|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 52 ° 10 ′ N , 10 ° 32 ′ E
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||77 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||78.51 km 2|
|Residents:||52,165 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||664 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||38300, 38302, 38304|
|Area code :||05331|
|License plate :||WF|
|Community key :||03 1 58 037|
|LOCODE :||DE WBL|
|City structure:||7 districts (core city)
10 localities (incorporated)
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Thomas Pink (independent)|
|Location of the city of Wolfenbüttel in the Wolfenbüttel district|
Wolfenbüttel is listed on the Oker located county seat and largest city in the district of Wolfenbüttel in Lower Saxony ( Germany ). With 52,165 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) Wolfenbüttel is an independent municipality and medium- sized town . As a bishopric, the city is the seat of the church government for the Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church in Braunschweig . It is also a university of applied sciences location and is home to some medium-sized companies. The urban area covers an area of over 78.60 km².
Wolfenbüttel's old town is located at an average height of 77 m above sea level (measured at the train station). The 134 m high drone mountain in the north-eastern part of Wolfenbüttel is the highest point in the urban area. On the meadows near Groß Stöckheim in the northern part of the city is 74 m above sea level. NN the lowest point measured. The center of the city is the steeple of the main church "Beatae Mariae Virginis". In the north-south direction, the largest extension of the urban area is about 5.2 km ( Mascheroder Weg to Zur Altenau ). In the east-west extension about five kilometers ( Oleanderweg to Wilhelm-Mast-Straße ) are reached.
The urban area extends over an area of 1461 ha (14.61 km²), including incorporated localities, the area covers 7860 ha (78.60 km²). With 1190 hectares, forest areas have the largest area, followed by buildings and open spaces with 1089 hectares. Roads and paths take up a total of 540 hectares, 186 hectares are used as recreational areas and rivers and lakes account for 67 hectares.
Wolfenbüttel is located in the southeast of Lower Saxony between the Harz and Heide . The city is located about 12 km south of Braunschweig , about 60 km east-southeast of the state capital Hanover and immediately east-northeast of Salzgitter . Other cities further away are Bad Harzburg , Goslar , Hildesheim , Peine and Wolfsburg .
Wolfenbüttel is assigned to the Börßum-Braunschweiger Okertal , a sub-area in the hill country of East Brunswick . The city is traversed by the Oker , which takes in the Altenau coming from the east at Halchter . To the south of the city is the Oder Forest , to the east the Elm-Lappwald Nature Park , to the southeast the Asse ridge and the Ösel elevation . A little further away in the southwest lies the Salzgitter mountain range . In the north, the forest areas Lechlumer Holz and Atzumer Busch border the urban area.
Neighboring municipalities and spatial planning
The district town of Wolfenbüttel is designated as a middle center for the surrounding communities of the district. The catchment area includes the communities of Cremlingen and Schladen-Werla, as well as the combined communities of Baddeckestedt , Elm-Asse , Oderwald and Sickte . Due to the Lower Saxony municipal law , Wolfenbüttel has the legal status of an " independent municipality ".
The Mittelzentrum Wolfenbüttel includes all districts with the exception of the villages of Adersheim, Ahlum, Atzum, Fümmelse, Leinde, Salzdahlum and Wendessen.
Historically, Wolfenbüttel belonged to the Duchy or Free State of Braunschweig . Today the medium- sized town of Wolfenbüttel is located in the catchment area of the greater Braunschweig area and thus also in the Hanover-Braunschweig-Göttingen-Wolfsburg metropolitan region .
Wolfenbüttel is made up of the core city and the ten incorporated villages of Salzdahlum , Atzum , Ahlum , Wendessen , Linden , Halchter , Leinde , Adersheim , Fümmelse and Groß Stöckheim ( clockwise , starting in the north), which form a ring around the core city that is open in the north form.
The core city, in turn, is subdivided into seven districts or urban districts. In the area of the old town are Auguststadt (west), Heinrichstadt (center) and Juliusstadt (east). The districts of Kurzes Holz (northeast), Rote Schanze (southeast), Schwedenschanze (northwest) and Weisse Schanze (southwest) surround the old town.
The original city center is today's Heinrichstadt district. In 1567 it was expanded to the east (Juliusstadt) and in 1652 to the west (Auguststadt). After the fortifications were razed (1804 to 1834), the city could be expanded to the north (Schwedenschanze and Kurzes Holz) and south (Weiße Schanze and Rote Schanze). The next, last expansion took place in 1974 with the incorporation of the ten surrounding villages, which had been independent municipalities until then.
Dec. 31, 2016
in inhabitants / km²
|01-07||Core city: districts||1,461.17||38.902||2623.7|
Wolfenbüttel is located in the temperate climate zone in the transition area between oceanic and continental areas.
Located in the Harz foreland , in Wolfenbüttel sand , clay and loam soils can be found. There are also some marl soils in Wolfenbüttel. The Oker running through Wolfenbüttel forms the borderline between the Hildesheimer Börde on the west and the Magdeburger Börde on the east.
The current place name Wolfenbüttel is made up of the basic word -büttel and the defining word Wolfen . The final word in front of -büttel is not - as one might assume - in connection with wolf , but it is a sloppy personal name and probably goes back to a Saxon settler named Wulferi or Wulfheri , who settled at a ford on the Oker and the settlement Wulferis Buttle ( Wulferebutele ) is said to have founded. The suffix –büttel comes from the Old Low German word bodal and means “house and yard” or “settlement”.
The distribution of Büttel locations is limited to northern Germany. Wolfenbüttel is the southernmost of over 150 Büttel localities . In the municipality of Busenwurth in the district of Dithmarschen in Schleswig-Holstein there is another place with the place name Wolfenbüttel .
The presumed origins of Wolfenbüttel can be found around the 10th century, when a settler named Wulferus (Wulferi) is said to have settled at a ford in the swampy Oker meadows . This possibility of crossing over the Oker attracted the first settlers. Located on a busy trade and military route between the Rhine and Elbe , the Wulferisbuttle settlement was built there . The way led through the neighboring Braunschweig , the dioceses of Halberstadt and Hildesheim to Leipzig.
