Calendar overview 1801
|Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the third President of the United States .||
Alexander I becomes
Emperor of Russia .
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, newly created by the Act of Union 1800, destroys the Danish fleet in the naval battle of Copenhagen .
|1801 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1249/50 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1793/94 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1206/07 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2344/45 (southern Buddhism); 2343/44 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1163/64 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4134/35 (2-3 October)|
|French revolution calendar||Year IX./X. of the Republic (21/22 September)|
|Islamic calendar||1215/16 (turn of the year 13/14 May)|
|Japanese calendar||Kansei 12/13 = Kyōwa 1 (February 12/13)|
|Jewish calendar||5561/62 (September 7/8)|
|Coptic calendar||1517/18 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2111/12 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2112/13 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1857/58 (April)|
Politics and world events
- February 9: The Treaty of Lunéville between France and Austria ends the war of the second coalition . France receives the areas on the left bank of the Rhine claimed by it. Austria must also recognize three French subsidiary republics , the Batavian , Helvetic and Ligurian Republic .
- March 8: About 17,000 British soldiers under the command of Ralph Abercrombie land on the beach of Abukir and attack the fort of the village , which was occupied by the French as part of the Egyptian expedition .
- March 18: Peace of Florence
- April 2: In the naval battle of Copenhagen , Great Britain forces Denmark to withdraw from the league of “ armed neutrality ” by destroying the Danish fleet in the port , which results in its disintegration.
- April / May: Orange War
- May 29th: France dictates the Malmaison constitution for the Helvetic Republic .
- June 6th: The Peace of Badajoz ends the so-called Orange War between Spain and Portugal, which the city of Olivenza has to cede to Spain.
- June 27th: Some of the French troops who came to Egypt with Napoleon Bonaparte's expedition surrender to Ottoman units under General Augustin-Daniel Belliard in Cairo . The other part holds the port city of Alexandria for the time being .
- July 6th: A French squadron defeats a British squadron in the First Naval Battle of Algeciras .
- July 12: The second naval battle off Algeciras ends with a victory for the Portuguese-backed British fleet over the French.
- August 16: Admiral Horatio Nelson and the British Canal Fleet launch an unsuccessful attack on French ships near Boulogne-sur-Mer .
- August 24th: In the Treaty of Paris , Bavaria receives Napoleon Bonaparte's promise to be compensated for the loss of his possessions on the left bank of the Rhine in the near future. The treaty is a result of Bavaria's rapprochement with France in terms of power politics , because Elector Maximilian IV is worried about a possible annexation by the Habsburg emperor.
- October 8: Peace treaty between France and Russia
- January 1: The Kingdom of Great Britain unites with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland .
- March 10: The first census in the United Kingdom is carried out.
- Great Britain signs the Anglo-Persian Treaty , a military assistance pact , with Persia .
- January 18: The Russian Tsar Paul I turns Georgia into a Russian province.
- March 23: Tsar Paul I is killed in a nightly assassination attempt by noble officers in his bedroom in St. Michael's Palace in St. Petersburg . The castle is designed as a high-security building for the ruling family.
- March 24th: After the palace revolution in Russia, Alexander I becomes the new tsar.
- October 9: Abolition of torture in Russia
Other events around the world
- March 4: Inauguration of Thomas Jefferson as 3rd US President, replacing John Adams .
- April: George Clinton wins the New York gubernatorial election in 1801 .
- May 1: The Pasha of Tripoli, Yusuf ibn Ali Karamanli, drops the US flagpole in front of the American consulate, which is considered to have triggered the American-Tripolitan War .
- The name Afghanistan is officially anchored in writing in a treaty for the first time.
- May 4th: The first issue of the Gibraltar Chronicle appears.
science and technology
- January 1st: Giuseppe Piazzi discovers the first asteroid with (1) Ceres .
- June 3: Robert Fulton demonstrates his submarine called Nautilus in Le Havre .
- July 11th: The French astronomer Jean-Louis Pons discovers his first comet , which will be followed by another 36 discoveries in the course of his life.
- November 8th: In the constellation Great Bear , the astronomer Wilhelm Herschel discovers the galaxies cataloged as NGC 2976 and NGC 3077 .
- November 26th: Charles Hatchett reports on the chemical element he discovered columbium , which is later given the name niobium .
- December 19: The University of South Carolina is founded in Columbia, South Carolina .
- Johann Wilhelm Ritter discovered ultraviolet radiation .
Music and theater
- January 21: The premiere of the opera Le Grand Deuil by Henri Montan Berton takes place at the Opéra-Comique in Paris.
