The Pietismus (from Latin pietas ; "God's fear", "devotion") is after the reformation the main reform movement in the continental Protestantism . Theologically, pietism sees itself as a reflection on central concerns of the Reformation (e.g. replacement of the dead faith in letters with true fear of God and working love), which, however, were specifically reshaped by the inclusion of other strands of tradition. The pious subject moves into the focus of the pietistic movement, pure doctrine and ecclesiastical unity move into the background. On the one hand, there is a modern one in the Pietist movement“ Early enlightenment ” train, as it gives high priority to the personality of the individual, whose pious duty should include introspection. On the other hand, Pietism has largely become a theologically and socially conservative movement in the course of its development.
The pietistic movement in Germany has undergone numerous changes since it emerged in the second half of the 17th century: from classic pietism of the baroque period to late pietism of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the awakening movements of the 19th century and the community movement up to on the evangelical movement in the second half of the 20th century. The church-critical tendency within Pietism is described as radical Pietism and manifested itself in the form of separatism (separation from the state church).
The word "Pietism" is a Latin - French - Greek hybrid formation . About the French word piété , which, like the German word “Pietät”, comes from the stem “pietat” of the Latin word pietas (“sense of duty”, “sense of duty”, “dutiful behavior towards the gods and people”, “awe”, “fear of God "," Piety ") is formed, the Latinization of the Greek ending" -ismós "occurs for intensified attitudes or ideologies . It is mostly associated with the main work of Philipp Jacob Spener Pia Desideria (1675), but according to Spener's memory, the word, documented in writing since 1680, was a derisive term for "piety" in the Frankfurt am Main area as early as 1674.
The pietist Leipzig poetry professor Joachim Feller (1638–1691) first used the word “Pietist” as a positive self-designation, for example in August 1689 in the sonnet to the late Leipzig theology student Martin Born (1666–1689):
It is now known in the city that the Pietists took over;
What is a pietist? Who studies God's word /
And according to it also leads a holy life. [...]
This was followed by Feller's confession in the sonnet about the Leipzig merchant Joachim Göring (1625–1689), who died on October 18, 1689:
I recently thought / the called Pietist / [...]
I myself want to confess without hesitation /
That I am a Pietist without flattery and hypocrisy. [...]
In a comparably positive sense, the word “Pietism” means striving for intensified, deepened piety .
Pietism arose from a feeling of inadequate piety, an inadequate Christian way of life and the urge to verify personal belief. Theologically he reacts to the tension and trauma of the Thirty Years' War by reorienting towards the Bible and Christian traditions.
As a result of the Enlightenment that emerged in the 18th century , the representatives of Pietism as well as those of the old Protestant orthodoxy gradually fell on the defensive and increasingly lost their influence. The Enlightenment shook the traditional worldview with new knowledge of the natural sciences and questioned the traditional theology. Theology reacted to this with an increasing scientification, but became more and more incomprehensible for the normal parishioners. In addition, the absolutist state demanded a commitment to the official dogma of the respective regional church, but considered personal piety rather disturbing if it was critical of conventional piety. The Pietists criticized both developments as purely external and opposed them with their ideal of personal, emotional piety.
Already in early Pietism there was a relaxed relationship to Judaism , which was particularly evident in Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf . Friedrich Christoph Oetinger was inspired by the Kabbalah , among other things, for his theology .
Pietism sees itself as a Bible , lay and sanctification movement . He emphasized the subjective side of faith, but also developed a strong missionary and social trait. In pietistic practice, conventicles (today: house groups ) with common Bible study and prayer often have a similar or greater significance than church services .
Today's Pietism, in many of its forms, is committed to inerrancy ( faithfulness to the Bible ) or, more moderately, to consistency or the character of Holy Scripture, which is sufficient for questions of salvation, and has been teaching a conservative theology as a result since late Pietism .
He also emphasizes the priesthood of all believers . In addition to theologians, lay people without academic education were and are also valued as preachers: to this day as speakers, “talking brothers”, in house groups (“hours”, i.e. hours of inspiration or Bible discussion hours).
Zinzendorf expressed this programmatically:
"Praised be the time of grace,
In which even inexperienced boys have received
orders and power
to woo for bliss."
Reform movements in the run-up to Pietism
Pietism has been decisively influenced by numerous movements and the views that have become effective in them. The starting point of these movements is the perceived difficulties of realizing the faith in the life of the churches (the Reformation ). It is the questions of personal piety, a Christian life and the resulting consequences for the nature of the Church to which answers have been sought in these movements.
From the German area it is mainly the Anabaptists (since 1525), the Schwenkfeldians , Paracelsus (1493–1541), Valentin Weigel (1533–1588), Jakob Böhme (1575–1624), Christian Hoburg (1607–1675) and theirs Followers and mystical-spiritualist like-minded people who kept the question of “true Christianity” alive and posed sincere Christians in the churches.
Johann Arndt (1555–1621) conveyed the views of church fathers, late medieval mysticism , Thomas von Kempen , Paracelsus and Valentin Weigel in a special way through his edification book “ Four Books on True Christianity ” . With this, Arndt achieved a synthesis of Lutheranism, mysticism, alchemy and spiritualism . The controversy over his widespread edification books show that his critics were well aware of the inclusion of heterodox ideas in Arndt. The piety impulses of Arndt found an important advocate in Johann Gerhard . The poet Angelus Silesius also drew from pietism in the 17th century and in its heyday the Messiah von Klopstock emerged in the 18th century .
The piety movement within the Lutheran churches also paved the way for pietism. Besides Johann Gerhard, outstanding representatives include Andreas Musculus , Stephan Praetorius , Philipp Nicolai , Johann Valentin Andreae and Theophil Großgebauer .
Also important and not to be underestimated is the influence that English Puritanism had on pietism of the Baroque period through the spread of its edification books and theological treatises. The Dutch Nadere Reformatie also influenced Pietism, especially Reformed Pietism, because the Reformed churches in the German Empire had an intensive network of relationships with their sister churches in the lower regions.
