of the German-speaking cabaret , variety and cabaret scene . The nationally known cabarets include the Leipziger Pfeffermühle and the Academixer . The cabarets Sanftwut , Funzel and Leipziger Brettl also exist .
The opera in Leipzig looks back on over three hundred years of tradition. The first opera house at Brühl was built in 1693. After the Teatro San Cassiano in Venice and the Opera at Gänsemarkt Hamburg , this was the third civic opera house. In addition to Richard Wagner , who was born in Leipzig, the history of the opera in Leipzig is linked to composers such as Georg Philipp Telemann , Heinrich Marschner and Albert Lortzing . Today's Opera House (Leipzig) was completed in 1960 on Augustusplatz on the site of the New Theater that was destroyed in World War II . The Gewandhausorchester has played in all performances of the Leipzig Opera since 1840. Ulf Schirmer has been General Music Director of the Leipzig Opera from the 2009/2010 season and also became the artistic director of the traditional music theater for the 2011/2012 season. The repertoire of the Leipzig Opera ranges from the baroque to the present day. The cellar theater of the Leipzig Opera is the small, experimental venue with 99 seats for productions of the Leipzig Opera, including the children's choir of the Leipzig Opera, smaller staged productions of the opera ensemble, but also for guest productions by independent ensembles, including Heike Hennig & Co. However, the basement theater has not been used for some seasons due to austerity measures. The musical comedy (MuKo) in the Dreilinden house in Lindenau , which belongs to the Leipzig Opera, has a history that goes back to 1713. Here are Operetta and Musical maintained, but also the German comic opera.
The Gewandhausorchester is one of the most internationally renowned orchestras. It was founded in 1781 as the oldest civil concert orchestra in Germany. The Gewandhausorchester has three venues: the Gewandhaus , the Leipzig Opera and the Thomaskirche. The chief conductors included Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Arthur Nikisch , Wilhelm Furtwängler , Bruno Walter , Václav Neumann , Kurt Masur , Herbert Blomstedt and Riccardo Chailly ; Andris Nelsons has been the Gewandhauskapellmeister (chief conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra) since 2018 . Ulf Schirmer has been General Music Director at the Leipzig Opera since the 2009/2010 season. The Neue Bachische Collegium Musicum was founded in 1979 by members of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. As a "historical Bach orchestra" it combines modern instruments and "historical" style of playing; from 2004 to 2013 it was directed by Albrecht Winter . Since then it has been working without a permanent artistic director.
The MDR Symphony Orchestra was founded in 1924 as the Leipzig Symphony Orchestra . It succeeded the concert association's orchestra, which had existed since 1915. In 1925 it was taken over by what was then Mitteldeutsche Rundfunk AG and known as the Leipzig Radio Symphony Orchestra . Chief conductor was Herbert Kegel , among others , Kristjan Järvi leads the orchestra. After the founding of the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk in 1991, it was given its new name. The Hanns Eisler New Music group, made up of musicians from the radio symphony orchestra and existing from 1970 to 1993, was one of the most important interpreters of New Music in the GDR. In 1990 members of the group founded the Forum for Contemporary Music Leipzig . Furthermore, the Leipzig Consort was until 1993 and the Ensemble Sortisatio has been the carrier of new music in Leipzig since 1992 .
The Capella Fidicinia at the Musical Instrument Museum of the University of Leipzig was founded by Hans Grüß in 1957. The chamber orchestra plays works by old masters on original instruments. The Academic Orchestra Leipzig was founded in 1954 by Horst Förster at the University of Leipzig, who continues to direct it. Every year there are six “Academic Concerts” in the great hall of the Gewandhaus. The Leipzig Teachers' Orchestra was founded in 1951 by Karl Winkler, making it the city's oldest amateur symphony orchestra, which is directed by Gerd-Eckehard Meißner and also performs in the Gewandhaus. The occupation no longer plays a role, the name is retained by tradition.
The Leipzig University Orchestra was founded in 2003 as a Leipzig student orchestra . It is staffed by students and gives a large symphony concert every semester as well as chamber music evenings. The Pauliner Chamber Orchestra was founded in 1992 and was directed by Wolfgang Unger until 2004 . It is available to the university choir with modern instruments. The Pauliner Baroque Ensemble was formed from the Pauliner Chamber Orchestra in 1994 and makes music exclusively on historical instruments.
The Kammerphilharmonie Leipzig consists of musicians who study or have graduated from the "Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy" University of Music and Theater in Leipzig . The orchestra, which has existed since 2001, gives concerts in the Great Hall of the Leipzig Gewandhaus and in the Konzerthaus Berlin; Concert tours led to China and India, among others. The Kammerphilharmonie works under the direction of Michael Köhler .
The Leipzig String Quartet was founded in 1988 by students at the Leipzig University of Music and Theater and later members of the Gewandhaus Orchestra. It is an internationally recognized part of the chamber music scene.
The Avantgarde Ensemble around the composer and pianist Steffen Schleiermacher was until 2007 an association of musicians from various Leipzig orchestras dedicated to the music of the 20th century. It founded the concert series musica nova at the Leipzig Gewandhaus.
Since 1957, the Leipzig Youth & Wind Orchestra Association has been organizing V. several ensembles of amateur musicians in the city: the Pfiffigen Musikusse, the Symphonic Wind Orchestra Leipzig and the ISKRA Oldstars.
The world-famous St. Thomas' Choir was founded in 1212 together with the St. Thomas School as a monastery school for twelve boys and taken over by the city council with the Reformation in 1519. The most famous Thomaskantor was Johann Sebastian Bach , who held this position from 1723 until his death in 1750. Around 100 St. Thomas people between the ages of 9 and 18 sing in the choir, which performs three times a week in the St. Thomas Church.
The GewandhausChor was founded in 1861 by Gewandhauskapellmeister Carl Reinecke and merged with the Bach Society founded in 1875 in 1920. Gregor Meyer has been in charge of the company since August 2007, succeeding Morten Schuldt-Jensen . The Gewandhaus Children's Choir, founded in 1973, is one of Germany's children's choirs with an international reputation.
The MDR-Rundfunkchor Leipzig was founded in 1924 as the Leipzig Oratorio Association . After the dissolution in 1942, the remaining artists were taken over by the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk as the chamber choir of the Leipzig station in August 1946 . From 1947 it operated as the Leipzig Radio Choir . Under the direction of Herbert Kegel , who led the choir from 1949 to 1978, the ensemble established itself as a top European choir. It has had its current name since the re-establishment of Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk and the simultaneous takeover of the choir on January 1, 1992. The current artistic director is Risto Joost . The MDR Children's Choir was founded in 1948 by Hans Sandig and is the only ARD children's choir . Alexander Schmitt is currently leading the ensemble.
