from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Paracelsus 1540. Engraving by Augustin Hirschvogel

Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim , (* 1493 or 1494 in Egg , Canton Schwyz ; † September 24, 1541 in Salzburg ; with all attested names that never appear at the same time Philippus Theophrastus Aureolus Bombast von Hohenheim , called Paracelsus ), was a Swiss doctor, Natural philosopher, alchemist, lay theologian and social ethicist. During his time, he was mainly perceived as a doctor and has been one of the most famous European doctors ever since the second half of the 16th century. He criticized the galenic humoral pathology , which was fundamental for the medicine of his time, and published his writings mostly in the German vernacular instead of in Latin.

The popular notion today associates his name with naturopathy , spagyric and holistic medicine .

The name or nickname "Paracelsus", as it can be found for the first time in astrological publications 1529/1530, could be derived from Greek para ("at") and Latin celsus ("high") and thus a scholarly translation of "Hohenheim" represent. However, this interpretation is not certain.

The followers of Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim were called Paracelsists . The representation of his theories as Paracelsism .


Memorial stone at the place of birth near Einsiedeln
Paracelsus monument in Einsiedeln
Louvre copy of the lost portrait by Quentin Massys

Paracelsus was born at the Teufelsbrücke on the Sihl , near Einsiedeln . The year of birth must be calculated from the age information on the two portraits of 1538 and 1540; in addition to the naturalized date 1493, 1494 is also possible. The father, Wilhelm Bombast von Hohenheim , illegitimate offspring of a small Swabian noble family, was a doctor. Almost nothing is known about the mother, a servant of the Einsiedeln monastery. Paracelsus was an only child. With nickname he was called by a Greek physician and naturalist Theophrastus ; Philip appears only in his epitaph and was perhaps his second Christian baptismal name . Finally, Aureolus is only sparsely documented and has not yet been convincingly explained. He gave himself the nickname Paracelsus , it is first recorded in 1529.

Presumably after the mother's early death, the father left Switzerland with his son. From 1502 at the latest, he lived in Villach in Carinthia , where he ran a medical practice. Paracelsus got his first insight into medicine, mining and the art of cutting through his father . He attended schools in Carinthia and then studied at several universities. Paracelsus counts among his teachers in a relevant section of the Große Wundarznei in addition to his father the bishop in Lavanttal Erhard Paumgartner (whereby Paracelsus also counts his predecessor Georg I among his teachers), the auxiliary bishop ( Proepiscopus ) of Freising and titular bishop of Salona Mathias Schach , Bishop Nikolaus Kaps (d. 1491, titular bishop of Hippos ) and Bishop Matthias Scheit von Seckau (bishop from 1481 to 1503). He also mentions "many abbots" and explicitly that of Sponheim Abbey . While Karl Sudhoff doubts that this is Johannes Trithemius , Kurt Goldammer supports it. Nothing is known about the exact relationship of these episcopal teachers to Paracelsus, but according to Goldammer it must have been personal in nature and not come about through scriptures. In Ferrara he did his doctorate in medicine, he later testified under oath in Basel, and later called himself (and was so called by a former fellow student) doctor of both medicines ( body and wound medicine , i.e. internal medicine and surgery ), this title could only be obtained at a few Italian universities such as Ferrara. The majority of researchers consider the doctorate to be credible and place it around 1516. Paracelsus went to Italy, the Balkans, Hungary, Poland, Prussia, Denmark, the Netherlands and France, perhaps also to Rhodes, Spain, Portugal and the British Isles. Paracelsus has mentioned several times where he has gained his knowledge, but he has not always made it clear which places he has visited and what he has learned from books and reports. Stays with well-known alchemists such as Sigmund Füger von Schwaz and Abbot Bruno von Spanheim are documented .

Paracelsus lived as a doctor in Salzburg by 1524 at the latest . When miners occupied the town during the German Peasant War and besieged the archbishop at the castle, he spoke against the clergy in the taverns. After the failure of the uprising, he left the city in a rush in April 1526. On the way to southern Germany, he received several successful treatments. He settled in Strasbourg and became a citizen on December 15th. At the beginning of 1527 he healed the Basel book printer Johann Froben , and Erasmus von Rotterdam also consulted him. As a result, he was appointed to Basel as a city ​​doctor and professor .

In Basel, Paracelsus quickly came into conflict with the university . He refused to swear to their statutes and therefore never became a regular member of the faculty. Then some of his lectures were not given in the academic language Latin, but in German. He threw a textbook of conventional medicine into the St. John's fire . He also turned the pharmacists against him because he wanted to control them more closely. Froben, his most prominent patient, died on October 26th, after which he was badly insulted by a publicly posted pamphlet . The disaster then occurred because a patient only paid a small part of the very high fee after successful treatment. Paracelsus sued him and when he was wrong he cursed the court. Fearing the consequences, he fled in February 1528 and broke his contract as a city doctor. From Colmar he tried in vain to return.

Paracelsus monument in Beratzhausen

The memories that Johannes Oporinus wrote down almost thirty years later in a letter to the doctor Johann Weyer refer to the Basel and Colmar times . As the only detailed description of Paracelsus by a close collaborator, the much discussed text is indispensable. Today there is broad consensus that he is reliable in the facts on the whole, but colored too negatively.

In 1529 Paracelsus stayed in Nuremberg . There he published two "prognostications" (predictions for the following years, the first of several), in which he called himself Paracelsus for the first time. In addition, he published two works on syphilis , Vom Holtz Guaiaco Thorough Heylung and Von der Frantzösischen kranckheit Drey books . The council then forbade him to print any further books.

In 1534 Paracelsus was turned away in Innsbruck because of his poor appearance, in Sterzing he was examined by the old believers and the evangelical clergy, with a paper about the plague he was badly received there, then he was well received in Merano . In 1535 he wrote a pamphlet in Pfäfers about the spa there, which was immediately printed, and wrote a medical consultation for the abbot of the local monastery.

In 1536 Paracelsus lived in Augsburg for a long time . The routes and detours he took from Pfäfers to get there remains unclear: Memmingen , Ungershausen and Mindelheim are occupied stations , and Ulm is not unlikely . It was there that Hans Varnier printed the first book of the Great Medicine . Paracelsus, however, was not satisfied with the result, and so he had a somewhat revised version of the entire work, consisting of two books, published by Heinrich Steiner in Augsburg in the same year . It is dedicated to the German king and later Emperor Ferdinand I. It was the only large book by Paracelsus that was printed during his lifetime, and a new edition was necessary the following year. At the front of the Augsburg print is a letter to the city doctor Wolfgang Talhauser and his answer to Paracelsus. The fact that Talhauser and Paracelsus complained about the state of the medicine was badly received by his colleagues.