Reformed Pietism from 1660 to 1780
Theodor Undereyck (1635–1693) is considered the “father” of Reformed Pietism . During his studies in Utrecht he was won over to the concerns and piety of the Nadere Reformatie . From 1660 to 1668 he worked as a pastor in Mülheim an der Ruhr . He introduced a presbytery and incorporated the congregation into the synodal structure of the Duisburg Classis. House visits, catechism lessons, catechism sermons and church discipline rounded off his reform work in Mülheim. His sermons emphasized rebirth and personal appropriation of salvation. When the Count of Daun-Falkenstein intervened in the affairs of the parish against Undereyck, he left his previous sphere of activity and went to Kassel as an extraordinary court preacher. In 1670 he accepted a call to St. Martini (Bremen) . There he worked in the sense of pietism until his death in 1693. Among other things, he set up catechetical exercises in the parsonage, as was the strengthening of catechism lessons in general. He also campaigned for the introduction of church discipline. Undereyck was able to bring some of his like-minded people and students to parish offices in Bremen. Bremen students spread the concerns of Pietism in the Reformed churches of their homeland.
Probably at the end of his work in Mülheim an der Ruhr, Undereyck's house meetings were held there without any involvement, in which Undereyck's sermons were discussed. In 1674 on the Lower Rhine, the confrontation with Labadism resulted in a regulation of “gatherings for godliness” ( conventicle ), but also radicalizations . The pastor Samuel Nethenus was deposed because of his excessive discipline and his arbitrary behavior. Pastor Reiner Copper was also dismissed from service. He later joined the Labadists.
Thanks to Undereyck's students, Pietist ideas were able to gain a foothold in East Friesland and Lippe-Detmold in the 17th century . In the 18th century, Pietist views found their way into almost all Reformed regional churches. The only significant theologian of Reformed Pietism is Friedrich Adolf Lampe (1683–1729). From 1669 Greiffenberg (Löwenberg district) became the center of Pietism in parts of Lausitz and Lower Silesia.
Pietism took its own development on the Lower Rhine . Under Wilhelm Hoffmann (1676–1746), conventicles adjacent to the church developed in Mülheim an der Ruhr and other places. Hoffmann's most important colleague was Gerhard Tersteegen (1697–1769), who continued these meetings after Hoffmann's death. Through his disciples, his legacy was taken up in the Reformed Church. Together with Joachim Neander, he is considered to be the most important Pietist songwriter from the area of the German Reformed Churches.
In Switzerland , pietistic aspirations emerged within the reformed regional churches at the end of the 17th century. After the movement had failed as an internal church reform movement due to official bans, it radicalized itself in the first decades of the 18th century. It was not until 1720 that the work of pietistic pastors succeeded in gaining a right of home in the church. Communities were formed among pietistic laypeople, the Heimberger Brothers and the Lucerne Bible Movement in Catholic Lucerne , but the latter was persecuted by the authorities.
Lutheran Pietism from 1670 to 1780
The central founder of Lutheran Pietism is the Alsatian Philipp Jacob Spener (1635–1705). There is hardly a Lutheran territory in the German Reich to which he had no connections. Spener's work Pia desideria (Pious Wishes), published in 1675, is regarded as the program of Lutheran Pietism , in which he complains on the one hand the state of the current church and its members and on the other hand develops a reform program: introduction of meetings to improve knowledge of the Bible, cooperation of the “lay people “In the church, shift from knowledge of faith to act of faith, restriction of denominational polemics , reform of theology studies towards praxis pietatis , shift of the sermon content from knowledge of faith to edification of the inner man.
In 1670 some men approached Spener with a request for edifying exchanges in special meetings, which were soon referred to as Collegium pietatis or Exercitium pietatis . Spener organized it in his parsonage. The edification hour or Bible study developed from them as the event form characteristic of Pietism to this day. To this day they are called "hours" in Württemberg and other areas. Their visitors are called " hour brothers" in Wuerttemberg, " Stündeler " in Swiss German; In Russian, the expression штундист ( Stundist ) for " sect member " arose in the 19th century . In these conventicles the danger of separation was virulent. Among the most significant figures of this led by Spener Collegium belonged to Johann Jacob Schütz , who later actually from the church separated and became a threat to the acceptance of this reform point within the Lutheran Church.
In addition to the introduction of the Collegia pietatis , Spener's hope of better times was explosive for the church , which brought chiliastic ideas into the Lutheran church. He also brings the ideal of early Christianity into the discussion about the reform of the church.
Until about the middle of the 18th century, there were repeated disputes between the representatives of Lutheran orthodoxy and Pietism. The Orthodox opponents accused the Pietists, among other things, of adopting heterodox views and practices, the disruption of church orders by the conventicles and other innovations, the division of the congregations and the tendency towards perfectionism. Exemplary is the Hamburg religious lapel from 1690, which was supposed to obligate the clergy to adopt an anti-pietistic position and sparked a heated controversy.
Pietism gave the believers an independent religious authority. In addition, he promoted the individualization of personality by focusing on personal beliefs. Reading skills were also stimulated by reading and listening to the often difficult texts from the books of edification.
One of the most popular and widespread prayer books is the Daily Handbook in Good and Bad Days by Johann Friedrich Starck , which had a new edition in 1999 - probably not the last.
A section of the Pietists became radicalized, usually through the influence of the movement's spiritualistic legacy. They mostly separated from the church. Most of the time, however, Spener stayed in friendly and sometimes critical contact with them.
There was a change in the Pietist movement in Leipzig in 1689/90 , when the Collegia biblica for theology students , which had been introduced in 1686, stepped outside the framework of the university and affected parts of the city's population. August Hermann Francke was one of the leaders of this movement.
Spener was able to win some followers among the Württemberg theologians. He also succeeded in filling important positions at the court and the University of Giessen with Pietists in Hessen-Darmstadt . Through his work as provost in Berlin (1691–1705), Spener, supported by the up-and-coming Electorate of Brandenburg , was able to pursue a successful pietistic personnel policy in the Lutheran Church of Brandenburg.
Pietists also brought in diaconal, social and educational impulses - sometimes by reforming the public welfare system and the school system, other times by founding their own institutions, of which the orphanages are probably the best known.
The Hallische Pietismus (or Hallesche Pietismus) also goes back to Spener, who co-founded the University of Halle . Spener's most famous student, the theologian and educator August Hermann Francke (1663–1727), was appointed professor of Greek and Oriental languages at the newly founded university and pastor of the suburb of Halle, Glaucha. He is the founder of the orphanage in Halle an der Saale , from which extensive educational and scientific institutions with many different branches emerged ( Francke Foundations ). With Carl Hildebrand von Canstein (1667–1719) he founded the Canstein Bible Institute , the oldest Bible society in the world. The Danish-Hallesche Mission started by Francke sent the first Protestant missionaries to India, Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg and Heinrich Plütschau . Halle became the most important center of Lutheran Pietism, in addition to which many other centers arose in and outside Germany. This is how the Halle Pietism got during the reign of Christian VI. strong influence on the church in Denmark , Norway and the associated duchies of Schleswig and Holstein . Its charisma was international.