Wolfenbüttel was first mentioned in a document in 1118 as W [u] lferesbutle (also called Wulferisbutle ). At that time, Widekind von Wolfenbüttel expanded the settlement into a fortress. The moated castle was intended to offer protection to merchants and travelers in uncertain times. Today's city of Wolfenbüttel emerged from the moated castle Wolfenbüttel .
Development and expansion of the city until the 18th century
In 1283 Wolfenbüttel was expanded into a residential fortress under the Guelph Duke Heinrich the Whimsical and walled in 1500. From around 1430 Wolfenbüttel had become the permanent residence of the Dukes of Braunschweig and Lüneburg, which was destroyed in 1542 by the troops of the Schmalkaldic League . After this incision, the Dammtorf fortress around the residence was strengthened under the government of Duke Julius and then the New Heinrichstadt in the east of the city was generously planned and built. In this context, Julius had a branching canal system built in Heinrichstadt by the Dutchman Hans Vredeman de Vries , the remains of which can still be seen today in Little Venice.
In 1567, next to Heinrich-Vorstadt, Julius-Vorstadt was built, the former divine warehouse (from the Low German goods for goods, i.e. stacking place). This suburb was planned as a merchant settlement, which - supported by ducal grace - should overtake Braunschweig as a trading center. In 1570 Wolfenbüttel was granted market rights , and in 1572 Julius founded the Ducal Library . Under the government of Duke August the Younger , Auguststadt was laid out in 1652 as a settlement for craftsmen and soldiers in the western connection of the Dammtorfestung.
The Wolfenbüttel-Harzburg postal route was established in the 17th century .
Wolfenbüttel remained the residence of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel until 1753 . The most important rulers with residence in Wolfenbüttel were the dukes Julius, Heinrich Julius and August the Younger, who ruled the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel from here.
In the early 17th century the composer and music writer Michael Praetorius was the ducal court conductor in Wolfenbüttel. In the summer of 1764, probably from July 12th to 20th, the Venetian writer and adventurer Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798) stayed in the Herzog August Library to find material for his Iliad (Dell 'Iliade di Omero tradotta in ottava rima) to collect, the first volume of which appeared in 1775. In his memoirs ( story of my life ) he later reports: "I can count these eight days to the happiest of my life".
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1690–1716) and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1770–1781), who wrote the drama Nathan the Wise , worked as librarians at the Herzog August Bibliothek . The city is therefore also known as Lessingstadt .
Wolfenbüttel is a typical Renaissance residence town with a castle , Marienkirche , Johanniskirche, Trinitatiskirche , armory , chancellery and numerous well-preserved half-timbered houses .
Between 1590 and 1620 114 people were on record for sorcery: 97 women and 17 men. In those thirty years, 50 people were burned, three beheaded, four deported, and one person died in custody. The proportion of women in the proceedings was 90%. In 50 cases the outcome remained open. The Wolfenbüttel court secretary and advisor for criminal matters Friedrich Ortlep recorded in 1602 in writing that not a single woman had been burned as a "sorceress" in Wolfenbüttel since his inauguration in 1597.
Justus Oldekop , one of the most famous opponents of the witch hunt , died in Wolfenbüttel in 1667 .
Residence, fortress and garrison
Residence and fortress of the Dukes of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (1432–1753)
Wolfenbüttel has a long military tradition as a garrison town, which is reflected in partially preserved defensive structures in the urban area. The garrison town of Wolfenbüttel is one of the oldest and most stable garrisons in northern Germany.
As early as the 12th century there was a fortified castle in Wolfenbüttel, which was destroyed in 1191 by Heinrich the Lion . A reconstruction of the castle was destroyed again in 1255 by Duke Albrecht I. This destruction can be explained by the fact that at this time Count Gunzelin von Wolfenbüttel took the side of the Staufers and thus posed an immediate threat to the Guelphs . After the Welfs had finally taken over Wolfenbüttel, they rebuilt the moated castle, which later became Wolfenbüttel Castle . From 1432 to 1753 Wolfenbüttel was expanded to become the residence of the dukes and the state fortress of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel .
In 1542 Wolfenbüttel was conquered by troops of the Schmalkaldic League and the fortress walls were torn down. During the five-year occupation until 1547 under the governor Bernhard von Mila , there were violent riots and destruction by the Narrow Kaldic troops.
From 1570 the fortress, which had meanwhile been rebuilt , was provided with bastions and curtains in the New Italian manner . In 1589, Duke Heinrich Julius set up several companies with mounted and foot soldiers for his protection. The soldiers wore uniform uniforms.
Immediately before the Thirty Years' War , the fortifications were reinforced again under Duke Heinrich Julius. The armory and the remains of the ramparts , fortification moats and the bastions are still witnesses of this time in the cityscape. The armory was built as an armory for the state committee and also housed its guns. The palace square between the palace and the armory also served as a parade ground for the ducal troops from the late 17th century (based on an engraving by Merian based on Konrad Bruno).
By bribing the incumbent Chancellor Johann Eberhard zu Eltz , the Danish King Christian IV was able to move into the fortress of Wolfenbüttel with his Protestant troops at the beginning of 1626. Thus, the events of the Thirty Years' War were also shifted to the principality. Immediately after the Battle of Lutter am Barenberge in August 1626, imperial troops under the command of Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheim followed Christian IV's defeated Danish-Lower Saxon troops. They besieged the state fortress Wolfenbüttel, which at that time was one of the best secured fortresses in northern Germany. Since all attack measures failed in view of the fortified fortress, Pappenheim had a dam built with the help of peasants who were obliged to do compulsory labor, which dammed the Oker. The water in the fortress was more than a man high for 140 days. The fortress garrison finally had to give up in December 1627.
Pappenheim initially transferred command of the fortress city to Gottfried Huyn von Geleen . From 1634 at the latest, Lieutenant Colonel Johannes Ernst von Reuschenberg zu Setterich replaced his superior and defended Wolfenbüttel until 1643. Two sieges in the years 1634 to 1641 failed because of the fate of Reuschenberg and his helper Levin Zanner , known as "Rittmeister Immern sober".
