Calendar overview 1803
|Louisiana Purchase, the United States bought the French colony Louisiana , thereby doubling its national territory.|
|Reichsdeputationshauptschluss the Holy Roman Empire is politically reorganized.||Matthew Flinders succeeds in circumnavigating the Australian continent for the first time .|
|1803 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1251/52 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1795/96 (September 11-12)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1208/09 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2346/47 (southern Buddhism); 2345/46 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1165/66 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4136/37 (October 2/3)|
|French revolutionary calendar||Year XI./XII. of the Republic (September 21/22)|
|Islamic calendar||1217/18 (turn of the year 22/23 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5563/64 (September 16-17)|
|Coptic calendar||1519/20 (September 11th / 12th)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2113/14 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2114/15 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1859/60 (April)|
Politics and world events
- February 19 : End of the Helvetic Republic through the act of mediation and entry of the cantons of Aargau , Graubünden , St. Gallen , Thurgau , Ticino and Vaud into the Swiss Confederation
- February 25 : The Perpetual Reichstag in Regensburg adopts the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss for the reorganization of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation .
- March 10 : In Switzerland, the new Landammann Louis d'Affry appointed by Napoleon takes office. The Helvetic Republic is over.
- May 18 : The British government ignores the Amiens peace , which ended the Second Coalition War with France , and declares war on France .
- June: France moves against the Electorate of Hanover , the territory of George III. , in front.
- June: France prepares to invade England. Troops are gathered in Boulogne-sur-Mer and other places on the Channel coast. The stationing lasts until 1805.
- June 26 : Sweden pledged Wismar to the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin for 100 years .
- July 5th : Without a shot being fired, the Hanoverian Lieutenant General von Wallmoden-Gimborn signs the surrender, the Artlenburg Convention ; the 16,000 strong Hanoverian army is disarmed.
- July 23 : Robert Emmet and others start an unsuccessful rebellion against Great Britain in Ireland . On August 25 he was arrested and on September 20 executed.
- September 27th : Switzerland concludes a military surrender and defensive alliance with France and becomes a de facto French protectorate until 1813. Among other things, it has to provide soldiers for Napoleon's armies.
- October 19 : France and Spain sign a neutrality agreement in Paris . Spain has to pay France 6 million francs a month retrospectively and open its ports to French ships.
- Secularization in Germany: On the basis of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss adopted in Regensburg, church property is confiscated from the respective territorial states (especially Bavaria, Württemberg and Prussia) in many parts of the former Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation . Numerous monasteries are closed and large amounts of cultural assets are destroyed.
- Denmark prohibits the slave trade.
- Ellwangen becomes the seat of an upper office in the Electorate of Württemberg and was initially the seat of the government of Neuwürttemberg .
- August 3 : Beginning of the Second Marathan War . English troops advance against the northern Indian Marathas Empire , which receives little support from France.
- September 14th : British troops occupy the Indian city of Delhi .
- September 23rd : A British army under General Wellington defeats the numerically superior troops of the northern Indian Marathas Empire in the Battle of Assaye .
- November 1st : A British army under General Gerard Lake also defeats the troops of the northern Indian Marathas at the Battle of Laswari .
- The island of Ceylon is given the status of a British crown colony .
United States of America
- February 24 : Decision in Marbury v. Madison
- March 1st : Ohio becomes 17th state in the USA
- April 30 : Robert R. Livingston , James Monroe and François Barbé-Marbois sign an agreement in Paris for the US to buy the French colony of Louisiana . The Louisiana Purchase doubles the territory of the United States . In a handover ceremony later in the year, the colony in the Cabildo of New Orleans will be ceremoniously handed over.
- November 18 : Haitian Revolution : An army consisting of former slaves under its leader Jean-Jacques Dessalines defeats the Napoleonic colonial army under General Rochambeau in the French colony of Saint-Domingue . At the end of the year the colony becomes independent under the name Haiti .