In 1537 Paracelsus von Eferding was brought to Moravský Krumlov , where he wanted to visit the pastor Johann von Brant, who knew alchemy and medicine . There he was supposed to treat a high aristocrat, the Hereditary Marshal of Bohemia, Johann von Leipa. Paracelsus accepted the assignment, took his time with the examination and found that the patient's condition had been euphemistically described to him. He began treatment but then left without being discharged from his service. Because of this, Johann von Leipa sued him before King Ferdinand I. Paracelsus stayed in Znaim for at least two weeks , his trial was repeatedly postponed, in the end he traveled to Vienna , where the matter apparently ended with an amicable settlement. Probably in connection with this, Paracelsus gave an account to Johann von Leipa in a consultation, formulated his diagnosis and gave instructions for further treatment.

In 1538 Paracelsus stayed in Carinthia for a long time: on May 12th, he had a certificate of his father's death and his own right of inheritance issued in Villach. In August he was in St. Veit and there dedicated three of his writings to the Carinthian estates. This gave him hope that it would go to press soon, but nothing came of it. There is no news about Paracelsus' stay in 1539. On March 2, 1540, he was in Klagenfurt when he turned down a high-ranking foreign patient because he was weak himself and wanted to travel soon.

When exactly Paracelsus moved from Carinthia to Salzburg remains open. In any case, on April 15, 1541 he was at Lake Wolfgang . And on September 21st he dictated his will in front of witnesses in Salzburg. He died three days later, on September 24, 1541. The cause of death can no longer be determined with certainty. The bones have a high mercury content , but fatal poisoning cannot necessarily be deduced from this. The skull also shows the traces of a " Bezold abscess "; But whether this led to death or testifies to an earlier, healed illness cannot be decided. Reports that Paracelsus was violently killed cannot be substantiated in any way: that was defamation.

Grave of Paracelsus in Salzburg

According to his wishes, Paracelsus was buried in the St. Sebastian cemetery, the grave slab was donated by his executor Sebastian Setznagel; In 1752 the bones were reburied in a grave monument with the original grave slab in the vestibule of the church.

Cause of death

There has been much speculation about Paracelsus' early death. Modern forensic examinations have found a concentration of insoluble mercury in its bones that is up to a hundred times higher . It is therefore considered likely that he succumbed to mercury poisoning .

Mercury has been used for leprosy symptoms and various skin diseases since ancient times. When syphilis was introduced to Europe at the end of the 15th century , it made sense to use the heavy metal to treat the disease. But because the doses were often wrong and too high, it killed the patients in rows. Paracelsus was the first doctor who methodically recorded the course of the disease, drew his own conclusions from it and propagated an exact dosage of the mercury. In addition, he contradicted other treatment methods, such as therapy with guaiac wood , which is regarded as a miracle cure against the "lust epidemic" and is accordingly highly priced, and whose ineffectiveness he had recognized. With several enlightening writings he not only turned his colleagues against him, but also the powerful trading house of the Fugger , which had a trading monopoly on wood. In 1529 his publication Vom Holtz Guaiaco Thoroughly Heylung appeared . In 1531 his hospital book was supposed to appear in Nuremberg , in which he put his thoughts on the treatment of syphilis in concrete terms. However, the pressure was prevented by the Fuggers.

Paracelsus was not only a proven expert in the field of mercury therapy for the treatment of the "French disease", as syphilis was also called. He had also looked at the symptoms of chronic mercury poisoning that he had observed in miners. He recorded these experiences in the book Von der Bergsucht or Bergkranckheiten three books (etc.) , which was first published in 1567, 26 years after Paracelsus death by the Augsburg gunsmith Samuel Zimmermann, Latin Architectus . Some symptoms are described here. Blackening of the teeth, negatively influenced stimulus transmission and the so-called tremor mercurialis (from Latin mercurius = mercury), which is noticeable through nervous tremors and increased excitability . Paracelsus speaks of the "Mercurial tremor". It also says literally (next to the translation into standard German ):

die zähn ſeind vaſt ſchwartz / die glider lam   the teeth are very black / the limbs lame (powerless)
and a remaining one emerges movable from one with an erratic addiction, agile from one
ſtat to the other Body part to the other

This work also shows that the author himself was aware of the dangers of mercury vapors. Even if one assumes a gradual and therefore almost imperceptible deterioration in one's own general state of health, accidental self-poisoning cannot be suspected and can almost be ruled out due to the high level of expertise that the doctor possessed. The increased mercury levels in the skeleton do not indicate acute poisoning either , but do indicate a chronic course of the intoxication , which probably took place over a longer period of time. Because against the background of the restless, less sedentary life that Paracelsus led, the perpetration of a third party seems rather unthinkable, the question arises as to how the poison could get into the body. After such considerations, at least self-therapy for a possible syphilis disease cannot be ruled out.

coat of arms

Coat of arms of Paracelsus

Paracelsus had its own coat of arms. Blazon : "In silver a little label, inside a silver diagonal right bar covered with three red balls, accompanied by eight black paw crosses (3/2/2/1)." The label is derived from the coat of arms of the Bombast von Hohenheim family , which shows in gold a blue diagonal bar covered with three silver spheres.

As a motto Paracelsus used the pentameter verse : Alterius non sit, qui suus esse potest - Whoever is able to be his own master does not depend on someone else.

The medical teachings of Paracelsus


Paracelsus' understanding of nature was based on his teaching of the three principles (Tria Principia) in alchemy. In addition to the well-known principles of sulfur (sulfur with the properties volatile and flammable) and mercury (mercury with the properties living, liquid and watery), a third new addition was salt (sal), which was expressed in the formation of solid forms in the earth. Paracelsus probably took this tria prima doctrine from the Book of the Holy Trinity by the Franciscan brother Ulmannus.