The Leipzig University Choir emerged in 1926 from the madrigal circle of Leipzig students . Its director is the university music director David Timm . Under the direction of the late Wolfgang Unger, the choir received the ECHO-Klassik-Preis in 2001 from the German Phono-Academy .
The Leipzig student choir Vivat academia was founded in 1954 and brings together students from many Leipzig universities. He has been working as the Leipzig Philharmonic Youth Choir since 2009, is based at the University of Telecommunications in Leipzig and is directed by Marcus Friedrich.
The Leipzig Oratorio Choir was founded in 1993 as an amateur choir and has been directed by Martin Krumbiegel ever since . As a non-profit association, it is supported by its members as well as by means of the city.
The Leipzig Synagogal Choir , founded in 1962 by Chief Cantor Werner Sander and directed by Ludwig Böhme since 2012 , sets itself the task of preserving synagogue music of the 19th and 20th centuries as well as Yiddish and Hebrew folklore as a particularly valuable part of the Jewish cultural heritage, not only in Leipzig and to maintain.
The Schola Cantorum Leipzig is the city of Leipzig's children and youth choir. Founded in 1963, it consists of over 300 singing children, teenagers and young adults.
Leipzig was and is an important city of music. So reminiscent Bach Archive in Leipzig on Thomaskirchhof with a Bach Museum in Bose House - the family Bose was a close friend of the Bach family - one of the most important personalities of the city. A special feature in Leipzig is that a large number of composer's houses have been preserved, in most of which museums have been set up: for example the house where Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy lived and died , which is open to the public as the Mendelssohn House , the Schumann House , where Robert and Clara Schumann spent their first four years of marriage, and Talstraße 10, where the Edvard-Grieg memorial and meeting place is located. The places of residence of Gustav Mahler and Erwin Schulhoff are not far from the city center in the Waldstrasse district , where memorial plaques commemorate the composers. The house where Richard Wagner was born on the Brühl no longer exists, but there, too, a plaque and a place commemorate the musician. Albert Lortzing had several homes in Leipzig, mostly in the Waldstrasse district.
In order to better market the musical heritage, a UNESCO initiative was founded to help Leipzig achieve a World Heritage title. Several routes through Leipzig are currently being planned for this purpose. On the one hand, the “ note trail ”. This is an approximately 5.1 kilometer long walk that connects the composers' places of work or residence or other musical objects of supraregional importance. In addition to the composers' houses, the facilities include the Nikolai and Thomaskirche as premieres of Bach's works, the Peters music library , the Gewandhaus, the opera and the Zum Arabischen Coffe Baum café.
The second walk, the “sheet of music”, is about five kilometers long and connects, among other things, the old Bach monument, the “Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy” University of Music and Theater as Max Reger's place of work and the music library of the German Central Library for the blind.
Finally, a cycle path is planned: the “Notenrad”. It is divided into two loops, the western and the eastern, both of which are roughly the same length and are connected to the city center. They lead, for example, from the Thomaskirche to the Kleinzschocher manor.
As an important city of music, the Saxon regional associations of the German Tonkünstlerverband and the Verband Deutscher Musikschulen , as well as the Saxon Music Association , have established themselves in Leipzig .
Leisure and entertainment
Leipzig has a lively cinema scene. The festival for documentary and animated film , which has been held annually since 1955, has gained international importance . After the GDR state organs increasingly influenced the festival program from 1968 onwards, it again developed into a crowd puller after reunification with a modernized orientation.
In addition to larger theaters such as CineStar and Passage cinema in the center, Regina movie palace in Reudnitz and Cineplex Leipzig in Grunau numerous showcase cinemas films for small audiences. The Schauburg film theater in Kleinzschocher is a hybrid . Since 1995, the French Film Days have taken place in several venues in the greater Halle-Leipzig area . The film art fair has been held annually in Leipzig since 2001 . In the summer, cinema screenings take place in various locations in the open air. In addition, the Visionale Leipzig, a media competition for children, adolescents and young adults, has been held annually since 1991.
Everyday cultural life takes place mainly in the city center, in Gottschedstrasse and the Südvorstadt along Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse to the Connewitz district and in Plagwitz along Karl-Heine-Strasse. The city has a remarkable and lively nightlife. The development of the diverse pub landscape was favored by the fact that the city administration did not have a curfew . Especially in the evening and night hours of the summer months, you can experience a vital street life in Barfußgässchen and in Gottschedstraße, when the outdoor seats are full.
Due to the deterioration of the building stock during the GDR era, many former cultural centers in the districts have disappeared, so that Leipzig only has a limited number of larger halls for music events. In the north these are the Anker and Haus Auensee , in the Westvorstadt the Haus Leipzig , in the center the Moritzbastei and in Connewitz Werk 2 and Conne Island . In 2006, the Volkspalast opened a new event hall that allows larger concerts that were previously reserved for the multi-purpose arena Leipzig . A lively alternative scene developed in Connewitz and parts of the Südvorstadt after the fall of the Wall. The former cinema UT Connewitz became an institution used for all forms of culture. The dance café Ilses Erika in the House of Democracy - also located in Connewitz - is one of the most famous indie addresses in East Germany with its club evenings and concerts . The distillery in the southern suburbs is considered East Germany's longest-serving techno club, which hosts the one-day festival Th! Nk? hosted. The most popular clubs and discos include the night café, which specializes in black music and house, and the Buddha Art Gallery in the city center. Diverse cultural events such as art house cinema , readings or smaller concerts also take place in the naTo .
With the resolutions of the third university reform of the GDR in 1968, numerous student clubs were created in Leipzig, most of which still exist and which are not only used by students. The oldest student club is the Leipzig TV Club . The student clubs created a common platform with the Round Table of Leipzig Independent Student Clubs ( RuTiLuSt ) in the early 1990s. The former largest student club in Europe, the Moritzbastei , was expanded from a medieval fortress at the end of the 1970s. In 1993 it was converted into a GmbH.
Belantis, the largest amusement park in Central Germany , is located in the south of Leipzig, between the Cospudener and Zwenkauer See lakes . It was built on a 27 hectare former lignite area and offers its visitors over 60 attractions and shows spread over eight themed worlds. The park was opened on April 5, 2003 after a 19-month construction period and has over 500,000 visitors annually.