- February: The Cape Colony occupied by England (today South Africa) is returned to the Batavian Republic (Netherlands) due to the peace of Amiens concluded the previous year .
- The first European immigrants, mainly British prisoners, are settled on the Australian island of Tasmania .
science and technology
Voyages of discovery
- June: The English navigator Matthew Flinders is the first to complete the circumnavigation of the entire Australian continent .
- August 7th : The Russian frigate Nadezhda sets off from Kronstadt on a trip around the world together with the sister ship Neva on behalf of Tsar Alexander I under the command of Adam Johann von Krusenstern . The journey first leads to Copenhagen , where the scientists Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius von Tilenau and Georg Heinrich von Langsdorff go on board. Further stations are Tenerife and Santa Catarina on the Brazilian east coast.
- December 16 : Nicolas Baudin , leader of the French Baudin expedition , dies of tuberculosis off Australia.
- June 17 : A steam-powered car by the English inventor Richard Trevithick transports eight passengers for the first time on a test drive in London. The London Steam Carriage attracts the attention of the public and the press, but is much more expensive to operate than a normal horse-drawn carriage and therefore cannot prevail. That same year, one of Trevithick's stationary steam engines explodes, killing four workers. His competitor James Watt , who always warned of the danger of boiler explosions, then tried to enforce a ban on Trevithick's machines in the British Parliament , but was unsuccessful.
- August 9 : The American inventor Robert Fulton demonstrates the Clermont steamship on the Seine in Paris . But Napoleon Bonaparte does not believe that the steam drive has a future.
- October 21 : The British naturalist John Dalton submits a statement to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society in which the first table of relative atomic weights can be found.
- Jöns Jakob Berzelius and Wilhelm von Hisinger discover the oxide of an unknown chemical element that is later given the name cerium after the dwarf planet Ceres , which was discovered in 1801 . Independent of the two, Martin Heinrich Klaproth also discovered the new element.
Teaching and Research
- January 23 : The French learned society Académie des Beaux-Arts is established as an independent institute.
- The construction of a new observatory in Göttingen begins. It was completed in 1816 .
- April 5th : The Piano Concerto No. 3 in C minor, Op. 37 by Ludwig van Beethoven has its world premiere with the composer at the piano at the Theater an der Wien near Vienna. It is dedicated to Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia . On the same evening, Beethoven also conducts the world premiere of his 2nd symphony .
- October 4 : Luigi Cherubini's ballet opera Anacréon, ou L'Amour fugitif ( Anakreon or Fleeting Love ) is premiered at the Grand Opéra Paris .
- October 20 : In Halifax is the clock tower , the landmark of the city, opened.
- December 13 : The premiere of the opera Les Sabots et le cerisier by François-Joseph Gossec takes place in Paris.
- The opera Peter Schmoll and his neighbors by Carl Maria von Weber has its world premiere in Augsburg.
- Ludwig van Beethoven composes the sacred song Die Ehre Gottes aus der Natur based on a poem by Christian Fürchtegott Gellert .
- November 20 : In Mainz, the verdict of the criminal special court against serial offender Johannes Bückler , known as Schinderhannes, and another 62 defendants. The process caused a sensation throughout Central Europe. France's First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte refuses a pardon.
- December 24 : In Baltimore, USA, Jérôme Bonaparte , Napoleon's youngest brother, marries the merchant's daughter Elizabeth Patterson against his will .
- In the case of a flood in Madeira , the capital Funchal is largely destroyed. Around 600 people are killed.
nature and environment
- April 26th : It rains stones from the sky near L'Aigle in Lower Normandy . The French Academy of Sciences has to admit that their previous doubts about the extraterrestrial origin of earlier meteor stones were wrong.
- December 10th : Another meteorite fall occurs in Massing .
