The time before homeopathy developed
Hahnemann was born as the third child of Christian Gottfried Hahnemann and his second wife Johanna Christiane Spieß in the Meißner Triebischvorstadt . His father was a porcelain painter in the famous Meissen porcelain factory .
Samuel Hahnemann attended the Meißen city school, whereby the impoverished family of the talented pupil was waived the tuition fee, and then received a scholarship at the Princely School St. Afra in Meißen, where he went to school from 1770. After graduating from school, he began studying medicine in Leipzig in 1775 . During this time he earned his living by teaching languages and translating physiological and medical works into German. In 1777 Hahnemann moved to the University of Vienna for nine months, where he received bedside and ward rounds from the professor of medicine and medical director of the hospital of the Barmherzigen Brüder, Joseph Freiherr von Quarin , who was also Maria Theresa's personal doctor , until he ran out of money . In October 1777, recommended by Quarin, Baron Samuel von Brukenthal , who had just been appointed by Empress Maria Theresa as her governor in Transylvania , offered him a position as librarian, private tutor and personal physician. Hahnemann accompanied him to Sibiu and stayed there for almost two years. Apparently he saw numerous cases of intermittent fever ( malaria ) there; there is also evidence that he developed it himself (which was important for his cinchona bark self-experiment in 1790). In 1777 he was accepted into the Masonic lodge to the three sea leaves Sibiu. Hahnemann also sorted and recorded the extensive coin collection of Samuel von Brukenthal. In addition, he hired himself again as a private tutor to ensure a living. Since there was no university in Sibiu, Hahnemann completed his medical studies at the Friedrichs University Erlangen with a doctorate in August 1779 .
In the following years he practiced as a doctor, chemist, translator and writer in many northern and central German cities - with varying degrees of success. At times he gave up his medical practice completely “because it cost me more effort than it brought in, and usually rewarded me with ingratitude” (letter of August 29, 1791, quoted from Jütte, p. 48), and devoted himself very chemical experiments, translations and publications. At other times, however, he had so many patients that he could hardly keep up with the care: “I almost couldn't have written because in the few weeks that I live in Eilenburg , I've been so blessed with customers that I often don't can eat ”(letter of September 18, 1801, quoted from Jütte, p. 74). His psychotherapeutic, chemical, and literary activities also yielded mixed results, as will be seen below.
The reasons for Hahnemann's erratic wandering are likely to be diverse. Anthony Campbell sums it up: "... was driven by his restless spirit and the need to make a living". It was not easy for a poor, freelance intellectual worker like Hahnemann to support himself and soon his rapidly growing family too; on the other hand, a pronounced ambition, which drove him to various experiments, was part of Hahnemann's character traits, as contemporaries already noted. After all, there were often arguments, especially often with pharmacists , because of Hahnemann's “interdisciplinary” work as a chemist or pharmacist and doctor (the Leipzig dispute dispute, see below, is just one of many examples).
An example of the economic problems and ambitions of the writer, translator and chemist, which encouraged frequent changes of location:
“It is impossible to live out here in the village one more winter. I cannot live on here with literature; I also have no calm to do chemical work; I have to send everything out of town by messenger, everything except the dry bread. Now I would have taken an apartment in Leipzig long ago if I wanted to live there. The high prices, unhealthy air, heavy rent drove me and my children out of here ... "
Hahnemann first settled in Hettstedt , then in Dessau , where he married the pharmacist's daughter Johanna Leopoldine Henriette Küchler (1764-1830) in 1782; the two had a total of eleven children. The next station was Gommern near Magdeburg, in 1785 Hahnemann began to practice in Dresden . In addition to a whole series of translations from English and French (mainly medical textbooks, but also an extensive fiction work), he began to regularly publish scientific articles there, such as the book "About the wine tasting on iron and lead" (1788), which it made it possible to prove the adulteration of wine with poisonous lead sugar . The Hahnemannian wine tasting made his name known; it was prescribed by the Prussian government for the city of Berlin's wine merchants. In Dresden, Hahnemann acted temporarily as a representative of the city physics department and thus got an insight into forensic medicine, which u. a. reflected in a paper about arsenic poisoning .