Nature and relaxation
Parks and gardens
Compared to similar large cities, Leipzig has a remarkable proportion of parks and green spaces, mostly with high design standards or urban structural significance. The lavish civic gardens that have been around the historic city center since the Renaissance and Baroque, such as Apels Garten or Großbosesche Garten, were known far beyond the region . With the urban growth in the 19th century, these private facilities were built over, but their names were given differently in street names. As early as the beginning of the 18th century, the urban fortifications and ramparts began to be greened with avenues and wooded trees. At the end of the century, under Mayor Carl Wilhelm Müller (1728–1801), a coherent park design was created on the Schwanenteich and in what is now the area in front of the main train station. It was the first landscape park in Germany initiated by the bourgeoisie . At the same time, the foundation stone for the promenade ring surrounding the city center was laid. Further sections were designed up into the 20th century, including the Lenné facility , known as Schillerpark, until 1858 . The Royal Prussian Garden Director Peter Joseph Lenné , one of the greatest gardening artists of the 19th century, was able to be won over for the planning . A little later he also designed the municipal Johannapark on behalf of the banker Wilhelm Seyfferth .
From 1898, under gardening director Otto Wittenberg, the König-Albert-Park , a representative city park with a fountain basin, pond and music pavilion, was built directly to the west . Since 1955 it has been known as the Clara-Zetkin-Park together with neighboring facilities such as the Palmengarten or the Scheibenholzpark . Under Otto Wittenberg, numerous green city squares were built parallel to the urban development at the end of the 19th century , as well as the landscaped grounds Volksgarten - Sellerhausen, Volkshain Stünz and the southern part of Eutritzsch Park. In contrast to this, Wittenberg's successor, Carl Hampel , created numerous formal designs, including on the western promenade ring, but also the extensive Wilhelm-Külz-Park at the Völkerschlachtdenkmal.
Since 1913 Leberecht Migge designed a classic public park , the Mariannenpark, in the then still independent community of Schönefeld . The complex was completed in the inter-war period by 1928 under city gardening director Molzen . Work on Richard-Wagner-Hain on both sides of the Elster flood basin began as early as 1932 . It was supposed to house a monumental monument in honor of Richard Wagner, who was born in Leipzig. The National Socialists took on the project and declared it the "Richard Wagner National Monument" project. Gustav Allinger was responsible for the preserved horticultural design . Emil Hipp made the parts of the memorial at the Chiemsee, which, however, was no longer erected in Leipzig due to the war.
The spacious Rosental Park borders the zoological garden to the west . Originally an electoral property, then sold to the city, August the Strong nevertheless intended to build a residence here, which the city was supposed to finance. Although this could be averted, the sovereign ordered the creation of the still existing viewing aisles through the bounding forest areas, starting from the large central meadow area. Since the 19th century, various redesigns have taken place in terms of landscaping.
The allotment garden movement ( allotment gardens ) named after him goes back indirectly to the Leipzig doctor Moritz Schreber . In addition to the oldest so-called allotment facility, the German allotment gardening museum is located in the city . Around 30% (1240 ha) of Leipzig's green space is made up of allotment gardens, which play an important role in recreation and the city's biodiversity.
The former Neue Johannisfriedhof , which was closed in 1950, is known as the Peace Park. From 1973 onwards, the numerous historically significant grave monuments were cleared. A few were set up on the preserved Old Johannis Cemetery , which has been the city's central burial ground for centuries. The city's park cemeteries include the Südfriedhof and the Ostfriedhof .
In the east of Leipzig's Grünau district is the Robert Koch Park , which was completed in 1913 and has been open to the public since 1984, with the Robert Koch Clinic as a branch of the St. Georg municipal clinic .
The Botanical Garden of the University of Leipzig is home to around 10,000 different species on an area of 3.5 hectares. It is the oldest botanical garden in Germany and one of the oldest in the world. In its history, which goes back to the middle of the 16th century, the location of the Botanical Garden was relocated three times in the city area. It is located on Linnéstraße in the Zentrum-Südost district , adjacent to the Friedenspark .
The Leipzig Zoological Garden is a 26-hectare park-like green area northwest of Leipzig's old town, in which around 900 animal species are kept and presented. It borders on the Rosental , a city park.
The Leipzig Zoo was opened on June 9, 1878 and, with its many historical buildings, is one of the most traditional in Germany. He was once famous for breeding lions and later tigers, for which he has kept the international stud book ever since. It is home to many rare animal species such as baikal seals, musk deer, okapis and sepik monitor. The weekly documentary soap Elefant, Tiger & Co. of the Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk has made the zoo known throughout Germany since 2003. One of the characteristic brick structures is the bear castle. It was the scene of many breeding successes, but has long been out of date. In the 1990s, the zoo was still in dire need of renovation and barely corresponded to modern animal husbandry. Therefore, it has been converted into a zoo of the future for a few years now , which was originally supposed to be completed in 2014. The two largest construction projects were the world's largest ape facility, Pongoland (as part of the Wolfgang Köhler Primate Research Center ) , which opened in 2001, and Europe's largest tropical hall, Gondwanaland , in which animals and plants from the continents of Asia, South America and Africa have been shown since 2011. At the end of 2011, the zoo management announced that the master plan for the renovation of the zoo would be revised. The further construction work is now to take place by 2020 - the focus is to be on Asia and South America.
The Leipzig Wildlife Park is a nature park in the south of the city. Most of the animals in the park come from the European region, including red deer, fallow deer, roe deer and mouflon, but also elk, bison, various species of birds and foxes, wild cats, ermines, martens and raccoons. The wildlife park participates in the breeding program for the endangered European mink. An adventure trail with a wolf enclosure is to be created soon.
In Leipzig there are some important buildings from the past centuries. Leipzig was a center of the bourgeois Baroque and was supplemented by many public buildings of historicism , especially in the Wilhelminian era and in the last quarter of the 19th century . Leipzig has a comparatively high proportion of Art Nouveau buildings . There are also pre- and post-war modern buildings in Leipzig.
A summary of all churches can be found under List of Church Buildings in Leipzig . Detailed descriptions of the sacred buildings can be found under Churches in Leipzig , Former Churches in Leipzig and Synagogues in Leipzig .
There are two very well-known church buildings in the city center. The St. Thomas Church was the place of activity of Johann Sebastian Bach and is still animated by performances by the St. Thomas Choir . The Gothic building dates mainly from the late 15th century.
The Nikolaikirche was one of the most important places for peace prayers and the starting point for the Monday demonstrations in Leipzig, an essential part of the political turnaround in the GDR. It was built in Romanesque style from 1165, the year in which city rights were granted, and transformed into a Gothic hall church in the late Middle Ages . The Alte Nikolaischule is located directly next to the Nikolaikirche .
Two important classical modern church buildings can be found in Leipzig : the Reconciliation Church in Gohlis -Nord and the Bonifatiuskirche in Connewitz. The Reconciliation Church , consecrated in 1932, is one of the most important examples of sacred architecture in the New Building style in Germany. The St. Bonifatius Church is considered to be the most important new Catholic church between the two world wars in Saxony. The Art Deco style rotunda was built in 1929/30 to commemorate the members of the Catholic Business Association who fell in World War I.