- January 1 : Eduard August Feuerbach , German legal scholar († 1843 )
- January 1 : Rudolf Keyser Norwegian historian († 1864 )
- January 8 : Philipp Friedrich Arnold , German anatomist and physiologist († 1890 )
- January 9 : Theodor Döring , German actor († 1878 )
- January 10 : Ludolf Camphausen , Prussian Prime Minister († 1890 )
- January 11 : Giovanni Antonio Farina , Blessed, Italian bishop († 1888 )
- January 12 : Christian Pløyen , Danish lawyer and high government official († 1867 )
- January 13 : Friedrich Beckmann , German comedian († 1866 )
- January 15 : Nathan Marcus Adler , German-British rabbi († 1890 )
- January 15 : Heinrich Daniel Rühmkorff , German mechanic, instrument maker († 1877 )
- January 17 : Bruno Erhard Abegg , Prussian politician († 1848 )
- January 17th : Jean Kickx , Flemish botanist († 1864 )
- January 20 : Johann Jakob Stehlin the Elder , Swiss politician († 1879 )
- January 26 : Franz Burghardt , Hungarian doctor and businessman in Budapest († 1890 )
- January 27 : Carl Friedrich Deneke , secret councilor, politician and industrialist († 1877 )
- February 3 : Franz Ziegler , German politician and writer († 1876 )
- February 6 : Asahel Peck , American politician († 1879 )
- February 12 : Landaff Watson Andrews , American politician († 1887 )
- February 15 : Karl Friedrich Schimper , German botanist and geologist († 1867 )
- February 15 : Ludwig Persius , Prussian architect († 1845 )
- February 16 : Carl Julius Milde , drawing teacher at the Katharineum († 1875 )
- February 17 : Lockroy , French librettist and actor († 1891 )
- February 17 : Edgar Quinet , French writer and historian († 1875 )
- February 20 : Friedrich Theodor Fröhlich , Swiss composer († 1836 )
- February 23 : Johann August Sutter , Californian landowner, founder of New Helvetia († 1880 )
- February 24 : Wilson Shannon , American politician († 1877 )
- February 28 : Christian Heinrich von Nagel , German mathematician († 1882 )
- March 4 : Rosalie Wagner , German theater actress († 1837 )
- March 5 : August Friedrich Gfrörer , historian and member of the Frankfurt National Assembly († 1861 )
- March 6 : Friedrich Wilhelm von Tigerström , German legal scholar († 1868 )
- March 14 : Josef Misson , Austrian dialect poet († 1875 )
- March 18 : Johann Petzmayer , German zither player († 1884 )
- March 19 : Joseph-Frédéric-Benoît Charrière , French instrument and apparatus maker († 1876 )
- March 21 : Adolf August Friedrich Rudorff , Romanist († 1873 )
- March 23 : Franz Josef Buß , German lawyer and Catholic politician († 1878 )
- April 1 : Miles Joseph Berkeley , English clergyman and botanist († 1889 )
- April 2 : Franz Lachner , German composer († 1890 )
- April 2 : George B. Rodney , American politician († 1883 )
- April 3 : Johann Jacob Weber , founder of the publishing house JJ Weber in Leipzig († 1880 )
- April 6 : Ralph Abercromby, 2nd Baron Dunfermline , British diplomat († 1868 )
- April 6 : Alexander Slidell Mackenzie , American Navy officer and military historian († 1848 )
- April 7th : Flora Tristan , French writer and women's rights activist († 1844 )
- April 10 : Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg , Prussian politician († 1868 )
- April 12 : Johann Wilhelm Zinkeisen , German historian († 1863 )
- April 12 : Anton Wilhelm von Zuccalmaglio , German poet musician († 1869 )
- April 14 : Friedrich von Amerling , Austrian painter († 1887 )
- April 29 : Samuel Hebich , German missionary in India († 1868 )
- April 29 : Carl Gottlob Abela , German musician († 1841 )
- April 29th : James Brooke , traveled as an adventurer the coastal waters of North Borneo († 1868 )
