Maximilian Franz of Austria
Maximilian Franz Xaver Joseph Johann Anton de Paula Wenzel of Austria (* December 8, 1756 in Vienna , † July 26, 1801 in Hetzendorf near Vienna ), as Austrian Archduke Maximilian II. Franz , was Grand Master of the Teutonic Order from 1780 and from 1784 to 1801 Elector and Archbishop of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Münster . He was influenced by the Enlightenment and tried to implement reforms in various political areas. In the course of the first coalition war , the areas on the left bank of the Rhine were occupied and France later incorporated. Maximilian Franz never saw the implementation of secularization and thus the end of the electoral state.
Max Franz, as his mother called him, was the youngest son of the Holy Roman Emperor Franz I Stephan and his wife Maria Theresia von Habsburg and was born on his father's 48th birthday. He had fifteen siblings, two of his older brothers were the emperors Joseph II and Leopold II.
The father died at the age of nine, so that his upbringing was entirely in the hands of Maria Theresa. Originally he was supposed to take over the Hungarian governorship. For this he received the Grand Cross of the Order of St. Stephen in 1767 . He has also visited the country several times. In 1777 he wrote a memorandum with various reform proposals. He was also to succeed Karl Alexander von Lorraine as high and German master of the Teutonic Order . At the age of 13, on July 9, 1770. He was of Charles Alexander of Lorraine in the Vienna Augustinian church for German Teutonic Knights defeated, having already on October 3, 1769 coadjutor of the Grand Master was elected.
In 1774 he undertook his first great journey as a cavalier tour through Germany , the Netherlands , Italy and France , where he also got to know the order and its members. As a result of his stay at the court of Versailles , he developed a permanent aversion to the mentality of the French nobility . On the occasion of his stay in Salzburg, Mozart wrote the opera Il re pastore in his honor . Since his mother wanted to make him governor- general of Hungary , he received instruction in the war subject and underwent severe military training in Hungary. During the short campaign in the War of the Bavarian Succession , he accompanied his brother Joseph II , who praised his skills. However, he got so sick that all thought of a military profession had to be given up. Lumps on both legs had to be surgically removed. The fact that he was not up to military tasks also meant the end of the governor's plans.
Coadjutor election in Cologne and Münster
Maria Theresa initially had no plans to secure Maximilian Franz the archbishopric of Cologne. Wenzel Anton von Kaunitz-Rietberg successfully argued that a Habsburg secondary school in Kurköln could provide a certain counterweight to the Prussian influence in north-west Germany. Thereupon Maria Theresa decided against the will of Maximilian Franz that he should enter the clergy. She wanted to seek the archbishopric in Cologne and the bishopric in Münster. Maximilian Franz only reluctantly agreed to this. The plans met with courtesy when Electoral Cologne Prime Minister and knights Caspar Anton von Belderbusch . Both Prussia and the Netherlands were against the candidacy of a Habsburg in northwestern Germany . The Münster State Minister Franz von Fürstenberg , who himself aspired to the office of Bishop of Münster, was against a candidacy from Maximilian Franz.
Maria Theresa finally succeeded in convincing the Archbishop of Cologne, Maximilian Friedrich , to accept her son as coadjutor . In addition, he received a considerable lifelong pension and Belderbusch also received large sums of money. His nephew was also awarded the title of Count. The canons were also given the usual "gifts".
It was important that Louis XVI. for his brother-in-law Max Franz, the brother of his wife Marie Antoinette . This made an impression on the European powers and made a threatening letter from Prussia ineffective. The letter drove the undecided Cologne canons to the side of Maximilian Franz. On August 7, 1780, he was unanimously elected coadjutor in Cologne and on August 16, 1780, coadjutor in Münster .
On July 9, 1780 granted him the Vienna Nuncio Giuseppe Garampi in the Vienna Court Orchestra, the tonsure and on 1 August 1780, the minor orders . The Pope had initially exempted him from receiving higher orders for the next five years. Max Franz initially had an aversion to the clergy, but this increasingly gave way, especially since he was now concerned with theological studies.
With the death of his uncle, Max Franz was enthroned in Mergentheim on October 25, 1780 as Grand Master of the Teutonic Order. The leadership of the order and the government of the small and fragmented area of the order made him familiar with practical government work, and he was actively supported by his governor in Mergentheim, Count Christian zu Erbach-Schönberg , since 1783 . He proved to be a conscientious administrator who initiated reforms in the judiciary, in the school system and in the church sector.