The inner city of Leipzig consists of very changeable views. The old town hall , a Renaissance building from 1556/57, dominates the heart of the city . It is noteworthy that this is not constructed axially symmetrically in the front view according to the rules of the time, but is divided in the golden ratio . The town hall tower, moved out of the central axis, was considered an architectural avant-garde achievement of the time and, with the vortex and turmoil caused by it, stood for the urban self-confidence and the typical Leipzig endeavor to always choose and maintain its own, independent path.
Its builder, Hieronymus Lotter , city architect, councilor and mayor, built the Alte Waage on the market square as well as essential parts of the city fortifications. So he constructed the still preserved Moritzbastei , which was built between 1551 and 1554. It was considered a masterpiece of fortress architecture and impregnable. However, during the Thirty Years War it was overrun by Swedish troops. Before that, there was the Pleißenburg in the immediate vicinity , which was damaged and partially razed in the Schmalkaldic War in the 16th century. The New Town Hall is located on the remains of the Pleißenburg. With its 114 meter high main tower, it is one of the largest town hall buildings in the world. With the strong growth of Leipzig in the 19th century, the city administration needed this larger structure, which was completed in 1905.
A large part of the city center is dominated by trading yards - splendid merchants' houses with characteristic passages - formerly used by the Leipziger Messe. The passages were originally laid out to save the carriages from turning around in the narrow inner courtyards. The oldest still preserved trading yard is Barthels Hof ; Specks Hof and Stentzlers Hof have also been restored in the meantime . They were mainly used to organize trade fairs. The municipal department store and the Handelshof were the city's first model exhibition centers. Other trading houses such as Auerbachs Hof were already converted into shopping streets at the beginning of the 20th century, when the Leipzig trade fair began to withdraw from the city center with the construction of the exhibition center. The most magnificent passage in Leipzig is located on the grounds of Auerbachs Hof, the Mädlerpassage , which was built on the Milanese model from 1912 to 1914 . This is where Auerbach's cellar is located , made world famous by Goethe's Faust.
In Leipzig there are still many buildings of the bourgeois baroque, which were built in the wealthy merchant town around the same time as the buildings of the electoral baroque in Dresden. Immediately behind the Old Town Hall, on the Naschmarkt , is the Old Stock Exchange , built in the Baroque style , which once served as the meeting building of the Leipzig merchants. Wealthy citizens built city palaces in the compact city center such as the Fregehaus , the Romanushaus and the Königshaus , which served as the city council's guest house for high-ranking visitors until the 19th century. Some of the buildings already existed before and were rebuilt in the 18th century. On the outskirts of the city, the Gohliser Schlösschen was also built as a baroque building in bourgeois ownership.
Some buildings in Leipzig are reminiscent of the stays and places of work of famous people. East of the city center is the Mendelssohn House , where Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , who worked as a composer at the Gewandhaus, lived until his death. Friedrich Schiller spent a few months in Leipzig in 1785 or in Gohlis, which at that time was still outside the city limits. There is the Schillerhaus , which is actually a farmhouse. There Schiller worked, among other things, on the poem To Joy , which was later set to music by Ludwig van Beethoven in his 9th symphony .
Leipzig has some important historicist buildings . The similarity of the Imperial Court building , which was built from 1888 to 1895, with the Reichstag building in Berlin cannot be ignored. Both are based on motifs from the Italian Renaissance and are intended to embody the consolidated German Empire through their monumental effect.
The Deutsche Bücherei marks a transition to modernity at the end of pre-war historicalism. Similar to the German Hygiene Museum , the shapes remain monumental and towering; however, the filling of the facade was laid out in a comparatively matter-of-fact way. In addition to the library, Oskar Pusch designed the neoclassical Achilleion on the Leipzig exhibition grounds. The building of the University Library Albertina is designed as a neo-renaissance building with a central entrance portal, strongly symmetrical. The Mende Fountain is the largest ornamental fountain in Leipzig and was built in 1883 in the neo-baroque style. The Grassimuseum was built from 1925 to 1929 in a style with echoes of Art Deco and New Objectivity as one of the few new German museum buildings during the Weimar Republic .
The Völkerschlachtdenkmal, one of the city's most famous landmarks , was erected from 1898 as a memorial to the Battle of the Nations in 1813. It was inaugurated in 1913 on the 100th anniversary of the battle. Its architecture is heavily symbolic with its classic motifs and appears monumental due to its height of 91 meters and the thickness of the walls and columns. Together with the skyscrapers on the inner city ring , the tower of the New Town Hall, the hotel " The Westin Leipzig ", the skyscraper of the Leipziger Sparkasse in Löhrs Carré and the churches in the city center, it defines the skyline of Leipzig.
Modern and contemporary architecture
Leipzig's modern architecture is primarily characterized by high-rise buildings. The Krochhochhaus was built in 1927/28 as the first high-rise in Leipzig in reinforced concrete skeleton construction and is one of the few preserved buildings of pre-war modernism. The sleek, slim, approximately 50-meter-high tower with a striking carillon was modeled on the clock tower ( Torre dell'Orologio ) in Venice. Not far from there, the city high-rise towers over the city center with its 142 meters (155.40 m total height with antenna support). It was built from 1968 to 1972 as a section building for the university and, due to its shape as an open book, bears a clear symbolism. It was the tallest building in Germany until 1972 when it was replaced by the Jena Uniturm .
In 1972 the 95 meter high (106.8 m total height) winter garden tower with 31 floors was inaugurated at the main train station as the tallest residential building in Leipzig. Another architecturally significant tall building on the eastern inner city ring is the 53 meter high Europa high -rise built in 1928/29 in the New Objectivity style on the southeast side of Augustusplatz, after the Kroch high -rise , the second high-rise built in Leipzig. The Europa-Haus was the starting point for the Ringcity concept presented in 1927 by the then city building officer Hubert Ritter , but never realized. This envisaged the expansion of the inner city by a modern peripheral development with several high-rise buildings over the promenade ring laid out in the 19th century and thus relieving the compact old town center by creating new commercial areas urgently needed at the time and preserving its historical buildings.
The New Gewandhaus and the Opera House are located on Augustusplatz , the eastern border of the city center . Both are modern new buildings that were built on the site of cultural centers that were destroyed in the Second World War. The opera house was built between 1956 and 1960 on the site of the previous building and takes its late classicist forms in a simplified manner. Due to its combination of tradition and modernity, the building is considered a prime example of GDR architecture at that time. The Neue Gewandhaus, built on the site of the former municipal museum, was the only fully-fledged new concert hall in the GDR and was one of their most complex construction projects. The high glass front, on which a solid concrete ledge is placed, is striking. With the new construction of modern culture houses, a different path was chosen in Leipzig than in Berlin and Dresden, where the concert hall and Semperoper were rebuilt true to detail. In addition to cost aspects, this was due to conceptual reasons, since the then Karl-Marx-Platz was to be given a face shaped by socialist design principles in its entirety.