- April 29 : Paul Cullen , Irish cardinal and archbishop († 1878 )
- May 2 : Johann Friedrich Christoph Bauer , German politician († 1873 )
- May 2 : Karl August Friedrich Brückner , German educator and historian († 1853 )
- May 4 : Johann Jakob Rychner , Swiss veterinarian († 1878 )
- May 9 : António Bernardo da Costa Cabral , Portuguese politician († 1889 )
- May 10 : Francis Henry Medcalf , 16th Mayor of Toronto († 1880 )
- May 12 : Alexandre Montfort , French composer († 1856 )
- May 12 : Justus von Liebig , German chemist († 1873 )
- May 22 : Heinrich Ernst Bindseil , German librarian and historian († 1876 )
- May 24 : Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte , Italian ornithologist, politician and pastor († 1857 )
- May 25 : Edward Bulwer-Lytton , English novelist († 1873 )
- May 25 : Ralph Waldo Emerson , American philosopher and poet († 1882 )
- May 29 : John Tuttle Andrews , American lawyer and politician († 1894 )
- June 10 : Henry Darcy , French engineer († 1858 )
- June 16 : Alois von Anreiter , Austrian miniature painter († 1882 )
- June 24 : George J. Webb , American organist and composer († 1887 )
- July 4th : Julius Léopold Eduard Avé-Lallemant , German botanist († 1867 )
- July 8 : Karl Gützlaff , German missionary († 1851 )
- July 8 : Julius Mosen , German poet and writer († 1867 )
- July 9 : Josep Caixal i Estradé , Bishop of Urgell and Co-Prince of Andorra († 1879 )
- July 12 : Johann Christoph Lüders , German industrial pioneer and local politician († 1872 )
- July 12 : Pierre Chanel , first martyr in Oceania († 1841 )
- July 17 : Johann Samuel Eduard d'Alton , German anatomist († 1854 )
- July 19 : Franz von Kobell , German mineralogist and writer († 1882 )
- July 20 : Thomas Lovell Beddoes , English poet († 1849 )
- July 22 : Eugène Isabey , French painter († 1886 )
- July 22nd : Jacques Adolphe Charles Rovers , Dutch classical philologist and historian († 1874 )
- July 24th : Adolphe Adam , French opera and ballet composer († 1856 )
- July 26 : Karl Eduard Biermann , German painter († 1892 )
- July 31 : John Ericsson , Swedish engineer († 1889 )
- August 3 : Sir Joseph Paxton , British gardener, railroad entrepreneur and architect († 1865 )
- August 4 : Carl Friedrich Meyer , German doctor and psychiatrist († 1886 )
- August 13 : Vladimir Odojewski , Russian writer and composer († 1869 )
- August 19 : Carl Ludwig Arndts von Arnesberg , German lawyer, professor and politician († 1878 )
- August 25 : David T. Disney , American politician († 1857 )
- September 3 : Alexander Lwowitsch Guriljow , Russian composer († 1858 )
- September 4 : Eugène Daumas , French general († 1871 )
- September 4 : Gustav Emil Devrient , German actor († 1872 )
- September 10 : Robert Justus Kleberg , German-American farmer, soldier and civil servant († 1888 )
- September 12 : Auguste Brizeux , French writer († 1858 )
- September 13 : Grandville , French draftsman, book illustrator and caricaturist († 1847 )
- September 23 : Jean Désiré Montagney Artôt , Belgian horn player († 1887 )
- September 24 : Leonhard Spengel , German classical philologist († 1880 )
- September 28 : Ludwig Richter , German painter († 1884 )
- September 28 : Prosper Mérimée , French writer († 1870 )
- September 29 : Gottfried Franz , reformed pastor and from 1834 until his death superintendent of the Evangelical Church HB in Austria († 1873 )
- September 29 : Charles-François Sturm , French mathematician († 1855 )
- September 30th : Gustav von Alvensleben , Prussian infantry general († 1881 )
- October 6 : Heinrich Wilhelm Dove , German physicist and meteorologist († 1879 )
- October 8 : José Güemes , Argentine independence fighter and politician († 1840 )
