9th Symphony (Beethoven)
The 9th Symphony in D minor, Op. 125 , premiered in 1824, is the last completed symphony by the composer Ludwig van Beethoven . In the final movement of the symphony, vocal soloists and a mixed choir are used in addition to the orchestra . Beethoven chose the poem To Joy by Friedrich Schiller as the text . As the first so-called symphony cantata , the work represents a turning point in music history and influenced subsequent generations of composers. With a typical performance of around 70 minutes, the symphony clearly breaks the usual dimensions of the time and thus paved the way for the symphonies of the Romantic period ( Bruckner , Mahler ), some of which were full-length . Today “Beethoven's Ninth” is one of the most popular works of classical music worldwide .
In 1972 the main theme of the last movement was declared its anthem by the Council of Europe and in 1985 it was adopted by the European Community as the official European anthem . The reasoning states that "it symbolizes the values that everyone shares, as well as unity in diversity". That in the Berlin State Library, located Autograph was in the World Documentary Heritage of UNESCO added.
Instrumentation and sentence names
- Orchestra: piccolo , 2 flutes , 2 oboes , 2 clarinets , 2 bassoons , contrabassoon , 4 horns , 2 trumpets , 3 trombones , timpani , bass drum , cymbals , triangle , strings 1st violin , 2nd violin, viola , cello , double bass
- Choir ( SATB , with the voices soprano, alto, tenor and bass)
- Movement: Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso (D minor)
- Movement: Molto vivace - Presto (D minor)
- Movement: Adagio molto e cantabile - Andante moderato (B flat major)
- Movement: Finale: Presto - Allegro assai - Allegro assai vivace (alla marcia) - Andante maestoso - Adagio ma non troppo ma divoto - Allegro energico e semper ben marcato - Allegro ma non tanto - Presto - Maestoso - Prestissimo (D minor / D -Major)
The performance time is around 65 to 75 minutes.
O friends, not these notes!
But let us
intonate more pleasantly and more joyfully.
Joy, beautiful spark of gods,
daughter from Elysium ,
your sanctuary , drunk on fire, heavenly ones!
Your spells bind again
What fashion strictly divided;
All men become brothers
where your gentle wing dwells.
Whom succeeded in being a
friend of a friend;
Whoever has won a lovely woman,
mix in his jubilation!
calls a soul to be on the earth!
And whoever has never been able to steal
himself from this covenant weeping!
All beings drink joy
at the breasts of nature;
All good, all bad
follow their trail of roses.
She gave us kisses and Vines,
A friend tried in death;
Lust was given to the worm,
and the cherub stands before God. Happy
as its suns fly
Through the heavenly plan,
run, brothers, your path,
joyful, like a hero to victory.
Be embraced, millions!
This kiss for the whole world!
a dear father must live above the stars .
Are you falling down, millions?
Do you sense the Creator, world?
Find him above the starry canopy!
He must live above the stars.
Be embraced, millions!
This kiss for the whole world!
a dear father must live above the stars .
Be embraced, millions!
This kiss for the whole world!
Joy, beautiful spark of gods,
daughter from Elysium,
joy, beautiful spark of gods, spark of gods.
History of origin
Schiller's poem An die Freude first appeared in 1786 in the Thalia magazine, which he edited (Volume 1, 1786, 2nd issue, pp. 1-5). Soon after, Beethoven was preoccupied with the idea of setting it to music. He was also inspired by Schiller's poem The Gods of Greece , in which Schiller contrasts the harmonious coexistence of religion and science in ancient times with the Christian approach, which - regrettably - separates a spiritual world of God from a deified nature. On January 26, 1793 , the Bonn lawyer Bartholomäus Fischenich , who was friends with Schiller and Beethoven, wrote to Charlotte von Schiller about a conversation with Beethoven: “He will also work on Schiller's joy and indeed every stanza. I expect something perfect, because as far as I know him, he is entirely for the great and sublime. "
At that time Beethoven was already living in Vienna. The first sketches for the 9th Symphony were not made until 1815 in the so-called Scheide sketchbook. The last movement with the important choral finale resembles the choral fantasy in C minor op. 80 (1808), the main theme of the song Gegenliebe WoO 118 (1794/1795) based on a text by Gottfried August Citizen is taken. Beethoven spent the summers of 1821, 1822 and 1823 in Baden near Vienna (today Beethovenhaus Baden , Rathausgasse 10) and wrote essential parts of the 9th Symphony there. Completion of the composition took until 1824. The fourth and last movement was completed in Beethoven's apartment at Ungargasse 5 in the Vienna suburb of Landstrasse .
The occasion was a commission from the London Philharmonic Society for two symphonies in 1817. The first sketches and drafts were made, which show how persistently Beethoven worked on the topic. As early as 1818 he thought of adding vocal parts to the finale. Although the intention of setting Schiller's hymn to music accompanied most of Beethoven's life, it was relatively late that he decided to use the verses in the finale of the 9th Symphony. As the sketches show, a decision in favor of the choir was not made until the end of 1823. At the same time, in December 1823, Beethoven was once again considering a “final instromentale” in a sketchbook. According to the memories of Beethoven's friend and student Carl Czerny , the composer even considered after the world premiere whether it might not be better to exchange the choral finale for a purely instrumental final movement.
The 9th Symphony was premiered in a concert that Beethoven gave on May 7, 1824 in the Theater am Kärntnertor . It began with the overture to The Consecration of the House, Op. 124, followed by excerpts from the Missa solemnis, Op. 123 . This was probably followed by a break before the 9th Symphony, Op. 125, played for the first time. The soloists at the premiere were Henriette Sontag (soprano), Caroline Unger (alto), Anton Haizinger (tenor) and Joseph Seipelt (baritone). The conductor was Michael Umlauf . Beethoven, who was already completely deaf, stood with his back to the audience during the final movement and read the words of the singers from her mouth. After the performance there was frenetic applause. According to Sigismund Thalberg , who was among the audience, Caroline Unger turned Beethoven to the cheering audience after the end of the Scherzo, and according to Anton Schindler also after the end of the choir finale. He saw the enthusiastic crowd and bowed in thanks. Due to the great demand, the concert was repeated on May 23 with a slightly changed program in the Great Redoutensaal of the Hofburg .