The northern inner city ring is also flanked by two high-rise buildings. The almost 70 meter high Löhrs Carré (headquarters of the Sparkasse Leipzig / Sachsen Bank) and the 96 meter high hotel “The Westin Leipzig” form an ensemble here . The dominant feature of the ring development in the southwest of the city is the 115 meter high tower of the New Town Hall, which is also the highest town hall tower in Germany.
A contemporary architectural feature is the so-called Niemeyer sphere , built in 2020 based on a design by star architect Oscar Niemeyer at the former Kirow factory in the Neulindenau district . The concrete ball houses a restaurant and café with bar.
Traffic and industrial structures
Leipzig is surrounded by a ring railway, to which two terminal stations connect. Both train stations, the main train station and the Bavarian train station are connected by the city tunnel . The main station is considered the largest terminus in Europe. It stands with an almost 300 meter wide historic facade on the border of the city center and behind it contains two large reception halls. These were created because the train station used to be divided into a Saxon and a Prussian part, each with its own reception and waiting hall. The station has a total of six platform halls. It was extensively restored by 1997 and a shopping center was added on the cross platform. To the south of the city center is the Bayerischer Bahnhof , which was built in 1844 and is the oldest surviving terminal station in Germany. The four-door portico for the railway is a striking feature of the station .
The colored yarn factories in Plagwitz are Germany's largest industrial monument from the Wilhelminian era with over 100,000 square meters of floor space. In the south are the Leipzig wholesale market halls , jokingly called "Kohlrabi circus". They house an ice rink and are used as an event hall.
|Chimney steel and hard cast iron works Bösdorf (SHB) Knautnaundorf||205 m||Out of service|
|Leipzig radio tower||191 m||in operation since May 2016|
|4 wind turbines from the BMW plant||190 m||140 m high hybrid towers plus rotors with a diameter of 100 m|
|Chimney of the former south heating power station (former DVB-T transmission tower )||170 m||The chimney, which was not in operation, was given a 20 m high antenna support on its crown in 2005. This was removed in mid-2016.|
|City high-rise (Uniriese)||155.4 m||Building height 142.5 m plus antenna support|
|Telecommunications tower of the Telekom||132 m|
|Tower of the New Town Hall||115 m||highest town hall tower in Germany|
|Conservatory high-rise||106.8 m||Building height 96 m plus double M of the Leipziger Messe on the roof|
|Hotel The Westin Leipzig||105 m||Building height 95 m plus antenna support|
|Monument to the Battle of the Nations||91 m||largest monument in Europe|
|Tower of St. Peter's Church||88 m||highest church tower in the city|
|Exhibition tower||85 m|
|MDR high-rise||75 m||Building height 65 m plus antenna support|
|Löhr's Carree high-rise||71 m||Headquarters of the Sachsen Bank and the Sparkasse Leipzig|
|Center Torgauer Platz||63 m|
Music and theater
The Leipzig Bach Festival is a music festival that first took place in 1908. It has been held annually since 1999 and is entirely dedicated to maintaining the works of Johann Sebastian Bach. Until 2016, the Mendelssohn Festival Leipzig was held annually, which looked after Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy's legacy in the city. The Richard Wagner Society Leipzig 2013 has been organizing the Wagner Festival Leipzig every year since 2006 around the birthday of the composer Richard Wagner . The event aims to improve the memory of the composer in his hometown. The Robert and Clara Schumann Association organizes the Schumann Week annually in memory of the two .
The Leipzig International Chamber Music Festival has been held in cooperation with the Gewandhaus since 1996 in November. As part of the Classic Open Leipzig , open-air concerts and video broadcasts of concerts have been taking place in downtown Leipzig since 1995. The international festival for vocal music "a cappella" , which has been held since 1997 , has internationally renowned and up-and-coming artists of this genre every May. The Leipzig Jazz Days have been held in October since 1976 . They are dedicated to contemporary jazz and are supported by the Jazzclub Leipzig e. V. aligned.
Since 2004 the radio station Energy Sachsen has hosted the Energy Clubzone twice a year . Show Courage is a rock concert that has been taking place on April 30th in front of the Leipzig Völkerschlachtdenkmal since 1998 and was created in response to the neo-Nazi marches on May 1st.
The euro-scene Leipzig festival has been held every November since 1991 . It is dedicated to experimental theater and modern dance. The Lachmesse is a European humor and satire festival that has been held in Leipzig every October since 1991. It awards the Leipziger Löwenzahn Cabaret Prize, endowed with 3500 euros .
Festivals and markets
Over Whitsun, Leipzig is the venue for the four-day Wave-Gotik-Treffen (WGT), which has been taking place since 1992, currently regularly attracts up to 23,000 visitors from the black scene to the city and even visitors who are not in the scene with events such as the Viking camp as part of the pagan village and another medieval market at the Moritzbastei .
Every year, the Leipzig Tourist Service organizes the Leipzig City Festival, which, with over 300,000 visitors, is one of the ten largest open air events in Germany. The Leipziger Kleinmesse is a folk festival that now takes place three times (previously twice) a year and originated in 1907 as an offshoot of the Leipziger Messe. Until 1935 it was held on the so-called "bird meadow" on the Alte Elster. In 1936 the company moved to Cottaweg, west of the Elster basin. At the beginning of 2009, however, the small exhibition area was renewed, creating a round, paved area for circuses and small exhibitions. The Leipzig Christmas market is one of the largest in the eastern federal states and has been held since 1767. The Intercultural Week takes place in autumn , where numerous readings, discussions, concerts, etc. are held. The opening concert takes place in the Nikolaikirche and at the same time marks the beginning of the Saxony-wide action weeks.
The Saxonia International Balloon Fiesta was a popular balloon festival with European participation. It took place annually at the end of July in Leipzig and was attended by more than 130,000 people. The first fiesta took place in 1995 with 5000 visitors and 100 hot air balloons in the small Saxon town of Mügeln. In 1996 the event was relocated to Leipzig in the local recreation area on the Silbersee , as this is outside the official flight corridors. The Silbersee Park is located between the urban areas of Lößnig and the brown coal landscape of the southern Leipzig area. In the event, the balloons were fighting in the categories fox hunting , wide flight and Keygrab .
Since 2009, the Monday demonstration on October 9, 1989 has been celebrated every year with the Leipzig Festival of Lights . 150,000 people attended the first event.