Beginnings of homeopathy and psychotherapeutic experiments
In 1789 Hahnemann moved to Lockwitz with his wife and now three children , later to Leipzig and then to the Leipzig suburb of Stötteritz . There he translated in 1790 the two-volume pharmacy theory of the Scot William Cullen , a then very well-known physician, the teacher of John Brown, the founder of popular Brownianism . This translation includes a footnote that can be considered the first trace of homeopathy. Hahnemann criticized the fact that Cullen attributed the well-known effect of cinchona bark in malaria ("intermittent fever") to its stomach-strengthening properties. And he gave a report on a repeated self- experiment he had carried out with cinchona bark, which, according to him, caused "all the usual symptoms of intermittent fever" - "but without any real shivering fever". He formulated, initially very cautiously, the assumption that this ability to produce comparable symptoms could be responsible for the healing properties of cinchona bark in malaria.
In Gotha , where Hahnemann had moved in 1792, the publisher Rudolph Zacharias Becker, a friend of his, announced the establishment of a “convalescent institution for about 4 insane people from wealthy families” in Georgenthal , which was to be run by a “philanthropic doctor” (namely Hahnemann) . It should be on punishment , fixation be dispensed and other disciplinary measures; the therapy apparently consisted essentially of discussions, possibly also of homeopathic medication. However, there was only one patient who could raise the fee, the Hanoverian author and civil servant Friedrich Arnold Klockenbring, who apparently suffered from a kind of manic-depressive mental illness. In the spring of 1793 Hahnemann released Klockenbring as cured, but had to close his institution afterwards due to a lack of further patients. In his article "Strokes for describing Klockenbrings during his Trübsinns", published in the "German Monthly" in 1796, Hahnemann reports on his attempt at psychotherapy.
Hahnemann's other stations were Molschleben , Göttingen , Pyrmont (1794), Wolfenbüttel , Braunschweig (1795) and Königslutter (1796–1799). He continued to publish diligently, especially chemical and pharmaceutical translations and his own writings, etc. a. for the production of a soluble mercury oxide and for the discovery of an agent against cradle cap for children ( calcium sulphurous liver , still traded today as a homeopathic remedy Hepar sulfuris calcareum ), but also a two-part, much-read “pharmacist's dictionary”. During this time Hahnemann carried out further experiments with medicinal substances on himself and on others. They went into the first essay on the healing principle, which was later to be called the homeopathic. This article was published in 1796 in Hufeland's “Journal der practical Arzneykunde und Wundarzneykunst” under the title “An experiment on a new principle to find the healing powers of medicinal substances, along with some glimpses of the previous ones”. Here Hahnemann formulated the principle of healing “similar with similar” ( similia similibus curentur ) and tried to back it up with a whole series of empirical observations. a. with further self- experiments, reports of poisoning , reading fruits and healing stories of your own and others, which are explained by the simile principle.
In 1799 Hahnemann moved to Altona with his family, which now had eight children . His attempts to earn the high cost of living there did not get off to a good start: The cure of the mentally ill poet Johann Karl Wezel , which he took on based on the earlier Klockenbring treatment, failed because he could not cope with the aggressive patient. and his publication “Cure and Prevention of Scarlet Fever ” advertised in the “Reichsanzeiger”, along with a “powder” that was supposed to protect against infection with scarlet fever, also proved unsuccessful. Due to its precarious economic situation, another move to Mölln followed in 1800 . During this time he advertised and sold a self-made "new lye salt", which soon turned out to be the well-known borax . He admitted his mistake and gave the money back.
The foundation of homeopathy as a medicinal system
Hahnemann now changed location again, first to Machern , then to Eilenburg (1801–1803) and finally to Schildau . During this time, according to the Hahnemann's medical journal, treatments according to the homeopathic law of similars can be proven for the first time without any doubt. Hahnemann also began to use smaller and smaller doses, which he justified in an essay "About the power of small gifts of medicines in general and Belladonna in particular" in Hufeland's "Journal der practical Arzneykunde". After buying a Freihaus in Pfarrgasse on New Year's Eve 1804, he settled in Torgau for some time the following year . During this time, an article by Hahnemann, also in Hufeland's magazine, was introduced, introducing the term “homeopathic” for the first time: “Pointing to the homeopathic use of medicines in previous practice”. Above all, however, two writings appeared there that made it clear that he had consistently continued his own and probably also third-party experimentation practice in recent years: the Latin medicine theory "Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore observatis" (fragments of the established medicinal powers or those who have been observed on the healthy body) and the book “Heilkunde der Erlebnis”, the first overall presentation of the new healing principle. In 1810 Hahnemann finally published the first edition of his basic work on homeopathy, at that time still under the title “Organon der rational Heilkunde” (later editions are titled “ Organon der Heilkunst ”). This work already contained all the characteristics of homeopathy, but was considerably revised and supplemented in the years to come. It has remained the theoretical work of homeopathy to this day.