At the University of Halle there was a dispute between Christian Thomasius , a philosopher of the early enlightenment , and Francke, from which Pietism emerged as the victor. In the dispute with Christian Wolff , Francke was able to get him expelled from the country, but the (Halle) Pietists lacked the philosophical and theological format for a fruitful academic discussion of the Enlightenment . The Halle Pietists saw themselves as the real representatives of Lutheran orthodoxy and appeared with this self-confidence towards their critics from the ranks of the old Protestant orthodoxy.
After the death of August Hermann Francke, his son Gotthilf August Francke moved into the center of Halle Pietism. Halle's undertakings retained a greater presence for four decades, especially in Brandenburg-Prussia and Central Germany. The educational institutions, the commitment in the mission, the care of the German emigrants in North America and the help for the evangelical Salzburgers who were expelled from their homeland should be mentioned here. The pietistic theology at the University of Halle, however, could not hold its own against the Enlightenment. The Halle Pietism ends, apart from a few offshoots, with the death of Gotthilf August Francke (1769). The Enlightenment now generally determined theology in those areas in which Halle Pietism had so far had a great influence.
In addition to Westphalia, the area of the former duchy or kingdom of Württemberg is particularly pietistic . There was great hardship there in the early 17th century due to high prices, which was followed by another time of emergency with the Thirty Years' War , especially after the Battle of Nördlingen in 1634. The fight against poverty and reconstruction efforts after the Peace of Westphalia and in subsequent times of need promoted the Lutheran view of everyday work as worship, while the resurgent lust for pleasure was seen as contradicting it in large sections of the population and also among the nobility. Puritan edification writings, which exerted a strong influence on Württemberg pietism, worked into this area of tension.
Pietists of the first generation already held leading church offices. Of great importance is Johann Andreas Hochstetter (1637–1720), who was professor of theology in Tübingen in 1688, prelate of Maulbronn in 1681 and prelate of Bebenhausen in 1689. He criticized church and social grievances and campaigned for the reform of catechism teaching and the introduction of confirmation , which was then implemented in 1722. His son Andreas Adam Hochstetter (1668–1717) was a court preacher in Stuttgart and also a professor of theology in Tübingen. In Württemberg, too, pietistic endeavors were rejected by Lutheran orthodoxy, and when students from the Tübingen monastery (the boarding school for Württemberg theology students ) visited a pietistic convent, this led to investigations. The younger Hochstetter in particular campaigned for a balance between Lutheran orthodoxy and Pietism.
Until around 1730, the pietist movement in Württemberg was largely radical pietist . One leaned primarily on Spener's demands and railed against splendid clothes, tobacco consumption, drinking addiction, dance, comedies, card games, and, in a radical form, against all kinds of entertainment, games and music.
The most formative figure of Württemberg pietism was Johann Albrecht Bengel (1687–1752), who shaped a large part of the young pastors in Württemberg with his biblical , salvation history- oriented theology. Important students were the pastor and songwriter Philipp Friedrich Hiller (1698–1769), the Tübingen theology professor Jeremias Friedrich Reuss (1700–1777), who shaped an entire generation of Württemberg pastors, Johann Christian Storr (1712–1773), who continued into the Church leadership rose, and Friedrich Christoph Oetinger (1702–1782), who incorporated many other traditions into his original theology and with this, in turn, shaped the Württemberg pietism. The same applies to Philipp Matthäus Hahn (1739–1790).
In 1743 the pietist conventicles were legally recognized by the “General Rescript on the Private Assemblies of Pietists”. However, no heterodox and separatist views were allowed to be disseminated in them. This promoted the consolidation of Pietism in Württemberg. Families in the country like the pietistic teacher family Kullen in Hülben , who cultivated pietism for generations within the regional church and thus shaped the life in the country, were among the typical manifestations of Württemberg pietism.
Among laypeople, Johann Michael Hahn (1758–1819) should be mentioned as an influential thinker and founder of the Hahn communities that still exist today. Likewise, the Pregizier communities still exist today, which go back to the work of the pastor Christian Gottlob Pregizer (1751-1824). Important "fathers" of Württemberg pietism such as Michael Hahn , Johann Albrecht Bengel and Friedrich Christoph Oetinger represented the universal reconciliation (apokatastasis pantōn).
At the beginning of the 19th century there was a wave of pietists who emigrated to Bessarabia, the Crimea, the Volga region and the Caucasus due to eschatological speculations and innovations in the divine service agenda . To counter this, the two pietistic communities Korntal (1819) and Wilhelmsdorf (1824) were founded, which were given special church rights.
On this basis, the Pietists were able to get involved within the regional church , which is why there is still a strong Pietist movement there to this day. The Pietists in the “ Living Congregation ” discussion group are still the largest group in the Württemberg regional synod. However, the influence of Pietism in this country has often been overestimated because general behavior was ascribed untested pietistic influences.
The relationship between Pietists and non-Pietists within the Protestant regional church is sometimes tense, even in Württemberg , despite a fundamental understanding , which has been shown in the past when the discussion groups of the Synod found it difficult to agree on a regional bishop. In the last bishop's election in 2005, however, the “Lebendige Gemeinde” waived its own dedicated candidate, so that Bishop Frank Otfried July could be elected in the first ballot. This shows a rapprochement with the Gospel and Church discussion group , which in the past worked together with the more left-wing Protestant discussion group Open Church .
Zinzendorf grew up with his grandmother Henriette Catharina von Gersdorff . She represented a non-denominational, Philadelphian Christianity, although she always knew that she was connected to the Lutheran Church. Zinzendorf's world of thought and, with him, the Brethren, as well as the piety of his aunt Henriette von Gersdorf, who taught him how to “deal with the Savior” in daily prayer, left a deep impression on Zinzendorf.
At the age of ten, Zinzendorf came to the Hallisches Pädagogium regnum . Although he received inspiration from pietism in Halle, he later kept a distance from the local piety of penance struggle and the seriousness of sanctification . He had to take up law studies in Wittenberg and during this time he campaigned for a balance between Lutheran orthodoxy and Halle Pietism.
In 1722 he allowed Protestant refugees from Moravia to settle on his estate in Berthelsdorf in Upper Lusatia . They were descendants of the Bohemian Brethren , which had almost completely perished in the Thirty Years' War. In the further course, Schwenckfeldians from Silesia , Pietists, separatists, Lutherans and Reformed people also settled there. This settlement has been called Herrnhut since 1724 . It was possible to create a completely new church community from the settlers with their different traditions. By appealing to the fact that the old brotherhood had been renewed, it was made possible to remain in the realm of Lutheranism. In Herrnhut, religious and liturgical life flourished in great diversity.