In London, the work commissioned by the Philharmonic Society of London was first performed on May 21, 1825 under the direction of Sir George Smart . Shortly afterwards, Smart met Beethoven personally in Vienna. A copy of the notice from the London premiere with handwritten notes by Smart is now in the possession of the British Library , as is the copyist's copy of the entire 9th Symphony used by Smart.
Analysis of the individual sentences
The length of the fourth sentence threatened to lose the balance between the individual sentences. Beethoven counteracts this by moving the slow movement, which usually comes in second position, to the third position. The third movement thus acts as a calm center in the entire work.
(Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso, D minor)
The first movement of the 9th Symphony corresponds to the main sonata form with a relatively short recapitulation and oversized coda . The set comprises almost 600 bars. The first topic is preceded by an introduction that does not begin in D minor, but in A (tone type not specified, since a third is missing = a so-called empty fifth ). This A turns out to be the dominant of the main key of D minor and in bar 17 the main theme (chord breaks in D minor) begins in dotted rhythm. After changing to E flat major, the music returns to calm and the introduction is also in front of the postscript, this time in d. The epilogue is already in the sub-median in B major (as is customary later in Romanticism) and in bar 80 the transition (with its own theme) to the second complex of topics, the subordinate movement in B major, begins. The side set brings three themes, one lyrical and two more martial themes. After this side movement there is a two-part final section that ends in B flat major. The implementation starts with the introduction, back to A, it is divided into four sections, the third section is a great Doppelfugato . The recapitulation has no postscript and remains mostly in D minor (or major). The coda does not leave the tonic and contains a new, funeral march-like theme. The movement ends in unison (chord break in D minor).
The first movement of Ludwig van Beethoven's 9th Symphony, the “Allegro ma non troppo, un poco maestoso”, is perceived by the listener as powerful and hard. The main clause begins with an introduction, a crescendo, that appears repeatedly later in this movement. As the volume rises, so does the rhythm, it "becomes tighter" and intensifies the strength and fear that have developed with the crescendo. The theme, beginning in bar 17, which is now played in fortissimo, seems to have arisen out of nowhere; However, this is a fallacy, it was already indicated in the introduction, but now the note values have been greatly shortened, which is why a theme can only be recognized now. Its drama is reinforced by playing in the tutti. The end of the theme is marked by “martial rhythms in trumpets and timpani”, the woodwinds play calm motifs in contrast. It ends and there is a short transition with the motif of the introduction or the main clause, which is followed by the topic a second time.
The final motif, consisting of hectic sixteenth-note movements, is continued particularly long at this point. This is followed by the subsequent clause, the half-clause of which has a softer end. Here a fine motif sounds four times in the woodwinds (dolce); This creates the transition to the new tonic in B flat major, with which the subordinate movement begins. The themes of the front movement clearly determine the woodwinds, which are accompanied, among other things, by the violins with a varied motif from the first theme. The postscript does not follow immediately; the piece is interrupted by a motif that leads to the postscript. This then seems to be coming to an end, but Beethoven adds another, more developed, subsequent sentence. He repeatedly uses the motifs of the first theme, the movement is torn from its harmony until the winds begin with a gentle cadence in the direction of B major, but arrive at B major. This is followed by the long way back to the tonic in B flat major. Both parts, main clause and subordinate clause, “do not develop linearly, not 'organically'”, but they are nevertheless so contradicting each other, they represent “different worlds: the inside and the outside world”. The main clause, the outside world, which is threatening and powerful against the listener, and the inner world, which reflects the feeling of the listener, with which he can identify.
The following development develops from the beginning in the direction of recapitulation. The first part is dominated by the motifs of the opening crescendo and the first theme. This is followed by a fugato, the second part of the development, in which the chaos that has formed during the cadence is dissolved. At this point the way to the recapitulation is already particularly clear. Implementation ends. However, it only seems to have reached its final climax here.
The following recapitulation is the central point of the first movement, it begins in fortissimo, supported by the "thunderous rumble" of the timpani. This is of such eerie beauty and so threatening that it dwarfs all horror and fear that has previously built up. This does not increase in the following, the tension is rather reduced again and seems to be always present, having arrived at a constant level. The other parts of the recapitulation are overshadowed by this powerful beginning.
The coda is a contrast. Called “sweet”, it stands out from the overall picture of the recapitulation and introduces the end. It increases and also decreases this increase again, here the first large crescendo begins, followed by another crescendo that drives the movement one more time. After this, the old tempo is resumed, followed by a quiet part that is calm, but at the same time dramatic and increasing. This is continued, the increase is maintained through the change from piano to forte to fortissimo. The last bars of the movement are closed with funeral march-like rhythms.
(Molto vivace - Presto, D minor)
The second movement of the symphony is a scherzo and trio . Formally, it is laid out in the usual form scheme A - B - A, with both parts of the scherzo being repeated in the first round (A1 - A1 - A2 - A2 - B - A1 - A2). In some performances, however, the repetitions within the scherzo are dispensed with.
As usual, the Scherzo is notated in 3/4 time. The auditory impression is, however, a 4/4 time, since in the high tempo of the piece the bars act like basic beats and are musically arranged in groups of four bars each. This can be understood as an ironic swipe at critics who accused Beethoven of disregarding musical traditions.
Beethoven introduces the second movement with a brief opening. This consists of a one-bar motif, formed from an octave jump, which is played by the strings. This is interrupted by a general pause, after which it is repeated sequentially. Another general pause follows, followed by the motif, played like lightning and thunder by the timpani, which in the following bar are imitated by the almost complete orchestra. So within two bars the timpani and the entire orchestra stand opposite each other with all their force and abundance. Apparently, after this surprising general pause, spontaneous applause set in at the premiere, forcing the orchestra to start the movement again.
After another general pause, the actual main clause begins, the first topic, based on the motif of the introduction. Like the fugue , the theme begins every four bars in a new string part . The wind instruments are used to complement the orchestra as a tutti. A long, extended crescendo follows, now the theme is heard in fortissimo through the entire orchestra. The kettledrums also set in again, ultimately completing the orchestra and underlining the striking motif and its rhythm. After this first climax of the movement, the descending lines of the woodwind give a brief respite until an energetic secondary theme begins in fortissimo. The winds and timpani are accompanied by the strings, who use the one-bar opening motif as a driving ostinato .