The carnival only plays a subordinate role in Protestant Leipzig. Since the 1950s, the Leipzig Student Carnival has been an annual series of events. In 1992 the support committee Leipziger Karneval e. V. and organizes a rose Sunday parade every year under the motto Leila helau .
The German University of Physical Culture (DHfK) was a sports university in the GDR from which numerous top athletes and trainers emerged. The research institute for physical culture and sport at the DHfK with 20 employees developed doping substances and methods for the forced doping system . The classification of the DHfK as a stronghold of anabolic steroids also led to the closure of the university. The Sports Science Faculty of the University of Leipzig was founded in 1993 . The abbreviation "DHfK" still has the HSG DHfK and the SC DHfK in their names. The Institute for Applied Training Science is located in Leipzig .
The Leipzig Olympic Training Center is currently located in the city , and several federal and state training centers are integrated into it. There are federal bases in canoe slalom, canoe racing, athletics and judo. Federal support points for the youngsters are for swimming, diving and gymnastics for women. State bases include men's volleyball, women's handball, rowing and wrestling (freestyle). Furthermore, in addition to the youth performance center of RasenBallsport Leipzig e. V., a DFB talent base at the Egidius Braun sports school.
In addition to the State Sports Association of Saxony, there are also several other state associations, such as the Sächsische Turn-Verband e. V., the Saxon Fencing Association, the Saxon Hockey Association, the Saxon Canoe Association , the Saxon Tennis Association , the Saxon Football Association and the Saxon Rugby Association are located in Leipzig.
Hand, volleyball and basketball
The HC Leipzig (HCL) is one of the most successful women's handball clubs in Germany. He was four times European Cup winner, six times German champion, three times DHB cup winner and 13 times GDR champion.
The MTSA Leipzig (military gymnastics and sports department) was successful in men's handball in the 1930s. In 1936 the club became German runner-up. The field handball team continued to win the German championship title three times in a row (1937, 1938 and 1939). In the post-war period, the club SC DHfK Leipzig Handball continued the series of successes. In the 1960s and 70s he won the European Cup, the forerunner of the EHF Champions League , six times the GDR championship and twice the tournament championship. The team has been playing in the 1st handball league since the 2015/16 season .
The 2009 newly founded LE Volleys rose to the 2nd volleyball league. The basketball club Leipzig (BBVL) played at times in the women's basketball league. The last successes of the men's teams were achieved in GDR times.
Leipzig has a long and great football tradition. In 1900 it was the founding site of the German Football Association (DFB). The founding meeting of the German Football Association took place in the restaurant "Zum Mariengarten" in Karlstrasse 10 (today Büttnerstrasse 10).
VfB Leipzig was a founding member of the DFB with four other Leipzig clubs. At the first German championship, VfB Leipzig was able to secure the championship title. In 1906 and 1913 they were able to become German champions again. After the Second World War, the association was dissolved. The GDR soccer club 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig , which was founded in 1966, is considered the unofficial successor to VfB Leipzig. The club was a GDR Cup winner , three-time GDR runner-up and made it to the final of the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1987 . After reunification, the club wanted to build on the glorious times of VfB Leipzig and renamed itself VfB Leipzig in 1991. Like the pre-war club, VfB Leipzig developed into a multi-discipline club. In the 1993/94 season, the club played in the Bundesliga and occupies the penultimate place in the all-time table. In 2004 the association went bankrupt, but was never deleted from the association register. 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig was founded as the unofficial successor club and has been playing in the Regionalliga Nordost since the 2016/17 season .
The city's second traditional football club, BSG Chemie Leipzig, also has an eventful history. The DDR-Betriebssportgemeinschaft Chemie Leipzig was able to become DDR champion twice and was also able to win the FDGB Cup (1966) once. The championship title from 1964 went down in GDR football history as the "Leutzsch legend" because of the surprising result. After the reunification, BSG Chemie Leipzig and BSG Chemie Böhlen merged to form FC Sachsen Leipzig, which in 2011 finally stopped playing after double bankruptcy. BSG Chemie Leipzig was founded by fans back in 1997 and became the unofficial successor to Sachsen Leipzig after the bankruptcy. After the club was unable to stay up in the Regionalliga Nordost in 2017/18 , the team started in the South Oberliga Nordost season in the 2018/19 season and managed to gain direct promotion there.
The RB Leipzig association was founded in May 2009 . This played with the league license of SSV Markranstädt and after a season in the league managed to rise to the regional league . In 2013, RB Leipzig made it to the 3rd division, in 2014 promotion to the 2nd Bundesliga and in 2016 promotion to the 1st Bundesliga. RB Leipzig has played its home games since the 2010/11 season in the Red Bull Arena , the former central stadium that was converted into a football stadium . He played in the Champions League for the first time in the 2017/18 season .
FC International Leipzig or Inter Leipzig for short was only founded in 2013. The club was able to start in the Sachsenliga in the 2013/14 season because the club was able to take over the playing rights of the insolvent club SV See 90 from See bei Niesky . Since the 2015/16 season, the club has been playing in the Südstaffel Oberliga Nordost . Although it is a Leipzig club, Inter Leipzig plays its home games in the Hafenstadion Torgau, as the club in Leipzig does not have a stadium suitable for the league.
The Leipzig Central Stadium was opened in 1956 with 100,000 seats as the largest stadium in Germany. The attendance record is well above the capacity and dates from 1958 at the game between SC Wismut Karl-Marx-Stadt and 1. FC Kaiserslautern , which saw 125,000 spectators in the stadium. This is the record number of viewers for football matches in Germany. Between 2000 and 2004 a new football stadium with 44,345 seats was built inside the old stadium wall. It served as the venue for group games and a round of 16 game during the 2006 World Cup . It is the home stadium of RB Leipzig and was renamed the Red Bull Arena in 2010 . It belongs to the Leipzig Sports Forum with the Arena Leipzig , the Nordanlage (athletics facility) and the Festwiese .
The Bruno-Plache Stadium in Probstheida was at its inauguration in 1922 with 40,000 seats, the largest association's own stadium in Germany and is home ground of 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig. The Alfred Kunze Sports Park in Leutzsch is the home stadium of BSG Chemie Leipzig.
With the ATV Leipzig 1845 , the Leipziger SC 1901 and the HC Lindenau-Grünau , field and indoor hockey is played at a high level in Leipzig. While the women of the ATV played in the 2nd Bundesliga in the 2010/11 field season, they have been represented in the German indoor hockey league for years. Both the men of the ATV and the women of the HCLG Leipzig both played in the second Bundesliga in the 2009/10 season and are currently represented in the third-highest division, to which the women of the Leipziger SC belonged for many years. The men of Leipziger SC made it to the regional league in 2010/11 and were able to hold this division in 2011/12.