The structure known today as Schwedendamm (visible as a slight bump) can be found north of Wolfenbüttels near Groß Stöckheim, directly in front of the A 36 motorway . The imperial troops built this dam with the aim of flooding the city of Wolfenbüttel. The Swedes re-used this dam in Wolfenbüttel in 1641, in order to put the imperial garrison again in distress, but they were unable to take the fortress. Today the street "Am Schwedendamm" in the northwest of Wolfenbüttel commemorates these events. In the wider area, u. a. Aerial archeology show jumps from this time.
During the Seven Years' War , Wolfenbüttel was besieged again by French troops.
Remains of the fortifications can still be seen in Wolfenbüttel today, although Wolfenbüttel fortress was razed from 1798 onwards. The Oker, which was once channeled around the fortifications by means of trenches, was part of the fortification system. Today's city moat, also known as the duck pond, is only a small section of the moat that surrounded Wolfenbüttel.
Of the nine large bastions that secured the fortress, the remains of four of these fortifications can be found in the cityscape. The "Corneliusberg" bastion is located directly at the moat. The street “Am Rosenwall” leads past the imposing elevations of the former bastion “Joachimsberg”, which gives an idea of the mightiness of the bastions of the state fortress. Casemates are located under this bastion, but cannot be entered. In the “Seeliger-Park” behind the castle, under today's “Seeliger-Villa”, are the remains of the “Lindenberg” bastion, the casemates of which can be viewed (inquiries to the Wolfenbüttel tourist information office at the city market). Directly behind the pavilion buildings of the grammar school in the castle is a vault, which formerly belonged to the rear part of a curtain wall. The Parkhotel am Kaffeehaus was built on the Karlsberg bastion. Only accessible by reservation, the range of the Philips mountain, in prison is Wolfenbüttel.
While a rededication and active use of the casemates has not been successful today, there are two successful rededications of old riding arenas. The half-timbered building between the imposing provisions floor behind the armory and the library is known as the Jahnturnhalle and needs to be renovated. Three buildings belong to the so-called castle barracks, which the Ducal Braunschweigische Feldbatterie moved into in 1867. After a successful renovation, a local dance school uses the large brick building at the pond garden.
Wolfenbüttel as a garrison town in the 19th and 20th centuries
As part of the reorganization of the Prussian army after the battle of Langensalza , the 4th Duke Braunschweig Field Battery was relocated to Wolfenbüttel on December 5, 1867, and the armory became a barracks in the following years .
During the time of National Socialism , a new barracks was built in 1936 on the edge of the forest in the northeast of Wolfenbüttel. It served as a garrison for the 36th Flak Regiment and the " Parachute Infantry Battalion 1 " of the Air Force in Braunschweig.
During the Second World War , 258 (3.8%) and 363 (5.3%) of the 6,797 apartments were destroyed in Wolfenbüttel in air raids. On April 11, 1945, units of the 9th US Army occupied the city of Wolfenbüttel largely without a fight. Elsewhere in Germany, the war continued until the beginning of May. It finally ended on May 8th with the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht .
After the war, the British Rhine Army took over the barracks and renamed them “ Northampton Barracks ”. Wolfenbüttel was not far from the inner German demarcation line and on the North German Plain , which was given great strategic importance during the Cold War . Shortly after the unification of Germany , the British left the Wolfenbüttel barracks. Since then, the former barracks area has been used for civilian purposes. The "Am Exer" site is now mainly used as a university campus for the Ostfalia - University of Applied Sciences . The campus is home to the social work, IT and supply technology departments, the university library, two student residences, several external companies (including craft businesses) and WoBau Wolfenbüttel.
Between Linden Street and Cranachstraße was Gneisenau army barracks site of the Army of the German Bundeswehr . Panzergrenadierbataillon 22 was stationed there from August 15, 1956 until its dissolution on September 30, 1972, followed by observation battalion 13 and repair training company 5/1. With the closure of the barracks in 1994, the over 400-year history of the garrison of Wolfenbüttel ended. Today on the site of the former Gneisenau barracks u. a. the rescue service of the DRK , the technical relief organization and the police are housed. Large parts of the former barracks are also used as urban living space.
Urban redevelopment in the present
In Wolfenbüttel an almost closed historical townscape has been preserved due to the comparatively minor war damage . In order to preserve this cityscape and to prevent the residents of the historic city center from migrating to new development areas in the surrounding area, an extensive renovation program was launched in the 1970s. The redevelopment area established in 1978 was then one of the largest urban redevelopment areas in Germany. In this way, the city has made grants available to the homeowners since 1974 with the stipulation that they should be used for renovation in accordance with listed buildings. In the course of these renovation measures, large parts of the old town (Heinrichstadt, Auguststadt, Juliusstadt) have been modernized in a way that is appropriate to historic monuments; well over 150 individual objects were prepared. A particularly successful example in this context is the renovation of the numerous small half-timbered houses in Krumme Strasse. The city administration has not always kept to the line taken with the city renovation. Especially in the case of buildings by larger investors, the city administration has repeatedly put monument protection issues aside. For example, a new department store building on Schloßplatz / Großer Zimmerhof was approved in the 1970s against the resistance of a considerable part of the population. The massive new building of a bank on Kornmarkt, in the immediate vicinity of St. Mary's Church , also caused considerable damage to the closed cityscape. The fact that the city administration is still willing to put the monument protection aside was shown by the approved new construction of a large apartment block on Schloßplatz, which had to be replaced by a listed building (which had been in disrepair for over 30 years). Numerous structures that - unlike the new buildings mentioned - fit into the historic old town are proof that new buildings and listed buildings can be compatible . The building of the district adult education center in Harzstrasse is an example of this.
On March 1, 1974, the communities of Adersheim, Ahlum, Atzum, Fümmelse, Groß Stöckheim, Halchter, Leinde, Linden, Salzdahlum and Wendessen were incorporated into the district town of Wolfenbüttel.