The “Organon” immediately had a clearly polarizing effect, also because of the sharp polemics it contained . Hahnemann was now seen as the head of a new school. The first major work followed in 1811, which implemented his program of testing medicinal products on healthy people, namely the first volume of the "Pure Drug Doctrine" (which would later make up six volumes) in experiments on healthy people (especially on himself, his Family and his students) discovered "pure medicinal effects" as well as numerous literature citations. Such an experimentally founded work can be regarded as a contribution to pharmacology that was unique at the time ; nothing comparable had been attempted until then, as Anthony Campbell writes.
The Leipzig years 1811–1821
Hahnemann moved to Leipzig in 1811. There he succeeded in 1812 with another scientific work ("De Helleborismo veterum", ie on the use of the hellebore among the ancients = ancient authors) to obtain the license to teach at the university ( habilitation ). Hahnemann now actually became the founder of a therapeutic direction, gathered students around him, was able to continue his drug testing program with new strength (especially his students and his eldest son) and to give lectures on homeopathy - and was embroiled in extensive academic feuds because he was under the medicine professors also had bitter opponents. There was a dispute with Karl Heinrich Dzondi from the University of Halle on the question of whether water should be used as cold or warm water as possible for burns (as an example of the “Contraria” - against the principle of similarity). In 1816 the second volume of his “Pure Medicines” appeared, in 1819 the second edition of “Organon der Heilkunst”, now with the Enlightenment motto “ aude sapere ” (“Dare to know”) by Horace , which had become so well known through Kant's definition of the Enlightenment . Hahnemann also gave lectures on the history of medicine , which, in contrast to the lectures on homeopathy, were unproblematic.
Hahnemann also had an extensive practice during his time in Leipzig. His best-known patient was, along with Friedrich Wieck , the father of Clara Wieck (later Clara Schumann), Karl Philipp Fürst zu Schwarzenberg , Austrian field marshal who was very popular as the winner of Leipzig (even Goethe commented on this decision of Schwarzenberg with interest). The seriously ill prince, who had already called on all sorts of other doctors, finally died in October 1820 despite all his efforts.
The "Leipzig dispensing dispute" also took place at this time: Hahnemann, who had chemical and pharmaceutical knowledge, insisted on being able to prepare his homeopathic medicines himself, whereupon three Leipzig pharmacists sued him, because only the pharmacists had the privilege of producing medicines. The dispute ended in 1820 with a compromise: the pharmacists retained their traditional dispensing rights , but Hahnemann was also allowed to prepare medicines himself in emergencies, especially in the country. Hahnemann's acceptance in the Freemason Lodge Minerva to the three palms in 1817 also fell in Leipzig .
The Köthen period 1821–1835
After this partial defeat, he decided to move again and in 1821 went to Köthen as the ducal personal physician , where Duke Friedrich Ferdinand von Anhalt-Köthen gave him the right to produce his own medicines and dispense them himself after the intervention of the Austrian politician Adam von Müller , an influential supporter of the Homeopathy, guaranteed in writing. In 1822 he was appointed councilor. In 1829 he celebrated the 50th anniversary of his doctorate in Erlangen.
The first edition of “Chronic Diseases” appeared in Köthen from 1828 to 1830, which meant a considerable change in the doctrine of homeopathy and which were not only met with enthusiasm among Hahnemann's followers. While he adhered to the principle of similarity, Hahnemann found that simple homeopathic medication did not help with certain chronic diseases. He divided them into three types: the sexually transmitted diseases syphilis and "sycosis" (" fig ware disease ") as well as the deficiency disease " psora ", under which he counted a large number of different disease manifestations and which he associated with skin symptoms of the scabies type . In these cases, the principle of similarity should not be applied primarily to the current symptoms of the disease, but to the "primordial evils" that had brought about the chronic illness and, in the form of a " miasm ", so to speak, a permanent imprint, continues the life of the Affected patients. The medicines presented by him in the five volumes of " Chronic Diseases ", which are gradually being published and tested experimentally on healthy people, should also be able to combat the psoric miasm. Another stumbling block, which was later formulated even more sharply, was the new doctrine of drug potentiation : Hahnemann now announced that the method of dilution with simultaneous mechanical processing (shaking, rubbing) not only produces medicines with fewer side effects, yes, that this special method has healing powers only really unlock it. In this doctrine, too, his students by no means followed him unconditionally.
