Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock

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Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, painting by Jens Juel , 1779 ( Gleimhaus , Halberstadt)Klopstock Signature.gif

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock (born July 2, 1724 in Quedlinburg , † March 14, 1803 in Hamburg ) was a German poet . He is considered to be an important representative of sensitivity .


Klopstock's birthplace in Quedlinburg, photo from 1952
Anna Maria Klopstock, b. Schmidt, painting by Benjamin Calau , 1770 ( Gleimhaus , Halberstadt)

Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock grew up as the oldest of 17 children in a pietistic family. His father, Gottlieb Heinrich, the son of a lawyer, was a prince-mansfeld commissioner and had leased the power of Friedeburg in the county of Mansfeld , so that Friedrich Gottlieb spent his childhood here from 1732 until the lease was given up in 1736. His mother Anna Maria had the Langensalza council chamberlain and merchant Johann Christoph Schmidt (born October 19, 1659 in Mühlhausen, † November 28, 1711 in Langensalza) as a father.

Klopstock memorial stone at the Pforta State School

After attending the Quedlinburg grammar school, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock came to the Princely School in Schulpforte at the age of 15 , where he received a thorough humanistic education. Klopstock read the Greek and Latin classics: Homer , Pindar , Virgil and Horace . Here he also made his first own poetic attempts and wrote a first plan for the Messiah , a religious epic .

Portrait of Johann Caspar Füssli , 1750 ( Klopstockhaus , Quedlinburg)

In 1745 he began studying Protestant theology in Jena , where he also wrote the first three chants of the Messiah , which he initially laid out in prose . After moving to Leipzig , the work was reworked in hexameters the following year . The appearance of the first parts in the articles in Bremen in 1748 caused a sensation and became the model for the Messiad literature of its era. In Leipzig, Klopstock also created the first odes . After completing his theology studies, he took a position as a private tutor in Langensalza (according to the custom of all theology candidates) . During the two years of his stay in Langensalza, Klopstock experienced the passionate love for the girl Maria-Sophia Schmidt, the intoxication of hope, the disappointment and finally the elegy of renunciation. This led to the fact that during these two years he composed the most beautiful of his earlier odes for his unapproachable lover.

The publication of the odes sparked a storm of enthusiasm among the opponents of the "reasonable" poetics of Johann Christoph Gottsched, which had prevailed up until then . It was the hour of birth of pure poetry.

Contacts were made with Johann Jakob Bodmer , who invited Klopstock to Zurich , where he traveled in 1750. After eight months he went at the invitation of King Frederick V of Denmark . With Friedrich's support he was able to complete his work. This granted him a life pension of 400 (later 800) thalers a year. He spent three years of his life in Denmark.

On June 10, 1754, Klopstock married Margareta (Meta) Moller , whom he had met in 1751 in Hamburg while passing through to Copenhagen. She died of a stillbirth on November 28, 1758. For thirty years Klopstock could not forget them and sang about them in his elegies. Only in old age (1791) did he marry Johanna Elisabeth Dimpfel from Hamburg . von Winthem (1747-1821), who was a niece of Meta Moller.

Klopstock's grave at the Christian Church in Hamburg-Ottensen

From 1759 to 1762 Klopstock lived in Quedlinburg , Braunschweig and Halberstadt , then traveled to Copenhagen , where he stayed until 1771 and exerted a great influence on the cultural life in Denmark. In addition to the Messiah , who finally appeared in full in 1773, he wrote dramas, including Hermanns Schlacht (1769). He then turned to Hamburg . In 1776 he moved temporarily to Karlsruhe at the invitation of Margrave Karl Friedrich von Baden . After his death on March 14, 1803 at the age of 78, he was buried on March 22, 1803 with great sympathy among the population next to Meta in the cemetery of the Christian church in Ottensen .

Klopstock was a member of the Hamburg Freemason Lodge to the three roses . Since 1802 he was a foreign member of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres .

In Quedlinburg, the Klopstockhaus provides information about the poet. In 1831 a monument by Schinkel and Tieck was inaugurated in the local park in Brühl .


Ideas and motives

Title page of the first edition of the first three songs of the Messiah (1749)
Original manuscript of Klopstock's David, a tragedy (1772)

As a father of the German nation-state idea, Klopstock was a proponent of the French Revolution , which he described in the poem of 1789 Know Yourself as the “noblest deed of the century”; Klopstock also called on the Germans for a revolution. In 1792 the French National Assembly accepted him as an honorary citizen. Later, however, he castigated the excesses of the revolution in the poem The Jacobins of 1793. Here he criticized the Jacobin regime, which had emerged from the French Revolution, as a snake that winds through all of France.