Herrnhut became the starting point for intensive diaspora work in the German Empire, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Within a few years a dense network of friends and daughter communities developed. Herrnhut also became the center of the pagan mission , from which churches in the former mission areas emerged.
After initial points of contact with the emerging Methodist revival movement in England, however, there was a distinction between the Brethren and Methodism. Continental European Pietism and Methodism, however, have mutually fertilized each other in the further course of both movements.
After the death of Zinzendorf, the Brethren came closer to traditional Lutheran theology. They continued to acknowledge the Confessio Augustana as their confession. With all the other children of God , however, they knew they were still connected in a common faith of the heart, across all denominations.
The diaspora work of the Brethren was looked after by awakened Christians of all churches through their messengers. Awakened people were strengthened in their Bible-based piety in the age of the Enlightenment and theological rationalism . Diaspora work thus forms an important bridge between pietism of the Baroque era and the revival movements that began in the early 19th century within the Protestant churches. The meetings of the diaspora siblings were hindered in some regions by conventicle bans or other restrictions.
The preachers' conferences of the congregation were an opportunity for clergy of the Protestant regional churches to consult and to differentiate theologically from rationalism and neology .
Late Pietism between 1780 and 1820
The Pietism of this time is related to the Pietism of the Baroque in many ways, but differs from it. He is aware of his opposition to the Enlightenment in a completely different way. He is influenced by Sturm und Drang and romanticism . Even more than the earlier Pietism, the emphasis is on individuality and the cultivation of a culture of feeling.
The awakened gathered mainly in the German Christianity Society and the Moravian Church with their diaspora work. Individual personalities strongly influenced the Pietism of this time, even if they cannot always be called Pietists: Johann Caspar Lavater , Johann Friedrich Oberlin , Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling and Matthias Claudius .
The missionaries of the fraternity visited the circles of the raised and strengthened their faith. They only did this if the local chaplain of the regional church was aware of it or even supported it. These raised ones also supported the emerging mission societies and Bible societies .
The German Christianity Society in Basel also networked circles of awakened people. Its founder and sponsor was Johann August Urlsperger , who wanted to deal with the Enlightenment and neology with her. However, this objective was not taken up, but a network of like-minded people was built. Numerous subsidiaries were founded in and outside Germany. Confessional differences hardly played a role. A tract society was founded to sell edifying literature. The Basel Bible Society was founded in 1804 and the Basel Mission in 1815 by Christian Friedrich Spittler . Important impulses were received from England.
There were various relationships with the emerging revival movement (s) after 1815. For the most part, these tied in with the work of the Moravian Brethren and the Christianity Society with its subsidiaries or were supported by these circles.
The Awakening Movements of the 19th Century
The initial spark of the revival in the German Empire was the victory of Prussia and its allies over Napoleon Bonaparte . Many saw it as God's intervention in history. In this mood the awakened Juliane von Krüdener succeeded in persuading the Russian tsar, the Emperor of Austria and the Prussian king to found the Holy Alliance . A similar religious high spirits could be experienced at the Wartburg Festival and the three hundredth anniversary of the Reformation. Although this religious elation waned, the piety of the revival gained more and more followers. The aroused theology had support from Friedrich Wilhelm III. In Berlin it was pastor Johannes Jaenicke (1748–1827) and Baron Hans Ernst von Kottwitz (1757–1843) who advanced the revival movement through their missionary and social commitment, from which the Prussian Main Bible Society, the Berlin Mission Society, a tract association and a "Voluntary Employment Institution" emerged. They found many - including influential - followers. Also promoted Friedrich Wilhelm IV. And William I , the awakening and the Inner Mission .
In the first decade and a half, the denominational differences within the emerging revival movements hardly played a role. This changed with the return to older church traditions. Large parts of the revival movements took on a denominational, partly also denominational orientation, which rejected the union efforts within German Protestantism. Numerous diaconal institutions, treatise societies, Bible societies and mission societies were established within the revival movements.
Awakening movements arose in the Siegerland , in Elberfeld (today Wuppertal ), in Wittgenstein , in the Biedenkopfer area ( Hessian hinterland ), in the Oberbergischen, in Minden , in the Ravensberger Land , in East Prussia and in Pomerania , which affected large parts of the population. In some of these areas these movements led to the establishment of free church congregations .
There was also a strong revival movement in Switzerland . The Evangelical Society of the Canton of Bern was founded , founded by Karl Stettler-von Rodt and in which Franz Eugen Schlachter , the translator of the miniature Bible , worked as a preacher for years . The pietistic penetration of the upper class of Basel became proverbial as " Pious Basel ".
In 1836 pastor Theodor Fliedner founded the first deaconess house of modern times in Kaiserswerth with the deaconess institution Kaiserswerth . His wife Friederike Fliedner became the first superior . This was followed by foundations in many other cities. With the establishment of a “rescue house for mentally handicapped children” in 1838 as the first school facility for mentally handicapped children and young people in Wildberg , Württemberg , Karl Georg Haldenwang gave an important impetus for subsequent developments in special education and mentally handicapped education in German-speaking countries.
Following the example of already existing Evangelical Societies, the Lutheran Pastor Ludwig Feldner (1805–1890) founded the Evangelical Society for Germany , which set itself the task of evangelizing Germany and organized aroused circles in branch societies, thus paving the way for the community movement . Also founded Hermann Heinrich Grafe the Protestant Brüderverein in Elberfeld with similar tasks. After leaving the Reformed Church, Grafe became the founding figure of the Free Evangelical Congregations , and his former comrade in the Brothers' Association, Carl Brockhaus , became the most important propagator of the ideas of the Brethren movement in Germany.
Under the impact of the revolution of 1848 , Johann Hinrich Wichern (1808–1881) succeeded in gaining the attention and support of wide circles for his program of an Inner Mission with its diaconal institutions . The social activities of the Awakening Movement and Inner Mission are the root cause of today's diaconal work within the Protestant churches. They were brought into being alongside the constituted churches, sometimes against their opposition. They tended to be associated with conservative or reactionary circles and differentiated themselves from other social movements, in particular from socialism and communism . Only very rarely do you find structural-political approaches to solving the social question among the awakened . As a rule, they remain attached to an individual and association-based approach to these social problems.
