Ludwig van Beethoven

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Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827); idealizing painting by Joseph Karl Stieler , ca.1820
Beethoven Signature.svg

Ludwig van Beethoven [ fʌn ˈbeːtˌhoːfn̩ ] ( baptized December 17, 1770 in Bonn , Kurköln ; † March 26, 1827 in Vienna , Austrian Empire ) was a German composer and pianist . He led the Viennese Classicism to its highest development and paved the way for Romantic music . He is counted among the most outstanding composers in Western music history.

At the beginning of his musical career, Beethoven first made a name for himself as a piano virtuoso . His strengths included free improvisation and fantasizing on the instrument. After moving from Bonn to Vienna, his talent soon led him to the highest social circles in the Habsburg metropolis. A hearing disorder, which over time worsened to almost total deafness , put an early end to his career as a pianist. The disease triggered a crisis to which Beethoven gave testament in 1802 in his Heiligenstadt will . Beethoven had many contacts with women from his environment. His letter to the immortal beloved , written in 1812, is famous , whose identity has not yet been clarified beyond doubt.

As his hearing deteriorated, Beethoven concentrated more and more on composing. While other composers often put their works on paper quickly, Beethoven wrestled for every note. It was reworked and improved again and again. In most of the musical genres and ensembles to which Beethoven contributed compositions, his works are among the most important of their kind. These include the 9 symphonies , the 32 piano sonatas , piano variations , the 5 piano concertos , a violin concerto , the 16 string quartets and the large one Fugue , other chamber music such as the piano trios , violin and cello sonatas; important vocal and stage works are the song cycle An die ferne Geliebte , the only opera Fidelio and the Missa solemnis . Beethoven lived up to his claim to leave a lasting musical work for posterity. His popularity continues unabated, and today he is one of the most performed composers in the world.

Origin of the family name

In Belgian and Dutch surnames, the addition “ van ” originally denotes the place of origin of the bearer of the name, so it was not a nobility predicate . Regardless of this, Beethoven considered himself to be noble. This became evident when a case against his sister-in-law in Austria was supposed to be heard naturally in a court responsible for the nobility . After he could not prove his aristocratic origin, which was doubted in the course of the proceedings, the court no longer saw itself as having jurisdiction and the matter went to a civil court. This then decided the legal case in his favor, but Beethoven was deeply offended because he had been denied his ostensibly noble status. The name "Beethoven" probably refers to the small village of Bettenhoven ( Bettincourt ) in the Hesbaye region , which is now part of the municipality of Waremme in the province of Liège . Alternatively, the Betuwe landscape is also associated with the name that is now famous.

In the late 15th century a certain Jan van Bettehove (1485–1571) lived in Kampenhout near Mechelen , Ludwig's ancestor in the seventh generation. In 1595 a Josyne van Beethoven , also from Kampenhout, was burned as a witch at the stake on the Grand-Place in Brussels.


Bonn (1770–1792)

Origin and family

Beethoven's birth room in the Beethoven-Haus , Bonn (photo from 2009)

Ludwig van Beethoven's paternal ancestors came from Mechelen (now in Belgium ), the seat of the Archbishop of the Austrian Netherlands . With his grandfather Ludwig van Beethoven (1712–1773) the family produced a musician for the first time. In 1733 he was appointed to the Electoral Cologne court in Bonn as a bass singer . 1761 appointed him Elector and Archbishop Maximilian Friedrich the court conductor . Ludwig's son Johann (born November 14, 1740; † December 18, 1792) became a tenor singer at the court orchestra and also gained a reputation as a music teacher. On November 12, 1767, he married Maria Magdalena Leym, née Keverich (born December 19, 1746), who was widowed at an early age . The marriage resulted in seven children, three of whom survived infancy: Ludwig, Kaspar Karl (baptized April 8, 1774) and Nikolaus Johann (baptized October 2, 1776). The birth of a brother of the same name in early April 1769 later contributed to Ludwig van Beethoven's uncertainty about his actual age.

Ludwig van Beethoven was baptized as the second child on December 17, 1770 in the then St. Remigius Church; the church burned down in 1800 and should not be confused with today's St. Remigius Church elsewhere. He was probably born on December 16 in the family's apartment in house no. 515 (today house no. 20) in Bonngasse .

Although Beethoven was only three years old when his grandfather died on December 24, 1773, he transfigured him to the family figure.

Training and education

Johann van Beethoven recognized his son's extraordinary talent early on and ensured a solid musical education, in which colleagues from the court orchestra also participated: the court organist Gilles van den Eeden, the singer Tobias Pfeifer, the violinists Franz Georg Rovantini, Franz Ries and others. Violent attacks on his son have been handed down through Johann van Beethoven's lessons. It is unclear whether these reports describe regular or isolated incidents. Beethoven first performed publicly as a pianist at the age of seven.

In 1782 the composer and conductor Christian Gottlob Neefe succeeded van den Eeden as court organist. Neefe gave Beethoven piano and composition lessons from time to time and arranged for the publication of his first piano compositions : the Variations on a March by Dressler WoO 63 and the so-called Elector Sonatas WoO 47. Whether he is assigned the outstanding role of Beethoven's teacher, which has been ascribed to him in literature doubtful. In 1782 Beethoven became Neefes' deputy on the organ, and two years later he was given a permanent position as organist . He also worked as a harpsichordist and violist in the court orchestra. A friend and composer who also played there was Anton Reicha . In connection with a reorganization of court music by Maximilian Franz , the successor to the late Elector Max Friedrich, there was a break between Beethoven and Neefe in 1784.

Beethoven's schooling hardly went beyond the basics like reading, writing and arithmetic. In addition, he received private lessons in Latin, French and Italian from time to time. He also received intellectual stimulation from friends in Bonn's bourgeois circles, especially from the medical student and later doctor Franz Gerhard Wegeler as well as from the family of the widow Helene von Breuning , with whom Beethoven had an almost family relationship. The friendship with Wegeler and Stephan von Breuning lasted lifelong despite occasional crises.

The atmosphere at the court of Elector Maximilian Franz was liberal. Enlightenment ideas were inter alia. cultivated in the circles of the Illuminati , a secret society committed to the radical Enlightenment. Numerous court musicians were members of the Bonn lodge, which Neefe presided over. After the Illuminati were banned in 1785, their Bonn members gathered in the reading and recreation society founded in 1787 . Through Eulogius Schneider , who teaches at Bonn University , Beethoven came into contact with the ideas of the French Revolution at an early stage .

Study trip to Vienna

In 1784 Neefe wrote about Beethoven that he would “certainly become a second Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart if he progressed as he started”. With Maximilian Franz, elector since 1784 and avowed lover of Mozart's music , this assessment found fertile ground. At the end of December 1786, Beethoven set out on a trip to Vienna sponsored by Max Franz to become Mozart's student of composition. When he started his return journey after a three-month stay, he interrupted it several times to stop off in Regensburg, Munich and Augsburg. In May 1787 he returned to Bonn. It is not known whether there was an encounter with Mozart at all; There is no evidence of instruction by the model, and the elector was correspondingly disappointed with the results of the trip. The reason for the failure of the plan is unclear.

Last years in Bonn and farewell to Bonn

Back in Bonn, Beethoven encountered a dramatically changed family situation. The state of health of the mother suffering from " consumption " had deteriorated critically. She died on July 17, 1787. The father increasingly lost control of his already high alcohol consumption, so that he was finally no longer able to look after his three sons. In 1789 he was suspended from work, and Ludwig, the eldest son, was given the power to dispose of half of his father's pension , which in fact gave him the role of head of the family.

In mid-September 1791 Beethoven came to a General Chapter of the Teutonic Order in Mergentheim and Aschaffenburg as organist and violist in the Bonn court orchestra . The journey of the Cologne court orchestra took place on two ships that sailed over the Rhine and Main to Miltenberg . Beethoven, known by his friends for his brown complexion and black eyes because of his Spagnol , acted as the kitchen boy. From Miltenberg the carriage went on to Mergentheim, where Beethoven stayed until the end of October 1791.

When he joined the Teutonic Order, Count Ferdinand Ernst von Waldstein , who came from Vienna, came to Bonn. He became Beethoven's first aristocratic sponsor, encouraged him to compose music for a knight ballet WoO 1 and the variations on a theme by Count Waldstein WoO 67, and used his influence on the prince to continue promoting Beethoven move.

When Joseph Haydn stopped in Bonn on his way back to England in July 1792 , Beethoven arranged for a second study visit to Vienna. After Mozart had already died, he was now to receive - according to an entry in Waldstein's registry - "Mozart's spirit from Hayden's hands". In November of the same year Beethoven set out for Vienna.

First Vienna Decade (1792–1802)

One of Beethoven's numerous places of residence in Vienna (summer 1817)


A series of events caused Beethoven's study trip to Vienna to become a permanent and permanent stay. Shortly after Beethoven's arrival, on December 18, 1792, his father died. In 1794 French troops occupied the Rhineland and the electoral court had to flee. This not only deprived Beethoven of the ground for his return to Bonn, the elector's salary was also not paid. In the spring of 1794 his brother Kaspar Karl moved to Vienna, and in December 1795 brother Johann followed suit.

In Vienna, Beethoven soon found support from aristocratic music lovers who helped him to gain a foothold in his new home, including Prince Franz Joseph Maximilian von Lobkowitz and Gottfried Freiherr van Swieten . Prince Karl Lichnowsky played a special role ; In his house, Beethoven made contacts with Viennese musical circles and got to know the violinist Ignaz Schuppanzigh , who as an interpreter was to contribute significantly to the spread of his works. Lichnowsky temporarily made an apartment in his house available to Beethoven.

From 1800 onwards, Lichnowsky paid Beethoven an annual salary of 600 guilders , thus creating the basis for an independent artistic existence for the following years. Since 1802 he also enjoyed the rights of a citizen.