Klopstock's enlightened utopia The German Republic of Scholars (1774) is a concept that puts an educated elite in power for the princely rule, which is regarded as incapable of governing. The republic is to be ruled by " Alder men ", " guilds " and "the people", whereby the former - as the most learned - should have the greatest powers, guilds and people accordingly less. The “rabble”, on the other hand, would only get a “shouter” in the state parliament, because Klopstock did not trust the people to have popular sovereignty . Education is the highest good in this republic and qualifies its bearer for higher offices. Corresponding to the learned approach, things are extremely pacifist in this republic : Klopstock rates sniffing, scornful laughter and frowning as punishments between the scholars. This made special demands on the executors:

“Anyone who wants to become one of them must have two main characteristics, namely a great skill in being very expressive; and then a very special larval face, whereby the size and shape of the nose come into consideration. In addition to this, the scornful man (but he also gets more immortalized maculature as a salary than the others) must have a very strong and at the same time rough voice. It is customary to release Schreyer from being expelled from the country and to raise him to a sneer if his nose has the necessary properties for this task. "

Klopstock's conception of heaven, shaped by the scientific achievements of Copernicus and Kepler , is not that of an ancient sky at rest, whose stars are gods and heroes. Its heavenly sphere is rather a world harmony, a rhythm and symmetry of the spheres. So it says in the first song of the Messiah :

In the middle of this gathering of the suns the sky rises,
round, immeasurable, the archetype of the worlds, the abundance of
all visible beauty, which, like fleeting brooks, poured out
around him, imitating the infinite space.
So, under the Eternal, it revolves around itself.

While he is walking,
the spherical harmonies resound from him, on the wings of the wind, to the shores of the suns
. The songs of the divine harpists
resound with power, as if animating. These agreed tones lead the
immortal listener past many a high praise song.

Goethe will take up this picture again in Faust . The "Prologue in Heaven" begins like this:

The sun resounds in the old way
in brotherly spheres of contest,
And her prescribed journey
completes it with thunder.

Meaning and reception

Title vignette by Daniel Nikolaus Chodowiecki for the Hungarian translation of Klopstock's Messiah , 1789
Klopstock's grave under the linden tree in Ottensen, lithograph by the Suhr brothers , around 1840
Posthumous portrait of Klopstock, 1869

Klopstock gave the German language new impulses and can be seen as a trailblazer for the generation that followed him. He was the first to use hexameter in German poetry with his Messiah , and his exploration of the "German hexameter", as he called it, led him to his doctrine of the word foot . This paved the way for free rhythms such as those used by Goethe and Holderlin . Klopstock also fought against the strict use of rhyme according to the Opitzsch school. He gave the poet's profession a new dignity by exemplifying the artistic autonomy of the poet, and thus liberated poetry from the didactic didactic poems of the versifiers

Klopstock is considered to be the founder of experiential poetry and German irrationalism . His work extended over large parts of the age of the Enlightenment . Unlike most enlighteners , however, he was not bound to reason, but is attributed to so-called sensitivity . In 1779 he coined the term inwardness , which he described as one of nine elements of poetic representation: “Inwardness, or highlighting the actual innermost quality of the thing.” He is also considered to be an important pioneer for the movement of Sturm und Drang . In Werther is Klopstocks effect points to Goethe:

“We went to the window, it thundered to the side and the wonderful rain purred on the land, and the most refreshing fragrance rose to us in the fullness of warm air. She stood on her elbow and her eyes penetrated the area, she looked up to the sky and at me, I saw her eye full of tears, she put her hand on mine and said - Klopstock! I sank into the stream of sensations which she poured out on me in this loosing. I could not stand, leaned on her hand and kissed it with the most delightful tears. And looked at her eye again - Noble! you would have seen your admiration in this look, and now I would never hear your name, which has so often been desecrated, mentioned again. "

- Goethe : The Sorrows of Young Werther, Version A

Despite all this, the young Lessing registers:

“Who will not praise a Klopstock?
But will everyone read it? - no!
We want to be less exalted
and read more diligently. "

- Lessing : 1753

Lessing sums up what happened to Klopstock's work: Although he received great social recognition, the real literary interest in his work lagged behind.