Elector of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Munster
After he was Pope Pius VI in the spring of 1783 . in Rome, he became the new Archbishop- Elector of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Munster through the death of the reigning Bishop Maximilian Friedrich von Königsegg-Rothenfels on April 21, 1784 . On April 27, 1784, he arrived in his new residence city of Bonn and took over the government of his dioceses. After retiring to the Cologne seminary for three weeks in November , he was ordained a subdeacon on December 8, 1784 by the Cologne nuncio Giuseppe Bellisomi , on December 16, he was ordained a deacon and on December 21, he was ordained a priest . After he had celebrated his first mass at Christmas 1784 , he was ordained bishop on May 8, 1785 in Bonn Minster by the Archbishop of Trier, Clemens Wenzeslaus of Saxony .
According to his enlightened convictions, Max Franz saw himself as the first servant of his state. This found its expression in the fact that he actually ruled his principalities himself.
Although the devout Catholic Maximilian Franz did not embark on a spiritual career because of his calling, he took his official duties as bishop seriously, unlike some of his predecessors. He celebrated mass several times a week, made extensive use of his ordination right and took part in church festivities such as the Corpus Christi procession . He traveled through his diocese and held church dedications and confirmations . His predecessors had mostly left these tasks to the auxiliary bishops, who were not able to travel to all parts of the diocese. Archbishop confirmations developed into mass events under Maximilian Franz. On the occasion of his visit to the state parliament of the Duchy of Westphalia , he donated confirmation to over 27,000 people in Arnsberg and then in Brilon , the Grafschaft monastery and Olpe within a few days. Something similar happened in the sequence in 1787 and 1788 with similarly high numbers in the Rhenish part of the diocese and again in 1793 in the Duchy of Westphalia.
He also differed from his predecessors in his appearance. So he always appeared modestly and simply dressed. He looked like a village vicar to those around him. In Bonn people were amazed that the elector showed himself alone on the streets in a simple gray overcoat and gave audiences in an old black coat . He also moved among common people and spoke to everyone. This behavior is similar to that of his brother Joseph, who reduced the expenses of the Viennese court and encouraged general thrift. Instead of living in the Electoral Palace in Bonn , he lived in the comparatively modest predecessor building of what would later become the Bonn Mining Authority . In Münster, where he rarely stayed anyway, he did not live in the Prince-Bishop's Palace either , but in a small house in the cathedral courtyard. In the diocese of Münster he was popular with the population because of his affability and helpfulness and was considered a friend of the people. In contrast, his reputation among the predominantly conservative nobility was limited.
Max Franz knew how to represent it. During his reign, the Redoute in Bonn was created as an entertainment building. He made great representational effort at the three-day inauguration celebrations of Bonn University . But there was no longer an elaborate court life with numerous festivities such as that under Clemens August von Bayern . The relationships with women ascribed to him by contemporaries and in retrospect did not exist. He relaxed with walks or musical conversations. Occasionally he also made music himself. One of his rather negative characteristics was his deep distrust of everyone, which also led to injustices for his respective counterpart, for example in the form of derogatory or derisive remarks.
Maximilian Franz was strongly influenced by the ideas of the Enlightenment and tried to reform his spiritual principalities according to enlightened ideas.
The new elector largely determined the course of the government himself. The actual decisions were made in the cabinet, while the great state conference became less important. In the spirit of an enlightened reform policy, Johann Christian von Waldenfels acted as Minister of State . But this could not exercise the influence, as Belderbusch had done under the old elector. He had to share this with the previous Landdrost in the Duchy of Westphalia, Franz Wilhelm von Spiegel , who became President of the Court Chamber, Senior Building Director and President of the Bonn Academy. This made a contribution to the restructuring of state finances and implemented a reform of education policy. The archbishop's approach went too far in some cases. The criticism of Spiegel also makes Maximilian Franz's own position clear: “In Catholic Germany we would have come closer to the Enlightenment if we had gone to work step by step with caution and knowledge of human nature and not wanted to storm everything at once. Deep-rooted prejudices must first be undermined and then lifted, but not uprooted all at once, otherwise you run the risk of opening a dangerous wound. "
He hardly interfered in the internal affairs of the Hochstift Munster. He trusted that the reforms would be continued by Franz von Fürstenberg and other officials.