The second part has some structural parallels to the first part: After a brief transition, it begins again with the fugical processing of the main theme. This time, however, it is the woodwind parts that kick in one after the other. In contrast to the first part, it is not used every four bars, but every third bar. The “metatact type” changes to a three-beat for some time, which is characterized by the playing instruction Ritmo di tre battute (rhythm to three beats). There follows an extended increase. After its culmination, as in the first part, the descending brass lines sound again to be detached from the secondary theme in fortissimo.
The transition to the trio (D major, 2/2 time) takes place without interruption, the tempo increases continuously to Presto in the previous bars. In contrast to the Scherzo, the theme of the trio has an extremely cantabile character. It is first presented together by oboes and clarinets. One after the other, horns and bassoons take over the solo part. Then the strings take up the theme together with the woodwinds. After repeating this section it finally appears again in the lower strings.
The da-capo of the scherzo is followed by the coda, in which the main theme of the scherzo is fugically condensed into a vocal entry every 2 bars. Then the lovely theme of the trio sounds again. However, it is not played in full, but is abruptly interrupted two bars before the end of the phrase. After a pause, there is a chain of defiant octave leaps that end the second movement. These are at the same time a break between the Scherzo and the following third movement, which starts all over again with its new, much quieter tempo.
(Adagio molto e cantabile - Andante moderato, B flat major)
In the third movement, Beethoven lets the instruments play one after the other. So the second bassoon begins alone, followed by the first bassoon, the second clarinet, the strings (except for the first violin and double bass) and the first clarinet. These begin in direct succession, the theme then begins in the first violin. After the first sound of the complete theme, the horns set in, which, together with the clarinet, take over its motif. In the first bars this is initially only imitated with short insertions and in the further course the clarinet has taken over the theme completely, the strings now take over the accompaniment.
At this point Beethoven changes to D major. A new form part, an intermediate movement, is introduced (Andante moderato) and stands out from the previous part with a change of time (¾) and a faster tempo. The tuning is retained because the message of both parts is similar and the cantabile is retained. Here, too, the first violin takes over the theme guidance and is accompanied by the remaining strings and the woodwinds.
The theme of the intermediate sentence is played twice. This is followed by the transition to the previous key of B flat major and the return to the old tempo. Now the first theme sounds in a variation, the first violin plays around it with a playful sixteenth note movement, interrupted by individual interjections of the theme by the woodwind. The transition to G major begins in the following bars. A second intermediate movement (Andante) begins here, in which the woodwinds, primarily the flutes and bassoons, play the second theme in a varied manner.
The return to the main section that now begins, here in E flat major (Adagio), is determined by a second variation on the first theme, a freely designed variation of the horns and flutes. This seems to have gotten out of step; the accompaniment of the strings seems to shift the rhythm. This is remedied by running the horns sixteenths, the introduction to A major, the coda, in which the first violin plays the third variation, which repeatedly consists of sixteenth-note movements, begins here. Sometimes these seem to pick up the pace; this effect is created by triplets and thirty-second notes. These are interrupted by a fanfare, introduced by the horns. This breaks through the mood and calm, which is immediately restored by calming chords. This is where the third variation of the first violins starts again, interrupted again by the fanfare.
This is followed by a very cantabile passage that frees the mood from the hard, almost cruel fanfare and allows themes of joy to be heard, which are also repeatedly processed in the following bars. The third variation on the first violin can also be heard repeatedly.
The third movement ends with several crescendos followed by a short piano. This is depressing; it underlines the prevailing dreary mood of the preceding sentences. This last fanfare seems to wake the listener one last time, it works like an announcement for the important following statement of the last movement.
(Presto - Allegro assai - Andante maestoso - Allegro energico, semper ben marcato - Allegro ma non tanto - Prestissimo, D minor / D major)
In the fourth movement, a quartet of singers and a large four-part choir recite the stanzas of the poem An die Freude by Friedrich Schiller . You are musically on an equal footing with the orchestra. The melody of the main theme is accompanied by the text passage "Joy, beautiful spark of gods (...)". This sentence is therefore also known as the ode to joy .
Beethoven introduces the fourth movement of his 9th Symphony, which at 940 bars is not only long but also sounds overwhelming, with some dissonances in the wind instruments, which reflect the anger and despair of the preceding movements, perhaps even pain. The string basses seem to counter this only gradually; through a slow, calm motif, they pave the way for something completely new, a new idea for the further course of the piece. This is continually interrupted by the topics of the first three sentences, starting with the first topic of the first sentence. At this point the basses choke the old idea, but now the introduction to the first movement follows.
Here, too, the string basses destroy the old motif by interrupting them; this is followed by an excerpt from the first theme of the second movement in Vivace. The basses revolt repeatedly and the use of the first motif of the first theme of the third movement is rejected by them. But at this point the woodwinds bring the new idea for the first time, to which the basses seem to agree. The new idea is not discarded, but picked up by the basses, followed by a recitative first and then - for the first time in the piece - can be heard in full with the joyful melody “Joy, beautiful gods spark”, played by the previously restless string basses. It is presented as a theme three times eight bars.
At first only bassoon and viola join the joyful song; but in the course of the following bars there is an increase, not only in terms of the arc of tension, but also in terms of the number of instruments involved. So this coming together of the other instruments has the effect of a gathering of a crowd of people singing about the happiness of the world in a jubilee choir with an enormous arc of tension.
At this point the melody no longer sounds as timid and veiled as before, but majestic and magnificent, which is underlined with timpani and brass. But after the topic has wandered through the individual voices, everything falls back into an uncontrolled mess, which ends in a stronger chaos due to violent dissonances than the one that prevailed at the beginning, emphasized by the well-known thunderous rumble of the kettledrum. Only when the baritone solo is used “O friends, not these notes! Rather, let's start more pleasantly, and more joyfully ”, which is also the actual beginning of the main part of the movement, the joy song is announced, which, arrived in the actual key of D major, by“ joy [n] ”- interjections of the bass part of the Choir is introduced and is initially only performed by the baritone soloist and only then sung by the choir and later by the soloists. It is noticeable here that the soprano fails for the time being and only starts at the point "who has won a lovely woman".