The outer mission found broad support from the Awakened. The experiences and reports from the mission fields had a multifaceted effect on church life through magazines, mission festivals and mission conferences. Many missionaries also campaigned for the social needs of the people entrusted to them in the mission fields. The Basel Mission became the most important mission society .
The community movement
American evangelicalism represents the divine inspiration of the Bible as the sole basis for faith and life, the urgent call to conversion and the cooperation of believers, no matter whether lay or clergy, in God's plan of salvation for the world, with no further differentiations .
The sanctification movement distinguishes between justifying the sinner and sanctifying the believer. In the process of sanctification it should be possible for the believer to continue to overcome man's natural tendency to sin. A Christian life without conscious sin in a lasting love of God is considered an achievable goal ( perfectionism ). And baptism with the Holy Spirit was expected for sanctified Christians and attested to as an experience.
The inspector of the St. Chrischona pilgrim mission , Carl Heinrich Rappard , became an important propagator of the views of the sanctification movement, while the concerns of evangelism were made known and implemented by the professor of practical theology Theodor Christlieb and the evangelist Elias Schrenk .
In some areas, community associations had existed for decades, collecting the awakened and more or less intensively taking up suggestions from the Anglo-Saxon area. Other such associations were also founded through gathering of the awakened and evangelism. In 1888 a “free conference of Christian men from all over Germany” was invited to Gnadau for networking and theological discussion. This conference is considered to be the foundation of the modern community movement, which has largely merged with its associations and works to form the Gnadau community association . This conference highlighted the need for organized evangelism on the one hand and the work of the laity in the communities on the other. Sanctification Movement concerns were raised but were not undisputed.
The organizational process of the Gnadauer Verband was completed by 1897: The magazine "Philadelphia" was a publication organ and employed people for various areas. The new movement flourished. The awakened circles understood themselves as eccelesiola in ecclesia (little church in the church). The position on the composed Protestant regional churches ranged from friendly closeness and cooperation to free church ideas. The community movement is still in this arc of tension to this day. They kept their distance from theological science. The same goes for party politics, even if most of the community members were conservative. They know that they are connected in a very special way to the Awakened in all denominations, and thus the regional church communities are among the bearers of the work of the Evangelical Alliance . In the areas of education, mission and social engagement, the awakened circles and church life also received numerous suggestions from the Anglo-Saxon area. Professional associations for bakers, street sweepers, merchants, railroad workers, etc. were founded. All over Germany, YMCA and youth groups for resolute Christianity were founded.
Since 1903 there has been a great revival in Wales, imbued with the thoughts of the sanctification movement, which strengthened the hope of a worldwide revival in German communities. There were so-called baptisms of the Spirit, which were included in the perfection doctrine of a large part of the sanctification movement. In Los Angeles this was followed by baptisms in the spirit with speaking in tongues , which were interpreted as an end-time revival. As a result of this movement came the Kassel events in 1907. After ecstatic, tumultuous gatherings had caused a sensation, the series of events was broken off. These and subsequent events created a deep crisis in the community movement. As a result, Jonathan Paul's exaggerated views of Christian perfectionism were rejected and the Pentecostal movement was eliminated from the community movement. Representatives of the Evangelical Alliance called the new movement “from below” in the Berlin Declaration . This judgment still shapes parts of the evangelical movement today, even if the Kassel Declaration of 1996 led to a reassessment of the Berlin Declaration between the Evangelical Alliance and the Bund Freikirchlicher Pentecostal congregations and cooperation with the congregations of the Pentecostal movement and the Evangelical Charismatic Movement Alliance became possible. As a result of the expulsion of the representatives of the Pentecostal movement from the community movement, they organized themselves in 1913 in the Christian community association Mülheim ad Ruhr . Within the Gnadauer Verband there was a stronger turn to Reformation theology.
As a result of the First World War , the German community movement distanced itself from the Anglo-Saxon revival movements. Leaders of the Gnadau Association actively participated in the discussions after the end of the rulers' church regiment to reorganize the Protestant regional churches. Although the results for the community movement were disappointing, the movement as a whole remained in the evangelical people's churches .
After the seizure of power of the NSDAP occurred after initial enthusiasm for the new regime under the Chairman of the Association Gnadauer Walter Michaelis to rapid disillusionment. The Gnadauer Verband did not join the German Christian Faith Movement and urged its members to resign from this movement if they had joined it. Rather, in November 1934 they joined the “Working Group of Missionary and Diaconal Works”, which was close to the Confessing Church . Of the 38 regional associations of the Gnadauer Verband, however, the German Community Diakonieverband and two other smaller associations did not join this working group and thus left the Gnadauer Verband. The course of the Gnadauer Verband under Walter Michaelis received great respect in the Confessing Church. The National Socialist regime restricted and obstructed the work of the communities. There was no mention of the persecution of the Jews . However, there was individual help from individual community members.
After the Second World War , the communities and their associations faced the task of reorganizing community work. The work in the Soviet occupation zone and the GDR was released into independence and could be continued under the umbrella of the diaconal associations of the Protestant churches of the GDR. In the Federal Republic of Germany, major evangelizations with Billy Graham, along with many other new evangelism methods, became a means of promoting faith in Christ. In the theological debates of the post-war decades about the theology of Rudolf Bultmann and others, the ecumenical movement and feminist theology , large parts of the community movement sided with the confessional movement No other gospel ; there were also voices calling for moderation in these disputes. Its special position within the "confessional struggle" is marked by the resignation of the Gnadauer Verband in 1991 from the conference of Confessing Communities in the Evangelical Churches in Germany .
After the German Evangelical Alliance joined the World Evangelical Fellowship in 1968 , the word pietistic was increasingly replaced by the word evangelical , even if the community movement repeatedly emphasized its independence from the evangelical movement and occasionally sets different accents than it.
From the beginning, the community movement saw itself as a movement within the Protestant churches in Germany. The much-cited guiding principle of the work of the Gnadauer Verband is the word traced back to Theodor Christlieb: "in the church, where possible with the church, but not under the church". The Gnadauer Verband unites a wide range of theological views, which also affects the position of the individual communities and their associations in relation to the constituted churches. There are certainly associations that offer free-church congregations a home within themselves, while other associations specifically pursue an inner-church course. The latter does not exclude the fact that regional church communities see themselves as congregations in these, but in the constituted church.
In contrast to classical Pietism, neo-pietism and with it the community movement relies on a stronger focus on teaching (dogmatics) and preaching (evangelism / mission), which can sometimes be at the expense of charitable and diaconal activities.