Musical reception

Klopstock also made an impression on composers and musicians such as Georg Philipp Telemann , Christoph Willibald Gluck , Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach , Andreas Romberg and Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart . Schubart knew large parts of the Messiah by heart and once, as he was sailing on the Rhine - he was reading the Messiah on a board that he had placed over the boat - one passage excited him so much that he started up and put the board and book in it Rhine flew: "I stood there as if thundered and looked pale and rigid-eyed after my dear Messiad, who fluttered like a shot duck on the water and sank."

Even after their immediate impact and up to the present day, Klopstock's works have been set to music by composers. Gustav Mahler set the poem The Resurrection to music with his own additions in the fifth movement of his second symphony (composed 1888–1894, premiered in 1895). Further settings include:

  • Richard Strauss: Das Rosenband , Lied, op. 36/1 (1897)
  • Manfred Trojahn : … silent vehicle of the night (1978), setting of the poem “The Early Graves” (1764) for soprano, flute, violoncello, celesta and percussion
  • Heinz Holliger : Schlafgewölk (1984) for alto flute
  • Juliane Klein : Drei Lieder after Klopstock (2004) for soprano and piano
  • Jörg-Peter Mittmann : Dem Unendlichen (2009), free setting of the poem of the same name (1764) for soprano, flute, oboe, clarinet, viola, violoncello and percussion
  • Martin Christoph Redel : Bleib, Geistfreund (2011), sound poem for “The Early Graves” (1764) for flute, clarinet, viola, cello and percussion, op. 70 (composition for the Ensemble Horizonte)
  • Max E. Keller : Mother Nature (2011), fragmentary setting of the poems "Der Zürchersee" (1750) and "Die Frühlingsfeier" (1759) for soprano and eight instruments (composition for the Ensemble Horizonte)

Directory of works

Klopstock, mezzotint by Johann Elias Haid

A directory of works, letters, complete editions, secondary literature with complete information on the publisher, place, edition and number of pages is available at s: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock .

  • Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock, Works and Letters. Historical-critical edition. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1974 ff. (= Hamburg Klopstock edition).
  • Declamatio, qua poetas epopoeiae auctores recenset FG Klopstockius. (Abitur speech, 1745).
  • Messiah , Chants I – III. (1748) Digitized and full text in the German text archive
  • Oden by Klopstock (1750)
  • Messiah, Gesänge I – V (1751) Digitized and full text in the German text archive
  • Message of the Messiah's new correct edition (1753)
  • From sacred poetry (1754/55)
  • On the imitation of the Greek syllable measure in German (1754/55)
  • Messiah, Chants I – V (1755)
Klopstock, steel engraving around 1760
  • Messiah, Gesänge VI – X (1756) Digitized and full text in the German text archive
  • The Death of Adam, a Tragedy (1757)
  • A Meditation on Julian the Apostate (1758)
  • Of The Best Way To Think About God (1758)
  • Spiritual songs (1758), therein:
  • From the language of poetry (1758)
  • From Modesty (1758)
  • To judge others according to their faults (1758)
  • On the range of the fine arts and the fine sciences (1758)
  • From the Publico (1758)
  • From friendship (1759)
  • Thoughts on the Nature of Poetry (1759)
  • Conversation of the true majesty of the soul (1759)
  • Solomon, a tragedy (tragedy, 1764)
  • Fragments from the XXth song of the Messiah as a manuscript for friends (1764/66)
  • From the German hexameter (1767)
  • Messiah, Gesänge XI – XV (1768) Digitized and full text in the German text archive
Title page of The Death of Adam. Hermann's battle in the edition of the Complete Works (Leipzig 1823)
  • Hermann's battle. A Bardiet for the Schaubühne (1769)
  • Odes and elegies (Darmstadt, 1771)
  • Oden (Hamburg, 1771) Digitized and full text in the German text archive
  • David, a tragedy (tragedy, 1772)
  • From a treatise on the syllable measure (1773)
  • From the same verse (1773)
  • Messiah, Gesänge XVI – XX (1773) Digitized and full text in the German text archive
  • The German republic of scholars. Your establishment. Your law. History of the last parliament. By order of the Alderman by Salogast and Wlemar. (1774) Digitized in the sources on literature and art reflection of the 18th and 19th centuries , digitized and full text in the German Text Archive
  • Oden and songs on the piano to sing (set to music by Christoph Willibald Gluck, 1776)
  • Nachläse about German spelling (1778)
  • From the writing of the unheard (1779)
  • On language and poetry: Fon a Latin translation of the Messiah. Teethed Fragment (1779)
  • Messiah, chants I – XX (1780/81)
  • Hermann and the princes. A Bardiet for the Schaubühne (1784)
  • Hermann's death. A Bardiet for the Schaubühne (1787)
  • Oden to the French Revolution (1790–99)
  • Grammatical Conversations (1794)
  • Translations
  • Letters