The first indoor hockey world championship was held in the arena in Leipzig in 2003 and the fourth indoor hockey world championship in 2015 . There were 12 national teams for both men and women. In 2005, the European men's field hockey championship was held in Leipzig .
The Leipzig Athletics Center took over the formerly very successful athletics section of the DHfK. Successes have been achieved in recent years, particularly in the shot put and hurdles disciplines.
In order to be more successful nationally and internationally, various Leipzig swimming clubs joined forces on September 25, 2008 to form a starting community ( SSG Leipzig ). Here, the D-cadres of the clubs appear as one group at competitions. Canoeing has a great tradition in Leipzig. The Leipziger Kanu Club (LKC) is particularly active in the canoe slalom. But Leipzig canoeists are also internationally successful in racing (for example at SC DHfK Leipzig and LVB Leipzig) (including: Christian Gille , Anett Schuck , Robert Nuck , Tina Dietze and Mandy Planert ). In addition, there are many canoeing associations that exclusively practice water hiking. The SC DHFK is active in high diving, Heike Fischer won a bronze medal at the Olympic Games in Beijing in 2008.
Track cycling events have been held on the Alfred-Rosch-Kampfbahn cycling track in Kleinzschocher since 1949 , German track championships, formerly GDR championships. In 1960 the track world championships were held on it and in 1981 the junior world championships. In 1988 it was the destination of the International Peace Tour .
Rugby can look back on a long tradition in Leipzig. Rugby in Leipzig dates back to the 1950s when several rugby departments were established. BSG Lok Leipzig-Wahren, DHfK Leipzig, BSG Gastronom Leipzig and the army sports club ASK Leipzig were four teams that formed during this time. DHfK was the most successful team. The team won five championships between 1954 and 1963, followed by Lok with four. Only two rugby divisions had survived by the 1980s. These were the locomotive and the restaurateur. Lok had a successful period in the late 1970s when it broke BSG Stahl Hennigsdorf's dominance and won three East German championships in a row. With the German reunification, the two rugby departments were transferred to the HSG DHfK Leipzig. In September 1994 the rugby players joined TSV 1893 Leipzig-Wahren, where they again founded their own department. The rugby players stayed with TSV for the next ten years until they founded RC Leipzig in the Lützschena-Stahmeln district in September 2004 .
The Saxony Rugby Association is based in Leipzig and is planning to set up a performance center together with the German Rugby Association and the WILD Rugby Academy. Along with a few other sports, rugby is one of the Bundesliga sports in Leipzig.
- Section Leipzig of the German Alpine Club
- Section BSV Leipzig-Mitte of the German Alpine Club
- IG Climbing and Friends of Nature in Central Saxony, co-tenant of the quarries of the Leipzig climbing school
- Women's team of the table tennis club LTTV Leutzscher Füchse 1990 ; Promotion to the first table tennis league in the 2012/13 season
- American Football Club Leipzig Lions from 1992 in the regional league
- American Football Team Leipzig Kings in the European League of Football
- Floorball department of the SC DHfK Leipzig and Unihockey-Löwen Leipzig ; both in the floorball Bundesliga
- Ice hockey team Icefighters Leipzig in the ice hockey Oberliga Nord.
- SC Leipzig-Gohlis : Men's and women's teams temporarily in the Bundesliga
- The Leipzig Open tennis tournament is held annually on the grounds of the Leipzig Tennis Club in 1990 as part of the German Masters Series .
- Motorsport : Speedway in the Motodrom of the MC Post Leipzig motorsport club on Cottaweg.
- Slackline : In addition to Dresden and Chemnitz, the Slacknetz Leipzig e. V. one of the first slackline clubs in Germany.
Major international events
In recent years, Leipzig has often hosted international sporting events. The 1st indoor hockey world championship was held in the arena in 2003, as was the European championship for men in field hockey and the world championships in fencing in 2005 and 2017.
In 2005, Leipzig's candidacy for the 2012 Olympic Games and the resulting corruption allegations aroused nationwide attention . Leipzig initially prevailed surprisingly against other German cities such as Hamburg as a national candidate. However, the application was not accepted by the IOC because the city was overwhelmed by this world's largest event. The re-use of the necessary facilities is not guaranteed and the hotel capacity is too small. The 2012 Games were awarded to London .
In 2006 the city was the official venue for the 2006 World Cup . A year later, the archery world championship followed on the festival meadow. Then there were the European championships in modern pentathlon in 2009 and in fencing (2010).
In equestrian sports , the city can look back and ahead on numerous events. The show jumping World Cup final took place in 2002 and that of the four-in-hand horses in Leipzig in 2008. The 2011 World Cup final was held for the first time in four disciplines at the Leipzig Trade Fair. The World Cup " Partner Horse " takes place every year in January .
The tradition of the Leipzig Marathon goes back to 1897, when the Leipzig Club Sportbrüder organized the first marathon on German soil. The current event has been held since 1977. The Leipzig 100 km run has been taking place in the alluvial forest since 1990 .
Leipzig has numerous prominent sons and daughters, for example the philosopher and scientist Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), the composer Richard Wagner (1813–1883), the art historian Nikolaus Pevsner (1902–1983), and the socialist Karl Liebknecht (1871–1919) ) or NASA manager Jesco von Puttkamer (1933–2012).
Numerous no less famous personalities have spent at least parts of their lives in Leipzig, such as the composers Johann Sebastian Bach and Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche , the Nobel Prize laureate in physics, Werner Heisenberg, and the automobile manufacturer August Horch .
Since 1832, the city of Leipzig has granted honorary citizenship to 82 personalities . Six people ( Karl Binding , Paul von Hindenburg , Adolf Hitler , Hans Frank , Wilhelm Frick and Walter Ulbricht ) were deprived of their honorary citizenship.
The citizens of the city of Leipzig were awarded the Courage Prize in 2006 for their courage and non-violent demonstrations, which laid the foundation for reunification.
Places named after Leipzig
- The village of Thurland in Saxony-Anhalt has a district of Klein Leipzig .
- In Russia , in the Chelyabinsk Oblast (Warnenskij Rajon) in the southern Urals near the border with Kazakhstan, there is a village called Лейпциг (Leipzig), which goes back to the Cossacks who took part in the Battle of Leipzig .
- The Ukrainian settlement Serpnewe west of Odessa near the border with the Republic of Moldova was founded in 1814 by 126 German emigrant families whom Tsar Alexander I had called as colonists in the Bessarabia governorate in the Russian Empire . The place was called Leipzig from 1817 to 1940 .