According to Paracelsus, medicine is based on knowledge of nature and God. To understand things and thus also diseases and their correct treatment, empirical findings on the one hand and - and much more importantly - the consideration of the bigger picture are necessary on the other hand: "Because humans can only be grasped from the macrocosm , not from within themselves. Only the knowledge of this agreement completes the doctor ”( Opus Paramirum ).

For Paracelsus, whose concepts also contain Neoplatonic elements, the material body is only a part of the complete body, which is largely invisible to the ordinary observer. However, whoever would partake of divine enlightenment and divine fire through constant work on oneself (inner transformation) could see the world with different eyes, i.e. H. See “in the light of nature” ( Opus Paramirum ), and only that would be suitable for a doctor, because: “It is a mistake to draw your knowledge of hearsay and reading in medicine [...] The natural force in fire is also our teacher "And" The fire makes visible what is otherwise in the dark. According to this method, the science is to be presented ”( Opus Paramirum ). According to Paracelsus, the successful exercise of the medical art requires not only the grace of God but also the knowledge and control of four sub-disciplines. These include:

  • Philosophy: "Anyone who wants to be a philosopher and protect himself from falsities must give his philosophy such a basis that he combines heaven and earth in a microcosm ."
  • Astrology (included in the term astronomy ): "If now the human being is to be understood in its entire composition by every doctor, then now know that astronomy is the second reason and represents the upper sphere of philosophy."
  • Alchemy : “Because nature is so subtle and sharp in its things that it cannot be applied without great art. Because it brings nothing to the day that would be completed for himself, but the person has to complete it. This perfection is called Alchemia. ”-“ Therefore learn Alchimiam, who is otherwise called Spagyria, who teaches to separate the wrong from the just. ”
  • Proprietas (honesty): "That is why the doctor of the people should have faith, so he also has it with God."

About the causes of diseases

The teachings and explanations of Paracelsus on the causes of diseases speak of five main types of disease influences (also known as entia ):

  • Ens Astrorum or Ens Astrale (the celestial influences),
  • Ens Veneni ( poison absorbed by the body ),
  • Ens Naturale (predestination; constitution),
  • Ens Spirituale (influence of the "spirits"),
  • Ens Dei (direct influence of God).

According to Paracelsus, every disease can be traced back to one or more of these causes. For example, the effect of a poison (Ens Veneni) can be intensified if it hits a weak constitution (Ens Naturale). In order to make a correct diagnosis, the doctor must therefore consider the totality of all five Entia.

His well-known saying is often quoted: “All things are poison and nothing is without poison; the dose alone makes sure that a thing is not poison. "

About the treatment and healing of diseases

According to Paracelsus, the causes mentioned cause an imbalance of three fundamental substances that make up the body: sulfur (sulfur), mercury (Merkurius) and salt (sal). Healing takes place through the restoration of this balance, for example through the administration of the respective remedies with the required properties. Paracelsus assumed that when drugs are used, the symptoms of the disease are mixed with the signs of the drug and that effective drugs must have the same magistral origin as the disease. He called such medicines arcana. (This idea of an Arcanum has Samuel Hahnemann taken in the shaping of his homeopathic pathology 1796).

In addition to making use of and refining traditional healing methods, Paracelsus used the doctrine of signatures to locate medicinal products and alchemical techniques, which Paracelsus was familiar with, for example from the works of Johannes de Rupescissa and Pseudo-Lull , to extract the active ingredients contained therein. Paracelsus draws on the fundamental, hermetic principle of mutual correspondence between man as a microcosm and the world as a macrocosm. External properties such as the shape and color of plants would allow conclusions to be drawn about their effect. For example, heart-shaped flowers are said to work against heart disease, bumpy roots against leprosy leprosy and prickly thistles against stinging in the chest.

The remedies should be prepared according to the sexes. With a few exceptions, men and women should therefore be given gender-specific drugs.

The interpretation of Paracelsus' statements is the subject of frequent discussion among representatives of traditional and alternative medicine.

Effect of his teaching

Paracelsus questioned the humoral pathology (four-sap theory), which was common at the time and largely recognized until the 19th century , the systematic of which is still often encountered in his early writings, and he did not lead pathological conditions (as was common at the time) to a mismixing of the four Body juices back. For Paracelsus, diseases arise mainly through stellar effects on humans, from which the so-called seed of disease emerges. With his medical interpretation of alchemy, which he called spagyric , he believed that he had found the right way of medicine. In his Archidoxen ( Archidoxa ) 1526 (first printed in 1569 in Latin and 1570 in German) he manifested his theses for the first time. After his death, the Archidoxes formed the basis for the development of chemical medicine (important representatives of chemical medicine are: Andreas Libavius , Johann Popp and Johann Schröder ).

Most contemporary doctors rejected Paracelsus, also because of contradicting aspects of his teaching, and preferred the traditional methods and views of authorities like Galen or Aristotle. However, his personality and teaching were lively discussed.

“Paracelsus did not carry out the revolutionary paradigm shift, nor did he participate in it. But Paracelsus certainly contributed to shaking medieval galenic-scholastic medicine and pharmaceutical science. And only the demise of this paradigm cleared the way for modernity. "

- Ulrich Fellmeth : The medicine of Paracelsus and the medicinal plants. In: Nova Acta Paracelsica. New series, Volume 26, 2012/13, pp. 135 f.

The theologian, Zwinglian Protestant and physician Thomas Erastus commented on the dispute over Paracelsus that broke out in the second half of the 16th century .

In the 17th century the doctrine of Paracelsus came to the Ottoman Empire , where they work in the medical Ghayat al-Itqan fi tadbîr al-Insan of Sâlih ibn Nasrullah Ibn Sallum (died 1670), the doctor of Sultan Mehmet IV. , As a supposedly "New chemical medicine" was propagated.

The poet of Faust , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , had also dealt with Paracelsus. Goethe took to heart his demand that man should be his own doctor and used the healing powers of nature, but was also convinced of alchemistically prepared universal remedies and had experimented alchemistically with chemical devices.