Lessons from Haydn and others

As agreed, Beethoven took composition lessons from Haydn, which lasted from Beethoven's arrival in Vienna (November 1792) to shortly before Haydn's departure for England (January 19, 1794). The relationship between the renowned teacher and the headstrong, self-confident student was not free from differences of opinion and conflicts; for example when Haydn expressed concerns about Beethoven's Piano Trio, Op. 1, No. 3 , because he thought it was too difficult to understand. Even if Beethoven once said of his teacher that he “never learned anything from him”, Haydn's works had a lasting impact on Beethoven's development as a composer, especially in the fields of symphony and chamber music.

However, Beethoven seems to have been dissatisfied with Haydn as a teacher. He secretly took lessons from Johann Baptist Schenk . From 1794 he studied counterpoint with Johann Georg Albrechtsberger , and he was instructed in vocal composition by Antonio Salieri .

Pianist and composer

Beethoven's successes as a composer are initially closely related to his career as a piano virtuoso. In the first ten years in Vienna alone, 20 of his 32 piano sonatas were composed, including the Grande Sonate pathétique op. 13 in C minor and the two sonatas op. 27 , the second of which was known as the Moonlight Sonata (not by Beethoven) ; the title addition quasi una fantasia indicates that improvisation on the piano was an important source of inspiration for the composer.

On March 29, 1795, Beethoven made his first appearance as a pianist in Vienna with his Piano Concerto in B flat major, Op. 19 . He caused a special stir because of his outstanding ability to fantasize freely . In 1796 the young virtuoso undertook a concert tour to Prague, Dresden, Leipzig and Berlin, which was a great artistic and financial success. The tour initiated by Lichnowsky followed the route of the journey that the prince had undertaken with Mozart in 1789.

The first compositions that Beethoven had printed were the three piano trios composed in 1794/1795, to which he assigned the opus number 1. In the following years Beethoven dealt with two other central genres of classical music: the string quartet and the symphony. Between 1798 and 1800, after studying the quartets of Haydn and Mozart intensively, he composed the first series of six quartets, which he dedicated as op. 18 to Prince Lobkowitz. Shortly afterwards, in 1800 and 1802, Beethoven presented himself as a symphonic composer. The dedication of the 1st symphony op. 21 in C major went to van Swieten, that of the 2nd symphony op. 36 in D major to Prince Lichnowsky.

Hearing problems

Beethoven's growing success as a pianist and composer was overshadowed by a serious impairment: around 1798 the first symptoms of the hearing impairment that ultimately led to almost complete deafness appeared . According to Beethoven's own report from 1801, the suffering worsened within a few years; however, it seems to have stagnated for some time in the years that followed.

The cause of the disease is the subject of numerous investigations. Possible causes include atrophy of the auditory nerves or otosclerosis .

Beethoven's hearing problems not only posed a serious threat to his career as a musician; it also affected his social interaction. The illness plunged Beethoven into a serious personal crisis which at times made him think of suicide himself. Beethoven revealed his state of mind in the so-called Heiligenstadt Testament , a document that he wrote in October 1802 at the end of a cure in Heiligenstadt, after this too had not had the hoped-for success.

Middle Viennese years (around 1802 - around 1812)

Profiling as a composer

Beethoven, 1804/1805.
This portrait of Joseph Willibrord Mähler was in Beethoven's possession until his death. Is in the collection of the Wien Museum

The middle years of Vienna, referred to as the “heroic period” by Beethoven biographer Maynard Solomon , are the most productive phase in Beethoven's creative biography , despite the impairment caused by the hearing impairment. At this time Beethoven had developed his own distinctive style.

Beethoven composed six of the nine symphonies between autumn 1802 and 1812 alone, including such well-known works as the 3rd Symphony Eroica , the 5th Symphony and the 6th Symphony Pastorale . In addition, the 4th  and 5th piano concerto as well as the final version of the 3rd piano concerto , the violin concerto op. 61 and the five “middle” string quartets op. 59 nos. 1–3 , op. 74 and op. 95 were created .

Beethoven also composed the first version of his only opera Fidelio during this time. On November 20, 1805 it was performed for the first time under the original title Leonore , but was subsequently revised twice.

Beethoven achieved his greatest success to date in 1813/1814 with the performance of a work composed especially for the Congress of Vienna , Wellington's Victory or The Battle of Vittoria op. 91, which depicts the decisive victory of the English over the Napoleonic troops and thus the audience Spirit of the times met.

French influences

The French Revolution and Napoleon Bonaparte had made a strong impression on Beethoven and there is evidence that they had an impact on his work. For example, Beethoven originally intended to add the addition “intitulata Bonaparte” or “written in Bonaparte” to the 3rd Eroica Symphony . An anecdote reports that Beethoven furiously removed the title addition after Napoleon had crowned himself emperor in December 1804. The change in the original title is probably more related to a planned but ultimately not carried out trip to Paris.

To a French revolutionary opera, Leonore ou L'amour conjugal ( Leonore, or Conjugal Love ) by Jean Nicolas Bouilly , the fabric goes back to Beethoven in his opera Fidelio processed, and reached into his Symphony No. 5 in C minor, Op. 67 he elements of so-called revolutionary music, a style that French composers such as André-Ernest-Modeste Grétry , Étienne-Nicolas Méhul and Luigi Cherubini had shaped at the end of the 18th century.

Patrons and livelihoods

Imperial Count Franz von Oppersdorff , who was friends with Prince Lichnowsky, was very interested in receiving Beethoven in his castle in Oberglogau near Neustadt ( Prudnik in Polish ). In 1806 Oppersdorff was able to welcome the guest with a solemn concert. To everyone's surprise, the palace orchestra under the direction of the local conductor Hoszek played Beethoven's 2nd symphony, who was very pleased with this gesture. As a thank you, the composer promised to dedicate his Symphony No. 5 in C minor, on which he was currently working, to Oppersdorff. The count paid Beethoven 500 forints down , hoping that this dedication would make the Oppersdorff family famous. Ultimately, however, Beethoven Oppersdorff dedicated his 4th symphony.

In the relationship between Beethoven and his most important patron, Prince Lichnowsky, there was an increasing estrangement over the years. The tensions escalated in the autumn of 1806 during a stay of Beethoven at Castle Grätz (Czech Hradec ) near Troppau (Czech Opava ), the seat of the prince, in a serious dispute. Around the same time, 1806 or 1807, Lichnowsky, who had to meet extremely high financial obligations in those years, stopped paying the composer's annual salaries.

In addition to the princely salary, Beethoven received considerable income from publishing contracts and concert revenues, but these did not guarantee permanent financial security. Therefore, in December 1807, Beethoven applied - in vain - to the kk Hoftheaterdirektion for a job and also considered leaving Vienna. A corresponding opportunity arose when Friedrich Ludwig III. Count Truchsess zu Waldburg was appointed Kapellmeister to the court of Jérôme Bonaparte in Kassel in November 1808 .

Thanks to an initiative by Ignaz von Gleichenstein and Countess Marie Erdődy , who were among Beethoven's closest friends, it was possible to keep Beethoven in Vienna. On March 1, 1809, Archduke Rudolph , Franz Joseph Fürst Lobkowitz and Ferdinand Fürst Kinsky guaranteed the composer a fixed annual salary by decree on the only condition that Beethoven would stay in Vienna (the so-called pension contract).

However, Beethoven's hope for financial independence soon suffered several setbacks: the devaluation of money through the so-called finance patent in the spring of 1811, the death of Prince Kinsky in the following year and the threatened bankruptcy of Prince Lobkowitz in 1813. As a result, Beethoven was forced to continue the To sue for payments in court.

Encounter with Bettina Brentano and Goethe

Beethoven's appreciation of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe began in the 1790s, especially in his song compositions. In 1809/1810 the compositional occupation with the poet accumulated in the song cycles op.75 and op.83 as well as the incidental music for Egmont op.84.

During her stay in Vienna in the spring-summer of 1810, Beethoven met Bettina Brentano , the sister of the poet Clemens Brentano, at the end of May . She won his trust and used her friendship with Goethe to encourage a meeting between the two artistic personalities. Bettina Brentano later played a key role in shaping the romantic image of Beethoven through the literarily heavily reshaped depictions of her relationship to Beethoven.

The long-awaited meeting between Beethoven and Goethe took place in July 1812 (19th, 20th, 21st and 23rd) when both were in the Bohemian spa town of Teplitz . The result was rather mixed: On July 19, Goethe wrote to his wife: “I have never seen an artist more summarized, more energetic, more intimate. I understand very well how he must stand strangely against the world. "And on September 12, 1812 Goethe wrote from Karlsbad to his friend Carl Friedrich Zelter , the director of the Berlin Sing-Akademie :" I met Beethoven in Teplitz. His talent amazed me; but unfortunately he is a completely untamed personality who is not at all wrong when he finds the world detestable, but does not make it more enjoyable for himself or for others. On the other hand, he is to be excused very much and to be regretted, since his hearing is losing him, which perhaps does less harm to the musical part of his being than to the sociable part. He, who is laconic anyway, is doubled because of this deficiency. ”On the other hand, Beethoven wrote laconically on August 9 from Franzensbad to his publisher Härtel :“ Göthe likes the court air very much, more than befits a poet. It is not rather to speak of the ridiculousness of the virtuosos when poets, who should be regarded as the first teachers of the nation, can forget everything else over this glimmer. "

Relationships with Women and the " Immortal Beloved "

According to Franz Gerhard Wegeler , Beethoven was “very often in love”, but this only referred to a brief period in the 1790s when Wegeler was in Vienna. However, women played a major role in Beethoven's life in many ways: as friends and confidants, as interpreters or as recipients of dedications.