The importance of pietism for German literature in the Enlightenment should not be underestimated . Pietists were required to observe their insides closely and to report any awakening experience in the circle of the Pietist brothers and sisters. This led to a more sensitive approach to psychological developments, which writers took as a model, which also made the heroes' inner life more important in literature. An example of the interplay between pietism, psychology and literature is Karl Philipp Moritz 's novel Anton Reiser . In the 6th book of the apprenticeship years (“The Confessions of a Beautiful Soul”), Goethe's Wilhelm Meister discusses, among other things, the Pietism of Zinzendorf and the Herrnhuter , which he had grappled with in his youth.
Pietism, together with the Enlightenment, is said to have brought about the end of denominationalism and to have been the "pioneer of modernity".
The social commitment of Pietism (including the deaconry institutions and social services that grew out of it) has brought about lasting changes in society and politics. Many social institutions (orphanages, hospitals) that are run by the state today can be traced back to Pietism.
Today's Bible Societies go back to the Pietistic Canstein Biblical Institute , which for the first time implemented the concern not only to make the Bible generally understandable in Luther's sense, but also to make the Bible affordable for everyone by introducing the standing sentence .
Criticism of Pietism
At no time since its inception has there been a lack of criticism of pietistic teaching content and the pietistic practice of piety. For example, Hermann von Pückler-Muskau spoke of a “man's hat hypocritical institution” from his own experience.
Particularly from circles of dialectical theology , a fruitful examination of Pietism was offered. The main point of criticism was that the Pietists invoked the consistency of the Bible, while representatives of dialectical theology did not believe this. The Berlin theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer described Pietism as the last attempt to preserve the Christian faith as a religion (resistance and surrender). In his negative assessment of religion - it was seen as a counter-term to God's revelation - this criticism weighs heavily. Likewise, as a biblical-Reformation theologian , Bonhoeffer rejected the fundamental concern of pietism to want to achieve a “desired piety” in people.
Outside Christians as well as non-Christians criticize Pietists for concentrating too much on their own spiritual development. The critics see here the danger of a “salvation egoism”, which is why pietists could not do justice to human responsibility in society. This criticism can be summarized under the term “criticism of subjectivism” and can refer to a long tradition. In his “Philosophy of Religion” , Hegel treats pietism parallel to the Enlightenment and assumes that it is “the tip of this subjectivity”. However, the above-mentioned social engagement of Pietism, which was often also a (social) missionary, speaks against the criticism of subjectivism. So the question arises whether the criticism of subjectivism is not based on an abstract, one-sided view of pietism.
Tensions and coalitions
Some churches and groups in pietistic tradition limits specifically of Pentecostal and charismatic from churches and groups. In most cases, the basis for this is still the Berlin Declaration of 1909. It was the reaction to a revival in Mülheim an der Ruhr in 1905, with which the Pentecostal movement began in German-speaking countries. Some excesses around the " tongues " and the assertion of the preacher Jonathan Paul that a Christian can live without sin, led to a split in the community movement and the creation of Mülheim Association .
In addition, large parts of Pietism are far more willing today than in the past to enter into spiritual cooperation with Roman Catholic Christians and communities.
In relation to the regional churches, there is a development in some community associations towards free church structures. This development has been virulent for some associations for decades, since they represent a free church ecclesiology . In other associations, the application of the historical-critical method , the inclusion of the results of feminist theology and the changed attitude towards traditional ethical-moral questions within the Protestant regional churches has led to communities and individual community members who are involved in Distance to the Protestant regional churches have gone.
Groups in the pietistic tradition
Groups within the EKD or individual regional churches:
- Members of the Evangelical Gnadauer Community Association :
Groups and associations outside the Gnadauer Association
- Confession Movement No Other Gospel
- Evangelical Brethren Congregation Korntal
- Evangelical Association for Inner Mission of the Augsburg Confession
- Evangelical prayer club
- Evangelical Lutheran prayer communities
- Moravian Brethren
- Michael Hahn community
- Pregizer communities
- Federation of Free Protestant Congregations in Germany
- Mennonite Brethren Congregations
- Mülheim Association of Free Church Evangelical Congregations
- Schwarzenau Brethren
Pietist community settlements
- Amana Colonies , Iowa
- Bethlehem , Pennsylvania
- Blooming Grove , Pennsylvania
- Economy , Pennsylvania; now a historic district of the city of Ambridge
- Ephrata , Pennsylvania
- Harmony , Pennsylvania
- Moravian Brethren
- Evangelical Brethren Congregation Korntal
- New Harmony , Indiana
- Schlösslein colony , Rehweiler
- Zoar , Ohio
Thinkers / theologians / philosophers influenced by pietism
- Franz von Baader
- Friedrich Engels
- Friedrich Holderlin
- Immanuel Kant
- Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
- Rudolf Kögel
- Hermann Niehaus
- Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling
- Friedrich Schleiermacher
Politicians influenced by pietism
Examples are to be mentioned
- the Chancellor Georg Michaelis
- the former German President Gustav Heinemann , influenced by the pastors Friedrich Graeber and Wilhelm Busch in Essen / Ruhr
- the former German President Johannes Rau , son of a Wuppertal merchant and part-time preacher
- the political scientist Christina Rau née Delius, granddaughter of Gustav Heinemann and wife of Johannes Rau.
Bibliographies on the history of Pietism
- The works of the Württemberg Pietists of the 17th and 18th centuries. List of literature published up to 1968. edited by Gottfried Mälzer. Walter de Gruyter; Berlin, New York 1972 ( Bibliography on the History of Pietism , Volume 1. On behalf of the Historical Commission for Research into Pietism [Berlin, at the Evangelical Church of the Union in the Evangelical Church in Germany] edited by Kurt Aland, Erhard Peschke and Martin Schmidt).
- A catalog of British devotional and religious books in German translation from the Reformation to 1750. compiled by Edgar C. McKenzie. Walter de Gruyter; Berlin, New York 1997 ( Bibliography on the History of Pietism , Volume 2).
- The works of Friedrich Christoph Oetinger. Chronological-systematic bibliography 1707–2014. edited by Martin Weyer-Menkhoff and Reinhard Breymayer. (Berlin; Munich; Boston [, Massachusetts, USA]:) (Walter) de Gruyter 2015 ( Bibliography on the history of Pietism. Volume 3. On behalf of the Historical Commission for the Study of Pietism [Hanover, at the Union of Evangelical Churches in the Evangelical Church in Germany] edited by Hans Schneider , Hans Otte , Hans-Jürgen Schrader).