Rachel Laudan from the University of London, in The Origin of Modern Cooking, traces the change from medieval cuisine to modern Western cuisine, which took place simultaneously in all European royal courts, directly back to the work of Paracelsus. A healthy diet was important even back then - possibly even more important than it is today, as there were hardly any effective treatment options in the event of an illness. The personal physicians of high-ranking personalities not only paid attention to sleep, exercise and fresh air for their wards, but of course also to their food and drink. The implementation of abstract nutritional theories in food sequences that were appropriate to the high table was carried out in close coordination between personal physician and steward (“ majordomus ”). The generation of doctors who came to the courts at the beginning of the 17th century, according to Laudan, were unmistakably influenced by Paracelsus' teachings, even if hardly anyone openly confessed to him because of his bad reputation. However, his considerations to replace the four elements of antiquity with the three new basic substances Sulfur, Mercury and Sal led to a different picture of the digestive processes. While digestion was previously considered to be "cooking" like in a saucepan, Paracelsus now made it appear more similar to "fermentation" as in alcohol fermentation. This in turn led to a completely new picture of what a healthy diet should look like. Above all, sugar was banned from main dishes and placed at the end of the menu as a dessert.

The language of Paracelsus who dominated the language, which also came up with new word creations, and a widespread "Paracelsism" were of great importance for the emergence of a vernacular scientific language. In his medical writings written in German, for which he also used national-language specialist literature as sources, he primarily addressed lay doctors, according to Gundolf Keil.


Paracelsus Medal of Switzerland. Chem. Gesellschaft , created in 1940 by Werner F. Kunz on the 400th anniversary of Paracelsus' death
  • The name of the Bombastus-Werke , founded in 1904, was chosen based on Paracelsus' original Latinized family name.
  • Theophrastus Paracelsus (feature film): the feature film was made in 1916
  • The Paracelsus Society was founded in Salzburg in 1941 with the first president, Reich Health Leader Leonardo Conti ; the International Paracelsus Society was founded in 1951 as a successor institution.
  • A further film was at the height of the Nazi Paracelsus enthusiasm - 1942, the doctor seen as a militant member of a "German medicine" and immaterial forerunner of Nazi medicine .
  • Paracelsus Medal : In 1952, the Presidium of the German Medical Association endowed the 'Paracelsus Medal' as the highest award of the German medical profession for deserving doctors.
  • The asteroid (2239) Paracelsus , discovered in 1978, bears his name.
  • Since 1982, the Paracelsus Medal has been awarded every two years by the Swiss Chemical Society under the new name Paracelsus Prize .
  • Paracelsus Fair: On the initiative of the 'Paracelsus Medical Private University Salzburg' University, the first Paracelsus fair took place in Salzburg in 1989. The largest German health fair has been organized in Wiesbaden under this name since 1991.
  • A mineral newly discovered in 1998 is named theoparacelsite in honor of Paracelsus .
  • The plant genus Paracelsea Zoll is named after Paracelsus . & Moritzi from the gentian family (Gentianaceae).
  • Paracelsus Medical Private University Salzburg: In 2002 the Private Medical University Salzburg was renamed 'Paracelsus Medical Private University Salzburg'.
  • Streets and clinics: Numerous streets and clinics are named after Paracelsus.
  • Paracelsus-Ring of the City of Salzburg : The Paracelsus-Ring of the City of Salzburg is awarded for outstanding scientific or artistic achievements.


Labyrinthus medicorum or
On the Mistakes of Doctors
, title page

An extensive work of medical, astrological, philosophical and theological content has come down to us from Paracelsus, who was a stutterer , in addition to complete writings also much unfinished and incomplete (but it is often not clear whether he ever wrote down what was missing). The titles are mostly in Latin, but the texts are almost entirely German. Paracelsus was only able to have a little printed during his lifetime. His own manuscripts are no longer available today, but they were the basis of some old editions. There are also fake writings, i.e. those published by others under his name, and for some it has not yet been clarified whether they are genuine or whether they are adaptations of genuine texts.

In addition to several almanacs and prognostic writings, the following appeared during Paracelsus' lifetime:

  • Intimacy . Basel 1527 (invitation and program for the lectures; the text has been preserved, but no copy of the original print has survived).
  • Thorough healing from Holtz Guaiaco. Friedrich Peypus, Nuremberg 1529.
  • From the French disease Drey books. Friedrich Peypus, Nuremberg 1530.
  • Located by Bad Pfeffers in Oberschwytz ... (Christoph Froschauer, Zurich) 1535.
  • The great Wundartzney the first book. Hans Varnier, Ulm 1536; Heinrich Steiner, Augsburg 1536 (The content of the Ulm and Augsburg editions are not entirely identical).
  • The great Wundartzney the other book . Heinrich Steiner, Augsburg 1536.

After Paracelsus' death, from 1549 onwards, numerous of his writings appeared individually and in large and small collections, sometimes the same work based on different models. The complete edition by Johann Huser finally became the basis . For many works it contains the best text, for some the only text. With very few exceptions, the theological writings remained unprinted.

  • Books and writings . 10 parts. Konrad Waldkirch, Basel 1589–1590. ("From the originals and Theophrasti's own handwriting, as much as could be obtained, put it to the day with the greatest diligence and diligence")
  • Surgical books and writings . Konrad Waldkirch, Basel 1591 (the first of planned four volumes).
  • Surgical books and writings . Lazarus Zetzner, Strasbourg 1605 (the texts prepared for edition by Husner but no longer published by Waldkirch).

A complete scientific edition was started in the 20th century. It is still unfinished today.

  • Theophrast von Hohenheim called [annt] Paracelsus: Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff . 14 volumes. Otto Wilhelm Barth, Munich, later R. Oldenbourg, Munich / Berlin 1922–1933 (fundamental, but no longer meets today's editorial scientific standards).
  • Martin Müller : Register volume for Sudhoff's Paracelsus Complete Edition , ed. by Robert Blaser. Josef and Karl Eberle, Einsiedeln 1960 (Since the notes on which they are based were damaged in World War II, this register has larger, unrecognizable gaps).
  • Elke Bußler: Register for Sudhoff's Paracelsus edition. General and special registers: persons, places, plants, recipes, references to own works . De Woudezel, Ossendrecht 2018, ISBN 978-90-821760-1-8 .
  • Complete works , section 2: Theological and religious-philosophical writings , ed. by Kurt Goldammer . Volumes 2-5 and supplement. Franz Steiner, Wiesbaden 1965–1973. (Volume 1, edited by Wilhelm Matthiessen , was published in 1923; it is inadequate and is now outdated.)
  • Kurt Goldammer: Register (indices) for volumes IV-VII (interpretations of the Old Testament) . Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 1995.
  • New Paracelsus Edition , ed. by Urs Leo Gantenbein. De Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2008ff. (Of the 8 volumes that are currently planned, the following has been published so far: Theological works . Volume 1: Vita beata, From happy life . De Gruyter, Berlin et al. 2008).