Johanna von Honrath

Beethoven's first great love was Johanna von Honrath . His childhood friend Franz Gerhard Wegeler writes about the composer's youth in Bonn: “His and Stephan von Breuning's first love was Miss Jeanette d'Honrath from Cologne, Neumarkt Nro. 19. (current home of the master builder Mr. Biercher), who often spent a few weeks with the von Breuning family in Bonn. She was a beautiful, lively blonde, of a pleasant education and friendly disposition, who enjoyed music and had a pleasant voice. "

Maria Anna Wilhelmine from and to Westerholt-Gysenberg

Maria Anna Wilhelmine von und zu Westerholt-Gysenberg was probably also a childhood sweetheart of Beethoven's. He himself addresses her in his letter as “ma très chere amie” (German “my very dear friend”), which speaks more for an intimate friendship than for love. His childhood friend Franz Gerhard Wegeler , on the other hand, wrote a few years later about Beethoven's first love from a Fräulein v. W. - leaving it unknown which person he meant:

“This was followed by the most loving affection for a beautiful and kind Miss v. W., about which Werther love Bernhard Romberg told me anecdotes three years ago. These love affairs, however, fell into the transitional age and left just as few deep impressions as they had aroused them on the beautiful. "

- Franz Gerhard Wegeler

Countess Marie von Erdődy

Countess Marie von Erdődy (1779–1837) was one of Beethoven's longest and most loyal friends . Several of his works are dedicated to her. In addition to her city apartment, she owned the Erdődy estate in Jedlesee , where Beethoven is said to have lived in 1815. In the older literature it is variously assumed that there was a brief love affair between Beethoven and the Countess, but this is pure speculation.

Countess Josephine Brunsvik

Countess Josephine Brunsvik as Countess Deym, unmarked pencil miniature, before 1804

Beethoven was received particularly amicably by the Hungarian Brunsvik family . The sisters Therese , Josephine , Charlotte and their brother Franz met the composer for the first time in 1799. When the family returned to their Hungarian homeland after 18 days, Beethoven wrote an excerpt from Goethe's poem I think yours in Josephine's and Therese's album .

At the urging of his mother, who wanted to marry her beautiful daughter with a wealthy nobleman, Josephine Brunsvik married Count Joseph von Deym in the summer of 1799 , moved to Vienna with him and gave birth to four children in their short marriage. During this time Beethoven was a regular "steadfast visitor to the young Countess" and gave her piano lessons "for many hours in a row" "free of charge". After Count Deym died unexpectedly in early 1804, a love affair developed between Beethoven and Josephine. Between 1804 and 1809 Beethoven wrote her at least fourteen love letters, some of them passionate, in which he called her, among other things, an “angel”, “my everything” and his “only beloved” and swore to her “eternal loyalty”. Despite hot words of love, both partners stayed not only in front of the relatives, but also in the letters with the formal address "you", while Beethoven said Josephine's brother Franz. The correspondence, if received, also documents the couple's emotional conflicts that resulted from the contradiction between their personal feelings and the constraints of reality: Josephine had four children to look after, and in the event of a marriage with the non-noble Beethoven, she would have guardianship lost for her. In the autumn of 1807, Josephine finally withdrew from Beethoven under pressure from her family. As early as 1805, Therese had written to Charlotte full of concern: “But tell me, Pepi and Beethoven, what should become of this? She should be on her guard! ... Your heart must have the strength to say no, a sad duty, if not the saddest of all. "

In 1810 Josephine entered into a second marriage with the Estonian baron Christoph von Stackelberg, which turned out to be extremely unhappy for her. Stackelberg left them at the end of June / beginning of July 1812. In her diary entry of June 8th, 1812 it says: “I have a difficult day today. - The hand of fate rests somberly on me - In addition to my deep grief, I also saw the degeneration of my children and - almost - all courage left me - !!! ”Shortly afterwards she noted in her diary that she intended to go to Prague to travel: "St. wants me to sit myself [he left me sitting]. he is insensitive to those who plead in need. […] I want to speak to Liebert in Prague [!]. I never want to leave the children from me. [...] I ruined Stackb physically for the sake of loving [me] by inflicting [...] so many griefs and illnesses through him. never sent) letter to her, without mentioning her name, called his " Immortal Beloved ". The letter is not only remarkable because of its intimate language, but also because it is the only surviving letter from Beethoven to a woman in which he consistently calls the addressee.

In 1817 Therese, who remained in contact with Beethoven, noted in her diary about her sick sister: “Doesn't Josephine suffer punishment because of Luigi's pain? His wife - what would she not have made of the hero! ”One of Therese's diary notes from 1848 reads:“ Happy I had Beethoven's intimate, intellectual intercourse for so many years! Josephine's house and dear friend! They were born for each other and were both still alive if they had united. "

Numerous Beethoven researchers, especially in German-speaking countries, including La Mara , Siegmund Kaznelson , Harry Goldschmidt , Brigitte and Jean Massin, Marie-Elisabeth Tellenbach, Carl Dahlhaus and Rita Steblin , consider Josephine to be Beethoven's " Immortal Beloved ". Nine months after the likely meeting of the two in Prague, Josephine gave birth to her daughter Minona (born April 8, 1813 in Vienna; † February 21, 1897 there) - Minona is a palindrome to Anonymous . At a young age she is said to have had a striking resemblance to Beethoven. Therefore, many researchers consider it likely that Beethoven is Minona's biological father. The Estonian composer Jüri Reinvere processed the subject matter of Beethoven's alleged daughter in his opera Minona , which premiered on January 25, 2020 at the Regensburg Theater .

Countess Giulietta Guicciardi

Through the Brunsvik sisters, Beethoven met their cousin Countess Giulietta Guicciardi (1782–1856) around 1801/1802 and fell in love with her for a short time. However, he was aware that marriage was out of the question because of the difference in class. She was also engaged to Count Wenzel von Gallenberg , whom she married in 1803. Beethoven dedicated the Sonata quasi una Fantasia , op.27 No. 2, known as the Moonlight Sonata , to her in 1802 .

Therese von Zandt

Another presumed lover of Beethoven was Therese von Zandt , who was canon in the free worldly women's monastery Asbeck at the time of her seven-month liaison with the composer . Zandt published from 1798 under the symbol Z. first woman posts in Leipzig general musical newspaper . Perhaps it was she who recommended Beethoven the material for his only opera Fidelio when she traveled to Vienna on behalf of the newspaper from December 5, 1803 to July 5, 1804. Jean-Nicolas Bouilly's libretto for the opera Léonore ou L'amour conjugaldes Fidelio , on which the Fidelio material is based, was translated from French into German for the first time by Friedrich Rochlitz , founder and editor of the Allgemeine musical newspaper . According to research by Klaus Martin Kopitz, a portrait from Beethoven's possession, which was assumed to show Giulietta Guicciardi for 200 years, is probably attributed to Therese von Zandt.

Marie Bigot

Beethoven met the French pianist Marie Bigot in particular in 1807. The friendship probably came about because Marie Bigot's husband Paul Bigot worked as a librarian for Beethoven's patron, Count Andrej Rasumowsky . Several letters from Beethoven testify to the relationship. He also gave Marie Bigot the autograph of his famous Appassionata , which is now in the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris. At the beginning of March 1807, Beethoven invited her for a drive when her husband was absent. Beethoven's obviously jealous reaction prompted Beethoven to write a letter of apology to the couple shortly afterwards, in which he emphasized: "[...] in any case, one of my first principles is never to have anything other than friendship with someone else's wife."

Elisabeth Röckel

Around the spring of 1808 Beethoven first met the then 15-year-old singer Elisabeth Röckel (baptized as Maria Eva), the sister of the tenor Joseph August Röckel , who had taken on the role of Florestan in the Fidelio performances of 1806. She lived with her brother in an official apartment at the Theater an der Wien, where she was called “Elis. [!] Rökel ”and became friends with the singer Anna Milder-Hauptmann , who also lived there , and from whom she was actually addressed in a letter as“ Elise ”[!]. After a dubious testimony from Anton Schindler to Gerhard von Breuning, Beethoven wanted to marry her. She later denied that, but reported several times that Beethoven was very fond of her. In her official obituary it says: “Beethoven was one of her admirers.” In 2010, Klaus Martin Kopitz put forward the thesis that Beethoven composed his famous album Für Elise for her on April 27, 1810 . In 2015 he published further, previously unknown sources about her relationship with Beethoven. The autograph of the album sheet was later in the possession of Therese Malfatti , from whose estate it came to Munich to the teacher Babette Bredl, the mother of Malfatti's friend and heir Rudolph Schachner . Bredl loaned the autograph to Ludwig Nohl , who copied and published it. Although he explicitly stated that it was "not written for Therese", several Beethoven researchers are of the opinion that she should nevertheless be regarded as the recipient of the dedication.

Elisabeth Röckel married Johann Nepomuk Hummel in 1813 and moved with him to Weimar , in March 1827 she returned to Vienna. At the request of the dying Beethoven, she visited him several times and received a lock of the composer and his last quill as a souvenir. The relics have been in the possession of the Beethoven Center at San José State University since 2012 . Shortly after the composer's death, she confessed to Schindler, “what deep roots her former love for Beeth was. beaten u still live in her. "

The musicologist Michael Lorenz doubted in 2011 that Elisabeth called herself "Elise", as this can only be proven by a few sources. As he also notes, "in the Vienna of Vormärz no distinction was made between the names Elisabeth and Elise, they were interchangeable and virtually identical".

Therese von Malfatti

Another woman in Beethoven's life was Therese Malfatti . Beethoven met her in 1809 through his friend Ignaz von Gleichenstein, who married Therese's sister Anna in 1811. In spring 1810, in view of Josephine Brunsvik's remarriage, Beethoven was apparently planning to propose to Therese Malfatti and had his friend Franz Gerhard Wegeler in Bonn obtain a copy of his baptismal certificate . But when Therese von Malfatti rejected his application - her family was also against it for reasons of class - Beethoven overcame this rejection with comparative ease. Therese remained on friendly terms with him afterwards.

Antonie Brentano

At the end of May 1810, Beethoven met her sister-in-law Antonie Brentano through Bettina Brentano , who lived in Vienna from 1809 to 1812 in order to sell the extensive estate of her late father Johann Melchior Edler von Birkenstock . In March 1811 she wrote in a letter to Bettina Brentano that Beethoven had become “one of her dearest people” and that she visited her “almost every day”. A friendly relationship developed between the couple Franz and Antonie Brentano and Beethoven, which Antonie described in her diary as "elective affinities". She also owned the autograph of Beethoven's song An die Geliebte , WoO 140, on which her hand notes: “I requested from the author on March 2, 1812”. Shortly before, Beethoven had written this song to the Bavarian singer Regina Lang in the studbook.