Portraits and sculptures

Paintings and lithographs

  • Johann Caspar Füssli the Elder Ä. , Portrait of Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , oil on canvas, 47.5 × 38 cm, Zurich, 1750 (Klopstockhaus, Städtische Museen Quedlinburg; online ).
  • Jens Juel , portrait of Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , oil on canvas, and Jens Juel (attributed to), portrait of the poet Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , oil on canvas, 60 × 48cm, after 1779 (Berlin, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin - Prussian Cultural Heritage, National Gallery, inv .-No. A II 348) ( online at picture index). Numerous engravings were made after Juel's portraits:
  • Lazarus Gottlieb Sichling , lithograph, 29 × 22.3 cm ( online , portrait collection of the Hamburg State and University Library).
  • Christian Gottlieb Geyser , copper engraving, 30.3 × 20.7 cm, J. F. F. Bremer, Braunschweig ( online , portrait collection of the Hamburg State and University Library).
  • Johann Martin Preissler , copper engraving, 40.4 × 29.8 cm, 1782 ( online , portrait collection of the Hamburg State and University Library).
  • Johann Heinrich Klinger (1766–1789), copper engraving, 35 × 25 cm, Nor [imberga], 1789 ( online , portrait collection of the Hamburg State and University Library).
  • Christian Schule, copper engraving, 11.8 × 9.4 cm, 1810 ( online , portrait collection of the Hamburg State and University Library).
Klopstock, Portrait of Maria Elisabeth Vogel , 1792 ( Museum for Hamburg History )
  • Maria Elisabeth Vogel (1746–1810, née Timmermann, used de Boor), oil painting (?) 1792, knee to the right: Klopstock sitting in a dark armchair in front of a neutral background, in a black housecoat and open shirt, white, short hair only at the temples, the left hand chanting, in the right hand a manuscript with the twelfth stanza of his 1748 ode “ The Farewell ”. Behind a curtain, in the shade, is Homer's bust . Exhibited by the Patriotic Society on the occasion of Klopstock's death in 1803 , formerly in their possession, today Museum for Hamburg History , Inv. 1950/19.
  • Martin Ferdinand Quadal , not quite finished portrait, oil painting, Hamburg 1796.
  • Anton Hickel , portrait of Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , oil, 113 × 89 cm, Hamburg, 1798 (painting collection of the University of Hamburg; online ).
  • Gerdt Hardorff , lithograph, without further details, probably before 1800 ( online , portrait collection of the Hamburg State and University Library). After that:
  • Friedrich Müller, copper engraving, 31.4 × 24 cm ( online , portrait collection of the Hamburg State and University Library).

Busts and coins

  • Landolin Ohmacht , alabaster bust (12.1 cm), around 1797 ( Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe , Hamburg; online at ). According to Rainer Schmidt, a total of seven versions of Ohmacht's bust made of different materials and in different sizes are known today. The Klopstockhaus in Quedlinburg shows a 65 cm high "plaster cast based on the original by Landolin Ohmacht" (picture online ).
  • Johann Gottfried Schadow , bust for the Walhalla , 1808, bottom row No. 021 (picture above under honors ). For his bust made after Klopstock's death, Schadow is said to have served as a model for "the extremely realistically designed Klopstock bust made of alabaster" by Landolin Ohmacht.
  • Various commemorative coins with half-length portrait.


In 1991 the asteroid (9344) Klopstock was named after the poet.

The plant genus Klopstockia H.Karst is also named after Klopstock . from the palm family (Arecaceae).

The state of Saxony-Anhalt has been awarding the Klopstock Prize for new literature since 2015 . Current German-language works (novels, poetry, drama, travelogues, essays) or the complete works of an author as well as up-and-coming authors are honored for outstanding publications. In addition to the main prize endowed with 12,000 euros, a sponsorship prize of 3,000 euros will also be given to young authors.

Remembrance day

The Christian poet is commemorated in the Evangelical Name Calendar on March 14th, the day of his death.


In more than 65 cities and towns streets were named after Klopstock, u. a. in Berlin, Dresden and Leipzig.