At the same time Hahnemann, who had previously renounced a theoretical justification of his principle of similars and described it as a purely empirical law, began to approach the doctrine of vitalism , which earned him applause from the famous Hufeland, among others. In the fourth (1829) and above all the fifth edition of Organon (1833), he gave an immaterial vital force of the organism, which had played no role in the first Organon editions, a prominent place in the argument for the principle of similarity, of course in Form of a hypothesis :
“Since this law of natural healing (the principle of similars) is documented in all pure experiments and all genuine experiences in the world, the fact therefore exists, the scientific explanation of how this is done is of little value and I attach little importance to trying something like this. But the following view proves to be the most likely one, as it is based on a lot of experience-based premises "
Hahnemann's first wife died on March 31, 1830 in Koethen after 48 years of marriage; four of his daughters now supported him in his extensive practice. His statements on the great cholera epidemics of 1830 and 1831 played a major role in the further implementation of homeopathy. Hahnemann never saw a person with cholera himself, but published four influential texts in Köthen on the nature of cholera and the treatment of cholera, in particular met with great interest in Vienna and - compared with the medicine then prevailing - were used with quite good success. It is particularly noteworthy that Hahnemann rightly considered cholera to be an infectious disease transmitted by “the finest animals of the lower order” and recommended a kind of antiseptic therapy in the form of camphor at least in the initial phase ; The relative success of homeopathy in cholera may have been due to the fact that Hahnemann strictly contradicted all debilitating measures and, above all, declared the ban on drinking recommended by other doctors to be absurd.
In the 1830s there were also bitter struggles over the purity of the new doctrine, which particularly took shape in the dispute over the first homeopathic hospital in Leipzig, which was founded in 1833. Hahnemann took a strong stand against any attempt to combine homeopathy with conventional, especially debilitating, remedies such as bloodletting or laxatives . This was directed specifically against the director of this hospital, Moritz Müller, who preferred an eclectic approach. The conflicts with the "semi-homeopaths" did not end afterwards.
At the end of 1834, the 34-year-old French painter Mélanie d'Hervilly came to see Hahnemann as a patient in Köthen. The result was a stormy love story with the now seventy-nine-year-old doctor, which led to Hahnemann's second marriage. The wedding, which took place on January 18, 1835 in his house in Koethener Wallstrasse, without a church blessing, caused a huge sensation. He and his wife, who was 45 years his junior, soon moved to Paris.
The last years in Paris 1835–1843
Hahnemann spent his last eight years in Paris as a respected and busy doctor. A prominent patient was the violinist Niccolò Paganini as early as 1837 , who apparently suffered from priapism , urinary retention and cough. He broke off the treatment after his attempt to get closer to Hahnemann's wife was brusquely rejected by her. At the end of 1838 he treated the daughter of the writer Ernest Legouvé , who was very well known in Paris society , who, given up by the doctors, was dying. The painter Amaury Duval was called to the sickbed to take a portrait of her and advised Hahnemann to be called. This managed to cure her. As a result, Hahnemann's reputation in Parisian society quickly spread and brought him to other prominent patients, such as the writer Eugène Sue or the mother of Victor Schœlcher . The patient histories that still exist from the Paris period have only been partially evaluated and should offer further surprises.
In recent years Hahnemann worked on a 6th edition of his Organon , which contained new regulations for drug preparation ("potentization"), in particular for the later so-called Q-potencies with particularly large dilution steps of 1: 50,000, over which it was almost a century there was a virulent rumor mill for a long time. It was published from the estate by Richard Haehl in 1921, mainly due to quarrels between Mélanie Hahnemann and various Hahnemann students . A version published by Arthur Lutze after Hahnemann's death is considered to be inauthentic.
Hahnemann died in Paris on July 2, 1843, presumably of pneumonia . He was first buried in the Montmartre cemetery, later (1898) buried together with his second wife in the Père Lachaise cemetery. At his personal request, Hahnemann's tombstone bears the inscription “Non inutilis vixi” (German: “I did not live uselessly ”). After Hahnemann's death, the second wife of Hahnemann described herself as a “ doctor of homeopathy ” and was therefore accused in 1847 of practicing the art of healing without permission. There was a trial.
Because of his services he was made an honorary citizen of Meissen .