In 1972 Maynard Solomon hypothesized that Beethoven's letter to the immortal beloved dated 6/7. July 1812 was addressed to Antonie Brentano. She traveled on with her family from Prague to Karlovy Vary. Although it cannot be proven that Beethoven met her in Prague, and that the “Immortal Beloved” may not have gone to “K” after all, numerous Beethoven researchers have now endorsed this hypothesis, including Yayoi Aoki , Barry Cooper , William Kinderman , Klaus Martin Kopitz and Lewis Lockwood and Susan Lund.

"Immortal Beloved"

Beethoven's letter to the immortal beloved , which he wrote on 6/7. Written on July 1812 in Teplitz during a trip to the Bohemian health resorts, it is the composer's most important personal testimony alongside the Heiligenstadt Testament . It is addressed to a woman, not named, with whom shortly before, on July 3, in Prague, a meeting that was decisive for the future of the relationship had taken place. Among other things, the letter reveals the mutual admitted love and the hope for a lasting bond between the lovers, which, however, evidently face great obstacles. The identity of the “Immortal Beloved” is controversial among Beethoven researchers.

Crisis and Final Years (around 1812–1827)

Life crisis

Beethoven in 1815, detail from a painting by Willibrord Joseph Mähler

From 1812 onwards, Beethoven's life situation began to change significantly for the worse. In addition to the fateful events surrounding the “Immortal Beloved”, there were material worries in connection with the pension contract and a worsening of hearing impairment and even total deafness. From around 1813 onwards, Beethoven used ear trumpets to communicate with his surroundings; from 1818 onwards, the use of so-called conversation notebooks can be proven, in which the interlocutors wrote down their utterances. Due to his advanced hearing loss, he was no longer able to perform as a pianist.

Beethoven's brother Kaspar Karl died on November 15, 1815, leaving behind a nine-year-old son. Beethoven got caught up in a grueling legal dispute that lasted for years with his sister-in-law Johanna about guardianship over his nephew Karl , in the course of which this was alternately granted and denied to him. In his function as surrogate father, Beethoven failed in his attempt to subordinate the protégé to his morally exaggerated educational goals.

New composition plans and final works

At the same time as Beethoven's personal crisis, there was a change in his compositional style. From 1813 to 1814 he was initially engaged in the composition of Wellington's Victory and a thorough revision of his opera Leonore zu Fidelio . In the years that followed, Beethoven turned intensively to the piano sonata. The result was the sonatas op. 90 (1814), op. 101 (1815–1817) and op. 106 ( fortepiano sonata , 1817–1818). At the same time Beethoven created the two cello sonatas op.102 (1815), the song circle An die ferne Geliebte op.98 (1816) as well as the setting of Goethe's Sea of ​​Silence and Happy Journey for choir and orchestra op.112.

For a few years Beethoven had devoted himself almost exclusively to works for smaller ensembles, but in 1819 an occasion arose to tackle another larger work. His long-time patron and piano student, Archduke Rudolph, was to be enthroned as Archbishop of Olomouc ( Olomouc in Czech ) on March 20, 1820 . Beethoven was commissioned to compose a large solemn mass. But the process of composing the Missa solemnis op. 123 began to take on a life of its own, so that Beethoven did not complete the work until the end of 1822 / beginning of 1823.

At the same time as the mass, Beethoven was working on the 33 changes on a waltz by Anton Diabelli, Op. 120, a cycle of variations for piano that went back to an appeal by the music publisher and composer Diabelli . He had sent his waltz to numerous composers with the request that they each contribute a variation to a planned collective edition. While working on the Missa solemnis and the Diabelli Variations , Beethoven continued the series of his last piano sonatas with op. 109 , 110 and 111 .

After a break of more than ten years, Beethoven turned back to the symphony genre. The first performance of the 9th Symphony op. 125 on May 7, 1824 was enthusiastically received by the audience. The performance was conducted by Kapellmeister Michael Umlauf , and Beethoven stood with him at the conductor's podium to assist.

Finally, between spring 1824 and autumn 1826, beginning with the String Quartet op. 127, a last group of five string quartets was created. The quartet production had initiated a composition commission from the Russian music lover Nikolai Borisowitsch Prince Galitzin . Beethoven received additional motivation from the return of violinist Ignaz Schuppanzigh to Vienna, who had been traveling since 1816 and whose ensemble had premiered almost all of his previous string quartets. The String Quartet in F major op. 135 was the last work that Beethoven completed.

friends and acquaintances

Portrait Ludwig van Beethoven , 1823, oil on canvas, 66 × 57 cm, Kunsthistorisches Museum , Vienna, Collection of old musical instruments, inv. No. 1000, location: Neue Burg , Vienna

Due to his deafness, Beethoven was increasingly dependent on the support of friends and acquaintances in recent years. Beethoven had house staff (cook and housekeeper), but violent arguments with the employees repeatedly led to dismissals from one side or the other.

Beethoven had already used people from his circle of friends to run errands and other services, such as the piano maker Nannette Streicher née Stein in 1817/1818 . The friendly relationship between Beethoven and the Stein family, who made piano, dates back to his early stay in Augsburg in 1787. Nanette Streicher took care of the housekeeping and often mediated between the composer and his house staff.

Anton Schindler first appeared in Beethoven's circle of acquaintances in 1822 . Schindler sought Beethoven's closeness and served him as a factotum . His mixture of servility and arbitrariness was always the trigger for his displeasure and contempt. After Beethoven's death, Schindler brought documents from Beethoven's estate, including some of the conversation books, into his possession. Schindler wrote one of the earliest Beethoven biographies, but the credibility of many of his statements is doubtful, as he did not shy away from falsification to support his claims.

In the summer of 1825, after the break with Schindler, Karl Holz , the second violinist from the Schuppanzigh Quartet, took over the role of personal secretary and advisor. In the last months of his life in particular, his friendship with Beethoven's childhood friend Stephan von Breuning , who had come to Vienna in 1801, regained importance. Breuning became co-guardian of his nephew Karl in September 1826 and looked after Beethoven during the months of his terminal illness.


Ludwig van Beethoven's brother Johann had achieved some prosperity as a pharmacist in Vienna. The brothers' never particularly close contact intensified when Beethoven borrowed a large sum from Johann in 1822. In the years that followed, the composer repeatedly consulted the successful businessman as a financial advisor.

The decision of the Court of Appeal on April 8, 1820, which finally appointed Beethoven as the guardian of his nephew Karl on the condition that a co-guardian support him, could not end the continued tensions between uncle and nephew. On August 6, 1826, Karl attempted suicide, which led to Beethoven's resignation from guardianship.

Diseases and death

Beethoven's house in Vienna's Schwarzspanierstrasse (demolished 1904)
Beethoven's grave, Vienna Central Cemetery

Beethoven had been suffering from illnesses since he was around 30 years old. There are descriptions of various symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, colic, feverish conditions or inflammation. On the one hand, acute illnesses can be considered as causes, on the other hand, one or more chronic illnesses are named as the main cause. Among other things, lead poisoning , brucellosis and excessive alcohol consumption are suspected.

It has not yet been possible to determine with certainty whether there was only one cause or several different causes for Beethoven's health problems. Beethoven's biographers have recorded that the artist regularly drank cheap white wine, which the winemakers at the time sweetened with lead sugar instead of expensive cane sugar. Beethoven's bones and hair contain lead in a concentration that has rarely been measured: “We examined more than 20,000 patients and measured the lead levels in their blood and hair in all of them. Among them were only eight people who had comparable lead levels. All eight are seriously ill and their symptoms are similar to Beethoven's. The lead need not be the only cause of Beethoven's illness and early death, but the poisonous metal certainly made his symptoms worse. "

With increasing age, the frequency and intensity of the disease conditions increased. In the summer of 1821 announced by severe jaundice and probably alcohol abuse a cirrhosis of. Beethoven sought relief from the complaints in baths and country stays. His last took him on September 29, 1826 - together with his nephew - to the estate of his brother Johann in Gneixendorf . On the return trip to Vienna, which took place in an open car in cold and damp weather at the beginning of December, Beethoven contracted pneumonia . Shortly after recovery, he developed severe symptoms of liver cirrhosis with accumulation of water in his legs and abdomen and jaundice, so that Beethoven could no longer leave his sick bed. After several punctures and unsuccessful attempts at treatment by various doctors, Beethoven died on March 26, 1827 at the age of 56. His last doctor was Andreas Ignaz Wawruch .

The burial in the Währing local cemetery took place on March 29, with great participation from the Viennese population. About 20,000 people are said to have participated in the funeral procession . The funeral speech written by Franz Grillparzer was spoken by the actor Heinrich Anschütz . Franz Schubert , who was to follow Beethoven to the grave a year later, paid him his last respects alongside Grillparzer as one of the 36 torchbearers.

Beethoven's body was exhumed twice : in 1863 to measure the bones and photograph the skull; 1888, to relocate his skeleton - again with great public sympathy - on June 22, 1888 in the honor grove at the Vienna Central Cemetery.

The composer


Beethoven monument in Frankfurt am Main
Beethoven monument in Nuremberg

In the 19th century, Beethoven's works (or a certain selection of major works) represented the pinnacle of musical art in the world of music. Today Beethoven is considered to be the finisher of the Viennese classicism and pioneer of romanticism. In particular in the forms of the symphony, the piano sonata and the string quartet that were fundamental to the era of the Viennese Classic, he has created works whose musical historical influence can hardly be surpassed. For example, Beethoven laid important foundations for the extensive symphonic penetration of the solo concerts in further music history.

In the sonata form , he moved to focus on the implementation and achieved through rigorous motivic work a special degree of structural integrity. Beethoven further developed Haydn and Mozart's concepts of individualized instrumental parts in a process-like form in the sense of a dynamization of the form appropriate to the content of the ideas, which now takes up larger dimensions. Compared to the courtly-aristocratic minuet , Beethoven preferred a serious Scherzo in mostly fast and very fast tempos, which avoids dance rhythms; the finale, which before Beethoven usually had a cheerful and lively outcome, could become the goal of the development of the entire work and possibly even surpass the first movement in terms of length and weight.