Education was a focus of the reforms. The basis should be the establishment or improvement of elementary schools. Normal schools were founded to train teachers. There were models in Münster since 1783 and in Mergentheim since 1784. The teachers had to take an exam before hiring. In the Electoral Cologne Duchy of Westphalia, Friedrich Adolf Sauer was the driving force. The establishment of industrial schools in which the pupils were taught practical skills in addition to reading and writing also belongs in this context . The elector also tried to enforce compulsory schooling . To improve the material situation of the schools, school funds were set up for the Rhenish and Westphalian part of the Kurstaate. Based on the elementary school system, the reform of the universities and grammar schools was also planned. The school system was subordinated to the state administration (school commission). Its director was Franz Oberthür . School regulations from 1799, which were binding for all schools, could only come into force in Vest Recklinghausen and in the Duchy of Westphalia due to the war. High schools previously supported by orders such as the Laurentianum high school in Arnsberg became state-owned. The universities should also become state institutions. They should do research as well as educate members of the higher public professions.
Of particular importance was Max Franz's involvement with the University of Cologne . This was only slightly influenced by the Enlightenment and therefore often represented anti-Enlightenment ideas. But since the officials of the Electorate of Cologne and the priests of the Archdiocese of Cologne had previously studied there, he sponsored the new university in Bonn , the establishment of which had been the last work of his predecessor Max Friedrich and which was now to be strongly influenced by the new ideas.
Oriented towards the absolutist idea of the state, Maximilian Franz tried to strengthen the archbishop's authority and jurisdiction in the ecclesiastical area. Counter-forces outside the electoral state were the governments of the secular territories, but also the traditional exemptions and the various ecclesiastical intermediate powers. In relation to the neighboring sovereigns, his approach remained moderate. The situation was different with regard to the papal nunciature in Cologne.
The papal nuncios of Cologne interfered in the affairs of the archbishopric for a long time and thus became competition for the elector. The conflict was exacerbated by the establishment of a nunciature in Munich, responsible for all Wittelsbach areas and thus also for the United Duchies of Kleve-Jülich-Berg , which from 1777 belonged to the Electoral Palatinate of Bavaria and were ruled from Munich and spiritually belonged to the Archdiocese of Cologne. Maximilian Franz opposed this and aimed at eliminating the rights of all nunciatures. He obtained the issuance of a letter from the emperor directed against the nuncios. Max Franz forbade the Nuncio of Cologne to exercise his powers and joined the opposition of the German Archbishops against the Pope and his nuncios ( Emser Congress ). However, Maximilian Franz refused to have any further ideas, for example from the Archbishop of Mainz. Until his death there was no solution to the dispute in which Cologne University interfered on the side of the nuncio.
Since he saw the mendicant orders as outdated and parasitic, he imposed a ban on accepting new members. One goal was to create the one educated pastoral clergy who were mindful of their duties in order to elevate the people religiously and morally. This was supported by the promotion of systematic theological studies, care and preaching and catechesis, a popular worship service and the cleansing of popular belief to remove superstitions and abuses.
Despite his willingness to reform, also in the church sector, he remained committed to the system of the imperial church. With a conceivable secularization of the electoral state in connection with the coalition wars , he was not prepared to remain in office as secular ruler. He was also not ready to continue his episcopate under another sovereign.
Legal, economic and social policy
Maximilian Franz tried to simplify the judicial system (which until then had been characterized by an unclear court system ) and to accelerate court hearings. For example, a higher appeal court was founded in Bonn in 1786. Appeals to foreign courts and especially to the nunciature were largely superfluous. Efforts have also been made to speed up the duration of the individual cases. In addition, torture has been almost completely eliminated. The government of the neighboring Duchy of Westphalia was subordinated to the court chamber in Bonn in 1787. Attempts were also made to counteract oligarchic excesses in the cities. Overall, however, the elector respected the rights of the estates and the Cologne cathedral chapter . Although Graf Spiegel, as president of the court chamber, managed to increase state revenue considerably, far-reaching financial reforms failed due to the resistance of the estates.
In contrast to the measures in cultural and legal policy, changes in economic, agricultural and welfare policy have remained limited or have only just started. Still, there have been some notable approaches. In 1784, for example, fire services were regulated by fire and extinguishing regulations. Various forest protection ordinances were issued against overexploitation of the forests. The last one was issued in 1789. In 1791 all factories and manufactories (at least in the Duchy of Westphalia) were exempted from the guild obligation.