Extensive, linguistically modernized editions of the work are:

  • All works . After the 10-volume Huser complete edition, translated for the first time into modern German by Bernhard Aschner. 4 volumes. Gustav Fischer, Jena 1928–1932.
  • All works in a contemporary short selection . Edited by Josef Strebel. 8 volumes. Zollikofer, St. Gallen 1944–1949.
  • Works , provided by Will-Erich Peuckert . 5 volumes. Schwabe, Basel and Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1965–1968 ("study edition" with modernized but unabridged text; also contains "the most important pseudo-Paracelsist writings").

There are also numerous, often linguistically modernized editions of individual fonts, including many others:

  • Labyrinthus medicorum or On the mistake of doctors. Edited by Hans Kayser. Insel-Verlag, Leipzig 1924 (= Insel-Buecherei. Volume 366).
  • The Kärntner Schriften , obtained from Kurt Goldammer. Office of the Carinthian Provincial Government, Klagenfurt 1955.
  • Liber de nymphis, sylphis, pygmaeis et salamandris et de caeteris spiritibus . Edited by Robert Blaser (= Old German exercise texts . Volume 16). A. Francke, Bern 1960.
  • The book of recognition , edited from the manuscript with an introduction by Kurt Goldammer (= texts from the late Middle Ages and early modern times . Issue 18). Erich Schmidt, Berlin 1964.
  • The medical consilium of Paracelsus for Abbot Johann Jakob Russinger von Pfäfers 1535 . New edition and commentary. Edited by Willem F. Daems and Werner Vogler. Swiss Paracelsus Society, Einsiedeln 1986 (with reproduction of the manuscript).
  • From the Bad Pfeffers in Oberschwytz . Introduced and translated by Gunhild Pörksen. Altes Bad Pfäfers Foundation, Pfäfers 1993 (with facsimile of the print by Christoph Froschauer, Zurich 1535).
  • Septem Defensiones. The self-defense of an outsider . Transfer and introduction by Gunhild Pörksen with a reprint of the Basel 1589 edition. Schwabe, Basel 2003, ISBN 3-7965-1988-1 .
  • The comet in the high mountains of 1531 , ed. by Urs Leo Gantenbein, Pia Holenstein Weidmann. Chronos, Zurich 2006, ISBN 978-3-0340-0794-8 (with facsimile of the print by Christoph Froschauer, Zurich 1531, and reading translation).
  • Essential Theoretical Writings. Edited and translated with a Commentary and Introduction by Andrew Weeks (= Aries Book Series, Editor Wouter J. Hanegraaff , Volume 5). Brill, Leiden / Boston 2008, ISBN 978-90-04-15756-9 . PDF at
  • From mountain addiction and other mountain diseases . Edited by Irmgard Müller. Springer, Berlin et al. 2013, ISBN 978-3-642-41593-7 .

Other old editions in the original text:

  • Wounds and personal physician . Frankfurt am Main, 1549 (Christian Egenolff); 1555 (Christian Egenolff); 1561 (Chr. Egenolff heirs).
  • Baderbuechlin. Six delicious treats […]. Peter Schmid, Mulhouse 1562.
  • Carinthian Chronicle of Paracelsus . (Written in 1538). 1564.
  • Archidoxes:
    • Johannes Albertus: Archidoxorum Theophrasitiae pars prima. Novem libri de mysteriis naturae Theophrasti Bombast d. Hohenhaimensis […]. Munich 1570 ( digitized version )
    • Archidoxa D. Philippi Theophrasti Paracelsi von Hohenhaim, twelve books, in which all of nature's nuances are opened, as listed at the beginning of the first book. Adam Berg , Munich 1570.
  • From Wundartzney: Ph. Theophrasti von Hohenheim, both Artzney Doctoris, 4 books . (Peter Perna), 1577.
  • Little Wundartzney. Basel (Peter Perna) 1579; Strasbourg (Ledertz) 1608.
  • Opus Chirurgicum, Bodenstein , Basel, 1581.
  • Opera medico-chimica sive paradoxa […]. Frankfurt 1605.
  • Opera omnia medico-chemico-chirurgica. Volume 3. Geneva 1658.
  • Philosophia magna, tractus aliquot. Cologne 1567.
  • Philosophiae et Medicinae utriusque compendium , Basel, 1568.
  • Liber de nymphis , sylphis , pygmaeis et salamandris et de caeteris spiritibus Basel 1590.