On August 10, 1851, a memorial for Hahnemann was unveiled in Leipzig as part of a conference of the Homeopathic Central Association. The inscription reads: “THE // FOUNDER OF HOMEOPATHY // SAM. HAHNEMANN // GEB. TO MEISSEN ON APRIL 10, 1755 // GEST. IN PARIS, JULY 2, 1843 // BY // HIS GRATEFUL STUDENTS // AND ADORER "
In 1900, a Hahnemann memorial was erected in Washington, DC and inaugurated on June 21st. Homeopathy was widespread in the United States at the time, and American homeopaths had raised over $ 75,000 for the monument. It bears the inscription Similia similibus curentur , the shortest summary of the homeopathic principle: the like should be cured with the like.
In Hahnemann's longest place of activity, Köthen , a memorial was erected to him in 1897, which is also dedicated to the founder of the Koethen homeopathic clinic Arthur Lutze (1813-1870). It comes from the sculptor Heinrich Pohlmann . The Hahnemann-Lutze monument stands opposite the magnificent neo-Gothic building of the Lutze Clinic, which is now open to visitors again, as is Hahnemann's Köthen house and practice rooms.
Hahnemannsplatz and the Hahnemann pharmacy in the city center of Meißen are named after him.
Museums, permanent exhibition, specialist library
The Torgau Art and Culture Association "Johann Kentmann" e. V. maintains Hahnemann's legacy in an informative and authentic exhibition in the Original Hahnemann House, Pfarrstrasse 3, 04860 Torgau, the place of origin of the "Organon". In Köthen there is the Hahnemannhaus as a museum in Wallstrasse 47 (with memorial plaque) and in Wallstrasse 48 the European specialist library on homeopathy as well as a permanent exhibition on homeopathy in the historical museum in the castle. In Hahnemann's birth town of Meissen is found in the ruined monastery Heiligkreuz the Hahnemannzentrum e. V.
Almost the entire handwritten estate of Hahnemann and all first editions are kept in the Institute for the History of Medicine of the Robert Bosch Foundation in Stuttgart.
- Conspectus adfectuum spasmodicorum aetiologicus et therapeuticus (dissertation). Erlangen 1779. (Available as a reprint and in German translation: Overview of the convulsive states by cause and cure. Bad Langensalza, Reprint 1779/2007, Verlag Rockstuhl, ISBN 978-3-938997-98-7 .)
- Instructions to thoroughly heal old damage and rotten ulcers . Leipzig 1784, Crusius.
- About arsenic poisoning, its help and judicial mediation . Leipzig 1786, Crusius.
- Treatise on the prejudices against coal firing . Dresden 1787, Waltherische Hofbuchhaltung.
- Lessons for surgeons about venereal diseases, along with a new mercury preparation . Leipzig 1787. Crusius. (Full text on Google  )
- About the wine tasting on iron and lead . Leipzig 1788.
- Friend of health . Frankfurt 1792.
- Pharmacist Lexicon . 4 parts in 2 volumes, Leipzig 1793–1798. (Online at zeno.org  , Volume 2 )
- Lines describing Klockenbring during his gloom . In: Deutsche Monatsschrift, 1st vol. (1796), pp. 147–159.
- Attempt on a new principle for discovering the healing powers of medicinal substances, along with a few glimpses of the previous ones . In: Hufelands Journal der practical Arzneykunde, Vol. 2 (1796), 3rd piece, p. 391-439 (full text on Google  ) and 4th piece, p. 465-561 (full text on Google  )
- Cure and prevention of scarlet fever . Gotha 1801.
- About the power of small gifts of medicines and belladonna in particular . In: Hufelands Journal der practical Arzneykunde, Volume 13 (1801), 2nd piece, pp. 152-159.
- The effects of coffee . Leipzig 1803.
- Fragmenta de viribus medicamentorum positivis sive in sano corpore humano observatis . Leipzig 1805, Barthius.
- Medicine of Experience . In: Hufelands Journal der practical Arzneykunde, Volume 22 (1805), 3rd piece, pp. 5–99 (full text on Google  )
- Pointing to the homeopathic use of medicines in previous practice . In: Hufelands Journal der practical Arzneykunde, Vol. 26 (1807), 2nd piece, pp. 5-43. Online on Google Books
- On the value of speculative medicinal systems, especially in contrast to the common practice associated with them . In: Allgemeine Anzeiger der Deutschen (1808).