- October 11 : Barend Cornelis Koekkoek , Dutch painter († 1862 )
- October 15 : Camille Durutte , French music theorist and composer († 1881 )
- October 16 : James Edward Alexander , British officer and travel writer († 1885 )
- October 16 : Wendelin Haid , Catholic theologian and librarian († 1876 )
- October 16 : Robert Stephenson , British engineer († 1859 )
- October 17 : Ferenc Deák , Hungarian politician († 1876 )
- October 17 : Karl Karmarsch , German technologist († 1879 )
- October 18 : John S. Wells , American politician († 1860 )
- October 22 : Elisabeth Grube , German poet and writer († 1871 )
- October 24 : Albert Smith White , American politician († 1864 )
- October 28 : Elisa Radziwiłł , first love of Emperor Wilhelm I († 1834 )
- November 1 : Isaac Johnson , American politician († 1853 )
- November 11th : Adolf von Bonin , Prussian general († 1872 )
- November 14 : Jacob Abbott , American youth writer and educator († 1879 )
- November 16 : Heinrich Georg August Ewald , German theologian and orientalist († 1875 )
- November 18 : Lars Anton Anjou , Swedish church historian, politician and clergyman († 1884 )
- November 20 : Gustav Adolf Wislicenus , German Protestant theologian († 1875 )
- November 27 : William Tharp , American politician († 1865 )
- November 28 : Joseph Heine , physician and government and medical councilor († 1877 )
- November 29 : Christian Doppler , Austrian mathematician and physicist († 1853 )
- November 29 : Gottfried Semper , German architect, builder of the Semperoper († 1879 )
- Robert Wilson , American politician († 1870 ) November:
- December 3 : Heinrich Heinlein , German painter († 1885 )
- December 4 : Knut Jungbohn Clement , German writer, linguist and nationalist († 1873 )
- December 4 : Aloys Zötl , Austrian master dyer and painter († 1887 )
- December 5 : Fyodor Tjuttschew , Russian poet († 1873 )
- December 7th : Giuseppe Angelelli , Italian painter († 1844 )
- December 11 : Hector Berlioz , French composer († 1869 )
- December 12 : James Challis , English astronomer († 1882 )
- December 18 : William Allen , American politician († 1879 )
- December 18 : John Hemphill , American lawyer and politician († 1862 )
- December 24 : Karl Ludwig Drobisch , German composer († 1854 )
- December 26 : Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald , Estonian doctor and writer († 1882 )
- December 27 : Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander , German educator and proverb collector († 1879 )
- December 31 : Richard Stockton Field , American politician († 1870 )
- December 31 : Johann Carl Fuhlrott , German naturalist († 1877 )
- December 31 : José María Heredia , Cuban poet († 1839 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Pedro de Ampudia , Mexican officer († 1868 )
- Moritz Auspitz , Austrian surgeon and surgeon († 1880 )
- Richárd Guyon , General († 1856 )
- Georg Müller , Austrian composer and church musician († 1863 )
- Angelo Somazzi , Swiss politician and journalist († 1892)
First half of the year
- January 2 : Ignaz von Beecke , German composer and pianist (* 1733 )
- January 12 : Giuseppe Baldrighi , Italian Rococo painter (* 1722 )
- January 15 : Kirill Rasumowski , Russian count and hetman of the Zaporozhian Cossacks (* 1728 )
- January 18 : Claire Clairon , French actress (* 1723 )
- January 20 : Johann Friedrich von Ryhiner , Swiss statesman and geographer (* 1732 )
- January 23 : Arthur Guinness , "father" of the Guinness beer brand (* 1725 )
- January 28 : Karl von Marinelli , Austrian actor and writer (* 1745 )
- February 1 : Anders Chydenius , Finnish pastor, politician and philosopher (* 1729 )