Wolfenbüttel serves 52,165 people as their main residence and around another 2,000 as a second residence . Population update by the Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics; official update as of December 31st.
- 1776: Relocation of the court to Braunschweig and the Seven Years' War
- 1974: incorporation of ten localities
- 1987: census
- 2011: Population census / 2011 census
Evangelical Lutheran Church
- Episcopal city
The regional church office and church government of the Evangelical Lutheran regional church in Braunschweig have their seat in Wolfenbüttel. The regional bishop is chairman of both the regional church office and the church government and has his official seat in the episcopal city of Wolfenbüttel. At the beginning of 2007 the Braunschweigische Landeskirche had over 400,000 parishioners. The regional church includes 414 parishes, which are grouped into 13 sub-districts, the provosts. The regional church also maintains around 480 church buildings; The main church is the Brunswick Cathedral of St. Blasii , while the Wolfenbütteler Beatae Mariae Virginis used to be the most important church in the duchy as the seat of the Supreme General Superintendent.
- Propstei Wolfenbüttel
The Propstei Wolfenbüttel is one of 13 provosts of the Braunschweigische Landeskirche and is surrounded by the provosts Braunschweig , Königslutter, Salzgitter-Lebenstedt, Goslar and Schöppenstedt, whereby the district and provostry Wolfenbüttel are not congruent. The Propstei Wolfenbüttel has 28 parishes with over 32,000 parish members (as of 2008). The provost office, the official seat of the provost, is located in Wolfenbüttel.
The following churches belong to the Wolfenbüttel provost in the regional church of Braunschweig:
- St. Jacobi Church (Adersheim)
- Village church (Ahlum)
- Village church (Atzum)
- Gethsemane Church (Fümmelse)
- Apostle Church (Groß Stöckheim)
- Village church (Halchter)
- Village church (Leinde)
- St. Brictius Church (Linden)
- Village Church (Salzdahlum)
- Village church (Wendessen)
- Marienkirche (Wolfenbüttel)
- Martin Luther Church (Wolfenbüttel)
- St. John's Church (Wolfenbüttel-Auguststadt)
- St. Thomas Church (Wolfenbüttel)
- Trinitatiskirche (Wolfenbüttel)
- Reconciliation Church (Wolfenbüttel)
Wolfenbüttel is the seat of the Catholic parish of St. Petrus . It also includes the St. Ansgar Church in Wolfenbüttel and the churches of St. Joseph in Schöppenstedt , St. Bernward in Börßum ( profaned in 2011 ), Holy Cross in Dorstadt and St. Peter and Paul in Heiningen in the Wolfenbüttel district .
A Baptist congregation , the Christ congregation in Wolfenbüttel, has been located at Leopoldstrasse 14 since around 1980. Originally founded by the congregation in Braunschweig-Heidberg, the congregation in Wolfenbüttel became independent in 1991. It belongs to the Federation of Evangelical Free Churches in Germany.
A New Apostolic Church is located on Lessingstrasse. Your building was erected in 1916 and expanded to its present form in 1967. The New Apostolic Church District Wolfenbüttel, part of the New Apostolic Church of Central Germany , covers the area from Wolfenbüttel via Salzgitter-Bad to Gittelde .
The first Jewish community was founded by Marcus Gumpel Moses Fulda (1660–1733). His grandchildren, the Herz brothers and Philipp Samson , had a major influence on Jewish life in Wolfenbüttel and Braunschweig in the period that followed. In 1786, the court banker Philip Samson founded a Talmud Torah free school from the foundation capital of his father Samson Gumpel, amounting to 20,000 Reichstaler . In the immediate vicinity he had a synagogue set up in the back yard of his house at Harzstrasse 12. Samson was head of the Wolfenbüttel Jewish community. The two-story half-timbered building served as a synagogue from 1781 to 1893 and offered space for up to 80 people to pray. The synagogue on Harzstrasse, which had become too small, was replaced by the new synagogue built in 1893 on Lessingstrasse. The architect of the new synagogue was Constantin Uhde . The synagogue was destroyed during the Reichspogromnacht in 1938. A Jewish community in Wolfenbüttel has ceased to exist since then. Today only a Jewish cemetery reminds of the former Jewish community.
The council of the city of Wolfenbüttel consists of 42 council women and councilors. This is the specified number for a city with a population between 50,001 and 75,000. The 42 council members are elected by local elections for five years each. The current term of office begins on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
The full-time mayor Thomas Pink is also entitled to vote in the city council.
The last local elections on September 11, 2011 and September 11, 2016 led to the following result:
The full-time mayor of Wolfenbüttel has been Thomas Pink (formerly CDU) since November 1, 2006. In the last mayoral election on May 25, 2014, he was re-elected as incumbent with 67.7% of the vote. His opponent Astrid Salle-Eltner (SPD) received 32.3%. The turnout was 52.3%. Pink began his second term on November 1, 2014.
Coat of arms, flag and official seal
In 1570 gave Duke Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel his royal residence , the then Heinrich town meant the market law . At the same time, the new city received its own coat of arms. The city colors, which have been handed down since the nineteenth century, are derived from this coat of arms.
- “A growing red column in blue , on which rests a crown raised by a silver star; the shaft of the column is covered with a black saddled and bridled, jumping silver horse ”.
The coat of arms was decorated with elements of the crest of the ducal coat of arms (see Sachsenross ). Older images show a gold star, which the representation in place of a silver crest corresponds to the Dukes.
Two angels serve as shield holders . The angel standing heraldically on the right wears robes in red and gold, the angel on the left in black and silver. These color combinations come from the coats of arms of the Welfen and the Hohenzollern . Duke Julius was referring to the coat of arms of his family and the coat of arms of his wife Hedwig von Brandenburg's family .
The colors of the city are "red-white-blue". The city flag also bears the city's coat of arms.
The official seal contains the coat of arms and the inscription "City of Wolfenbüttel".