The orchestra continues to accompany the singers with interjections and variations of the new theme, who now alternately sing the individual stanzas of Schiller's poem "An die Freude", which are apparently very important to Beethoven, as soloist choir and choir. Here the orchestra remains rather small even when the soloists audition, followed by a larger and stronger line-up for the choir, which together result in a more splendid picture. The voices also come into play within the individual vocal parts. The first part of the finale ends with the line of text “and the cherub stands before God”, which is sung repeatedly by the choir and sounds very sublime and powerful, which is not least due to the soprano part, which ends here on a long two-bowed a.
This is followed by the joyful theme in march-like rhythm (Alla Marcia), which is not only caused by the change in the meter, but also by the first use of three percussion instruments (triangle, bass drum and cymbals). The tenor soloist starts with the next text passage with a suitable rhythmization of the vocal melody, which the male voices of the choir repeat with a wild, combative character. Another march-like interlude begins here, followed by another choir. Here - again with the text of the first stanza and retaining the march character - the end of this section is introduced.
The following Andante maestoso, with the new central statement “Brothers! A dear father has to live above the starry canopy. ”Has a heavy, sacred character, which can be explained with the reference to the“ Creator ”, to God. Even the fortissimo of these lines expresses the importance of the text for Beethoven. They form the climax of the choir finale, which initially sounds very powerful due to the unison of the male voices, then sounds exultant and overwhelming due to the use of the female voices. Beginning with the male voices and the accompaniment by the bass trombone and the string basses in unison, this mighty thing appears very dark, which becomes a magical veil of the joyful theme through the female voices. The ensuing imitations reinforce the polyphony of this passage, and the almost complete orchestra makes everything seem bigger and more powerful than before. The special weight on the spot “over the stars” by singing twice on just one note and the rhythm against the meter is reinforced by the non-melodization of “Do you suspect the Creator, world?”, Which describes the mystical inaccessibility of God . When the words "He must live above the starry sky" sound for the third time - again on one note - the effect arises from a great distance, as the flutes and violins imitate the twinkling of stars, with the sound being slim but full.
The fourth part of the fourth movement now follows, which is worked in double fugues. It combines the joyful theme and the sacral motif, which is a link between heaven (sacral motif: "A dear father must live above the starry sky") and earth (joyful theme: "all people become brothers"). The fugue builds up tremendous power and energy and finds its climax and end here, as at the end of the first part of the finale, on the two-stroke a of the sopranos. This comes suddenly, the fugue and with it the euphoria are broken off. A hesitant question begins, first in the bass: “You fall down, millions?”, Followed by the tenors “Do you suspect the Creator, world?”, Answered by the altar: “Find him above the starry tent”. This text passage is now repeatedly worked on more intensely, it closes the end of the fourth part of the finale. In this case, too, Beethoven repeatedly places more value on the message of the text than on the melody of it.
The following fifth part begins in pianissimo with a distant variation of the joy theme, the soloists singing the first stanza of An die Freude again , but here in a new setting. The male voices begin as before, the female voices begin; this fugato now takes place alternately between the two parties. This new motif is taken up by the choir. In the first Adagio inserted, the following line of text “All people become brothers wherever your gentle wing dwells” is emphasized by the chorus. This insertion, however, only lasts four measures; then Beethoven returns to the original tempo. After a short fugato between the choir and the soloist, there is a second adagio insert, in which the important text passage for Beethoven “all people become brothers” is emphasized, at this point not by the choir but by the soloists.
In the last part of the fourth movement of the 9th Symphony, a prestissimo, Beethoven repeatedly uses the percussion instruments (timpani, bass drum, cymbals, triangle) to underline the exuberance. In the extremely fast meter of this last part, the sacral motif (bar 5) can only be recognized by the notation; the faster rhythms have completely changed its character. Until the Maestoso the text “Be embraced, millions; This kiss for the whole world! Brothers! A dear father must live above the starry sky ”viewed from a new point of view. Here, too, Beethoven wants to create space for new things by presenting it differently than before.
The following Maestoso, on the other hand, is a rather slow, striding insertion in the hectic, almost fleeting Prestissimo. Here Beethoven takes up the first line of the first stanza again and announces the end of the last movement, the final finale, in which the “joy”, the “beautiful spark of the gods”, comes alive for the last time and also as the last Thought to conclude the chant. The orchestra manifests the great joy over another 20 bars in prestissimo and lets the symphony end with jubilation.
The unconventional form and the heterogeneous character of the movement kept the music world busy. In contrast to traditional instrumental-musical ideas of form (such as by Charles Rosen, Wilhelm Seidel, Nicholas Cook, Michel C. Tusa, David Benjamin Levy, Frédéric Döhl, etc.) Sascha Wegner points out that the finale is formally pure instrumental model, namely the Eroica, but on the other hand uses the aura of specific vocal musical genres and compositional techniques - especially against the background of the aesthetics of the "Pindarian Ode", which has been associated with the genre of the symphony since the end of the 18th century (Johann Abraham Peter Schulz). According to Wegner, the choir finale of the Ninth Symphony impressively realizes the aesthetic concept and the attraction of “beautiful disorder”, as it was most clearly formulated in the “Oden” discourse, if only because of the implicit reference to Schiller's poem An die Freude auf die Ode, which Beethoven explicitly emphasizes in the title of his symphony ("with a final chorus on Schiller's ode: 'To Joy'"). The text and theme of Schiller's poem refer to the specific form of the hymn, which, forty years after its creation (1785), still connects it aesthetically with the idea of the ode: in terms of content through the theme of joy interwoven with divine praise is; regarding the gestures by the highly enthusiastic tone. The text of this model, also how Beethoven selected and reorganized it, together with the compositional design as a meaningfully structured sequence of individual sections of form, aesthetically correspond to the characteristic of the “planned enthusiasm” of the ode. If one takes into account the hymnic as well as the regular and thus almost anachronistic song character of the joy melody compared to the apparently irregular dynamic process-like nature of the entire finale, the kind of “double” ode character based on the reverberation of the literary and aesthetic-historical significance of the Pindarian Ode is to be recorded, with which the Ninth Symphony is thus closely related in terms of cultural history. From this perspective, the choir finale can also be understood as a sublimation of the idea of the ode.