To person and time

On specific aspects of the work

  • Alwin Binder : Klopstock's poem “The Innocent” as a model of “poetic language”. In: German lessons. 39th year 1987. Issue 3. pp. 37-55.
  • Hildegard Benning: Rhetorical Aesthetics. The poetological conception of Klopstock in the context of the poetry theory of the 18th century. M u. P, Stuttgart 1997, ISBN 3-476-45185-2 .
  • Stefan Elit: "The best of all possible languages ​​of poetry". Klopstock's competitive translations of Latin and Greek literature . Gardez! -Verlag, Sankt Augustin 2002, ISBN 3-89796-077-X . (The ancient world and its survival; 3)
  • Martin A. Hainz: Creation - a polylogue? On a theological-poetic problem, among others with and with Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and Ferdinand Schmatz. In: Weimar Contributions. No. 53 · 1, 2007, pp. 67-88.
  • Martin A. Hainz: Imitation as Poiesis? An orthodoxy problem, also with Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. In:, diskurs, January 2006, pp. 1–11.
  • Martin A. Hainz: Intentio scripturae? On Revelation and Scripture, at Klopstock and in Derrida's Kafka reading. In: TRANS. Internet journal for cultural studies, No. 16/2005
  • Martin A. Hainz: Compulsory syllables. Text and Transgreß with Friedrich G. Klopstock, with special consideration of the Messiah . Tübingen: A. Francke Verlag 2017 (= studies and texts on the cultural history of literature KULI, vol. 7), ISBN 978-3-7720-8624-3
  • Dagmar Hebeisen: The Cidli Odes. On Klopstock's poetry around 1750. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1998, ISBN 3-631-32554-1 . (Giessen work on recent German literature and literary studies; 18)
  • Hans-Heinrich Hellmuth: Metric invention and metric theory at Klopstock. Fink, Munich 1973. (Studies and sources on the history of verse; 4)
  • Kevin Hilliard, Katrin Kohl (eds.): Klopstock at the limit of the ages. With Klopstock bibliography 1972–1992 by Helmut Riege. De Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1995, ISBN 3-11-014316-X .
  • Kevin Hilliard, Katrin Kohl (eds.): Word and writing - The work of Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock. Publishing house of the Francke Foundations in Halle, Tübingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-447-06362-3 . (Hallesche Research Vol. 27)
  • Joachim Jacob: Holy poetry. A literary model in Pyra, Klopstock and Wieland. Niemeyer, Tübingen 1997, ISBN 3-484-18144-3 . (Studies on German Literature; 144)
  • Gerhard Kaiser: Klopstock. Religion and poetry. 2., through Edition. Scriptor-Verlag, Kronberg (Taunus) 1975, ISBN 3-589-20106-1 .
  • Mustafa Maher: The motif of the oriental landscape in German poetry from Klopstock's “Messiah” to Goethe's “Divan”. Heinz, Stuttgart 1979. (Stuttgart theses on German studies; 64)
  • Bernadette Malinowski: "The holy be my word". Paradigms of prophetic poetry from Klopstock to Whitman. Königshausen u. Neumann, Würzburg 2002, ISBN 3-8260-2174-6 . (Epistemata; Series Literary Studies; 381)
  • Winfried Menninghaus: “Afterword” In: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock: Thoughts on the nature of poetry. Poetry-theoretical writings. Edited by W. Menninghaus. Frankfurt a. M. 1989, ISBN 3-458-32738-X .
  • Helmut Pape: Klopstock. The "language of the heart" rediscovered. The liberation of the reader from his emotional immaturity. Idea and reality of poetic existence around 1750. Lang, Frankfurt am Main a. a. 1998, ISBN 3-631-33603-9 .
  • Hans-Ulrich Rülke: Image of God and poetics at Klopstock. Hartung-Gorre, Konstanz 1991, ISBN 3-89191-479-2 .
  • Hermann Stauffer: Lyrical competition of the Europeans. Ancient and modern in Klopstock's Odendichtung. In: Interdisciplinarity and Internationality: Ways and Forms of Reception of the French and British Enlightenment in Germany and Russia in the 18th Century. (Publications of the Institute for European History Mainz, 61.) Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2004.



The State and University Library of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg has set up an office to manage the estate.