Another essential innovation was the unity of a comprehensive idea. What he made clear in individual works (e.g. in the piano sonatas Pathétique and Appassionata , Les Adieux , in the Eroica and in the Pastoral Symphony ) can be applied to the majority of his instrumental works: that in the individual parts of the mental states represented are in an inner relationship to one another.

His sketchbooks show how much tireless work and repeated attempts he tried to give his works the shape in which they finally satisfied him. One is amazed how O. Jahn wrote:

“... about his way of turning and shifting not just individual motifs and melodies , but also the smallest elements of them, and drawing the best form out of all possible variations ; one does not understand how such a musical crumbling work can become an organic whole ... And if these sketches often give the impression of uncertain swaying and touching, then afterwards the admiration for the genuinely ingenious self-criticism grows again, which, after everything has been examined, finally with sovereign Certainty keeps the best. "

- O. Jahn : Collected essays, p. 243.

Bonn time

The early works by Beethoven, which were composed during his time in Bonn, include ten compositions known today from the period 1782–1785. Almost all of them have been published in an effort to stylize him into a child prodigy. In addition, about thirty works from the years 1787–1792 are known, of which only one was published at that time. Beethoven incorporated many of these into later works. The pieces from the first period were still strongly influenced by Neefe's and Sterkel's style and were based on Mozart's example . The later years in Bonn brought more independent songs , cantatas , arias and variations, which in some cases already gave an idea of ​​the composer's analytical work of later times. The works in the sonata style, on the other hand, are not very impressive and in large parts remained fragments; He only acquired this form, which was so important for the later Beethoven, during his time in Vienna.

His early works were originally published by Heinrich Philipp Bossler at Musikverlag. The young Beethoven got his first musical impressions from the flower harvest for piano lovers published by Boßler . His first compositions also appeared in the flower harvest in 1783 . Later, the impresario and music publisher Boßler designed the original of Beethoven's Elector Sonatas . This print remained the only one of the sonatas available until 1828.

First epoch of individual creativity

It began with the publication of the first three piano trios op. 1 (1795) and ended around the years 1800–1802. The 1st symphony is one of them. Beethoven tackled it at the age of 29 and completed it at the beginning of the following year. It premiered on April 2, 1800 with great success. The piano compositions were groundbreaking during this time, both in the form of the concerto as well as the sonata and variation, not only in terms of technique, but also in terms of the composition of the movements and the whole.

Second creative period

It began around 1800–1802 and lasted until 1814. This subheading mainly includes symphonies and piano sonatas.

Eroica and Fidelio

With the 3rd symphony , Beethoven found the form of a rather monumental and heroic symphony. Originally it was called Sinfonia grande, intitolata Bonaparte (named after Napoleon ). After he learned that Napoleon had made himself Emperor of France on May 18, 1804, however - according to an anecdote - he erased the name from the title page in great anger. Its new title was now called Heroic Symphony, composed to celebrate the memory of a great man . Today it is mostly called Eroica with its Italian title . It was premiered in August 1804 in the Vienna palace of Prince Franz Joseph Maximilian von Lobkowitz , to whom it was now dedicated.

Beethoven's only opera was premiered in 1805. Like many other works, it had undergone a number of revisions and was originally called Leonore . In the third version as Fidelio (with the E major overture) she came on stage in 1814. Beethoven did not break new ground in dramatic design with her. She still has her special position through the rich and deep, humanly interesting and touching material and the quality of her music.

Symphonies No. 5 in C minor, No. 6 in F major and No. 7 in A major

Beginning of the 5th symphony

Beethoven's 5th Symphony is also called the Symphony of Fate . It was created during a difficult phase in the composer's life. Beethoven is said to have said about the four distinctive opening notes: “So fate knocks at the gate”. However, this was rejected by music historians as a later legendary attribution. On December 22nd, 1808 it was premiered together with the 6th symphony ( pastoral ), the fourth piano concerto and parts of the C major mass.

The pastoral is not program music in the true sense of the word , as it is often wrongly called, but, according to Beethoven's own statement, "more an expression of feeling than painting". So the symphony is still on the ground of classical music. Franz Liszt , who wrote the first symphonic poems , rather referred to Beethoven's overtures , such as Coriolan or King Stephan , when developing this new genre . However, the nature-related theme of the pastoral was a basic element of the following epoch of Romanticism, the epoch of symphonic poetry par excellence. Likewise, the art of Romanticism placed emphasis on the innermost part of the human being, that is, his feelings and attitudes. From the point of view that Beethoven probably also took for his pastorals, this could very well be regarded as a romantic precursor. This is supported by the extension of the form to five movements as well as the inclusion of instruments (e.g. piccolo ) that are not at home in the classical symphony orchestra. These are innovations clearly pointing to the Romantic era, which are made even more clearly in the triumphant 9th symphony . In addition, some of the “program musical” topoi (“storm” etc.) used in the pastoral were gladly taken up in the romantic era.

In the 7th Symphony in A major, Op. 92, which was completed in 1812 , Beethoven musically anticipated the later anti-Napoleonic wars of liberation . At the premiere in December 1813, it sparked a huge euphoria among the audience. This symphony is characterized by a certain patriotism and does not indicate the coming era of Romanticism as clearly as the previous symphonies. Nevertheless, harmonic and polyphonic innovations can be clearly felt in the work. The central movement of the work is unusually the second, the Allegretto . It is characterized by a solemn pacing rhythm, "like an endless funeral procession of millions". In Beethoven's words, it is dedicated to those “who have sacrificed so much to us”.

Last creative period

In the years 1814 to 1818 Beethoven's production slowed down temporarily. During this period only a few larger compositions were created, e. B. the 28th Piano Sonata in A major (1815) and the Liederkreis . Illness and bitter domestic suffering hampered his imagination. After overcoming this period of discouragement, he was changed in some respects. His feeling was even more internalized with complete isolation from the outside world, as a result of which the expression was often even more moving and immediate than before, whereas the unity of content and form was sometimes not as perfect as usual, but influenced by a subjective factor.

The main works of this third epoch are the Missa solemnis (1818–1823), which Beethoven himself considered to be his most accomplished work, and the ninth symphony in D minor (1823–1824). This period also includes: the overture To the Consecration of the House , Op. 124 (1822), the piano sonatas Op. 106 in B flat major (1818), Op. 109 in E major , Op. 110 in A flat major (1821) and Op. 111 in C minor (1822), the Diabelli Variations , several smaller pieces for piano and voice and finally the last great string quartets, Op. 127 in E flat major (1824), Op. 130 in B flat major and Op. 132 in A minor (1825), Op. 131 in C sharp minor and Op. 135 in F major (1826). The late string quartets go back to Beethoven's preoccupation with Johann Sebastian Bach's compositional techniques, especially his fugue techniques. Nevertheless, these pieces do not point into the past, but far into the future. His Op. 133 ( Large Fugue ) was extraordinarily modern for its time and was barely understood throughout the 19th century. Many drafts, including that for a tenth symphony in E flat major and a string quintet in C major, were in the composer's estate.

9th symphony

Beethoven completed the 9th Symphony in 1824. The last movement with the choral finale to Schiller's poem To Joy is particularly well known. The theme of this sentence is the basis of the European anthem . The symphony expresses the wrestling of a human heart that yearns, out of toil and suffering, for the day of pure joy that is not bestowed upon him in full clarity and purity. The first three movements with their grandiose architecture, instrumentation and thematic processing were trend-setting for the symphonic composers of the Romantic period up to Gustav Mahler . The first performance of the 9th Symphony took place together with parts of the Missa solemnis on May 7th, 1824. Beethoven wanted to support the conductor by specifying the tempos, although he could no longer direct the performance himself. However, the orchestra had been instructed not to heed this.

Symphony No. 10

Beethoven was still working on his 10th symphony shortly before his death, but did not complete it. There are many sketches and notes of the first sentence. Barry Cooper worked these sketches into a first sentence. There are also sketches from 1825 for a third movement, a powerful Scherzo entitled Presto. On October 9, 2021, a version of this 10th symphony was "finished" with the help of artificial intelligence by the Beethoven Orchestra Bonn under the direction of Dirk Kaftan Premiered.

Beethoven's instruments

One of Beethoven's pianos was an instrument made by the Viennese piano company “Geschwister Stein” . On November 19, 1796, Beethoven wrote a letter to Andreas Streicher , Nannette Streicher’s husband : “I received your fortepiano the day before yesterday. It's really wonderful, everyone else would have wanted to keep it to themselves… ” According to Carl Czerny's memories, Beethoven had a fortepiano by Walter in his house in 1801 . In 1802 Beethoven asked his friend Zmeskall to ask Walter whether he could make a fortepiano with one string for him.

In 1803 Beethoven received his Erard grand piano; but as Newman wrote: "Beethoven was unhappy with this instrument from the start, as he found its English mechanics unbearably difficult." Another Beethoven piano, a Broadwood from 1817, a gift from Thomas Broadwood, stood until his death in the year 1827 in his Schwarzsparnierhaus.

Beethoven's last instrument was a four-course fortepiano by Conrad Graf . Graf himself confirmed that he had lent Beethoven a fortepiano with a range of 6½ octaves and later sold it to the Wimmer family after the composer's death. In 1889 the instrument was purchased from the Beethoven House in Bonn.


Works (selection)

( WoO = work without opus number)

Orchestral works


Piano concerts:

Further concert works:


Opera and other stage works


  • Leonore (1st version, comp. 1804/1805, premiere: 1805; libretto by Jv Sonnleithner, 3 acts, 19 song and music numbers, opened with Leonore's overture No. 2)
  • Leonore (2nd version, comp. 1805/1806, premiere: 1806; libretto revised by St.v. Breunig, 2 acts, 18 song and music numbers, opened with Leonore's overture No. 3)
  • Fidelio (3rd version of Leonore , comp. 1814, premiere: 1814; libretto revised by Ms. Treitschke, 2 acts, 17 song and music numbers, opened with the Fidelio overture.)