The core of the relationship between the final events of the Eroica and the Ninth Symphony lies less in the reformulation of a formal model that, taking into account all musical possibilities, is out for the greatest possible jubilation (in the Eroica finale through the combination of variations of dance, concert, Fugue, Choral and Kehraus) than rather in its aesthetic intensification through the idea of vocal music. The already exhausted instrumental resources, which for the choir finals are again used with the formal model of the Eroica final and are expanded to include three trombones and the "banda turca" (piccolo, triangle, bass drum) and doubled wind instruments, are given a planned overview of all Conceivable “vocal musical models”: In addition to the recitative, the solo strophic song (with orchestral accompaniment) comes into its own, which increases to a choral singing. A marching song with the sound idiom of "banda turca" not only offers a variation of the joy melody, but is also related to typical representative music of this time - which ranges from French state music to "Vienna Congress" music to church music - and leads back to the chorus refrain via an instrumental fugue. With a harmonious and syntactic volte, space is finally given to a new theme that expresses the second central idea of the finale: After a rather antique, Elysian expression of joy (in the spirit of a sociable drinking song or Bacchanal), the "dear father (...) is now overm Sternenzelt "with an appeal to the joy community:" Be embraced, millions, this kiss of the whole world ". Accordingly, models of church music are unfolded over a wide area: the unison intonation in the manner of a unison chant, effectively supported by trombones, is followed by a choral repetition. A synthesis of both themes ("Be embraced", "Joy, beautiful spark of gods") is guaranteed by a choir fugue. This is followed by a musical theatrical final stretta with soloist cadenza, in which all voices, instruments and vocal parts come together like in an opera finale, before the orchestra (without choir) cadents this lieto fine soundly. At the same time, the musical and dramatic framework that began with the recitatives is now formally - and thus systematically - closed again.
Even if the audience's reaction at the premiere was enthusiastic, the response from the early critics was rather mixed. While at the premiere in Vienna it was written: “The symphony can fearlessly compete with its eight siblings, it will certainly not be obscured by anyone, only the originality testifies to the father, otherwise everything is new and never been there…”, said another reviewer Frankfurt performance 1825: "As befits us after listening to this composition once, it seems to us that the genius of the great master was not present at its conception". Another: "Great even in the confusion!"
“I […] freely admit that I never got a taste for Beethoven's last works. Yes, I have to count the much admired ninth symphony among these […], the fourth movement of which seems to me […] monstrous and tasteless and in its conception of Schiller's Ode so trivial that I still cannot understand how it was a genius like Beethoven's could write down. In it I find new evidence of what I noticed in Vienna, that Beethoven lacked aesthetic education and a sense of beauty. "
Giuseppe Verdi complained that the final was "badly set". Richard Wagner said, “The ninth is the redemption of music from its most intrinsic elements to general art. It is the human gospel of the art of the future. "
In Germany, France and England there was no lack of derogatory judgments, which were occasionally combined with well-meaning advice to the composer. Many strongly opposed the use of singing voices in a symphony.
Even in later times there were different opinions: "The 9th Symphony is a key work of symphonic music" and has inspired numerous musicians who followed, e. B. Anton Bruckner , Gustav Mahler , Johannes Brahms . In contrast to such positive statements, Thomas Beecham stated that "even if Beethoven had really picked the strings, the Ninth Symphony was composed by a kind of Mr. Gladstone of music."
National and European anthems
The freemason and founder of the Paneuropean movement Richard Nikolaus Graf von Coudenhove-Kalergi proposed Beethoven's setting as a new European anthem as early as 1955 . The melody has been the Council of Europe's official anthem since 1972 . At the request of the Council of Europe, Herbert von Karajan arranged three instrumental versions: for piano, for wind instruments and for orchestra. Its instrumental version has been the official anthem of the European Community or the European Union since 1985. On February 17, 2008, the day of Kosovo's declaration of independence , the European anthem (after the final movement of the symphony) was played as a provisional national anthem.
Up until 1952, Beethoven's Ode to Joy was often used as a West German substitute national anthem on official occasions because there was no official national anthem. At the Olympic Games in 1956 , 1960 and 1964 an all-German Olympic team competed under the ode to joy . On October 2, 1990, the eve of German reunification, the last state act of the GDR government under Lothar de Maizière took place in the Schauspielhaus am Gendarmenmarkt in East Berlin with the performance of Beethoven's 9th Symphony by Kurt Masur .
After Beethoven's death, the incomplete autograph of the 9th Symphony (the original score) was in the possession of his biographer Anton Schindler . According to his own statements, Beethoven had given it to him in February 1827. In September of the same year Schindler sent two sheets from the autograph with the coda of the second movement to Ignaz Moscheles , an admirer and friend of Beethoven, in London. These two sheets came to the Beethoven House in Bonn in 1956 through various stations . Three more sheets are now in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris . They presumably also come from Schindler's holdings, more details about their interim whereabouts are not known. In 1846 Schindler sold his Beethoven collection, including the 137-page autograph, to the Old Library in Berlin . There it was provided with a red half leather binding that still surrounds it today. - The large parts of the final movement that were missing in Schindler's autograph were found in Beethoven's estate and were auctioned by the Viennese publisher Domenico Artaria in November 1827 . In 1901 the Artaria family succeeded in bringing this part of the manuscript, five bundles of 67 pages, also to the Old Library in Berlin. The essential parts of Beethoven's autograph were thus united in one place in 204 pages. During the Second World War , the library endeavored to protect its holdings from being destroyed by the effects of the war. Starting in 1941, the autograph was relocated in three parts to locations that appeared to be safe. Schindler's part of the autograph was initially kept in Fürstenstein Castle in Silesia, later in the Grüssau Monastery and thus came into Polish possession after the end of the war in Krakow . Another part went first to Altmarrin and later to Schönebeck . In 1946 he returned to the later German State Library in East Berlin . The third part went to the Danube in the Beuron Monastery and in 1947 in the University Library of Tübingen . In 1967 it came back to Berlin, where it found its place in the western part of the city in the State Library of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation . - In 1977, on the occasion of a state visit, Poland handed over, among other things, the part of the GDR's 9th Symphony that was kept in Krakow. All three parts of the original score were now back in Berlin, albeit not united, but torn as it were like the city by the Berlin Wall . It was only after German reunification that the three parts of the autograph of the 9th Symphony were brought together again in 1997 in the Berlin State Library .
On September 4, 2001, the autograph of the 9th Symphony was included in the UNESCO World Document Heritage ("Memory of the World") . The symphony was performed by the Philharmonic of Nations under the direction of Justus Frantz .