Web links

Wikisource: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Bernd Feicke: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock and the Mansfelder Land . In: Mansfeld Heimatblätter. 5: 40-42 (1986).
  2. Bernd Feicke: Friedeburg - a formative abode of the young Klopstock . In: Quedlinburger Annalen. 12 (2009), pp. 102-107.
  3. ^ Second ode from the trip on the Zurich lake . In: Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock: Odes by Klopstock. Zurich 1750 , p. 369ff.
  4. Bernd Feicke: 175 years of the Klopstock monument in the Quedlinburger Brühl . In: Quedlinburger Annalen. (9) 2006, pp. 101-105.
  5. Klopstock's monument in Brühl near Quedlinburg ( digitized version )
  6. See the letter of honorary citizenship of the French Republic for Klopstock 1792.
  7. ^ The German Republic of Scholars (1774), p. 26 )
  8. pejorative versifier
  9. From the representation. Third fragment. In: About language and poetry. Fragments. Hamburg (Heroldsche Buchhandlung) 1779, ( limited preview in the Google book search); Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb, Essays and Treatises, From the Presentation. In: Retrieved January 17, 2015 .
  10. Quoted from FG Klopstock: Works and Letters. Historical-critical edition. Volume 2. Walter de Gruyter, 2001, p. 321.
  11. Knut von Maydell: Two epitaphs from the poet prince Klopstock. In: Retrieved January 17, 2015 .
  12. CPE Bach: Klopstock's Morgengesang am Schöpfungsfeste (1783) for 2 sopranos, choir, wind instruments, strings and bass, Wq 239 ( part 1 , part 2 on YouTube; text on
  13. Schubart's life and attitudes. Set up by himself in the dungeon. First part, 1791. In: Christian Friedrich Daniel Schubart: Gesammelte Schriften und Schicksale . Scheible, Stuttgart 1839 (online at p. 137 ).
  14. Illustration and explanations of this portrait and its copies on the website of the Gleimhaus, Halberstadt ( portrait collection, friendship stamp ).
  15. Cf. Gisela Jaacks : Faces and Personalities. Inventory catalog of the portrait collection in the Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte I., Hamburg 1992 ( p. 205 ).
    Also listed by Hans Schröder : Lexicon of Hamburg writers up to the present , vol. 4, Hamburg 1866, no. 1964, Klopstock, Friedrich Gottlieb ; Footnote: “Created in 1793, but not completed until 1803. Compare Directory of the sixth exhibition of the Patriotic Society May 1803 page 12, no. 40, and negotiations of the Ges. Volume 7 page 35. “
    Hamburg and Altona. A magazine on the history of time, customs and taste , 2nd year, 7th issue, Friedrich Hermann Nestler, Hamburg 1803, p. 30 (online at BSB MDZ ).
  16. See Alfred Lichtwark , Das Bildnis in Hamburg , Vol. 2, Verlag Richter, Hamburg 1898, p. 23 ff. ( Online at the Hamburg State and University Library, with illustration);
    Friedrich Johann Lorenz Meyer, sketches for a painting of Hamburg , Verlag Friedrich Hermann Nestler, Hamburg 1801, vol. 1, 3rd issue, p. 274 f. (Online at and the Hamburg State and University Library ).
  17. See description in Friedrich Johann Lorenz Meyer , Sketches for a painting from Hamburg , Verlag Friedrich Hermann Nestler, Hamburg 1801, vol. 1, 3rd issue, p. 276 f. (online at and the Hamburg State and University Library )
  18. ^ Hamburg and Altona. A magazine on the history of time, customs and taste , 2nd year, 7th issue, Friedrich Hermann Nestler, Hamburg 1803, p. 28 ( online ).
  19. Rainer Schmidt (Ed.): Klopstock Briefe 1795–1798 , Vol. 2, Apparat / Commentary, Verlag de Gruyter, Berlin 1996, p. 298 ff. ( Limited preview in the Google book search).
  20. Mechtild Ohnmacht, "Ohmacht, Landelin Franciscus" in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 19 (1999), p. 491 f. ( online ).
  21. See Otto Christian Gaedechens , Verein f. Hamburg History (Ed.): Hamburg coins and medals , Verlag Johann August Meissner, Hamburg 1850, pp. 247–250 ( ).
  22. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names . Extended Edition. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, Free University Berlin Berlin 2018. [1]
  23. Culture, Media and Churches: Literature Prize. Retrieved June 9, 2017 .
  24. 57. Improved: Klopstock Prize. Poetry Newspaper, September 17, 2014, accessed September 18, 2014 .
  25. Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints .
  26. Klopstockstrasse (Tiergarten). In: Street name lexicon of the Luisenstädtischer Bildungsverein (near  Kaupert ) Klopstockstrasse (Zehlendorf) near Luise Klopstockstrasse (Hellersdorf) near Luise
  27. Leipzig Lexicon, Streets, ( online )
  28. ^ Klopstock workplace