Stage music:

Vocal works





  • Description of a girl WoO 107
  • To an infant WoO 108
  • The Free Man WoO 117
  • Eight songs op. 52
    Urian's journey around the world , Fire color , The little song of calm , May song , Molly's farewell , Love , Marmotte , The little flower, Wunderhold
  • I love you the way you love me WoO 123
  • La partenza WoO 124
  • Adelaide op.46
  • Farewell song to Vienna's citizens WoO 121
  • War song of the Austrians WoO 122
  • Sacrifice Song WoO 126
  • New love, new life WoO 127 (1st version)
  • La tiranna WoO 125
  • VI Songs by Gellert op. 48
    Requests , The love of the neighbor , Of death , The glory of God from nature ( The heavens boast ) , God's power and providence , penance song
  • Happiness , Op. 88
  • The Quail Beat WoO 129
  • To Hope op.32 (1st setting)
  • Elegy on the death of a poodle WoO 110
  • When the beloved wanted to part (feelings about Lydia's infidelity) WoO 132
  • In questa tomba oscura WoO 133
  • Sehnsucht WoO 134 (4 settings)
  • Souvenir WoO 136
  • The young man in a foreign country WoO 138
  • Song from afar (same piano part as Der Jüngling in der Fremde WoO 138)
  • Singing from afar WoO 137
  • The Lover WoO 139
  • Sechs Gesänge op. 75
    Do you know the country , New Love, New Life (2nd version), From Goethe's Faust (Flea song of Mephisto), Gretel's warning , To the distant beloved , the satisfied
  • Four arietas and a duet
    op.82 Dimmi, ben mio, che m'ami , T'intendo sì, mio ​​cor , L'amante impaziente (Arietta buffa) , L'amante impaziente (Arietta assai seriosa) , Odi l'aura che dolce sospira
  • Drei Gesänge von Goethe op. 83
    Wonne der Wehmut , Sehnsucht , With a painted ribbon
  • To the beloved (version 1)
  • To the beloved WoO 140 (3rd version)
  • The Bard Spirit WoO 142
  • Warrior's Farewell WoO 143
  • Merkenstein WoO 144 (1st setting)
  • Merkenstein op.100 (2nd and 3rd setting)
  • The secret of WoO 145
  • To Hope op.94 (2nd setting)
  • Longing WoO 146
  • To the distant beloved . A circle of songs by Aloys Jeitteles op. 98
    On the hill I sit, peering , Where the mountains are so blue , Light sailors in the heights , These clouds in the heights , The May sweeps, the floodplain blooms , Take them then, these songs
  • The man of the word op.99
  • Ruf vom Berge WoO 147
  • Either way WoO 148
  • Resignation WoO 149
  • Evening song under the starry sky WoO 150
  • Ariette (The Kiss) op.128
  • O sanctissima ("O you happy") WoO 157, No. 4
  • From the songs of different peoples WoO 158
  • Numerous folk song arrangements

Piano works

The focus of his work is on the 32 sonatas for piano. He also wrote variations on foreign and his own themes, of which the Diabelli Variations are among the most important piano works of all.

Among the numerous piano pieces, the three bagatelle collections op. 33, op. 119 and op. 126 are particularly important. Particularly popular are the album sheet Für Elise and the rondo Die Wut über den Lost Groschen (op. 129).

Chamber music

String Trios

  • String trio in E flat major op.3 (1792)
  • Serenade in D major op.8 (1797)
  • Three Trios, Op. 9 (1796–1798)
    • Op. 9 No. 1 in G major
    • Op. 9 No. 2 in D major
    • Op. 9 No. 3 in C minor

String quartets

Piano quartets

  • 3 piano quartets WoO 36 (1785)
    • No. 1 in E flat major
    • No. 2 in D major
    • No. 3 in C major

Piano trios

  • Trio for piano, flute and bassoon WoO 37 (around 1783)
  • Trio movement Hess 48 in E flat major (circa 1790–1792)
  • Gassenhauer Trio op. 11 in B flat major (1798) for piano, violin / clarinet and violoncello, dedicated to Countess Maria Wilhelmine von Thun
  • Trio op.121a in G minor / G major (comp. 1803? / Rev. 1816) - Variations on Wenzel Müller's song Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu

Arrangements by Beethoven's hand:

  • Trio op.38 for piano, clarinet / violin and violoncello (1802/1803), arrangement of the septet op.20
  • Arrangement of the second symphony op.36 for piano trio (1805)

Violin sonatas

Violoncello sonatas and variations

  • Variations for piano and violoncello
    • Twelve variations on a theme from Handel's oratorio Judas Maccabaeus in G major Kinsky-Halm WoO 45 (1796), dedicated to Princess Christiane von Lichnowsky
    • Twelve variations on the theme of a girl or a female from Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte in F major op.66 (1798)
    • Seven variations on the theme For men who feel love from Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte in E flat major Kinsky-Halm WoO 46 (1801), dedicated to Count Johann Georg von Browne

Further chamber music works



  • Ludwig van Beethoven: Masterpieces ● 40 hours MP3 , DVD-ROM, Aretinus Gesellschaft für Musikarchivierung mbH, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-939107-12-3 .

Fictional literature

Ludwig van Beethoven's life and work became not only the subject of music history, but also of literature. Franz Grillparzer wrote the funerary speech like the two-spelled poem of singing words about Beethoven's grave . In 1840 the novella A Pilgrimage to Beethoven was published , in which Richard Wagner puts his own opera performance in the mouth of his role model Beethoven. Heribert Rau portrayed him in his work Beethoven, published in 1859 , an artist's life . In 1903 Romain Rolland heroized the composer as an artist and fighter in his psychological novel Vie de Beethoven ( Beethoven's Life ). Kurt Delbrück wrote The Love of Young Beethoven in 1922 and three years later the novel Beethoven's Last Love . In 1926 Arthur Schurig recounted the life of the composer in the volume of stories Vom Glücke Beethoven . In 1927 Ottokar Janetschek's book Der Titan was published, a retelling of Beethoven's life. Felix Huch's two-part historical novel Beethoven followed in 1927/1931 . The Moab sonnets of Albrecht Haushofer included with Beethoven a reflexive poem about the piano sonatas of deaf Creator. In the second half of the 20th century, Alfred Karrasch succeeded with the novel Appassionata. A Beethoven novel of life and a sales success. In 1952 the novella Das Godesberg Breakfast by Heinz Magka was published by Voggenreiter-Verlag . In 1973, Die Mühsal einer Tag was published . A Beethoven novel by Joachim Kupsch ; a year later the sonnets to Beethoven by Gustinus Ambrosi . In addition to novels and poems, numerous stage plays dealt with the composer's life.

Films about Beethoven


With the initial issue date January 2, 2020 was the German Post AG for the 250th anniversary of Beethoven a special stamp in the denomination out of 80 euro cents. The design comes from the graphic artist Thomas Steinacker from Bonn. On January 20, 1970, the GDR Post issued a stamp from the Famous People series .

Beethoven as the namesake

The following institutions, events and locations were named in honor of Beethoven.

See also

Biographical sources

  • Franz Gerhard Wegeler , Ferdinand Ries : Biographical notes on Ludwig van Beethoven. Bädeker, Koblenz 1838.
  • Franz Gerhard Wegeler: Addendum to the biographical notes on Ludwig van Beethoven. Bädeker, Koblenz 1845.
  • Anton Schindler : Biography of Ludwig van Beethoven. Aschendorff, Münster 1860.
  • Gerhard von Breuning : From the Schwarzspanierhaus. Memories of L. v. Beethoven from my youth. Rosner, Vienna 1874
  • Arrey von Dommer:  Beethoven, Ludwig van . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, pp. 251-268.
  • Ludwig van Beethoven: Correspondence. Complete edition. Edited by Sieghard Brandenburg . 7 volumes. Henle, Munich 1996–1998.
  • Karl-Heinz Köhler , Grita Herre, Dagmar Beck (eds.): Ludwig van Beethoven's conversation books. 11 volumes. Leipzig 1972-2001.
  • Maynard Solomon (ed.): Beethoven's diary 1812–1818. Beethoven House, Bonn 2005.
  • Klaus Martin Kopitz : An unknown request from Beethoven to Emperor Franz I. In: Bonn Beethoven Studies. Volume 6 (2007), pp. 101-113.
  • Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries in diaries, letters, poems and memories. Edited by Klaus Martin Kopitz and Rainer Cadenbach , with the collaboration of Oliver Korte and Nancy Tanneberger. 2 volumes. Henle, Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-87328-120-2 .
  • Josef Niesen : Bonn Personal Lexicon. 3rd, improve. and exp. Ed. Bouvier, Bonn 2011, ISBN 978-3-416-03352-7 , pp. 39-42.
  • Stefan Michael Newerkla : The Irish imperial counts of Browne-Camus in Russian and Austrian service. From the Treaty of Limerick (1691) to the death of her family friend Ludwig van Beethoven (1827). In: Lazar Fleishman, Stefan Michael Newerkla, Michael Wachtel (eds.): Скрещения судеб. Literary and cultural relations between Russia and the West. A Festschrift for Fedor B. Poljakov (= Stanford Slavic Studies. Volume 49). Peter Lang, Berlin 2019, pp. 43–68.