- Beethoven dedicated the symphony to King Friedrich Wilhelm III “with the utmost reverence” . of Prussia.
- Richard Wagner climbed the Dresden barricades with the 9th Symphony in 1849 .
- The first performance in Asia took place on June 1, 1918 in the Japanese prisoner of war camp Bandō by German prisoners of war. A memorial in Naruto and the 2006 German-Japanese historical drama Ode to Joy commemorates this .
- Every December 29, 30 and 31, the symphony is performed by the Gewandhaus Orchestra , the Gewandhaus Choir , the Gewandhaus Children's Choir and, each year, the radio choir of the MDR and Leipzig Opera Choir. This concert will be broadcast live on television. This tradition goes back to Arthur Nikisch . He conducted the symphony on December 31, 1918, the first turn of the year after the First World War , in the Krystallpalast in Leipzig in cooperation with the Leipzig Workers' Education Institute. The concert started at 11 p.m. so that the New Year could begin with the final chorus on Schiller's Ode to Joy.
- After a performance of the finale at a Soviet congress in Moscow, Stalin stated that this was “the right music for the masses” and “could not be performed often enough”. According to Heinz Unger, this led to “a kind of Beethoven epidemic” in the Soviet Union.
- In Thomas Mann's novel Doctor Faustus. The life of the German composer Adrian Leverkühn, told by a friend (1943–47), the protagonist Adrian Leverkühn wants to take back the 9th Symphony.
- In 1960 Shostakovich wrote his music for the film Five Days - Five Nights ( Пять дней - пять ночей Pjat dnej - pjat notschej ) op. 111, in which he quotes the ode to joy in the sentence "Das liberated Dresden" ( Освобожденный Dresden Oswoboschендрезденд ) .
- In 1962, the novel Uhrwerk Orange (original title: A Clockwork Orange ) by Anthony Burgess was published , in which the main character Alexander DeLarge virtually adores Beethoven's 9th Symphony and is inspired by the work to excesses of violence. The novel became famous through the film of the same name by Stanley Kubrick from 1970/71, in which Alex is played by Malcolm McDowell .
- In 1965 the ode to joy was featured in the Beatles film Hi-Hi-Help! used to tame a tiger.
- In 1970 a pop version of the ode, sung by Miguel Ríos , was released under the title A Song of Joy with English lyrics, which sold 7 million times worldwide.
- In 1972 the Austrian folk actor and cabaret artist Kurt Sowinetz caused a sensation with his parody Alle Menschen san ma z'wider . This version is very well known in Austria and is an important part of Austropop .
- Around 1978 the length of the audio CD introduced by Philips and Sony was (allegedly) set at 74 minutes at the suggestion of the then Sony vice-president and opera singer Norio Ōga, who was trained in Germany , in order to be able to hear the 9th Symphony completely and without changing the CD . The decisive factor was the longest recording with the conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler , made on July 29, 1951 during the Bayreuth Festival . The recording lasts exactly 74 minutes and was previously available on two long-playing records. (Originally the diameter of the CD was set by Philips at 115 mm. A curiosity is the change in the breast pockets of all Sony employee shirts because the 5 mm wider version no longer fits in with the demonstrators.)
- The 4th movement is based on the Rainbow - Instrumental Difficult to Cure from the album of the same name from 1981. The band around Ritchie Blackmore finishes the piece with intellectual ironic laughter coming from a salmon sack . The fact that this arrangement is still a serious interpretation is testified by the multiple live performances of all of Blackmore's band projects.
- The Wales-born musician John Cale let the theme permanently influence the title in his song Damn Life from his album Music for a new Society (1982). It is particularly cynical that the song is sung about the damned life while the melody of the Ode to Joy is played. Here, Cale works closely with the topic with various instruments and yet varies it.
- Since 1983, the symphony called Suntory 10000-nin no Dai-9 ( サ ン ト リ ー 10000 人 の 第 9 , Santorī ichimannin no daiku , English Suntory presents Beethoven's 9th with a Cast) has been performed annually on the first Sunday in December in the Symphony Hall of Osaka of 10000 ) under the direction of Yutaka Sado (since 1999, before that Naozumi Yamamoto ). In addition to professional musicians and soloists, the choir consists of up to 10,000 amateur singers. This is broadcast by the station MBS .
- The Molto vivace is the beginning of the 1988 Die Toten Hosen play, Here comes Alex , and belongs to this play. The band's album A Little Bit of Horror Show contains various transitions from the 9th symphony.
- On the occasion of the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989, Leonard Bernstein changed the text of the fourth movement from " Joy of beautiful spark of gods" to " Freedom of beautiful spark of gods" for the performance in Berlin on December 25 of the same year .
- The band Tanzwut released the song “Götterfunken” in 2000 on their album “Labyrinth of the Senses”. The music used is part of the finale with texts from Goethe's Faust .
- The postmodern philosopher Slavoj Žižek builds in the documentary The Pervert's Guide to Ideology by Sophie Fiennes and published in 2012 (the continuation of the previous joint work The Pervert's Guide to Cinema ) on the way of using the 9th Symphony in Kubrick's film A Clockwork Orange (1971 ) and primarily of the last part of the fourth movement, which stands out in character, which Žižek describes as a caricature distortion of the main theme, the thesis that Beethoven wanted to let through this section that he was in truth the humanistic aspect of brotherhood expressed in Schiller's poem, despised as sentimental, corrosive rabble and false doctrine and was actually a supporter of an elitist order.
- On March 22, 2014 at the time of the Crimean crisis , members of the Odessar Symphony Orchestra played the Ode to Joy in a flash mob at the fish market in Odessa (Ukraine).
- A rally of the Alternative for Germany party in Mainz was disrupted on November 21, 2015 by repeated performances of the Ode to Joy on the stairs and in the foyer of the State Theater. The proceedings initiated as a result against the artistic director of the State Theater for disrupting an approved event were later discontinued.
First performances in some metropolises
- Esteban's book: Beethoven's Ninth. A biography. Propylaea, Berlin 2000, ISBN 3-549-05968-X .
- Nicholas Cook: Beethoven: Symphony No. 9. Cambridge 1993, ISBN 0-521-39924-6 .
- David Benjamin Levy: Beethoven. The Ninth Symphony. New York 1995, ISBN 0-02-871363-X .