- Excerpt from a letter to a doctor of high rank concerning the urgently needed rebirth of medicine . In: Allgemeine Anzeiger der Deutschen (1808).
- Martin Stahl: The correspondence between Samuel Hahnemann and Clemens von Bönninghausen. (Medical dissertation, Göttingen 1995), Heidelberg 1997 (= sources and studies on the history of homeopathy, 3)
Organon of rational medicine . Arnoldische Buchhandlung, Dresden 1810. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ); Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- Later, increased and changed editions under the title: Organon der Heilkunst . 2nd edition: Dresden 1818. 3rd edition: Dresden 1824. 4th edition: Dresden and Leipzig 1829. 5th edition: Dresden and Leipzig 1833 (full text on Google  ). 6th edition (posthumously): Leipzig 1921 (after Hahnemann's handwritten revision, edited and with a preface by Richard Haehl); (Online at zeno.org  ). Critical edition of the 6th edition, obtained from Josef M. Schmidt, Heidelberg 1991
- Pure pharmacology . Part 1-6. Leipzig, 1811-1821. Second, increased edition: Leipzig 1822–1827. (Online at zeno.org  )
- De helleborismo veterum . Leipzig 1812.
- The chronic diseases. Their peculiar nature and homeopathic healing , part 1-5. First edition: Leipzig 1828–1830. Second, changed and increased edition: Leipzig and Dresden 1835–1839. (Online at zeno.org  )
- Systematic presentation of the pure medicinal effects of all previously tested agents . Braunschweig: Vieweg, 1831. Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf
- Alloopathy. A word of warning to the sick of all kinds . Leipzig 1831. (full text on Google  )
- Cure and protection from Asiatic cholera . Nuremberg 1831.
- Safest eradication and cure for Asian cholera . Leipzig 1831, happiness.
- Letters on the healing of cholera and protection against infection at the hospital bed. Berlin 1831, Hirschwald. (Full text on Google  )
- A CD-ROM edition from Directmedia Publishing GmbH from 2005 is available for electronic full-text searches . The edition with the title: The Birth of Homeopathy - Samuel Hahnemann's Works contains the works: Experiment on a new principle for the discovery of medicinal substances. Jena; Academische Buchhandlung 1796 , Heilkunde der Erlebnis, Berlin; Wittich, 1805 , Organon der Heilkunst, 5th edition, Dresden, Leipzig; Arnold 1833 , Organon der Heilkunst. 6th edition, Ulm; Haug 1958, Pure Medicine. 6 volumes, 2. u. 3rd edition, Dresden, Leipzig; Arnold 1825–1839 and The Chronic Diseases. 5 volumes, 2nd edition, Dresden, Leipzig; Arnold 1835-1839 ( ISBN 3-89853-016-7 ).
- William Falconer: Experiment on Mineral Waters , 1777.
- Jean Baptiste van den Sande: The hallmarks of goodness and adulteration of medicines , 1787.
- Joseph Berrington: History of Abälard and Heloise , Leipzig 1789.
- William Cullen: Treatise on the Materia Medika, translated and annotated by HH . 2 volumes. Leipzig 1790.
- D. Monro: Chemisch Pharmaceutische Arzneimittelhrehre. Translated and annotated by SH 2 volumes. Leipzig 1791.
- New Edinburgh Dispensatory , Leipzig 1797/1798.
Nonfiction books and reference book articles
- Georg Bayr: Hahnemann's self-experiment with cinchona bark 1790. The conception of homeopathy. Haug, Heidelberg 1989, ISBN 3-8304-0210-4 .
- Anthony Campbell: Homeopathy in Perspective. A critical appraisal. 2008, ISBN 978-1-84753-737-9 .
- Willibald Gawlik : Samuel Hahnemann - synchronops of his life. History, art, culture and science at the origin of homeopathy 1755–1843 . Sonntag Verlag, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-87758-110-2 .
- Rima Handley: A Homeopathic Love Story. The life of Samuel and Melanie Hahnemann. CH Beck, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-406-45991-9 .
- Richard Haehl: Samuel Hahnemann. His life and work. 2 volumes, Willmar Schwabe, Leipzig 1922 (reprint: Dreieich 1988).
- Robert Jütte (Ed.): Samuel Hahnemann. The medical journals. Haug, Heidelberg 1992-2005, ISBN 3-7760-1577-2 .
- Robert Jütte: Samuel Hahnemann, founder of homeopathy. dtv, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-423-24447-X .