The city of Wolfenbüttel maintains city partnerships with
|Sèvres ( France )||Created on the initiative of the Franco-German Youth Office , since 1958|
|Kenosha ( USA )||Emerged from President Eisenhower's People to People US meeting program since 1969|
|Satu Mare ( Romania )||Extensive relief measures by the city and district in favor of the flood victims in Transylvania have led to this partnership since 1970|
|Kamienna Góra ( Poland )||The partnership was preceded by a 50-year sponsorship by the city and district of Wolfenbüttel for the expellees from the city and district of the former town of Landeshut in Silesia , since 2001|
A bridge in Wolfenbüttel is named after each of these cities. In Sèvres there is a "Rue de Wolfenbüttel", in Kenosha the "Wolfenbüttel Park". The town twinning is characterized by mutual visits by school classes, choirs, orchestras, other groups and private individuals.
Wolfenbüttel has been friends with the city of Blankenburg (Harz) in Saxony-Anhalt since 1990 . The district of Salzdahlum has had a partnership with the small town of Briouze in Normandy (France) since the 1960s . A partnership has existed between the Linden district and the village of Beltiug / Bildegg in the Satu Mare district since 2001.
The Wolfenbüttel district also maintains so-called district partnerships .
Culture and sights
Cultural and architectural monuments
The Wolfenbüttel castle is the second largest preserved castle in Lower Saxony. The castle, which emerged from a moated castle, was besieged, destroyed and rebuilt several times. That is why the building has been shaped by master builders from several eras. On the Schloßplatz, a former parade ground, there are also the Herzog August Library , the Lessing House , the Armory and the Small Castle , in which the Rudolph-Antoniana Knight Academy used to be . One of the treasures of the Herzog August Bibliothek is the Gospel Book of Heinrich the Lion , which was acquired for the library in 1983 for 32.5 million DM. In the 17th century the library rotunda "Bibliotheca Augusta" north of the Alps was considered the largest of its kind and was called the eighth wonder of the world . Gotthold Ephraim Lessing lived for a while in what is now Lessinghaus , who did a great job as a librarian for Augusta. As a museum, it now houses a permanent exhibition on Lessing's life and work. The armory served as an arsenal and granary during the residence period . Today it is used as a library extension of the Herzog August Library. Right next to the castle is the small castle, which used to be a knight academy and is now used as a residential building. Famous students of the Wolfenbüttel Knight Academy were z. B. the Baron von Münchhausen and Anton Wilhelm Amo .
In downtown Wolfenbüttel there are the two Protestant churches Beatae Mariae Virginis (BMV) , or Marienkirche for short, and the Trinity Church . The Marienkirche is also Wolfenbüttel's main church. Near the Marienkirche stands the baroque Trinity Church, which served as the city gate before the church was used. As Little Venice is called a small area on the Oker. These are the remains of an extensive system of canals that used to run through the city. The Dutch architect Hans Vredeman de Vries created the office building in Wolfenbüttel and the canals based on the Dutch model. The New Chancellery now houses the Prehistory and Protohistory Department of the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum . The houses built directly on the river create a certain “ Venice flair” in the heart of the city. The well-preserved old buildings of Wolfenbüttel were one reason why the newer version of the Feuerzangenbowle was filmed with Nadja Tiller and Walter Giller in Wolfenbüttel.
Evidence of historical underground development from the early modern period
- At the time of the residence, the Oker was used for defensive purposes and was routed around the city in fortress moats. In addition, the water was conducted in numerous trenches through the city and u. a. used to operate mills and sawmills. Locks not only regulated the water level, but also made it possible to transport goods on barges. During the new construction of the Schulwall street , the substructure came across a massive tunnel that was probably part of this hydraulic engineering.
- The Lindenberg bastion, today built on by the villa of the Seeliger family. When one of the casemates was uncovered, several thousand cannon balls were recovered from the excavation, including several balls for a stone box ( mortar ). They belong to those cannon balls that were cast around 1575 on behalf of Duke Julius (Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) . In 2006 around 2000 bullets, including those with the Duke's monogram (15 HI 75), were stolen.
- Wolfenbüttel correctional facility memorial
- Wolfenbüttel State Archives , a department of the Lower Saxony State Archives
- Lower Saxony Economic Archives Braunschweig
- Lower Saxony Forest Planning Office
- the Department of Prehistory and Early History of the Braunschweigisches Landesmuseum
There are two cinemas in Wolfenbüttel . The Filmpalast Wolfenbüttel is older and has three projection halls. The newer large-capacity cinema Cinestar , on the other hand, has six halls, one of which is equipped with 3D technology. In 2011 the Filmpalast Wolfenbüttel also upgraded to 3D.
In Lessing Theater , one of which no permanent ensemble, several are touring theater irregularly guest. In addition to the amateur ensemble Kleine Bühne , well-known actors were often seen on stage with various theater groups. In January 2007 the theater was closed for fire safety reasons. The renovation began on October 4, 2010, and the theater was reopened in May 2013.
In the castle is the castle theater with a foyer area, which is mainly used by the grammar school in the castle as an auditorium .
Wolfenbüttel is also a city of music, which is not limited to the work of the composer Michael Praetorius and Johann Rosenmüller in the past. Since 2009 the city has also been the seat of the Lower Saxony State Music Academy . The working group Music in Youth , founded in Hamburg in 1947 , has also been based in Wolfenbüttel since 1978 and organizes the Eurotreff, an international choir meeting with workshops and many concerts, at regular intervals. This has been officially called Eurotreff since the choir festival was founded in 1981, i.e. before the European Monetary Union. The Wolfenbüttel Chamber Orchestra (formerly the Instrumental Circle) is a string orchestra that regularly performs classical music. Wolfenbüttel is also the seat of the state trombone attendant, who is responsible for all trombone choirs of the Braunschweig regional church. The musical life is also shaped by the population, so there are numerous school orchestras, choirs and marching bands as well as brass bands.
Wolfenbüttel is a city of gardeners , which is underlined by a gardener memorial, the gardeners choir and the gardening museum. The canning factories have been closed for a long time and the horticultural areas have declined significantly in recent years due to reallocation to building land.