- Dieter Hildebrandt : The ninth. Schiller, Beethoven and the story of a musical world success. Hanser, Munich / Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-446-20585-3 .
- Sascha Wegner: Symphonies from the spirit of vocal music. For the final design in the symphonic in the 18th and early 19th centuries . JB Metzler, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-476-04615-4 or ISBN 978-3-476-04616-1 .
Under special aspects
- Dieter Rexroth : Ludwig van Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 in D minor, op. 125. Introduction and analysis. Munich / Mainz 1979, ISBN 3-442-33010-6 .
- Liao Nai-Xiong: An Analysis of the Music of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony and its Philosophical Content. In: Renmin-yinyue [Music of the People], 11-12 / 1979, pp. 72-80 (Chinese).
- Andreas Eichhorn: Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. The history of their performance and reception. Kassel 1993, ISBN 3-7618-1143-8 .
- Otto Baensch: On the ninth symphony. Subsequent determinations. In: New Beethoven Yearbook. Vol. 4, 1930, pp. 133-139.
Essays and essays
- Wolfgang Stähr: IX. Symphony in D minor, Op. 125. Analysis and essay. In: Renate Ulm (Ed.): The 9 symphonies of Beethoven. Origin, interpretation, effect. Munich-Kassel 1994, ISBN 3-7618-1241-8 , pp. 246-263.
- Alexander Serow : Beethoven's ninth symphony. Your construction and your idea. In: Nathan Notowicz (Ed.): Essays on the history of music. translated by Felix Loesch. Berlin 1955, pp. 235-247.
- Heinrich Schenker : Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. A presentation of the musical content with ongoing consideration of the lecture and the literature. Vienna / Leipzig 1912, .
- Donald Francis Tovey: Ninth Symphony in D Minor, op. 125: Its Place in Musical Art. In: ders .: Essays in Musical Analysis. Vol. II, London 1935, pp. 83-127.
- Donald Francis Tovey : A Précis of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, op. 125. Supplementary to the Larger Analytical Essays in Vol. II. In: ders .: Essays in Musical Analysis. Vol. I, London 1935, pp. 67-83.
- Karl Nef : Beethoven's nine symphonies. Leipzig 1928, pp. 252–328.
- Jacques-Gabriel Prod'homme: Les Symphonies de Beethoven. Paris 1906, pp. 376-474.
- Beethoven's Ninth: Reception History of the Ode “To Joy”. (Original title: La Neuvième ); Pierre-Henry Salfati (director), Christian Labrande (screenplay); Germany, France, Canada 2004; 79/109 minutes. Celebrated as the best contribution to the WorldMedia Festival 2005 in Hamburg in the main category "Documentaries".
- Original manuscript of the 9th Symphony in the Berlin State Library
- Closing movement “To Joy”: MIDI / MP3 version, with text and practice files for choristers
- Mutopia music file (WMP)
- 9th Symphony (Beethoven) : Sheet music and audio files in the International Music Score Library Project
- Literature by and about Beethoven's 9th Symphony in the catalog of the German National Library
- Search for Beethoven's 9th Symphony in the German Digital Library
- Search for Beethoven's 9th Symphony in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- NEWnte from Benno Grieshaber on Vimeo
- One hour of history: Beethoven's 9th Symphony , podcast by Deutschlandfunk Nova
- Manfred Angerer : Beethoven's Ninth. In: program booklet 30./31. December 2018, January 1, 2019., Wiener Konzerthausgesellschaft . P. 9.
- Klaus Martin Kopitz, Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries . tape 1 . Henle Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 979-0-20182616-5 , pp. 227 .
- For the intellectual-historical background of Schiller's Ode, Reinhard Breymayer names the pietistic influence especially on the verses "Brothers - over the stars / a dear father must live" by the astronomer and pastor Philipp Matthäus Hahn , the pioneer of the Evangelical Brethren communities Korntal and Wilhelmsdorf (Württemberg) . Hahn's theology of love emphasized the fatherly love of God and brotherly love (Phildalephia) extremely. See Reinhard Breymayer, Erhard Weigel's student Detlev Clüver and his influence on Friedrich Christoph Oetinger (1702–1782) […] In: Katharina Habermann, Klaus-Dieter Herbst (ed.): Erhard Weigel (1625–1699) and his students . Universitätsverlag Göttingen, Göttingen 2016, p. 269–323, here p. 317–322: Evidence of a connection between Franz Joseph Reichsgraf von Thun and Hohenstein , who was familiar with Mozart and Beethoven , the mechanic Philipp Gottfried Schaudt and the pastor Philipp Matthäus Hahn. Is there a trace of Hahn's theology in Schiller's ode “To Joy”? - Thun-Hohenstein, like his uncle Joseph Friedrich Wilhelm, was Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen's client for an astronomical machine and the husband of Mozart's and Beethoven's patron Maria Wilhelmina, née Imperial Countess von Uhlfeld, as well as Mozart's father-in-law and Beethoven's temporary friend Karl Alois Prince von Lichnowsky . Compare with the Countess the excellent article Maria Wilhelmine von Thun and Hohenstein in the English language Wikipedia.
- Beethovenhaus Baden - Beethovenhaus. In: beethovenhaus-baden.at. Retrieved September 17, 2016 .
- Florian von Heintze: Music and Literature . Wissen Media Verlag, Gütersloh 2006, ISBN 3-577-07559-7 , p. 52 ff . ( books.google.de ).
- Klaus Martin Kopitz , Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries . Munich 2009, Volume 1, p. 112.
- Klaus Martin Kopitz, Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries . tape 1 . Henle Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 979-0-20182616-5 , pp. 160.983 .
- Klaus Martin Kopitz, Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries . tape 2 . Henle Verlag, Munich 2009, ISBN 979-0-20182616-5 , pp. 71 .
- Charles Rosen: The Classical Style: Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven . Norton, New York 1997, pp. 440 .
- Wilhelm Seidel: 9th Symphony in D minor, op.125 . In: Carl Dahlhaus, Alexander L. Ringer and Albrecht Riethmüller (eds.): Beethoven. Interpretations of his works . tape 2 . Laaber, Laaber 1994, p. 252-271 .
- Nicholas Cook: Beethoven. Symphony No. 9 (Cambridge Music Handbooks) . Cambridge 1993.