  • Udo Benzenhöfer : Paracelsus. (1st edition 1997) 3rd edition. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2003, ISBN 3-499-50595-9 .
  • Udo Benzenhöfer: Studies on the early work of Paracelsus in the field of medicine and natural history. Klemm & Oelschläger, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-932577-91-4 .
  • Udo Benzenhöfer: Paracelsus. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 1101-1105.
  • Lucien Braun : Paracelsus: alchemist - chemist - innovator of medicine. A picture biography. Zurich 1988.
  • Hugo DelffHohenheim, Philipp Theophrast von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 12, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1880, pp. 675-683.
  • Gerhard Eis : To the German vocabulary of Paracelsus. In: Journal for German Word Research. New Series, Vol. 4 (1963), pp. 146-152.
  • Gerhard Eis: Before and after Paracelsus. Investigations into Hohenheim's ties to tradition and news about his followers. Stuttgart 1965 (= Medicine in History and Culture. Volume 8).
  • Dietrich von Engelhardt : Paracelsus in the judgment of the natural sciences and medicine of the 18th and 19th centuries. Karl F. Haug Fachbuchverlag, Heidelberg 2001, ISBN 3-8304-5096-6 .
  • Urs Leo Gantenbein: Paracelsus. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . September 27, 2010 , accessed February 20, 2020 .
  • Kurt Goldammer : Paracelsus. Nature and revelation. Hanover 1953.
  • Heinrich Haeser : Textbook of the history of medicine and epidemic diseases. Printed and published by Friedrich Mauke, Jena 1853.
  • Bernhard Dietrich Haage: Alchemy in the Middle Ages: Ideas and Images - from Zosimos to Paracelsus. Artemis and Winkler, Düsseldorf / Zurich 1996, ISBN 3-7608-1123-X , in particular pp. 30–36 and 143–200.
  • Johannes Hemleben : Paracelsus: Revolutionary, Doctor and Christian. Frauenfeld / Stuttgart 1973.
  • Pirmin Meier : Paracelsus. Doctor and prophet. Approaches to Theophrastus von Hohenheim. Ammann, Zurich 1993; 6th edition: Unionsverlag, Zurich 2013.
  • Sergius Golowin : Paracelsus. Medic - healer - philosopher. Schirner, Darmstadt 2007, ISBN 978-3-89767-571-1 .
  • Manuel Kamenzin: Who would want to oppose such an honest heap of high schools? Paracelsus and the universities. In: Benjamin Müsegades, Ingo Runde (Ed.): Universities and their environment. Southwest and Empire in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. Contributions to the conference in the Heidelberg University Archives on October 6th and 7th, 2016 (= Heidelberger Schriften zur Universitätsgeschichte. Volume 7). Universitätsverlag Winter, Heidelberg 2019, ISBN 978-3-8253-6846-3 , pp. 139–161.
  • Otto Lindner: Theophrastus Paracelsus as a fighter against the papacy. Berlin 1845. ( full text )
  • Bernd A. Mertz: Paracelsus and his astrology. Geneva 1993, ISBN 3-907029-32-1 .
  • Heinz Pächter : Paracelsus. The archetype of Doctor Faustus. Zurich 1955.
  • Walter Pagel : Paracelsus. An introduction to philosophical medicine in the era of Renaissance. Karger, New York 1958; 2nd edition Basel / New York etc. 1982
    • German translation: The medical worldview of Paracelsus. Its connections with Neoplatonism and Gnosis. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1962 (= Cosmosophy, 1).
  • Walter Pagel: Paracelsus . In: Charles Coulston Gillispie (Ed.): Dictionary of Scientific Biography . tape 10 : SG Navashin - W. Piso . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York 1974, p. 304-313 .
  • Wolf-Dieter Müller-JahnckeParacelsus. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 20, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-428-00201-6 , pp. 61-64 ( digitized version ).
  • Gunhild Pörksen: Philosophy of the Great and the Small World. From the «Astronomia Magna». Schwabe, Basel 2008, ISBN 978-3-7965-2511-7 .
  • Franz Rueb : Myth Paracelsus. Work and life of Filipus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Quintessenz, Berlin / Munich 1995, ISBN 3-86128-276-3 .
  • Johannes Schaber:  Paracelsus. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 6, Bautz, Herzberg 1993, ISBN 3-88309-044-1 , Sp. 1502-1528.
  • Heinrich Schipperges : Paracelsus. Man in the light of nature (= Edition Alpha. [Volume 3]). Klett, Stuttgart 1974, ISBN 3-12-907650-6 .
  • Heinrich Schipperges: Paracelsus. In: Exempla historica. Epochs of world history in biographies. Vol. 23, Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1983, pp. 139–162.
  • Ernst Eberhard Schmidt: Riet and the Hohenheim bombast. At the same time a contribution to the discussion about the descent of Paracelsus. In: Riet in the past and present. Vaihingen 2012, pp. 69–80.
  • Wolfgang Schneider : Basics for Paracelsus' medicinal therapy. In: Sudhoffs Archiv, 49, 1965, pp. 28-36.
  • Karl Sudhoff : Paracelsus. A German image of life from the days of the Renaissance. Bibliographical Institute, Leipzig 1936.
  • Joachim Telle (Ed.): Analecta Paracelsica. Studies on Theophrast von Hohenheim's afterlife in the German cultural area of ​​the early modern period. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 1994 (= Heidelberg studies on natural history in the early modern period , 4), ISBN 3-515-06589-X .
  • Johann Christoph Adelung : 73. Theophrastus Paracelsus. A Kabbalist and a Charlatan. In: Johann Christoph Adelung: History of human folly or life descriptions of famous black artists, gold makers, devil banners, sign and line interpreters, enthusiasts, fortune tellers, and other philosophical fiends. Part 7. Leipzig (1789), pp. 189-364. in Google Book Search
  • Isaac Asimov: Biographical Encyclopedia of Natural Sciences and Technology , Herder, Freiburg / Basel / Vienna 1974, ISBN 3-451-16718-2 , pp. 66–67
  • An index of bibliographies about him can be found in: International Bibliography of Bibliographies 1959–1988 (IBB) , recorded there as a list in Volume 11.2, De Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-598-33748-2 , p. 444

Web links

Commons : Paracelsus  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Paracelsus  - Sources and full texts