- February 27th: The opera Flaminius à Corinthe by Rodolphe Kreutzer is premiered in Paris.
- March 9th: The world premiere of the play Frohsinn und Schwärmerey by Friedrich Heinrich Himmel takes place at the Court Opera in Berlin.
- March 28th: The ballet The Creatures of Prometheus by Ludwig van Beethoven and Salvatore Viganò has its world premiere at the Vienna Hofburgtheater for the benefit of the prima ballerina Maria Cassentini .
- April 2nd: The 1st Piano Concerto in C major , Op. 15, by Ludwig van Beethoven has its world premiere at the Burgtheater in Vienna.
- April 21: The opera Ginevra di Scozia by the German composer Johann Simon Mayr is premiered at the opening of the Teatro Nuovo in Trieste . The libretto is by Gaetano Rossi .
- June 13: The Theater an der Wien opens.
- September 11th: Friedrich Schiller's romantic tragedy The Maiden of Orleans is premiered in Leipzig . The piece, which belongs to the Weimar Classic , will be his most frequently performed work in Schiller's time.
- September 13: The Creation Mass in B flat major by Joseph Haydn is premiered in the Bergkirche in Eisenstadt .
- Ludwig van Beethoven completes the piano sonata No. 14 “Quasi una fantasia” ( moonlight sonata ).
- For the opening of the new theater in Trieste, Antonio Salieri wrote the opera Annibale in Capua .
- Napoleon Bonaparte founds the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Brussels .
- Friedrich Schiller publishes his poem The Beginning of the New Century .
- November 4th: The Order of St. Isabella is founded.
- JULY 15: The between Pope . Pius VII and France 's First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte that have been made Concordat of 1801 signed by its authorized representatives. During the negotiations, Cardinal Secretary of State Ercole Consalvi formulated the so-called Consalvi paradox .
- Ferdinand Laeisz , German merchant and shipowner († 1887) January 2:
- Manuel da Silva Passos , Portuguese lawyer and politician († 1862) January 5:
- Daniel Haines , American politician († 1877) January 6:
- Georg Kaspar Nagler , German art historian and art writer († 1866) January 6:
- January 11: Peter F. Causey , American politician († 1871)
- January 14: Adolphe Brongniart , French botanist and phytopalaeontologist († 1876)
- January 16: Ludwig Leopold Liebig , German gardener and plant breeder († 1872)
- January 17: Henry W. Collier , American politician († 1855)
- January 18: James Evans , Canadian Methodist and linguist († 1846)
- January 20: Hippolyte Bayard , French civil servant and photographer († 1887)
- January 27: Henry Moule , British pastor and inventor († 1880)
- January 28: Jean Victor Vincent Adam , French history painter and lithographer († 1866)
- Thomas Cole , American painter († 1848) February 1:
- Jean Théodore Lacordaire , French entomologist († 1870) February 1:
- John Wood Lewis , American politician († 1865) February 1:
- Adolf Fredrik Lindblad , Swedish composer († 1878) February 1:
- Laure Cinti-Damoreau , French coloratura soprano († 1863) February 6:
- February 15: August von der Heydt , banker and Prussian trade and finance minister († 1874)
- February 16: Julius Theodor Christian Ratzeburg , German zoologist, entomologist and forest scientist († 1871)
- February 16: Konstantin , last Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen († 1869)
- February 17: August von Voit , German architect († 1870)
- February 21: Heinrich Leberecht Fleischer , German Arabist († 1888)
- February 21: Jan Václav Kalivoda , Bohemian composer, conductor and violinist († 1866)
- February 21: John Henry Newman , British Catholic theologian and cardinal, previously an Anglican pastor and theologian († 1890)
- Henriette Davidis , German home economics teacher, educator and governess, cookbook author († 1876) March 1:
- Andreas Peter Berggreen , Danish composer and organist († 1880) March 2:
- March 14: Kristian Jaak Peterson , Estonian poet († 1822)
- March 15: Coenraad J. van Houten , Dutch pharmacist and chemist († 1887)
- March 16: Joseph Anton Bohl , German organ builder († 1878)
- March 19: Heinrich Joseph Wetzer , German orientalist († 1853)
- March 27: Alexander Barrow , American politician († 1846)
- March 29: Georg Christian Friedrich Lisch , Mecklenburg antiquarian († 1883)