- In Wolfenbüttel there are two large event halls, the Lindenhalle, which was renovated in 2005 and named after the Linden district of the same name , and the KuBa-Halle.
- Guest house of the Federal Academy for Cultural Education , "Schünemann'sche Mühle", a water mill since 1630, Rosenwall, with group rooms for up to 120 people; Regular annual meeting with the Association of German-Language Translators of Literary and Scientific Works , VdÜ.
In Wolfenbüttel there are the sports clubs MTV Wolfenbüttel , Germania Wolfenbüttel , ESV Wolfenbüttel, KSC Wolfenbüttel, LC BlueLiner and the Wolfenbütteler swimming club from 1921 .
Wolfenbüttel is also known for a long basketball tradition, the Wolfenbüttel Wildcats (women) played in the 1st Bundesliga until 2013, the Dukes Wolfenbüttel (men) play in the 2nd Bundesliga ProB. The greatest successes of the men are the German Cup victories in 1972 and 1982 and the runner-up in 1976. In 2012, the women won the German championship.
With the KG Braunschweig / Wolfenbüttel (emerged from the BAC Wolfenbüttel) the city also has a boxing second division team.
Since the beginning of 2005 there has also been an American football team in Wolfenbüttel, the Wolfenbüttel Black Wolves.
The TG (gymnastics community) of the Great School Wolfenbüttel was founded in 1828 and is therefore one of the oldest still existing, solely organized and self-financed gymnastics communities in the republic.
The Wolfenbüttel Luftsportgemeinschaft was founded in 1949 and is located on the Großer Wiese in Wolfenbüttel Linden. It has around 80 members.
The Wolfenbüttel swimming club from 1921 has become known nationwide through the success of its water polo teams. The men's team won the German title in 1968 in the competitions for clubs without a winter pool (VoW) and played briefly in the Bundesliga in 1979 . The club has its own natural pool, the Fümmelsee outdoor pool.
Wolfenbüttel also owns the DC Bulldogs, a darts club that has been in the Darts Bundesliga for five years.
Economy and Infrastructure
The Wolfenbüttel economy is shaped by small and medium-sized companies. There are no larger industrial companies in Wolfenbüttel.
Significant active companies
Banking house CL Seeliger
The CL Seeliger banking house is a private bank with its headquarters and headquarters in Wolfenbüttel. It was founded in 1794 as a trading business.
Eder Maschinenbau GmbH
Among other things, Eder Maschinenbau GmbH builds woodworking devices (splitting, peeling, and carving devices) which are known throughout Europe in this market segment.
Ficosa International - Metallwarenfabrik Wilke GmbH & Co. KG
Metallwarenfabrik Wilke GmbH & Co. KG develops and produces rear-view mirrors for buses, agricultural machinery, trucks and commercial vehicles. The company was founded in Börßum in 1925 , four years later the Wilke metal goods factory moved to Wolfenbüttel. From the very beginning, Wilke manufactured parts for motor vehicles. Wilke belonged in the meantime to the Hella group and since 1999 to the Spanish Ficosa group of companies, a supplier for the automotive industry. The company is one of the largest mirror manufacturers for buses and trucks. In addition, all globally active tractor manufacturers use Wilke rear-view mirrors. With over 150 employees, sales totaled 35 million euros in 2008, almost doubling the turnover of 18 million euros from 2002.
Karl Heinrich Möseler Verlag
The Möseler Publishing is a publisher of "classical" music. The program includes secular and sacred choral music, chamber music and orchestral music from the Renaissance to the 21st century.
Schirm GmbH is a service provider for the chemical industry and operates a location in Wolfenbüttel. When Bayer CropScience closed its location in 2008, Schirm GmbH (formerly Lehnkering) took over office buildings and some employees.
The world-famous herbal liqueur Jägermeister comes from Wolfenbüttel . The headquarters of Mast-Jägermeister SE with production facilities and administration buildings are located in Wolfenbütteler Jägermeisterstraße . Günter Mast , long-time chairman of the board of directors and member of the supervisory board, introduced jersey advertising at Eintracht Braunschweig in the Bundesliga in the 1973/74 season .
MKN Maschinenfabrik Kurt Neubauer GmbH & Co. KG
Maschinenfabrik Kurt Neubauer GmbH & Co. KG (MKN) develops and produces technology for commercial kitchens around the world. The company was founded in 1946 by Kurt Neubauer with three other employees and initially concentrated on agricultural machinery at the Salzgitter location. Later there was a move to Wolfenbüttel and the focus on professional kitchen technology. Today MKN employs around 500 people and sells the devices in one hundred countries around the world.
Pan Acoustics GmbH
The Pan Acoustics GmbH , based in Wolfenbüttel was founded in 2002 by Udo Borgmann. It develops loudspeakers and digital sound transmission solutions. The “Pan Beam” row loudspeakers with beam steering technology are installed, for example, in Paris airports, the Herrenhausen Gardens in Hanover, in a royal palace in Morocco and in the Touba mosque in Senegal.
Reliatech Receptor Ligand Technologies GmbH
Reliatech GmbH (“Receptor Ligand Technologies GmbH”) is a biotechnical service company based in Wolfenbüttel. The company's business is specialized in the manufacture of reagents for research, with customers from Germany, Europe, North America and Asia.
Schmidt coupling GmbH
The Schmidt -plung GmbH company was founded in 1965 by Richard Schmidt and Walter Haarmann in Wolfenbüttel. The company's business is the development and international marketing of torsionally rigid compensating couplings for mechanical engineering. The basic product is the Schmidt coupling, patented in 1966 and named after the inventor Richard Schmidt . This coupling system is a torsionally rigid and short coupling for a large variable radial misalignment and is used u. a. in profiling systems, coating systems and roller drives. The current product range includes torsionally rigid couplings for rotary encoders , screw jacks and assembly machines, printing and packaging machines.
A forerunner to Volksbank Wolfenbüttel-Salzgitter eG was founded in 1902. The cooperative bank recently had over 12,000 members. In 2016 there was a merger with the Volksbanken Vechelde-Wendeburg and Helmstedt to form Volksbank eG , based in Wolfenbüttel.