Martin Brecht , Klaus Deppermann, Hartmut Lehmann , Ulrich Gäbler (eds.): History of Pietism. Vol. 1-4. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1993-2004. ( Standard work ).
- Martin Brecht (ed.): The Pietism from the seventeenth to the early eighteenth century. (History of Pietism, Volume 1). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1993, ISBN 3-525-55343-9 .
- Martin Brecht (ed.): The Pietism in the eighteenth century. (History of Pietism, Volume 2). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1995, ISBN 3-525-55347-1 .
- Ulrich Gäbler (ed.): The Pietism in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (History of Pietism). Volume 3, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2000, ISBN 3-525-55348-X .
- Hartmut Lehmann (Ed.): Faith and worlds of life. (History of Pietism, Vol. 4). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2004, ISBN 3-525-55349-8 .
- Martin H. Jung : Pietism. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-596-16130-4 . (fischer compact).
- Johannes Wallmann : Pietism. 2nd Edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-525-03702-3 . (also: UTB, 2598, ISBN 3-8252-2598-4 ). (Quick, comprehensive overview of classical pietism of the 17th and 18th centuries.)
- Hans-Jürgen Schrader : Literature and Language of Pietism. Selected studies. With a foreword by Bishop Petra Bosse-Huber . Edited by Markus Matthias and Ulf-Michael Schneider, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2019, ISBN 978-3-525-57083-8 .
- Corner of Demandt: Nikolaus Graf von Zinzendorf, Von Herrnhut zum Herrnhaag 1700–1760. Writings of the Altenstädter Society for Culture and History e. V. No. 8, ISBN 978-3-9811398-2-2 .
- Heinrich Schmid: The history of Pietism. CH Beck'sche Buchhandlung, Nördlingen 1863. ( http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3DDG8MAAAAIAAJ~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~ double-sided%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D )
- Dietrich Blaufuß : Corresponding Pietism. Selected contributions. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2003. (p. 359–386 comprehensive research report [tabular overview p. 384–386.].)
- Dietrich Blaufuss : Pietism. In: Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism. Edited by Wouter J. Hanegraaff, vol. II. Brill, Leiden, Boston 2005, pp. 955-960.
- Reinhard Breymayer : Pietism. In: Gert Ueding (Ed.): Historical dictionary of rhetoric . Vol. 6. Niemeyer, Tübingen 2003, Sp. 1191-1214. (Relationship between pietism and rhetoric ( rhetoric ).)
- Eberhard Fritz : Radical Pietism in Württemberg. Religious ideals in conflict with social realities. (Sources and research on the church history of Württemberg 18). Tübingen 2003. (About radical Pietism in Württemberg).
- F. Fritz: The Evangelical Church in Württemberg at the time of Pietism. In: Blätter für Wuerttemberg Church History 55. Stuttgart 1955, pp. 68–116.
- Pietism and modern times. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen, bibliography . Ed. Udo Sträter.) . (With the current Pietism
- Eberhard Busch : Karl Barth and the Pietists. The younger Barth's criticism of pietism and its reply. Kaiser, Munich 1978, ISBN 3-459-01165-3 . (On Karl Barth's examination of Pietism.)
- Jean Firges : Pietism in the German Southwest. Sonnenberg, 2005, ISBN 3-933264-43-X . (About the cultural and historical influences of the Pietist population.)
- Klaus Bockmühl : The Topicality of Pietism. Brunnen, 1985, ISBN 3-7655-9045-2 .
- Lothar Gassmann : Pietism where? Reconsideration in the crisis of the church. Verlag für Reformatorische Erneuerung, Wuppertal 2004, ISBN 3-87857-325-1 .
- Hans Schneider: The strange Arndt. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2006, ISBN 978-3-525-55833-1 .
- Claus Bernet : German Quakerism in the early modern period. A fundamental contribution to research on pietism. In: Journal of Religious and Intellectual History . 60, 2008, pp. 214-234.
- Claus Bernet: Pietism. Norderstedt 2013, ISBN 978-3-7322-8342-2 .
- Reinhard Breymayer (Ed.): Luctuosa desideria. Recovered memorial writings on the pietistic student Martin Born (1666–1689) from Leipzig. With poems by Joachim Feller, August Hermann Francke and others. Part 1. Luctuosa desideria and Cousin and Friend-related Final Duty. Text. Heck, Tübingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-924249-42-7 , pp. 24-25, the world-famous Feller sonnet on Martin Born can be found in the facsimile of the centuries-lost first edition within the collective publication Luctuosa desideria [> Emotions painful missing <].
- Tim Christian Elkar: Life and Teaching. Dogmatic Perspectives on Lutheran Orthodoxy and Pietism. Studies on Gerhard, König, Spener and Freylinghausen. Frankfurt / M. 2015. ISBN 978-3-631-65605-1 .
- Claudia Wustmann: The "enthusiastic maids". Central German prophets in radical pietism at the end of the 17th century. Leipzig; Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-933816-38-2 .
- Peter Schicketanz : The Pietism from 1675 to 1800. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt, Leipzig 2001.
- Hermann Theodor Wangemann : Spiritual rain and wrestling on the Baltic Sea beach - A church-historical life picture from the first half of the XIXth century. Century. Berlin 1861 ( http: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/1%3D~GB%3Dp40EAAAAQAAJ~IA%3D~MDZ%3D%0A~SZ%3D~doppelseiten%3D~LT%3D~PUR%3D ).
- Pietism in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints.
- Homepage of the Historical Commission for the Study of Pietism.
- Historical commission for research into pietism / management: in Hanover at the church chancellery of the Union of Evangelical Churches in the Evangelical Church in Germany.
- Evangelische Hochschule Tabor , Research Center Neupietism: important topics in Pietism and Neupietism research.
- Literature on Pietism in the catalog of the German National Library
- Martin Brecht: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, p. 2.
- Siegfried Wollgast : Pietism of Two Generations and Catholicism as Exponents of the Early Enlightenment. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 14, 1996, pp. 403-419, here in particular p. 412 f.
- Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: Martin Brecht et al. (Ed.): History of Pietism. Vol. 1, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1993, p. 391 f.
- Joachim Feller: Sonnet. In: Luctuosa desideria Quibus […] Martinum Bornium prosequebantur Quidam Patroni, Praeceptores atque Amici. Lipsiae , pp.  - . (Facsimile in: Reinhard Breymayer (Ed.): Luctuosa desideria. Tübingen 2008, p. 24 f.) - Cf. also Martin Brecht: Geschichte des Pietismus. Vol. 1, p. 4.