  1. Udo Benzenhöfer: Paracelsus. 2005, p. 1101.
  2. Cf. Karl Bittel: Theophrast's childhood in Einsiedeln. In: Nova acta Paracelsica. Volume 1, 1944, p. 39.
  3. ^ Paracelsus biography by Heinrich Schipperges in: Walter Killy, Rudolf Vierhaus (ed.): The great biographical lexicon of the Germans. Wiener, Himberg 1995, p. 533.
  4. ^ Kurt Goldammer: The episcopal teachers of Paracelsus. Sudhoffs Archiv, Volume 37, 1953, pp. 234–245.
  5. ^ Albrecht Burckhardt : Again Paracelsus's doctorate . In: Correspondence sheet for Swiss doctors . Volume 44, 1914, pp. 884-887.
  6. ^ Ingrid Kästner: Paracelsus. Teubner 1989, p. 24.
  7. On April 27th, an inventory was made of the property he had left behind: Franz Martin: A new Parazelsus certificate . In: Communications from the Society for Regional Studies in Salzburg . Volume 58, 1918, pp. 23-28.
  8. ^ William Arbuckle Murray: Erasmus and Paracelsus . In: Bibliothèque d'Humanisme et Renaissance . Volume 20, 1958, pp. 560-564.
  9. ^ Text and translation by Karl Sudhoff: Paracelsus. A German image of life from the days of the Renaissance . Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1936, pp. 38–40.
  10. Cf. for example Udo Benzenhöfer: On the letter of Johannes Oporinus to Paracelsus . In: Sudhoff's archive . Volume 73, 1989, pp. 55-63.
  11. Practica D. Theophrasti Paracelsi made on Europen . In: Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 7. Otto Wilhelm Barth, Munich 1923, pp. 459-467.
  12. So in the cover letter to the booklet from the plague to the city of Sterzing , in: Paracelsus: Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 9. Otto Wilhelm Barth, Munich 1925, p. 561f.
  13. Paracelsus: Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 9. Otto Wilhelm Barth, Munich 1925, pp. 639-659.
  14. Paracelsus: Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 9. Otto Wilhelm Barth, Munich 1925, pp. 661–665, and Willem F. Daems, Werner Vogler (ed.): The medical consilium of Paracelsus for Abbot Johann Jakob Russinger von Pfäfers 1535 . New edition and commentary. Swiss Paracelsus Society, Einsiedeln 1986 (with illustration of the manuscript).
  15. Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 10. R. Oldenbourg, Munich / Berlin 1928, pp. 5-421.
  16. ^ Joachim Telle: Wolfgang Talhauser . On the life and work of an Augsburg city doctor and his relationships with Paracelsus and Schwenckfeld. In: Medical History Journal. Volume 7, 1972, pp. 1-30.
  17. Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 10. R. Oldenbourg, Munich / Berlin 1928, pp. 10-14.
  18. see also: Küssdenpfennig House .
  19. Martin Rothkegel, Udo Benzenhöfer: Paracelsus in Mährisch Kromau and Znaim in the year 1537. In: History of Pharmacy (= Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung . Supplement). Volume 53, 2001, No. 4, pp. 49-57.
  20. Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 11. R. Oldenbourg, Munich / Berlin 1928, pp. 281-288.
  21. It was not until the 20th century that the promise was kept with a representative edition: Paracelsus: Die Kärntner Schriften , obtained by Kurt Goldammer. Office of the Carinthian Provincial Government, Klagenfurt 1955.
  22. ^ Letter to Hans Ungnad, the Supreme Captain of the Lower Austrian Lands and Governor of Styria. Paracelsus: Complete Works , Department 1: Medical, Philosophical and Scientific Writings, ed. by Karl Sudhoff. Volume 11. R. Oldenbourg, Munich / Berlin 1928, p. 294.
  23. Herbert Kritscher, Johann Szilvássy: Final results of the forensic-anthropological investigations of the skeletal remains of Paracelsus . In: Salzburg contributions to Paracelsus research . Volume 30, 1997, pp. 9-31; summarizing Gerhart Harrer: On Paracelsus' terminal illness . In: Heinz Dopsch, Peter F. Kramml (eds.): Paracelsus and Salzburg. Society for Salzburg Regional Studies, Salzburg 1994, pp. 61–67.
  24. ^ Franz Rueb: Myth Paracelsus. Work and life of Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim. Munich 1994, p. 279.
    In German: Philipp Theophrast, doctor of medicine, is buried here. And he has honored his wealth by distributing and housing it among the poor. In the year 1541 on day 24 of September he exchanged life for death.
    Peace to the living, eternal rest to the buried.
  26. Udo Benzenhöfer gives an illustration of the very incompletely preserved bones: Paracelsus . 2nd Edition. Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 2002, p. 126.
  27. Heinz Dopsch: Paracelsus - doctor, philosopher or gold maker? In: Ulrich Müller, Werner Wunderlich (ed.): Artists, poets, scholars. Middle Ages Myths. Volume 4. UVK, Konstanz 2005, p. 950; Werner Heinz: The learned medicine between the Middle Ages and humanism. Where does Paracelsus stand? In: Albrecht Classen (Ed.): Paracelsus in the context of the sciences of his time. Cultural and Mental History Approaches. Berlin 2010, pp. 151–174.
  28. Syphilis - The History of the French Disease.
  29. ^ The hospital book
  30. ^ Karl-Heinz Weimann : The German medical terminology of Paracelsus. Philosophical dissertation, Erlangen 1951, p. 492.
  31. ^ On mountain addiction or mountain sickness three books (etc.) III. Book: Of the diseases caused by mercury, especially in the "ſechſt Tractat" (page 57 ff)
  32. The verse comes from a high medieval collection of fables by Gualterus Anglicus and has been handed down in Polythecon (Book 5, verse 690) since the 14th century .
  33. Willem Frans Daems: "Sal" - "Mercury" - "Sulfur" in Paracelsus and the "Book of the Holy Trinity". In: Nova Acta Paracelsica. Volume 10, 1982, pp. 189-207. Cf. also Gundolf Keil: The anatomei term in Paracelsian pathology. With a historical perspective on Samuel Hahnemann. In: Hartmut Boockmann, Bernd Moeller , Karl Stackmann (eds.): Life lessons and world designs in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age. Politics - Education - Natural History - Theology. Report on colloquia of the commission to research the culture of the late Middle Ages 1983 to 1987 (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen: philological-historical class. Volume III, No. 179). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-82463-7 , pp. 336-351, here: p. 347.
  34. Walter Pagel: The medical world view of Paracelsus. Its connections with Neoplatonism and Gnosis. Wiesbaden 1962 (= Cosmosophy. Volume 1).
  35. Elise Wolfram (Ed.): Paracelsus: The occult causes of diseases. Volume paramirum. Leipzig 1912.
  36. Plural of Ens, the being , i.e. the being, the existing
  37. Paracelsus: The third defension because of the writing of the new recipes . In: Septem Defensiones 1538. Werke Vol. 2, Darmstadt 1965, p. 510.
  38. All material phenomena are the expression of a combination of these three clearly different original substances: “Now I want to go back to an example with the wood. This wood is a body. If you burn it, what burns is the sulfur, the smoke is the mercury, and what turns into ashes is salt. "And" So there are exactly 3 substances that are clearly separated from each other. Every body breaks down into these 3 substances, and even if they are not all three clearly visible to the eye, there are still artificial methods to achieve this. ”(Opus Paramirum, First Book, Chapter 2)