- Carl Anwandter , German pharmacist and politician († 1889) April 1:
- William Hallowes Miller , British mineralogist, crystallographer and physicist († 1880) April 6:
- Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn , British Field Marshal († 1885) April 6:
- April 10: Paul Devaux , Belgian statesman († 1880)
- April 11: Claude Tillier , French writer († 1844)
- April 12: Joseph Lanner , Austrian composer and violinist († 1843)
- April 12: Otto von Gerlach , German theologian and pastor († 1849)
- April 14: Henry D. Gilpin , American politician († 1860)
- April 15: Fritz Tillisch , Danish lawyer, landlord and minister († 1889)
- April 19: Gustav Theodor Fechner , German physicist and philosopher († 1887)
- April 20: Diederich Heinrich Schrader , German swimming master († 1847)
- April 28: Anthony Ashley-Cooper , British politician († 1885)
- April 29: Joseph Aschbach , German historian († 1882)
- George W. Towns , American politician († 1854) May 4:
- José Joaquín Pérez Mascayano , Chilean politician († 1889) May 6:
- May 10: Hugh Johnston Anderson , American politician († 1881)
- May 11: Henri Labrouste , French architect († 1875)
- May 15: Joseph Ludwig Raabe , Swiss mathematician († 1859)
- May 16: William H. Seward , American politician and foreign minister († 1872)
- May 21: Ferdinand Lindheimer , German-American botanist, journalist and publisher († 1879)
- May 27: Gustav Wilhelm Schubert , Saxon commissioner, lawyer and historian († 1877)
- May 31: Johann Georg Baiter , Swiss theologian and text critic († 1877)
- Brigham Young , prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints († 1877) June 1:
- Eduard Gaertner , German landscape painter of the Biedermeier († 1877) JUNE 2:
- František Škroup , Czech composer and conductor († 1862) June 3:
- Mikhail Pavlovich Bestuschew-Ryumin , Russian leader of the Decembrist uprising († 1826) June 4:
- Armand Marrast , French journalist († 1852) June 5:
- June 16: Julius Plücker , German mathematician and physicist († 1868)
- June 29th: Carl von Prussia , son of Friedrich Wilhelm III. and Queen Luise († 1883)
- June 29: Moritz Ludwig Frankenheim , German crystallographer, physicist and geographer († 1869)
- June 29: Pedro Santana , President of the Dominican Republic († 1864)
- June 30th: Frédéric Bastiat , French economist and journalist († 1850)
- Philipp Roeder von Diersburg , lieutenant general and writer from Baden († 1864) July 3:
- Isabella Maria of Portugal , Portuguese princess, regent of Portugal († 1876) July 4th:
- David Glasgow Farragut , US naval officer († 1870) July 5:
- July 11: Etienne Chastel , Swiss Protestant theologian and university professor († 1886)
- July 11: John Hill Hewitt , American composer, poet and newspaper publisher († 1890)
- July 14: Johannes Müller , German physiologist and comparative anatomist († 1858)
- July 21: Jules Pierre Rambur , French doctor and entomologist († 1870)
- July 26: Noah Martin , American politician († 1863)
- July 27: George Biddell Airy , English astronomer († 1892)
- July 30th: Napoléon Lannes de Montebello , French statesman and diplomat († 1874)
- Philipp Spitta , German composer, Protestant theologian and poet († 1859) August 1:
- Moritz Karl August Axt , German pedagogue and classical philologist († 1862) August 7:
- August 10: Christian Hermann Weisse , Protestant theologian and late idealist philosopher († 1866)
- August 11: Eduard Devrient , German actor and theater director († 1877)
- August 11: Heinrich Adolf von Zastrow , Prussian general († 1875)
- August 12: Julius Heinrich Petermann , German orientalist († 1876)
- August 17: Fredrika Bremer , Swedish writer and leader of the women's movement († 1865)
- August 18: Johann Karl Ulrich Bähr , German painter and writer († 1869)
- August 27: Anna Kraus-Wranitzky , Austrian opera singer († 1851)
- August 28: Pedro José Arce y Fagoaga , President of El Salvador († 1871)
- August 28: Antoine-Augustin Cournot , French mathematician and economic theorist († 1877)
- August 31: Pierre Soulé , American politician († 1870)
- Hermann von Meyer , founder of vertebrate paleontology in Germany († 1869) September 3:
- Hans von und zu Aufseß , founder of the Germanic National Museum in Nuremberg († 1872) September 7th:
- Sarel Arnoldus Cilliers , Boer preacher and Voortrekker leader († 1871) September 7th:
- September 10: Garrett Davis , American politician († 1872)
- September 13th: Eduard Herrmann Volkmar Ficker , Saxon theologian, Evangelical Lutheran. Clergyman, Magister († 1861)
- September 19: Jean-Valentin Bender , Belgian composer and conductor († 1873)
- September 21: Moritz Hermann von Jacobi , German physicist and engineer († 1874)
- September 24: Michail Ostrogradski , Russian-Ukrainian mathematician († 1862)
- September 25: Eduard Knoblauch , German architect († 1865)
- September 29: Heinrich Leonhard von Arnim-Heinrichsdorf , German politician († 1875)
- Therese Krones , Austrian actress († 1830) October 7:
- Adolf Müller , Austro-Hungarian actor and composer († 1886) October 7th:
- October 12: Friedrich Frey-Herosé , Swiss entrepreneur, officer and politician († 1873)
- October 12: Wilhelm Langbein , German educator († 1840)
- October 12: Carl August von Steinheil , German physicist († 1870)
- October 14: Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau , Belgian physicist († 1883)
- October 15: Seabury Ford , American politician († 1855)
- October 16: Joseph Jelačić von Bužim , Banus of Croatia († 1859)
- October 18: Justo José de Urquiza , member of the Argentine oligarchy († 1870)
- October 20: Melchior Berri , Swiss architect († 1854)
- October 23: Peter Wilhelm Forchhammer , German classical philologist and archaeologist († 1894)
- October 23: William Henry Haywood , American politician († 1852)
- October 23: Albert Lortzing , German composer, actor and singer († 1851)
- October 31: Theodor Franz Christian von Seckendorff , Prussian diplomat († 1858)
- Ferdinand Teuffer , German-Danish lawyer and author († 1840) November 1:
- Karl Baedeker , German publisher († 1859) November 3:
- Vincenzo Bellini , Italian composer († 1835) November 3:
- Joseph Höger , landscape painter, watercolorist, etcher and lithographer († 1877) November 3:
- Jacob Ludwig Theodor Reh , German politician († 1868) November 4:
- Ambrose Hundley Sevier , American politician († 1848) November 4:
- November 10: Samuel Gridley Howe , founder of the Perkins School for the Blind († 1876)
- November 13th: Amalie Auguste of Bavaria , Queen of Saxony († 1877)
- November 13: Elisabeth Ludovika of Bavaria , Prussian Queen († 1873)
- November 13: Louis François Antoine Curtat , Swiss Protestant clergyman, university professor and politician († 1868)
- November 13: Mathias Mack , German pharmacist († 1882)
- November 17: Sherlock James Andrews , American politician († 1880)
- November 17: Eduard Gurk , Austrian painter († 1841)
- November 19: George Vickers , American politician († 1879)
- November 24th: Ludwig Bechstein , German writer, librarian and archivist († 1860)
- November 26th: Édouard Spach , French botanist († 1879)
- November 27: Alexander Varlamow , Russian composer († 1848)
- Johann Nestroy , Austrian playwright and satirist († 1862) December 7th:
- Albert Jäger , Austrian historian († 1891) December 8:
- December 11: Christian Dietrich Grabbe , German playwright († 1836)
- December 12th: Johann I , King of Saxony († 1873)
- December 13: Hermann von Beckerath , German politician and banker († 1870)
- December 14: Joseph Lane , American politician († 1881)
- December 25th: Antonio Angelèri , Italian pianist and music teacher († 1880)
- December 26th: Adolf Ignaz Mautner von Markhof , Austrian industrialist († 1889)
- December 31: Eduard Heuchler , German architect and builder († 1879)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans , French painter († 1888)
- Torgeir Augundsson , Norwegian composer († 1872)
- Horatio Thomas Austin , British Vice Admiral († 1865)
- Solomon W. Downs , American politician († 1854)
First half of the year
- Johann Caspar Lavater , Swiss Reformed pastor, philosopher and writer (* 1741) January 2:
- Carl Christoph von Hoffmann , Prussian Privy Councilor and Chancellor of the University of Halle (* 1735) January 9:
- January 11th: Domenico Cimarosa , Italian composer of classical music (* 1749)
- January 21: Friedrich Wilhelm von Arnim-Boitzenburg , Prussian civil servant and minister of war (* 1739)
- Daniel Chodowiecki , German engraver, graphic artist and illustrator (* 1726) February 7th:
- February 12: Jean d'Arcet , French chemist (* 1824)
- February 17th: Philippine Charlotte of Prussia , Prussian princess (* 1716)
- February 23: Étienne d'Arnal , French clergyman, engineer and inventor (* 1733)
- February 23: Jean-Henri Voulland , French politician (* 1751)
- February 24: František Martin Pelcl , Czech writer, historian and philologist (* 1734)
- February 28: Joseph Anton Steiner , German Catholic theologian (* 1728)
- Johann Christian Gottlieb Ackermann , German doctor (* 1756) March 9:
- March 12: Gebhard XXVIII. von Alvensleben , German politician and landowner (* 1734)
- March 14th: Ignacy Krasicki , Polish clergyman and writer (* 1735)
- March 19: Ambrosio O'Higgins , Spanish governor of Chile and viceroy of Peru (* around 1720)
- March 21: Andrea Lucchesi , Italian composer (* 1741)
- March 23: Paul I , Tsar of Russia from 1796 to 1801 (* 1754)
- March 25: Novalis , early Romantic poet (* 1772)
- March 28: Ralph Abercromby , British general (* 1734)
- April 13: Antoine de Rivarol , French writer (* 1753)
- April 14: Ibrahim Khan Kalantar , Grand Vizier of Persia
- April 17th: Johann Kleych , Saxon ev.-luth. Pastor of Bohemian origin (* around 1725)
- April 21: Johann Michael Wagner , German organ builder (* 1723)
- Ludwig Ernst von Benkendorf , Saxon cavalry general (* 1711) May 5th:
- Franz Troglauer , robber captain and poacher in Northern Bavaria (* 1754) May 6:
- Franz Karl von Kressel von Gualtenberg , Bohemian civil servant (* 1720) May 7:
- May 14: Johann Ernst Altenburg , German composer and organist (* 1734)
- May 23: Johann Heinrich von Carmer , Prussian Grand Chancellor and judicial reformer (* 1720)
- May 24: Nikolai Repnin , Russian field marshal and diplomat (* 1734)
- May 25: Nicolai Jacob Wilse , Norwegian scientist (* 1736)
- Frederick Muhlenberg , first speaker of the United States House of Representatives (* 1750) June 4:
- June 12: David Claparède , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1727)
- June 14: Benedict Arnold , General in the Continental Army (* 1741)
- June 15: Johann Sigismund Friedrich von Khevenhüller-Metsch , Austrian diplomat (* 1732)
- June 28: Martin Johann Schmidt , Austrian baroque painter (* 1718)
- June 30th: Caterina Cavalieri , Austrian opera singer, Mozart interpreter (* 1755)
Second half of the year
- July 11th: James Brice , American politician (* 1746)
- July 17: Thérèse Levasseur , partner of Jean-Jacques Rousseau (* 1721)
- July 26th: Maximilian Franz of Austria , Austrian Archduke, Bishop of Münster and Archbishop of Cologne (* 1756)
- July 30th: James Gunn , American politician (* 1753)
- Fedele Tirrito , Sicilian painter, writer, preacher and Capuchin priest (* 1717) August 9:
- August 16: Ralph Earl , American painter (* 1751)
- August 22: Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies (* 1755)
- August 31: Nicola Sala , Italian composer (* 1713)
- Silas Condict , American politician (* 1738) September 6th:
- Charlotte Amalie von Hessen-Philippsthal , Duchess and Regent of Saxony-Meiningen (* 1730) September 7th:
- Philippe-Henri de Ségur , French general and statesman, Minister of War, Marshal of France (* 1724) October 8:
- October 19: Wolfgang Aigner , Bavarian Benedictine and scholar (* 1745)
- October 21: Johann Stapfer , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1719)
- October 23: Johann Gottlieb Naumann , German composer (* 1741)
- Humphry Marshall , German-Dutch botanist (* 1722) November 5:
- Motoori Norinaga , Japanese scholar at the time of the Tokugawa Shogunate (* 1730) November 5:
- Carl Stamitz , German violinist and composer (* 1745) November 9:
- November 24th: Franz Moritz von Lacy , Austrian general (* 1725)
- November 26th: Déodat Gratet de Dolomieu , geologist and mineralogist (* 1750)
- Darja Saltykowa , Russian nobleman and serial killer (* 1730) December 9:
- December 10: Heinrich Wilhelm von Anhalt , Prussian officer (* 1734)
- December 16: Karl Ludwig , Hereditary Prince of Baden (* 1755)
- December 20: Ferdinand Fleck , German theater actor (* 1757)
- December 21: Giacomo Maria Brignole , last doge of the Republic of Genoa (* 1724)
- December 31: Giuseppe Capece Zurlo , Archbishop of Naples and Cardinal (* 1711)
Exact date of death unknown
- Ozawa Roan , Japanese poet (* 1723)