Web links

Wikisource: Ludwig van Beethoven  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Ludwig van Beethoven  - album with pictures, videos and audio files



Foreign language websites

Notes and lyrics


Individual evidence

  1. a b Surprising discovery - Beethoven was not completely deaf. on the website of Der Tagesspiegel .
  2. a b Ludwig van Beethoven on the website of Planet Wissen .
  3. Classical Ranking 2014: Beethoven beats all competitors. In: Die Presse from January 14, 2015.
  4. Beethovens Adel , in: Archive for Stamm- und Wappenkunde , edited by Lorenz M. Rheude , 1908, p. 39 f. Ludwig van Beethoven. Leben und Schaffen , Volume 2, Berlin 1875, pp. 257-259 ; G. Mensch: Ludwig van Beethoven: a musical character picture , Leipzig 1861, p. 264 f.
  5. Did you know - Focus on Belgium . Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  6. Alexander Wheelock Thayer: Ludwig van Beethoven's life. Edited from the original manuscript in German by Hermann Deiters. 1st volume, 3rd edition (revision by Hugo Riemann ). Leipzig 1917, p. 452.
  7. Alexander Wheelock Thayer: Ludwig van Beethoven's life. Edited by Hermann Deiters and Hugo Riemann. Volume 1, Leipzig 1917, p. 121 ( )
  8. Alexander Wheelock Thayer: Ludwig van Beethoven's life. S. 114.
    Ludwig van Beethoven: Correspondence. Complete edition. Volume 1. Ed. By Sieghard Brandenburg . Henle, Munich, 1996, No. 65 and Volume 5, No. 1855.
  9. ^ Ludwig Nohl: The Beethovens in Bonn. A biographical sketch. In: The Gazebo. Illustrated family sheet . Born in 1879. Ernst Keil, Leipzig 1879, pp. 612–616. (With portrait of the grandfather (wood engraving after painting by Radoux))
  10. Klaus Martin Kopitz , Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries. Munich 2009, No. 695.
  11. Jürgen May: Neefe as a partner in Beethoven's fame. In: Helmut Loos (ed.): Christian Gottlob Neefe (1748–1798). An independent artist personality. Conference report. Chemnitz 1998. pp. 237-253.
  12. Jürgen May: Neefe as a partner in Beethoven's fame. P. 242f.
  13. ^ Knud Breyer: Foreign language skills. In: Heinz von Loesch, Claus Raab (ed.): Das Beethoven-Lexikon. Laaber 2008, p. 264.
  14. ^ Sieghard Brandenburg: Beethoven's political experiences in Bonn. In: Helga Lühning , Sieghard Brandenburg (ed.): Beethoven. Between revolution and restoration. Bonn 1989, pp. 3-50.
  15. Klaus Martin Kopitz, Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries. Munich 2009, No. 534.
  16. Dieter Haberl: Beethoven's first trip to Vienna - The dating of his school trip to WA Mozart. In: New Musicological Yearbook. 14, 2006, pp. 215-255.
  17. Ludwig van Beethoven: Correspondence. Volume 1, No. 14.
  18. Carlheinz Gräter: Hohenloher rarities - history and stories. Silberburg-Verlag, 2010.
  19. Max Braubach (Ed.): The family books of Beethoven and Babette Koch. Bonn 1970, p. 19.
  20. ^ Beethoven apartments in the Vienna History Wiki of the City of Vienna
  21. Ludwig van Beethoven. Correspondence. Volume 1, No. 65.
  22. Gottfried Scholz: Who is considered an Austrian composer? The concept of Austria in the course of history as a problem of national music historiography. In: Report on the International Musicological Congress of the Society for Music Research Bayreuth 1981. Bärenreiter, Kassel 1984, ISBN 3-7618-0750-3 , p. 445 ff.
  23. Gustav Nottebohm : Beethoven's manuscripts relating to figured bass and composition theory and Seyfried's book “Ludwig van Beethoven's studies in figured bass” etc. In: Beethoveniana. Peters, Leipzig 1872, pp. 154–203, here p. 171. Textarchiv - Internet Archive
  24. ^ Franz Gerhard Wegeler, Ferdinand Ries: Biographical Notes on Ludwig van Beethoven. Koblenz 1838, p. 84.
  25. ^ Franz Gerhard Wegeler, Ferdinand Ries: Biographical Notes on Ludwig van Beethoven. Koblenz 1838, p. 36.
  26. Jürgen May: Beethoven and Prince Karl Lichnowsky. In: (Ed.): Beethoven Forum. Vol. 3 (1994), pp. 29-38, here p. 33.
  27. ^ Jan Caeyers: Beethoven. The lonely revolutionary. A biography . CH Beck, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-406-63128-3 , p. 169 ff .
  28. Ludwig van Beethoven. Correspondence. Volume 1, No. 65.
  29. Hans-Peter Zenner: Beethoven's deafness: “I have to live like an exile”. In: Deutsches Ärzteblatt . 2002 99 (42).
  30. ^ Leo Jacobson: Ludwig van Beethoven's hearing problems. In: German Medical Weekly .  36 (1910), pp. 1282-1285.
  31. A. Laskiewicz: Ludwig van Beethoven tragedy of audiological point of view. In: laryngology, rhinology, otology and their border areas.  43, pp. 261-270 (1964).
  32. H. Jesserer, H. Bankl: Beethoven deaf from Paget's disease? Report on the discovery and examination of skull fragments by Ludwig van Beethoven. In: Laryngology, Rhinology, Otology.  65: 592-597 (1986) et al.
  33. Otosclerosis is a disease of the bones in the inner ear that leads to hearing loss. Today patients are often helped with prostheses that were still unknown in Beethoven's time. See also Knud Breyer, article Taubheit . In: Heinz von Loesch , Claus Raab (ed.): Das Beethoven-Lexikon. Laaber, Laaber 2008, pp. 760-762.
  34. Ludwig van Beethoven. Correspondence. Volume 1, No. 106.
  35. Robbins Landon. P. 7.
  36. Maynard Solomon: Beethoven. Biography. Translated by Ulrike von Puttkamer. Frankfurt am Main 1987.
  37. ^ Franz Gerhard Wegeler, Ferdinand Ries: Biographical Notes on Ludwig van Beethoven. Koblenz 1838, p. 78.
  38. Ludwig van Beethoven: Correspondence . Volume 1, No. 152.
  39. ^ Ulrich Schmitt: The revolution in the concert hall. About the Beethoven reception in the 19th century. Mainz et al. 1990, pp. 191-220.
  40. Lidia Procner, Franciszek Dendewicz: Sławne Postacie Pogranicza polsko-czeskiego Euroregionu Pradziad - wspólne dziedzictwo historyczne - Ludwig van Beethoven . Powiat Nyski, Nysa 2007, ISBN 978-83-60431-09-2 , pp. 16 (Polish).
  41. Jürgen May: Beethoven and Prince Karl Lichnowsky. P. 33. In: Glenn Stanley (Ed.): Beethoven Forum. vol. 3: 29-38 (1994)
  42. Ludwig van Beethoven: Correspondence. Volume 1, No. 302 and 303.
  43. Cf. Klaus Martin Kopitz : Beethoven's appointment to Kassel to the court of Jérôme Bonaparte. A search for clues. In: The Tonkunst . Vol. 5, No. 3 from July 2011, pp. 326-335
  44. The decisive factor was probably a concert on December 22nd, 1808, which Beethoven gave in the Theater an der Wien , which was also attended by the “highest court” and which “delighted the large audience and silenced petty envious people”. See Augsburgische Ordinari Postzeitung. Nro. 11, Freytag, January 13th, 1809, p. 1, as a digitized version of the Augsburg University Library .
  45. Martella Gutiérrez-Denhoff: "O unfortunate decree". Beethoven's pension from Prince Lobkowitz, Prince Kinsky and Archduke Rudolph. In: Sieghard Brandenburg, Martella Gutiérrez-Denhoff (ed.): Beethoven and Böhmen. Contributions to the biography and history of Beethoven's impact. Bonn 1988, pp. 91-145
  46. ^ Renate Moering: Bettine von Arnim's literary implementation of her Beethoven experience. In: Cornelia Bartsch, Beatrix Borchardt, Rainer Cadenbach (eds.): The “male” and the “female” Beethoven. Report on the International Musicological Congress from October 31 to November 4, 2001 at the Berlin University of the Arts. Bonn 2003, pp. 251-277.
  47. Quoted from Massin 1955/1970, p. 208.
  48. Quoted from Massin 1955/1970, p. 210.
  49. Quoted from Massin 1955/1970, p. 209.
  50. ^ Franz Gerhard Wegeler, Ferdinand Ries: Biographical Notes on Ludwig van Beethoven. Koblenz 1838, p. 117.
  51. Klaus Martin Kopitz : Beethoven's childhood love Johanna von Honrath (1770–1823). A contribution to her biography. In: Bonn Beethoven Studies. Volume 9, 2011, ISBN 978-3-88188-121-0 , pp. 155-158. (PDF).
  52. Facsimile of the letter p. 48 In: Robert Bory: Ludwig van Beethoven. His life and work in pictures. Zurich 1960.
  53. Proof: Schmidt-Görg 41. - SBH 490 Facsimile of the Beethoven-Haus: Schiedermair, Beethoven. Contributions to life and work based on documents from the Beethoven House. Bonn 1930
  54. In May 1799, mother Anna brought her two daughters Therese and Josephine to Vienna to see Beethoven, who accepted them both as piano students. Later - after Josephine's marriage - he also got to know the other siblings; a Duz friendship developed with Franz over the years.
  55. Therese Brunsvik in her memoir, quoted from La Mara (1909), p. 68 f.
  56. Susanne Beyer : Ludwig the greatest. The mirror 49, 3o. 11. 2019. Hamburg 2019, p. 121
  57. ^ Joseph Kerman, Alan Tyson : Ludwig van Beethoven. In: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Ed. by Stanley Sadie , Vol. 2: Back – Bolivia. Macmillan: London 1980, Repr. 1988, p. 364
  58. Beethoven: Thirteen unknown letters to Josephine Countess Deym born v. Brunsvik. Facsimile. Introduction and transmission by Joseph Schmidt-Görg. 2nd edition Bonn 1986.
  59. Tellenbach (1988), p. 259 f.
  60. Klaus Martin Kopitz, Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries. Munich 2009, No. 141.
  61. Steblin (2007), p. 159.
  62. Steblin (2007), p. 162.
  63. ^ Joseph Kerman, Alan Tyson: Ludwig van Beethoven . In: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. Ed. by Stanley Sadie, Vol. 2: Back – Bolivia. Macmillan: London 1980, Repr. 1988, p. 367