- February 6 : Domenico Maria Angiolo Gasparini , Italian dancer, choreographer and theorist (* 1731 )
- February 11 : Anton von Störck , Austrian physician (* 1731 )
- February 16 : Giovanni Punto , Bohemian horn player, violinist and composer (* 1746 )
- February 17th : Nicolás del Campo , Spanish officer, colonial administrator and viceroy of the Río de la Plata (* 1725 )
- February 18 : Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim , poet of the Enlightenment period (* 1719 )
- February 19 : Mathias Weber , German robber (* 1778 )
- February 20 : Marie Dumesnil , French actress (* 1713 )
- April 7th : Toussaint L'Ouverture , Haitian national hero (* 1743 )
- April 14th : Christoph Anton von Migazzi , Catholic Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Vienna and Cardinal (* 1714 )
- April 24th : Adélaïde Labille-Guiard , French painter (* 1749 )
- April 27 : Jeremias Nicolaus Eyring , German rector and university professor (* 1739 )
- May 2 : Friedrich Gedike , German educator and educational politician of the Enlightenment (* 1754 )
- May 18 : Samuel Livermore , American politician (* 1732 )
- May 21 : Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Thym , German Reformed theologian and educator (* 1768 )
- June 6 : Josiah Tattnall , American politician (* 1764 )
- June 11 : Henrik Adam Brockenhuus , Danish nobleman (* 1720 )
- June 12th : Athanasius Hettenkofer , German abbot (* 1735 )
- June 22nd : Wilhelm Heinse , German poet (* 1746 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : Peter Ascanius , Norwegian zoologist and mineralogist (* 1723 )
- July 5 : Immanuel Johann Gerhard Scheller , German classical philologist and lexicographer (* 1735 )
- July 8 : Francesco Casanova , Italian painter (* 1727 )
- July 14 : Esteban Salas y Castro , Cuban composer and church musician (* 1725 )
- July 17th : Adolf von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld , Landgrave of Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld (* 1743 )
- August 6th : Asaf Jah II. , Indian nobleman (* 1734 )
- August 12 : Ignazio Busca , Italian cardinal and cardinal secretary of state (* 1731 )
- September 5 : Pierre-Ambroise-François Choderlos de Laclos , French writer and officer (* 1741 )
- September 5 : François Devienne , French flautist (* 1759 )
- September 16 : Nicolas Baudin , French explorer (* 1754 )
- September 17th : Franz Xaver Süßmayr , Austrian composer; Pupil of Antonio Salieri (* 1766 )
- September 20 : Robert Emmet , Irish rebel leader and nationalist (* 1778 )
- September 23 : Joseph Ritson , English antiquarian and lawyer (* 1752 )
- October 2 : Samuel Adams , American statesman and revolutionary (* 1722 )
- October 2 : Abd al-Aziz ibn Muhammad , ruler of the Saudi dynasty
- October 8 : Vittorio Alfieri , Italian poet and playwright (* 1749 )
- October 14 : François Pierre Ami Argand , Swiss physicist, chemist, inventor and entrepreneur (* 1750 )
- October 14 : Ercole III. d'Este , Duke of Modena and Reggio (* 1727 )
- October 14 : Jacques Gamelin , French painter (* 1738 )
- October 19 : Benedict Strauch , German educator and Catholic theologian (* 1724 )
- October 31 : Hans Rudolf von Bischoffwerder , favorite of Friedrich Wilhelm II of Prussia (* 1741 )
- December 18 : Johann Gottfried Herder , German poet, philosopher, translator and theologian (* 1744 )
- December 24th : George I , Duke of Saxe-Meiningen (* 1761 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Joseph Abenthung , Tyrolean builder and plasterer (* 1719 )
- Johann Christoph Kellner , German organist and composer (* 1736 )
- Thomas Wignell , American actor and theater manager (* 1753 )