  39. Kurt Goldammer: On the philosophical and religious meaning of healing and remedies in Paracelsus , in: Perspektiven der Pharmaziegeschichte. Festschrift Rudolf Schmitz, ed. by Peter Dilg together with Guido Jüttner, Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke and Paul Ulrich Unschuld, Graz 1983
  40. Gundolf Keil: The anatomei-term in the Paracelsus pathology. With a historical perspective on Samuel Hahnemann. In: Hartmut Boockmann, Bernd Moeller , Karl Stackmann (eds.): Life lessons and world designs in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age. Politics - Education - Natural History - Theology. Report on colloquia of the commission to research the culture of the late Middle Ages 1983 to 1987 (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen: philological-historical class. Volume III, No. 179). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-82463-7 , pp. 336-351, here: pp. 350 f.
  41. Udo Benzenhöfer : Johannes' de Rupescissa 'Liber de consideratione quintae essentiae omnium rerum' German. Studies on Alchemia medica from the 15th to 17th centuries with a critical edition of the text. Steiner, Stuttgart 1989 (= Heidelberg Studies on Naturopathy of the Early Modern Age, 1), p. 198 f.
  42. ^ Friedrich Dobler: The chemical foundations of medicine by Theophrastus Paracelsus: Experimental review of his antimony preparations. In: Publications of the International Society for the History of Pharmacy , New Series, 10, 1957, pp. 76-86.
  43. Wolfgang Schneider: Paracelsus and the development of pharmaceutical chemistry. In: Arch. Pharm. 299, 1966, No. 9, pp. 737-746.
  44. Kurt Goldammer : The Paracelsian cosmology and theory of matter in their scientific-historical position and peculiarity. In: Medizinhistorisches Journal 6, 1971, pp. 5-35.
  45. Kurt Goldammer: Remarks on the structure of the cosmos and matter in Paracelsus. In: Medical history in our time. Festschrift Edith Heischkel-Artelt and Walter Artelt. Edited by Hans-Heinz Eulner et al., Stuttgart 1971, pp. 121-144.
  46. See Vivian Nutton : The seeds of disease: an explanation of contagion and infection from the Greeks to the Renaissance. In: Med. Hist. Volume 27, 1983, pp. 1-24.
  47. Gundolf Keil: The anatomei-term in the Paracelsus pathology. With a historical perspective on Samuel Hahnemann. In: Hartmut Boockmann, Bernd Moeller , Karl Stackmann (eds.): Life lessons and world designs in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age. Politics - Education - Natural History - Theology. Report on colloquia of the commission to research the culture of the late Middle Ages 1983 to 1987 (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen: philological-historical class. Volume III, No. 179). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-82463-7 , pp. 336–351, here: pp. 347–350.
  48. Walter Pagel: The medical world view of Paracelsus. Its connections with Neoplatonism and Gnosis. Wiesbaden 1962 (= Cosmosophy. Volume 1), p. 2 f.
  49. Thomas Erastus: Disputationum de medicina Paracelsi quattuor partes. Basel 1572–1575.
  50. ^ Rolf Heyers: Dr. Georg Marius, called Mayer von Würzburg (1533-1606). (Dental) medical dissertation Würzburg 1957, p. 16 f.
  51. Bernhard Dietrich Haage (1996), p. 196 f.
  52. Friedrun R. Hau: Paracelsus in the Middle Orient. In: Würzburger medical history reports 12, 1994, p. 182 f.
  53. See also Heinz Pächter: Paracelsus. The archetype of Doctor Faustus. Zurich 1955.
  54. Frank Nager: The healing poet. Goethe and medicine. Artemis, Zurich / Munich 1990; 4th edition ibid 1992, ISBN 3-7608-1043-8 , pp. 27, 94 f. and 98-103.
  55. Rachel Laudan: The Origin of Modern Cooking . Spectrum of Science, February 2001; ISSN  0170-2971
  56. Reijer Hooykaas: The theory of elements of Paracelsus. In: Janus 39, 1935, pp. 175-187.
  57. Walter von Brunn : On the theory of elements of Paracelsus. In: Sudhoff's archive. Volume 34, 1941, pp. 35-51.
  58. ^ Gisela von Boehm-Bezing: Style and syntax in Paracelsus. Wiesbaden 1966.
  59. ^ Karl-Heinz Weimann : The German medical terminology of Paracelsus. Philosophical dissertation, Erlangen 1951
  60. ^ Karl-Heinz Weimann: Paracelsus and the German vocabulary. In: Ludwig Erich Schmitt (ed.): German word research in European references. Giessen 1963, Volume II, pp. 359-408.
  61. Dietlinde Goltz: "The Paracelsists and the language." In: Sudhoffs archive. Journal of the History of Science. Volume 56, 1972, pp. 337-352, here: p. 349; Lecture in: Harald Tausch: Memories of the earthly paradise. Persia and Alchemy with Paul Fleming and Adam Olearius. In: What a Poëte can! Studies on the work of Paul Fleming (1609–1640). De Gruyter, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-027877-4 , p. 400, footnote 108.
  62. Gundolf Keil: The anatomei-term in the Paracelsus pathology. With a historical perspective on Samuel Hahnemann. In: Hartmut Boockmann, Bernd Moeller , Karl Stackmann (eds.): Life lessons and world designs in the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern age. Politics - Education - Natural History - Theology. Report on colloquia of the commission to research the culture of the late Middle Ages 1983 to 1987 (= treatises of the Academy of Sciences in Göttingen: philological-historical class. Volume III, No. 179). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1989, ISBN 3-525-82463-7 , pp. 336-351, here: p. 347.
  63. See also Gerhard Eis : Before and after Paracelsus. Investigations into Hohenheim's ties to tradition and news about his followers. Stuttgart 1965 (= Medicine in History and Culture. Volume 8).
  64. ^ Philippe Roth: Minerals first discovered in Switzerland and minerals named after Swiss individuals . 1st edition. Kristallografik Verlag, Achberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-9807561-8-1 , p. 200 .
  65. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - Extended Edition. Part I and II. Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin , Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
  66. ^ Karl Sudhoff: Bibliographia Paracelsica. Georg Reimer, Berlin 1894, pp. 3–39, no. 1–23.
  67. ^ Karl Sudhoff: Bibliographia Paracelsica . Georg Reimer, Berlin 1894, pp. 40–368, No. 24–215.
  68. ^ Karl Sudhoff: Bibliographia Paracelsica . Georg Reimer, Berlin 1894, pp. 368–409 No. 216–225 and pp. 455–464 No. 267. The Zurich Paracelsus Project on this issue, with links to the digitized version of the individual volumes .
  69. On this issue, with links to the digitized version of the individual volumes, the Zurich Paracelsus Project.
  70. To this issue, with the available links to digitized parts, the Zurich Paracelsus Project .
  71. ↑ In addition the Zurich Paracelsus Project .
  72. Volume 5, p. 391.