- Michael C. Tusa: "Once again": Form and Content in the Finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony . In: Beethoven Forum . tape 7 , 1999, p. 113-137 .
- David Benjamin Levy: Beethoven. The Ninth Symphony (Monuments of Western Music) . New York et al. a. 1995.
- Frédéric Döhl: The ninth symphony . In: Oliver Korte and Albrecht Riethmüller (eds.): Beethoven's orchestral music and concerts (Beethoven-Handbuch 1) . Laaber, Laaber 2013, p. 279-318 .
- Johann Abraham Peter Schulz: Art. Symphony . In: Johann Georg Sulzer (Hrsg.): General theory of the fine arts . tape 2 . Leipzig 1774, p. 1121-1122 .
- Sascha Wegner: Symphonies from the Spirit of Vocal Music: For the final design in the symphonic in the 18th and early 19th centuries . JB Metzler, Stuttgart 2018, ISBN 978-3-476-04616-1 , p. 85-184, here 99-101 .
- Two monumental classical works in one concert! Carl Orff: Carmina Burana, Ludwig van Beethoven: 9th Symphony ( Memento from February 1, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- JL Dessek: General musical newspaper . tape 1 . Breitkopf and Härtel, Leipzig 1824, p. 440 ( books.google.de ).
- Louis Spohr: Memoirs of life , in 2 volumes (1860). Tutzing 1968, Volume I, p. 180
- Florian von Heintze: Music and Literature . Wissen Media Verlag, Gütersloh 2006, ISBN 3-577-07559-7 , p. 52 ff . ( books.google.de ).
- Berlin State Library, Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation: About the 9th Symphony. Retrieved January 8, 2013 .
- Stehphen Johnson: A triumph of conviction over authenticity. Retrieved January 8, 2013 (in: The Independent , June 4, 1998).
- R. de Coudenhove-Kalergi: Letter. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 17, 2006 ; Retrieved January 8, 2013 (August 3, 1955).
- Daniel Valente: The symbols of the European Union . GRIN Verlag , Gütersloh 2007, ISBN 978-3-638-58927-7 , p. 9 ( books.google.de - thesis).
- On the 9th Symphony. (URL) Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation - Berlin State Library, June 4, 2010, accessed on October 10, 2018 .
- autograph of the 9th Symphony by Ludwig van Beethoven is now a World Heritage Site "Memory of the World". (URL) Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation - Berlin State Library, December 3, 2001, accessed on October 10, 2018 .
- DUK: Sparkles of Gods in the Memory of Mankind ( Memento from January 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). Retrieved January 8, 2013.
- Eberhard Straub: A Little History of Prussia . Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-608-94700-7 , p. 76 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Florian von Heintze: Music and Literature . Wissen Media Verlag, Gütersloh 2006, ISBN 3-577-07559-7 , p. 52 ff . ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Horst Riedel, Thomas Nabert (ed.): Stadtlexikon Leipzig from A to Z . 1st edition. Pro Leipzig, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-936508-03-8 , pp. 324 .
- YouTube : Kurt Sowinetz - Alle Menschen san ma z'wider (1972) , accessed on January 2, 2019
- ORF : Reminder of Kurt Sowinetz , February 26, 2018, accessed on January 2, 2019
- ORF : 50 Years of Austropop Vol. 2 (DVD) , accessed on January 2, 2019
- Hayat Caroline Issa: The classic - the star phenomenon and its expression on the classic market . Master thesis. GRIN Verlag , Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-638-55938-6 , p. 6 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
- Christian Berger: Beethoven's Ninth - Symphony for the World. Germany, 2020, 91 min.
- 「サ ン ト リ ー 1 万人 の 第九」 29 年 の 歩 み . Suntory, accessed on September 25, 2012 (Japanese, 10000 singing Beethoven - Ode an die Freude / Ode to Joy / 歓 喜 に 寄 せ て ( Memento from February 10, 2012 in the Internet Archive )).
- Wolfgang Schreiber: Bernstein conducts in East Berlin. In: Deutschlandfunk , December 25, 2014.
- Markus Schug: Two criminal charges for one song. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. November 27, 2015, accessed May 19, 2017 .
- Myles Birket Foster, History of the Philharmonic Society of London: 1813-1912. A Record of a Hundred Years Work in the Cause of Music , London 1912, p. 73 ( digitized version )
- Dwight's Journal of Music , Vol. 2, No. 18 of February 5, 1853, p. 143 (advance notice) ( digitized version )
- Matthias Hirschfeld, Beethoven in Japan. On the introduction and dissemination of Western music in Japanese society , Hamburg 2005
- bars 1–35
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- Bar 51
- Bar 74
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- beginning in measure 164
- bars 164-217
- in measure 300
- Bar 469
- Bars 486–490 Crescendo
- clock 491-93
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- Bar 9 the second violin, bar 13 the viola, bar 17 the cello, bar 21 the first violin and bar 25 the double bass.
- bars 45–57
- in measure 57
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- clock 416-423
- In measure 475
- from bar 483
- Viola and Cello, measure 491
- clock 557-559
- bar 3
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- from measure 18
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- It begins in measure 25
- bars 25–32 and bars 32–40
- in measure 43
- bars 43–46, bars 47–51, bars 52–54 and bars 55–58
- bars 65–80
- Bar 83
- from measure 93
- Bar 96
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- in bars 137-138 in the flutes and in bar 138 in the first violin
- in measure 139 in the first violin and the horns and in measure 140 in the woodwind instruments
- bars 143–144 and 150–151
- Bar 157
- in measure 9
- in bars 17–25
- 9 bars of the Allegro ma non troppo (bars 30–39)
- bars 48–55
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- a passage similar to the joy melody in bars 77-80
- in measure 92
- bars 92–115
- In measure 116
- in bars 139/140 the violins, from bar 164 also the flutes, remaining woodwinds, brass and timpani
- from bar 194
- Bar 10 of the Recitativo
- Bar 4 of the Allegro assai
- bars 21-28
- Bar 37
- for example in bars 64 and 68 in alto and soprano by the soloist choir
- This is to see in bars 29–44 in the parts of the woodwind instruments.
- In measure 45
- from measure 82 to measure 102
- bars 102–210
- bars 26–28 and bars 49–52
- bar 5
- only in measure 7
- In measure 33
- bars 48–52
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