  64. Klaus Martin Kopitz, Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries. Munich 2009, No. 154.
    It is striking that Beethoven was often sick and depressed since 1810 (after Josephine's remarriage) (as Thayer already observed).
  65. Klaus Martin Kopitz, Rainer Cadenbach (Ed.): Beethoven from the point of view of his contemporaries. Munich 2009, No. 160.
  66. | Remmel Ia: Beethoven and Minona. Retrieved January 3, 2021
  67. ^ Walter Abendroth: Late identification. Solved riddles about Beethoven's life. In: The time . March 11, 1954
  68. Wolfgang Schreiber: "My dearest being" . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . September 18, 2015.
  69. Remmel la: Beethoven and Minona ( en ) January 21, 2020. Accessed February 1, 2020.
  70. "... it is the first time that I feel that - marrying could make you happy, unfortunately it is not of mine - and now - I could of course not marry ..." (Beethoven to Wegeler, November 16, 1801. In: Ludwig van Beethoven: Correspondence . Volume 1, No. 70)
  71. Recently Rita Steblin (2009) has dealt extensively with the alleged romance between Beethoven and Julie around 1801/1802 and brought new facts to light from Julie's life.
  72. ^ Klaus Martin Kopitz : Therese von Zandt. In: Beatrix Borchard, Nina Noeske: MUGI. Music education and gender research: lexicon and multimedia presentations . Hamburg University of Music and Drama, 2003 ff. Status from May 20, 2011.
  73. ^ Exhibition in Asbeck - Beethoven's secret love. In: Münsterland newspaper. June 14, 2017.
  74. Brandenburg (1996), Letter No. 271, March 4, 1807.
  75. Brandenburg (1996), Letter No. 273, March 6, 1807.
  76. Kopitz (2015)
  77. Weimar Newspaper. Vol. 52, No. 54 from March 6, 1883.
  78. Klaus Martin Kopitz: Beethoven, Elisabeth Röckel and the album sheet “Für Elise”. Cologne 2010.
  79. Klaus Martin Kopitz: Beethoven's "Elise" Elisabeth Röckel. New aspects of the creation and transmission of the piano piece WoO 59. In: Die Tonkunst. Vol. 9, No. 1, January 2015, pp. 48–57
  80. ^ William Meredith: New Acquisitions (Summer 2012): The Yvonne Hummel Collection. In: The Beethoven Journal. Vol. 27, No. 2 (Winter 2012), pp. 74–80
  81. Kopitz (2015)
  82. Michael Lorenz: The "Unmasked Elise": Elisabeth Röckels short career as Beethoven's "Elise". In: Bonn Beethoven Studies. Volume 9 (2011), pp. 169–190, here p. 177.
  83. Alexander Wheelock Thayer: Ludwig van Beethoven's life. Edited from the original manuscript in German by Hermann Deiters. 2nd volume. 2nd edition (revised and supplemented by Hugo Riemann). Leipzig 1910, p. 553.
  84. Kopitz / Cadenbach, No. 73.
  85. Kopitz / Cadenbach, p. 69.
  86. Kopitz (2001), p. 135.
  87. Goldschmidt (1977), p. 138 f.
  88. ^ There is no proof that Beethoven and Antonie met in Prague. ["There is no evidence that Beethoven and Antonie met in Prague."] (Solomon 1972, p. 577.)
  89. Clearly, there is no possibility of absolute certainty here […] It is possible that the letter arose from a… meeting with a woman who informed Beethoven that she was going to Karlsbad and then failed to carry out her declared intention. [“Obviously there is no absolute certainty here…] It is possible that the letter was written as a result of meeting a woman… who informed Beethoven that she wanted to go to Karlsbad and then did not use it to carry out her declared intention came. "] (Solomon 1998, p. 219 f.)
  90. Lockwood (2009), p. 155 f.
  91. Both life documents were found in a secret compartment of his desk after Beethoven's death.
  92. Karl-Heinz Köhler, Grita Herre, Dagmar Beck (eds.): Ludwig van Beethovens Konversationshefte. 11 volumes, Leipzig 1968–2001.
  93. Beethoven: Draft of a memorandum to the Court of Appeal in Vienna of February 18, 1820. Introduction, translation and comments by Dagmar Weise. Bonn 1953.
  94. Alexander Wheelock Thayer: Ludwig van Beethoven's life. Based on the previous work and materials, continued by Hermann Deiters. 5th volume (edited by Hugo Riemann). Leipzig 1908, p. 90.
  95. ^ Anton Schindler: Biography of Ludwig van Beethoven. Munster 1940.
  96. Grita Herre, Dagmar Beck: Anton Schindler's bogus entries in the conversation books. In: Harry Goldschmidt (Ed.): On Beethoven. Articles and annotations. Volume 1. Berlin 1979, pp. 11-89.
  97. Hans Bankl, Hans Jesserer: The diseases of Ludwig van Beethoven. Pathography of his life and pathology of his suffering. Vienna 1987.
  98. Argonne Researchers Confirm Lead In Beethoven's Illness. In: Science Daily. December 8, 2005 (English).
  99. Horst Scherf: Beethoven's illness. New knowledge about his suffering. Munich 1977.
  100. The sufferings of Ludwig van Beethoven . In: Deutschlandfunk . ( [accessed December 18, 2016]).
  101. Daniel Deckers: Let the foam splash to heaven - Was Beethoven sick with wine? In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . December 16, 2020
  102. ^ Felix Czeike: Historical Lexicon Vienna. Volume 5, Kremayr & Scheriau Verlag, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-218-00547-7 , p. 574.
  103. Alexander Wheelock Thayer: Ludwig van Beethoven's life. Based on the previous work and materials, continued by Hermann Deiters. 5th volume (edited by Hugo Riemann). Leipzig 1908, p. 495.
  104. Schubert as a torchbearer
  105. Little Chronicle. (...) Beethoven's funeral. In:  Wiener Zeitung , June 23, 1888, p. 24, column 3 ff. (Online at ANNO ). Template: ANNO / Maintenance / wrz; Next page 25.
  106. Michael Ladenburger, Silke Bettermann: Three burials and one death. Beethoven's end and the culture of remembrance of his time (? Beethoven-Haus publications. 12). Bonn 2002.
  107. ^ Rudolf Stephan: Beethoven, Ludwig van . In: Horst Weber (Hrsg.): Metzler composers lexicon . Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 1992, ISBN 3-476-00847-9 , pp. 39 .
  108. This topic is reflected in: Stefan Keym (Hrsg.): Motivisch-thematic work as the epitome of music? On the history and problems of a “German” music discourse. Olms-Verlag, 2015, ISBN 3-48715-295-9 .
  109. Martin Geck: Beethoven's symphonies. Nine ways to a work of art. Oetwil am See 2019, ISBN 3-48708-556-9 , p. 82.
  110. Guido Adler (Ed.): Handbuch der Musikgeschichte . License edition; Photo mechan. Reprint d. 2nd Edition. tape 3 . Hans Schneider, Tutzing 1977, ISBN 3-423-04041-6 , pp. 821 .
  111. Wolfgang Steinbeck: I only want one thing - the end. Prolegomena to a story of closing . In: Archives for Musicology . tape 69 , 2012, p. 282, 287, 288 .
  112. ^ Hans Schneider: The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographical overviews and an appendix by Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Hans Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 43, 74, 102 .
  113. ^ Carl Dahlhaus: Ludwig van Beethoven and his time. Pp. 45 ff. And 110 ff.
  114. What are meant here, a month and a half after the Battle of Leipzig , are the countless soldiers who died in the anti-Napoleonic wars. Beethoven's quotation comes from his address of thanks to the participants at the premiere of the symphony; quoted from: Harry Goldschmidt : Beethoven. Factory introductions. Reclam, Leipzig 1975, p. 53.
  115. Ignaz Josef Pleyel (1757–1831) acquired the marketing rights (for France) for the opp on January 24, 1827. 130, 133 and 134. The contract in French was concluded in the presence of witnesses in Vienna and notarized. See contract between Ludwig van Beethoven and Ignaz Pleyel, Vienna, January 24, 1827 in the Beethoven-Haus Bonn, accessed on June 12, 2019.
  116. Beethoven's sketches for a symphony
  117. Artificial intelligence completes Beethoven's 10th symphony ›Frankfurter Allgemeine. Retrieved October 11, 2021 .
  118. Johann Grolle: In Beethovens Hirn , Der Spiegel , Hamburg, No. 41, October 9, 2021, p. 106 f.
  119. Artificial intelligence “composed” Beethoven's tithe ›infosperber. Retrieved November 4, 2021 .
  120. ^ Ludwig van Beethoven, letter to Andreas Streicher in Vienna , Pressburg, November 19, 1796, autograph.
  121. Carl Czerny, On the correct performance of all Beethoven's piano works (Vienna 1963), ed. Paul Badura-Skoda p.10
  122. ^ Ludwig van Beethoven, letter to Nikolaus Zmeskall , Vienna, November 1802, autograph
  123. Willian Newman. Beethoven on Beethoven (New York, 1988) pp. 45-54
  124. ^ Letter from Ludwig van Beethoven to Thomas Broadwood , February 3, 1818, in French
  125. Beethoven's living room and music room in the "Schwarzspanierhaus" in Vienna, 1827 - Etching by Gustav Leybold after a drawing by Johann Nepomuk Hoechle
  126. ^ Conrad Graf, Certificate of authenticity for the Ludwig van Beethoven grand piano , Vienna, June 26, 1849, autograph
  127. S. Geiser, 'Ein Beethoven-Flügel in der Schweiz', Der Bund, no.469 (Berne, 3 Nov 1961), no.480 (10 Nov 1961)
  128. .
  129. ^ Paul Bülow: Beethoven in the narrative poetry of the present. In: The tower keeper . Vol. 29, No. 6, 1926/1927, pp. 486-491.
  130. ^ "Louis van Beethoven" (AT): Shooting for the fictional television event in the first on the occasion of the Beethoven year 2020. In: November 12, 2020, accessed September 20, 2020 .
  131. ↑ Postage stamps January 2020
  132. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - extended edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
  133. August – Halm-Archiv ,, accessed March 12, 2021