The effects of the French Revolution were evident in the provisions on the reception of emigrants. In 1794, preparations were made for recruiting. Vigorous action should be taken against agitators and troublemakers.
Even when he had to flee from the approaching French, Maximilian Franz issued regulations for the rest of his areas, including elementary schooling.
Limits to Reforms
In contrast to his brother Joseph II, he tried to avoid radical measures in all his reforms. As a result, he did not want to allow the people to revolt against the enlightened reform policy (as was the case in Joseph's rule). Many of his reforms were not completed because he shrank from abolishing the traditional rights of monasteries, monasteries and estates. In this way, the Bonner Stift was able to defend its jurisdiction rights in the south of the Electorate of Cologne. This prevented the development of a unified judiciary with a clear range of instances.
Maximilian Franz followed the interests of his territories and those of the empire in foreign policy. In contrast to the Wittelsbachers before him, strengthening one's own house did not play a significant role. Nonetheless, loyalty to his brother Joseph II has narrowed his room for maneuver in foreign policy. In 1784 Maximilian Franz rejected the plans made by the emperor to swap the Austrian Netherlands for Bavaria. He was just as critical of the diocesan policy in the Austrian hereditary lands, because it raised the episcopate against the emperor. When Joseph II did not support his position in the Nunciature dispute, Maximilian Franz thought of turning to Prussia and threatened to turn to the Princes' League . After the death of Joseph II, his political leeway was greater. He succeeded in introducing the rejection of the nunciatures in the imperial election capitulations of 1790 and 1792. In connection with the Liège Revolution , he succeeded in making the Prussian actions appear as support for the revolutionaries. In doing so, he severely weakened Berlin's reputation in the Reich. Together with the Kingdom of Hanover and Kurmainz , he endeavored to create a “ Third Germany ” between Austria and Prussia. However, that did not happen.
Although he regretted the fate of his sister Marie Antoinette, he rejected an imperial war against revolutionary France because he saw this as interference in internal affairs. On the other hand, as Archbishop and Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, he was directly affected by French revolutionary policy in Alsace and, to the displeasure of Leopold II , he refused to compromise there. He was cautious about emigrants from France and, in contrast to other German territories, prohibited the formation of troops from exiles. Despite his skepticism about an imperial war, when it broke out in 1793, he fulfilled his obligations under the imperial war rules until 1799/1800.
In the course of the First Coalition War , Maximilian Franz had to leave Bonn temporarily in December 1792 before the threat of the advance of the French. During this time he resided in Münster. In April 1794 he was able to return to Bonn. At the beginning of October 1794, French troops moved into the areas on the left bank of the Rhine in the Electorate of Cologne. The elector then had to flee across the Rhine. Since the French also crossed the Rhine a little later, Max Franz was forced to flee further and further into the Reich. At first he resided in Dorsten , and some time later he moved to the residence of the Teutonic Order at Mergentheim Castle . At times he was not safe there either and moved to Leipzig.
In the period that followed, France annexed the left bank of the Rhine. The German princes thus damaged were to be compensated on the right bank of the Rhine at the expense of the clergy princes. As it soon became clear that the continued existence of the spiritual territories was threatened, Max Franz fought to preserve his principalities. In particular, he tried to transfer his archbishopric and electoral dignity from Cologne, now France, to Munster . All these efforts were ultimately unsuccessful. With the Peace of Basel in 1795, the bishopric of Münster was placed under the North German neutrality led by Prussia. In the Peace of Campo Formio , Franz II, to the displeasure of Maximilian Franz, actually recognized the French gains on the left bank of the Rhine. He expressed his displeasure by abstaining from voting in the election of the emperor. He tried to keep in touch with the population on the left bank of the Rhine. From there there were considerable expressions of loyalty. It was decided at the Rastatt congress in 1798 that the princes on the left bank of the Rhine should be compensated by the secularization of the spiritual territories, but the three spiritual electoral principalities were to be preserved, albeit changed, according to the will of the emperor. There was no agreement with Prussia on this matter.