- Joachim Feller: Sonnet. In: Last memorial of honor which Mr. Joachim Göring […] erect […] several noble patrons, patrons and friends in Leipzig . [Lost first print.] - Reprint: Sonnet. In: [Adelheid Sibylla Schwartz:] Gods Serious Revelation / Against D. August. Pfeiffer [... 2nd edition] [o. O.] 1692, sheet B 2 b. - See Hans Leube: Orthodoxy and Pietism . […] Ed. By D [ietrich] Blaufuß. Bielefeld 1975, p. 260; Reinhard Breymayer (Ed.): Luctuosa desideria […]. Tübingen 2008, p. 6, and Martin Brecht: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, p. 4.
- Martin Brecht: The rise of the new piety movement in Germany. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 116-188.
- Andreas Ebert : Pious All-Reconcilers. In Glaube und Heimat No. 31/2021, August 1, 2021, p. 4
- Martin Brecht: Pietism. In: TRE 26, Berlin / New York 1996, pp. 606-608.
- Martin Brecht: The rise of the new piety movement in Germany. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 118-127; and the other: The German spiritualists of the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, p. 205.
- Martin Brecht: The rise of the new piety movement in Germany . In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 130-151.
- Martin Brecht: The rise of the new piety movement in Germany. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 127-130.
- Johann Friedrich Gerhard Goeters : The Reformed Pietism in Germany 1650-1690. In: History of Pietism Vol. 1, pp. 224-256.
- Johann Friedrich Gerhard Goeters: The Reformed Pietism in Germany 1650–1690 in Germany. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 256-259.
- Johann Friedrich Gerhard Goeters: Reformed Pietism in Bremen and on the Lower Rhine in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, p. 372.
- Johann Friedrich Gerhard Goeters: Reformed Pietism in Bremen and on the Lower Rhine in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 386-410.
- Dellsprenger: The Pietism in Switzerland. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 588-616.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, p. 279.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 302-311.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 295-299.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 299-301.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 321-326.329-338.344-352.358-371.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 333-338.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, p. 339 f.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 340-344.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 352-358.
- Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, p. 353.
- Martin Brecht: August Hermann Francke and the Halle Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 440-461.
- Martin Brecht: August Hermann Francke and the Halle Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 475-480.
- Martin Brecht: August Hermann Francke and the Halle Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 486-488.
- Martin Brecht: August Hermann Francke and the Halle Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 527-529.
- Martin Brecht: August Hermann Francke and the Halle Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, p. 503 f.
- Martin Brecht: August Hermann Francke and the Halle Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 504-507.
- Martin Brecht: August Hermann Francke and the Halle Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1, pp. 507-511.
- Martin Brecht: The Halle Pietism in the middle of the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 319-337.
- Martin Brecht: The Württemberg Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, p. 228.
- Martin Brecht: The Württemberg Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 230-237.
- Martin Brecht: The Württemberg Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 247-283.
- Martin Brecht: The Württemberg Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 245-247.
- Martin Scharfe : The religion of the people. Small cultural and social history of Pietism. Gütersloh 1980, pp. 57-62; Friedrich Baun: The Kullen family. Two hundred years in the service of the school in Hülben (1722–1922). Stuttgart 1922; In Hülben there is also a family archive of the Kullen-Eißler-Stöffler-Scheffbuch family in the old schoolhouse there.
- Martin Brecht: The Württemberg Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 283-286.
- Martin Brecht: The Württemberg Pietism. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, p. 286.
- See http://www.bruedergemeinde-korntal.de/
- See http://www.betsaal.com/
- Dietrich Meyer : Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 8-57.
- Dietrich Meyer: Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, p. 9 f.
- Dietrich Meyer: Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 10-13.
- Dietrich Meyer: Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 20-30.
- Dietrich Meyer: Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 68-74.
- Dietrich Meyer: Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, p. 40.
- Dietrich Meyer: Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 65-68, 80-87.
- Dietrich Meyer: Zinzendorf and Herrnhut. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, p. 67 f.
- Horst Weigelt : The Pietism in the transition from the 18th to the 19th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 701 f.
- Horst Weigelt: The Pietism in the transition from the 18th to the 19th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 701-710.
- Horst Weigelt: The Pietism in the transition from the 18th to the 19th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, pp. 710-718.
- Horst Weigelt: The Pietism in the transition from the 18th to the 19th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 2, p. 745.
- Gustav Adolf Benrath: The awakening within the German regional churches. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 158 f.
- Gustav Adolf Benrath: The awakening within the German regional churches. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 160-164.
- Gustav Adolf Benrath: The awakening within the German regional churches. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 170.
- Gustav Adolf Benrath: The awakening within the German regional churches. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 191 f.
- History of special education on www.sonderpaed-online.de
- Gustav Adolf Benrath: The awakening within the German regional churches. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 188 f.
- Gustav Adolf Benrath: The awakening within the German regional churches. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 189.
- Gustav Adolf Benrath: The awakening within the German regional churches. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 151 f.
- Arnd Götzelmann: The social question. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 301-303.
- Karl Rennstich: Mission - History of the Protestant Mission in Germany. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 308-319.
- Jörg Ohlemacher: Evangelicalism and the sanctification movement in the 19th century. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 371-391.
- Jörg Ohlemacher: Community Christianity in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 393-426.
- Jörg Ohlemacher: Community Christianity in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 426-443.
- Jörg Ohlemacher: Community Christianity in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 446.
- Jörg Ohlemacher: Community Christianity in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, p. 445.
- Jörg Ohlemacher: Community Christianity in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 446-448.
- Jörg Ohlemacher: Community Christianity in Germany in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 450-455.
- Eberhard Busch: The Pietism in Germany since 1945. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 533-549.
- Eberhard Busch: The Pietism in Germany since 1945. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 3, pp. 549-552.
- So Martin H. Jung: Reformation and Denominational Age (1517-1648). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2012 (UTB; No. 3628), p. 245.
- So Martin H. Jung: Reformation and Denominational Age (1517-1648). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2012 (UTB; No. 3628), p. 252.
- Quote from the essay: Pietism and the evangelical movement: personal experience of God and voluntary devotion .
- Quote from the essay: Pietism and the evangelical movement: personal experience of God and voluntary devotion .
- Dorothee Markert: Better for a lifetime. Our repressed pietistic legacy. Norderstedt: Books on Demand, 2010, ISBN 978-3-8391-9542-0 .
- Ernst Giese: And mend the nets. Documents on the 20th Century Awakening History. Marburg 1976.
- idea Spektrum 17/2007, pp. 21-23: Why a revival was followed by a split.