Welger Maschinenfabrik GmbH
The Welger Maschinenfabrik GmbH is a manufacturer of compaction technology for the agricultural and industrial sector. The company mainly produces straw presses and presses for packaging materials. The beginnings of this family business go back to 1856 when the father Gottfried Welger opened a locksmith's shop in Seehausen in the Magdeburger Börde . In the 1890s, the first plant for agricultural machinery was built in Seehausen. With his two older sons Carl and Emil he led the company, which operated under the name of "Gebrüder Welger, Maschinenfabrik". The Wolfenbüttel “Maschinenfabrik Gebrüder Welger” was founded in 1899 by the younger brothers Franz and Gustav Welger . The aim of the Welger brothers was to simplify agricultural work with automatic straw balers. The site has been part of the AGCO Group since 2017 .
Major companies from the past
ANT Nachrichtenentechnik GmbH
In the premises of the former Kuba-Imperial in Wolfenbüttel radio transmission vehicles were built and equipped by ANT Nachrichtenentechnik GmbH (later Bosch ). The ANT is also the namesake for the Wolfenbüttel-based relay radio station DB0ANT of the German Amateur Radio Club eV local association Wolfenbüttel (H36), since radio equipment from ANT was initially used for this.
Busch, Barnewitz & Co.
In the canning factory Busch, Barnewitz & Co., fruit and vegetables were filled into cans. Fruit and vegetables came directly from the Wolfenbüttel gardeners who had their fields and plantations in and around the city. The Busch family was closely related to the poet Wilhelm Busch .
Eisvoigt Anlagen- und Gerätebau GmbH
The Eisvoigt Plant and Equipment GmbH was a manufacturer of refrigerators (including freezers sale).
In 1948, Gerhard Kubetschek founded the “Kuba” factory for clay furniture. At the time, this was understood to mean stylishly designed televisions, music chests and radios, which were considered valuable furnishings. In 1957 the Continental - Rundfunk GmbH became part of the new company Kuba-Imperial . In the mid-1960s, over 4,000 people were employed in the Kuba-Imperial plant on Lindener Strasse. At the time, the company was the third largest manufacturer of radios and televisions and had annual sales of around DM 220 million. In 1966, Kubetschek sold the company to the American electronics group General Electric for DM 80 million. The former production building on Lindener Strasse still exist and are used by smaller businesses and for cultural events. A museum recalls the work of Kubetschek and the history of his company.
Maschinenfabrik H. Eberhardt GmbH
The company was founded in 1860 by Heinrich Eberhardt as a fittings factory. After a while, they specialized in lime kiln and lime milk plants, in particular lime kilns for the chemical and sugar industries, which were delivered from Wolfenbüttel all over the world. Production on Frankfurter Strasse was given up around 2000. Today there is still a design office that is still active worldwide. Eberhardt has been based in Lemgo since 2008.
Rudolf Jäger tarpaulin and tent factory
In 1885 the merchant Rudolf Jäger, known as "the waterproof", born in Einbeck in 1853, in which Dr. Heinrich-Jasper-Str. No. 5–7 a manufactory for sacks, horse blankets and agricultural supplies. During the First World War, tents were also manufactured for the army. In the 1930s, the range was expanded and the production of truck tarpaulins was added. In the heyday before and during the Second World War, the company had up to 200 employees at times. Rudolf Jäger died in 1943. His sons Hans and Rudolf continued the business until 1975. After the death of Hans Jäger, the company was leased to the Brunswick company Karl Amme.
Mill construction institute Luther & Peters
In Wolfenbüttel the Oker was not only dammed up for defense purposes and routed through the city, but several mills were also placed on the Oker. In 1852 the mill construction company Luther & Peters was founded in Wolfenbüttel, which later moved to Braunschweig and gained worldwide importance under Hugo Luther .
Richard Schulz Seifenfabrik GmbH
The GmbH was founded in 1907. It was located at Dr.-Heinrich-Jasper-Straße 55 and operated the production and sale of detergents and cleaning agents, leather and floor care products, and cosmetic articles in wholesale and retail. The managing director was Wilhelm Rode. From 1967 the company headquarters was in Lengerich / Westphalia.
Robert Bosch GMBH
Robert Bosch GmbH took over ANT Nachrichtenentechnik GmbH and also manufactured telephones in Wolfenbüttel.
The pharmaceutical company Schering and its successors maintained a location for research and production in Wolfenbüttel. In 1978 there was an explosion and a major fire. For a long time the “Scheringturm” - a tall and massive chimney, which was removed in 2007 - shaped Wolfenbüttel's skyline . In 2006 Bayer AG took over Schering and withdrew from Wolfenbüttel in 2008. The transport logistics company Lehnkering (now Schirm GmbH) took over the office building and part of the workforce. Much of the production building was demolished.
Signum shirts were produced in Wolfenbüttel until the company was relocated to Braunschweig.
For 2007 Wolfenbüttel was able to increase the number of overnight stays from 84,601 in 1999 to 120,244. On the one hand, the number of multi-day package guests could be increased from 365 with 730 overnight stays (1999) to 813 with 1358 overnight stays. On the other hand, the number of daily flat-rate guests increased from 1447 in 2003 to 4405 guests in 2007. The increased number of visitors was also noticeable in the number of city tours, a jump from 9320 in 1999 to 16,640 booked city tours can be seen.
In January 2009 the city of Wolfenbüttel was recognized by the state of Lower Saxony as a state-recognized excursion destination. The historic city center from 1750 with the city center, Auguststadt and Juliusstadt attracts up to 1.8 million tourists to the city every year. The title of state-recognized excursion destination enables Wolfenbüttel, u. a. to set up up to 8 shopping Sundays.
Wolfenbüttel is connected to the German motorway network with four junctions on the A 36 federal motorway . In addition, the federal highway B 79 runs through Wolfenbüttel. The city is connected to the A 39 via the B 248 and B 79 .