- Rudolf Tischner: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 7, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1966, ISBN 3-428-00188-5 , p. 513 f. ( ). In:
- Angeline Bauer: Hahnemann's wife . Construction Publishing House, Berlin 2004.
- Guido Dieckmann: The vaults of Doctor Hahnemann . Berlin 2002. (Completely free narrative in terms of content, which is not based on the biography.)
- Literature by and about Samuel Hahnemann in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Samuel Hahnemann in the German Digital Library
- Works by Samuel Hahnemann in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Digitized works by Hahnemann at the University of Michigan
- Works by Samuel Hahnemann at Zeno.org .
- Digitized works by Hahnemann at archive.org
- Overview of the courses taught by Samuel Hahnemann at the University of Leipzig (winter semester 1814 to summer semester 1821)
- The homeopathy archive of the Institute for the History of Medicine of the Robert Bosch Stiftung (the estate of Samuel and Melanie Hahnemann is located there)
- Robert Jütte: Samuel Hahnemann: More than just a monument
- Michael Emmans Dean: Homeopathy and the Progress of Science An essay on the history of science on Hahnemann's position on medicine of his time and its relation to the Enlightenment. (PDF; 288 kB)
- Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke : Homeopathy. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 611-615.
- Barbara I. Tshisuaka: Hahnemann, Samuel. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 527.
- Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke: Homeopathy. 2005, p. 611 f.
- Eugen Lennhoff, Oskar Posner, Dieter A. Binder: Internationales Freemaurerlexikon, revised and expanded new edition of the 1932 edition, Munich 2003, 951 pages, ISBN 3-7766-2161-3
- Jürgen Holtorf: The lodges of the Freemasons, Nikol Verlags GmbH, Hamburg, ISBN 3-930656-58-2 , p. 145
- See Jütte 2005, pp. 31 + 32.
- Wolf-Dieter Müller-Jahncke : Samuel Hahnemann , in: Wolfgang U. Eckart and Christoph Gradmann : Doctors Lexicon. From antiquity to the present (1st edition 1995, 2nd edition 2001), 3rd edition, Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2006, p. 151, ISBN 978-3-540-29584-6 (print), ISBN 978-3-540-29585-3 (online).
- See for example Jütte 2005, p. 39f.
- Member of Samuel Hahnemann at the German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldina , accessed on April 1, 2017.
- At least this is what Hanspeter Seiler suspects in: The development of Samuel Hahnemann's medical practice based on selected medical histories. Heidelberg: Haug, 1988, pp. 29-37.
- Jütte 2005, p. 74.
- Sönke Drewsen: Hahnemann's dispute with the "previous old medicine school" as a dispute over scientific methods. Attempt to reconstruct and appreciate his approach to the foundation of medicine as a method-critical approach. In: Würzburger medical historical reports 11, 1993, pp. 45–58.
- Campbell 2008, p. 24.
- See Jütte 2005, p. 104.
- Quoted from Jütte 2005, p. 180.
- On Hahnemann's cholera cures, the relative successes of homeopathy and the explanation for this, see Jütte 2005, pp. 178-184.
- Stephan Heinrich Nolte : Hahnemann in Paris: Environment and new evidence for the treatment of the child Marie Legouvé (1838-1843) Medicine, Society and History 31 (2013) 181-231
- Stephan Heinrich Nolte A "collateral healing": The life crisis of the writer Eugène Sue and his treatment by Hahnemann in 1838/1839. AHZ 258 (2013) 22-26
- Walther Schönfeld : Women in Western Medicine. From classical antiquity to the end of the 19th century , Enke Verlag Stuttgart 1947, chapter " Quacksalberinnen " p. 140 + 141.
- A completely different medicine in multiple doses. (Hahnemann House and exhibition in the Historical Museum) In: Eckart Roloff and Karin Henke-Wendt: Visit your doctor or pharmacist. A tour through Germany's museums for medicine and pharmacy. Volume 1, Northern Germany. Verlag S. Hirzel, Stuttgart 2015, pp. 225-227, ISBN 978-3-7776-2510-2
- Hahnemannzentrum Meißen eV Accessed on September 23, 2018 .
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Hahnemann, Christian Friedrich Samuel (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German doctor, medical writer and translator|
|DATE OF BIRTH||April 10, 1755|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Meissen|
|DATE OF DEATH||July 2, 1843|
|Place of death||Paris|