At times, the Allies' initial successes in the Second Coalition War brought hope again. Their defeat put an end to that. In the Treaty of Lunéville , the empire had to recognize the loss of the areas on the left bank of the Rhine and undertake to compensate the former sovereigns there on the right bank of the Rhine. Maximilian Franz did not live to see the resulting secularization.
Like many Habsburgs, Maximilian Franz was musically gifted and interested. From 1780 he had his own chapel in Vienna. Max Franz von Köln was Ludwig van Beethoven's first important patron , even if he had no close personal relationship with him. He encouraged the young composer in Bonn by hiring him as court organist and sent him to Vienna for the first time in 1787, where he stayed from January to March and is said to have made the acquaintance of Mozart . He also brokered the acquaintance of Joseph Haydn , who took over Beethoven's training in November 1792, which was financed by the elector. As a thank you, Beethoven wanted to dedicate his 1st symphony to him. This is documented by Beethoven's letter to the publisher Franz Anton Hoffmeister in Leipzig on June 22 or 23, 1801. The unexpected death of Max Franz on July 27, 1801 made this dedication obsolete.
At the end of his life, Max Franz was bedridden. He suffered from obesity , drowsiness , depression and dropsy . He died bitterly after a long illness in his last residence in exile, the Gall-Hof of Count Seilern in Schönbrunner Allee in Hetzendorf near Vienna, across from Hetzendorf Castle , where his grandmother Elisabeth Christine once lived as a widow.
He was buried in the Habsburg hereditary tomb , the crypt of the Capuchin Church, in Vienna. When Max Franz died in July 1801, as a result of the great summer heat, despite conservation measures, Max Franz's corpse began to deteriorate so quickly that it was not possible to wait for the artistically designed metal sarcophagus to be delivered at the burial, but rather the wooden coffin for several decades because of the advanced decomposition a wall niche of the crypt had to wall. His coffin is now in the so-called New Crypt . His heart urn is in the heart crypt of the Habsburgs , his entrails urn in the ducal crypt . Max Franz is one of those 41 people who received a “ separate burial ” with the body being divided between all three traditional Viennese burial sites of the Habsburgs (imperial crypt, heart crypt, ducal crypt).
After his death, despite the election of his nephew Anton Viktor of Austria as Prince-Bishop by the Münster Cathedral Chapter and the Cologne Cathedral Chapter, who had fled to Arnsberg, there was a 19-year spiritual vacancy . The now French Cologne was a sub-prefecture of the new Roer department. The cathedral had become a simple parish church and the (French) bishop responsible for the city sat in Aachen like the prefect.
Max Franz was the last exercising elector among the Archbishops of Cologne and the last exercising prince-bishop of Münster. A law of the Holy Roman Empire passed in 1803 on the recommendation (main conclusion) of a special committee of the Reichstag (an extraordinary Reichsdeputation ) dissolved all prince-bishoprics as well as the two spiritual electorates named after Cologne and Trier (which have since become French under international law) and at the same time relocated the now only remaining ecclesiastical electoral dignity from Mainz to Regensburg, albeit with spiritual gradation at the episcopal level.
|Pedigree of Maximilian Franz of Austria|
Nikolaus Franz von Vaudémont (1609–1670)
Albrecht Ernst I. zu Oettingen (1642–1683)
Duke Karl V. Leopold (1643–1690)
Philip I of Bourbon (1640–1701)
Emperor Leopold I (1640–1705)
Duke Ludwig Rudolf of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1671–1735)
Duke Leopold Joseph of Lorraine (1679–1729)
Emperor Charles VI. (1685–1740)
Emperor Franz I Stephan (1708–1765)
Maximilian Franz of Austria
- Ordinance or pastoral letter on the occasion of the nunciature disputes Ihro des H. Elector and Archbishop of Kölln Elector Highness etc. etc. etc.: with histor., Theol. u. critical note; from d. Franz. Transl. 1788 ( digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf )
- Constantin von Wurzbach : Habsburg, Maximilian Franz . In: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich . 7th part. Imperial-Royal Court and State Printing Office, Vienna 1861, p. 109 f. ( Digitized version ).
- Hermann Hüffer : Maximilian Franz . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1885, pp. 56-70.
- Max Braubach: Maria Theresa's youngest son Max Franz. Last [ sic ] Elector of Cologne and Prince-Bishop of Münster . Herold, Vienna et al. 1961.