- Born in Leipzig (today Serpnewe) in Bessarabia , Daniel Sprecher emigrated to the USA in 1885 , initially to Dakota . In 1893 he settled in North Dakota with other German emigrants . In 1895 the new place was named after Spokesman's birthplace New Leipzig .
- In order to facilitate the pronunciation, places in the USA were called Leipsic instead of Leipzig , for example a Leipsic in the state of Ohio ,
- ... and another Leipsic in Delaware .
- In the Canadian province of Saskatchewan , the rural community of Reford No. 379 a hamlet called Leipzig , which was an independent village until 1984. It contains the former monastery Leipzig Convent .
- The celebrations Leipzig (since 1918 Groupe fortifié François-de-Guise ) is about nine kilometers northwest of Metz located, from 1907 to 1912 for the defense of the German Empire against France built fortifications .
- On the occasion of the first ascent of a mountain in the Pamir on the border of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan in 1989 by a group of mountaineers from Leipzig, it was named Pik Leipzig .
Leipzig in the film
Leipzig is the backdrop for several films and television series. The DEFA crime film Black Velvet with Erich Gerberding , Christine Laszar and Fred Delmare was shot in and around Leipzig in 1963. Filming locations included the Hotel Astoria and the Monument to the Battle of the Nations. Also Rudi beam 1965/66 turned gangster comedy Hands up or I'll shoot with Rolf Herricht , Herbert Köfer and Manfred Uhlig shows various places in the city center of Leipzig. It is the last unpublished DEFA film from the time of the 11th plenary session in 1965 and could only be reconstructed for a theatrical version in 2009. Leipziger Schauplätze also present the DEFA music film Hot Summer from 1968, the children's film Santa Claus is called Willi (1969), also starring Rolf Herricht, and the DEFA comedy Du and Ich und Klein-Paris from 1971 based on the youth book of the same name by Rudi Strahl.
Even Nikolai Church , a film about the demonstrations in reversing the fall of 1989, was shot in Leipzig original locations. The ZDF shows the crime series SOKO Leipzig . The ARD shows first the series veterinarian Dr. Mertens and In allerfreund as well as on MDR television documentaries about the zoo ( elephant, tiger & Co. ) and about Leipzig main station . In addition, the ARD showed the Leipzig investigators Ehrlicher and Kain between 2000 and 2007 and Saalfeld and Keppler in the crime series Tatort from 2008 to 2015 . In the documentary Tanz mit der Zeit , four former members of the Leipzig Opera , who returned to the stage in the dance piece Zeit - dance since 1927 by Heike Hennig & Co at the age of eighty, are portrayed by Trevor Peters for ZDF and Arte . The films Ein Fall von Liebe, produced on behalf of ARD and MDR, as well as the accompanying television series are also shot in Leipzig. Most of the film The Flying Classroom, based on the book of the same name by Erich Kästner , is also set in Leipzig. The western and southern districts of the time of the fall of the wall form the backdrop for the video clip for Die da von den Fantastischen Vier . More recently, the city has been the location for television films such as Die Frau vom Checkpoint Charlie , Die Gustloff and Dresden, and films such as The White Ribbon , Flightplan , Mr. Nobody , Schwerkraft , Ein Russischer Sommer , Lila, Lila , Unknown Identity and The First Avenger: Civil War .
“I praise my Leipzig! It's a little Paris and educates its people. "
“In Jena and Halle the rudeness had risen to the highest. […] On the other hand, a student in Leipzig could hardly be anything other than gallant as soon as he wanted to be in some relationship with rich, well-behaved and well-mannered residents. "
"Oh, how I always envy Leipzig for its music!"
"I'm coming to Leipzig, the place where you can see the whole world in miniature."
“I was very dazed and would like to claim that, as far as architecture and cityscape are taken into account, nothing in my life has made such a great, yes, funny to say, such an intoxicating impression on me as this one, which can only be assessed moderately in its artistic significance Way from Postplatz and Universitätsplatz to Hainstrasse . "
"The pleasant Pleis-Athens, keeps the fame in front of everyone, also to please everyone, because it is beautiful."
“Extra Lipsiam vivere est miserrime vivere”
"To live outside of Leipzig means to lead a very miserable life."
Trivia / idiom
Leipzig / Einundleipzig :
After the German victory in the Franco-German War in 1870/71 (in short: "Seventy / Seventy-one") over Napoleon III. the victory of the Germans and allies in the Battle of the Nations near Leipzig (1813) over Napoleon I was briefly named "Leipzig / Einundleipzig" in memory of it. This idiom lasted a long time in the German-speaking world. Later it was understood as: "That was so long ago!"
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- Horst Riedel: Chronicle of the city of Leipzig. 2500 events in words and pictures. Wartberg, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2001, ISBN 3-8313-1111-0 .
- Helga Schmidt, Gudrun Mayer and others (Ed.): The Leipzig Atlas. Out and about in a cosmopolitan city at the junction between Western and Eastern Europe. Emons, Cologne 2005, ISBN 3-89705-269-5 .
- Wolfgang Schröder: Leipzig - the cradle of the German labor movement. Roots and development of the workers' education association from 1848/49 to 1878/81. Dietz, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-320-02214-3 .
- Klaus Schuhmann : Leipzig transit. A foray into literary history from the turn of the century to 1933 (= Leipzig - History and Culture. Volume 2). Leipziger Universitäts-Verlag, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-936522-88-X .
- Ralf Schuhmann: Leipzig is changing. With photographs by Ralf Schuhmann and texts by Angela Krauß , Engelbert Lütke Daldrup and Andreas Wolf . Verlag der Kunst, Amsterdam / Dresden 1999, ISBN 90-5705-142-7 .
- Alberto Schwarz: The old Leipzig - cityscape and architecture . Beucha 2018. ISBN 978-3-86729-226-9 .
- Joachim Tesch (Ed.): Building in Leipzig 1945–1990. Actors and contemporary witnesses on personal traces of Leipzig's building history. Rosa Luxemburg Foundation Saxony, Leipzig 2003, ISBN 3-89819-159-1 .
- Horst Riedel, Thomas Nabert (ed.): Stadtlexikon Leipzig from A to Z . 1st edition. Pro Leipzig, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-936508-03-8 .
- Mark Lehmstedt: Book City Leipzig. Biographical lexicon of the Leipzig book trade . tape 1 (1420-1538) . Lehmstedt Verlag , Leipzig 2019, ISBN 978-3-95797-099-2 .
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- Official website of the city of Leipzig
- Leipzig city chronicle , history of the city of Leipzig from early discoveries to the founding of the city to the present day
- Leipzig Lexicon - extensive private web lexicon
- Leipzig in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2020 ( help on this ).
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