- Max Braubach : The first university in Bonn. Maxische Akademie and Electoral University 1774/77 to 1798. Bouvier & Röhrscheid, Bonn 1966 ( Academica Bonnensia 1, ISSN 0567-6495 ).
- Eduard Hegel : History of the Archdiocese of Cologne. Volume 4: The Archdiocese of Cologne between the Baroque and the Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. 1688-1814. Bachem, Cologne 1979, ISBN 3-7616-0389-4 .
- Günter Christ: Maximilian Franz, Archduke of Austria, Elector and Archbishop of Cologne. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4 , pp. 502-506 ( digitized version ).
- Friedrich Weissensteiner : The sons of Maria Theresa. Kremayer & Scheriau, Vienna et al. 1991, ISBN 3-218-00726-7 .
- Works by and about Maximilian Franz of Austria in the German Digital Library
- Johannes Katz: The last decade of the Principality of Münster. With special consideration of the work of the secret state trainee Johann Gerhard Druffel. Diss. Phil. Münster 1931. Materials from the Historical Commission for Westphalia, 16 (correspondence between the two)
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 65.
- ↑ a b c d e f g h i j k l Günter Christ: Maximilian Franz, Archduke of Austria, Elector and Archbishop of Cologne. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 16, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-428-00197-4 , pp. 502-506 ( digitized version ).
- ↑ Mozart later wrote a very penetrating portrait of Max Franz. Bauer-Deutsch (Ed.): Mozart: Briefe und Aufzüge (Volume III: 1780–1786). Bärenreiter, Kassel & c. 1987, ISBN 3-7618-0143-2 , No. 641, p. 174f., Mozart from Vienna to his father, Salzburg, November 17, 1781, p. 175, lines 30–44:
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 66.
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 66f.
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 69f.
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 70f., P. 85.
- ^ Wilhelm Kohl: The diocese of Münster. The diocese 3. Berlin and New York 2003 (Germania Sacra. New series, volume 7.3) p. 718.
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 71.
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 74.
- ^ Wilhelm Kohl: The diocese of Münster. The diocese 3. Berlin and New York 2003 (Germania Sacra. New series, volume 7.3) p. 718.
- ^ A b c d Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 72.
- ^ A b Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 73.
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, pp. 73f.
- ^ Harm Klueting: The Electoral Cologne Duchy of Westphalia as spiritual territory in the 16th and 18th centuries. In the S. (Ed.): The Duchy of Westphalia, Vol. 1: The Duchy of Westphalia: The Electoral Cologne Westphalia from the beginnings of Cologne rule in southern Westphalia to secularization in 1803. Münster 2009, p. 475f.
- ^ Eduard Hegel: The Archdiocese of Cologne between Baroque and Enlightenment. From the Palatinate War to the end of the French era. , Cologne 1979, p. 75.
- ↑ Ludwig van Beethoven, Letters. Complete edition , ed. by Sieghard Brandenburg , Volume 1, Munich 1996, p. 77
- ↑ Father Eberhard Kusin, The Imperial Crypt at the PP. Capuchins in Vienna , Vienna 1949, p. 58.
- ↑ The wooden coffin of Maximilian Franz of Austria remained in the niche of the " Maria Theresa Crypt ", where it was walled in in 1801, until the 20th century . It was not until 1960 that the wooden coffin was embedded in a metal sarcophagus and placed in the newly built "New Crypt" as part of the expansion of the Capuchin Crypt. See also Magdalena Hawlik-van de Water, The Capuchin Crypt. Burial place of the Habsburgs in Vienna , 2nd edition Vienna 1993, p. 254.
- ^ Karl Zeumer: Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. A study of the Reich title. Weimar 1910. ( full text at Wikisource )
- ^ FA Höynck: The election of the last elector and archbishop of Cologne. In: Journal for patriotic history and antiquity. Edited by the Association for the History and Antiquities of Westphalia by its directors Pastor Dr. G. Mertens in Paderborn and Professor Dr. A. Pieper in Münster, Vol. 58, Münster 1900, pp. 210-222.
|SURNAME||Maximilian Franz of Austria|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Austria, Maximilian Franz Xaver Joseph Johann Anton de Paula Wenzel von; Austria, Maximilian Franz von|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Austrian Archduke, Bishop of Munster and Archbishop of Cologne|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 8, 1756|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Vienna|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 26, 1801|
|Place of death||Hetzendorf Castle near Vienna|