The B 4 originally ran through Wolfenbüttel, but in the course of the construction of the A 395 (today's A 36) from Braunschweig to Bad Harzburg , this area was canceled or downgraded, and the affected road sections in the Okertal were dismantled to country road level .
Rail and bus transport
Wolfenbüttel is connected to the rail network of Deutsche Bahn with the Wolfenbüttel station , which is an operational stop . As early as 1838, the city received a rail connection with the opening of the Braunschweig – Bad Harzburg railway line . After the construction of the Wolfenbüttel – Oschersleben and Oschersleben – Magdeburg lines and the Cologne-Mindener Bahn , the Wolfenbüttel – Braunschweig line formed part of the east-west axis Berlin – Hanover – Rhineland from 1847. With the construction of the Berlin-Lehrter Railway in 1871 and the direct route Braunschweig – Helmstedt – Magdeburg in 1872, the phase of this first-class transport connection to Wolfenbüttel ended.
The stop is on the Braunschweig – Bad Harzburg / Goslar and Braunschweig – Schöppenstedt railway lines . Until the timetable change on December 8, 2007, trains ran on the last-mentioned route to Helmstedt . All trains run as regional trains . The historic station building has not been used for railway operations since a renovation, in which one of the former three tracks was removed. The nearest ICE train station is the Braunschweig main station .
Nine inner-city bus routes operate in the city, which have been operated by KVG Braunschweig since 1992 . Which is complemented public transport by various local bus companies that lines in the surrounding communities and cities entertained. There are also direct bus connections to Braunschweig and Salzgitter.
From October 28, 1897 to July 1, 1954, there was a tram connection between Wolfenbüttel and Braunschweig. After the line was canceled, the route was dismantled and the tram was replaced by buses.
The international airport of Hanover is 80 km away . With the Braunschweig-Wolfsburg airport in Braunschweig, there is another national airport nearby.
With the European long-distance hiking trail E6 , an approximately 5,200 km long hiking trail leads from Kilpisjärvi to the Dardanelles through Wolfenbüttel.
- The Schering tunnel is a connecting tunnel for pedestrians from the former B4 federal road (around the Stadtbad) to the company premises on Halchterschen Strasse, which is no longer accessible.
- Around the old freight station there was a firing tunnel for an ammunition factory from the time of World War II.
The Wolfenbüttel Municipal Clinic is an acute hospital and academic teaching hospital of the Georg-August University of Göttingen . The clinic has a capacity of 300 beds; over 585 employees care for 11,700 inpatients and 7,300 outpatients annually.
The rescue helicopter (RTH) Christoph 30 has been stationed at the Wolfenbüttel Clinic since 1983 . The RTH is operated by the ADAC and used in the rescue service of the DRK Wolfenbüttel. The crew of the Christoph 30 consists of emergency doctors from the Wolfenbütteler Klinikum, air rescue assistants from the DRK KV Wolfenbüttel and pilots from the ADAC. Christoph 30 is one of five rescue helicopters operated in Lower Saxony. The area of application of the RTH extends over a radius of 50 km around Wolfenbüttel. The RTH is ready for use daily from 7:00 a.m. until sunset.
The DRK district association Wolfenbüttel is also responsible for the ground-based rescue service and patient transport in the city and in the district and provides vehicles and personnel for this. In addition to the main guard on the site of the former Gneisenau barracks in Dietrich-Bonhoeffer-Strasse, ambulance stations at Am Exer, in Schöppenstedt and Heiningen are maintained. An emergency vehicle with a paramedic is stationed at the Wolfenbüttel Clinic . The Wolfenbüttel Clinic provides the emergency doctor on duty.
On January 15, 1609, the first edition of the newspaper " Aviso, Relation or Zeitung " appeared in Wolfenbüttel , edited by Julius Adolph von Sons . The Aviso is the second oldest German-language newspaper. It was supposed to entertain an elitist target group with news from the big metropolises of the time.
In 1786 the pastor Hermann Braess from Dettum began to publish the " newspaper for cities, towns and villages, especially for dear country people old and young ". The so-called Rothe Zeitung was a local newspaper and addressed the general population, i.e. a broad readership, as readers. By communicating useful knowledge and extensive reporting, e.g. B. from the French Revolution, the enlightenment of the country people should be pursued. Following the general trend of reading, reading was increasingly popular in the enlightened Duchy of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel at the end of the 18th century. The Rothe Zeitung relied on sober and factual reporting.
The Rothe Zeitung is regarded as the forerunner of the Wolfenbütteler Zeitung , a local daily newspaper with Wolfenbüttel city and district news. The change to Wolfenbütteler Heckner Verlag in 1866 made it possible to publish it as a local daily newspaper for Wolfenbüttel and the district. From 1937 to the end of World War II there was a turning point; the latest from the group appeared in the Braunschweiger Zeitung . On November 25, 1986 the Wolfenbütteler Zeitung celebrated its 200th anniversary. In 1993 the Wolfenbütteler Zeitung went up in the Braunschweiger Zeitungsverlag. Since then, the Braunschweiger Zeitung has had an office in Wolfenbüttel and the local editorial office of Wolfenbütteler Zeitung and Anzeiger .
With the advertising-financed Wolfenbütteler Schaufenster , a local paper limited to the city area appears twice a week. There is also the daily online newspaper regionalheute.de .
education and Science
As the residence of the dukes, Wolfenbüttel gained importance as a city of schools and science. The Herzog August Bibliothek research library , in particular , is still a magnet for scientists from all over the world. Gotthold Ephraim Lessing and the universal scholar Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz worked as librarians here. The physicists Julius Elster and Hans Friedrich Geitel worked as researchers and teachers in Wolfenbüttel. Today in Wolfenbüttel there are not only general schools, but also vocational and advanced training institutions up to and including a technical college .
General education schools
Wolfenbüttel has nine primary schools, four of which are in the outlying districts of Fümmelse, Groß Stöckheim, Halchter and Salzdahlum. The four other facilities Wilhelm-Busch-Grundschule (formerly: Primary School Cranachstraße ), Primary School on Geitelplatz , Primary School Harztorwall and Primary School Karlstraße are spread across the city. The Wilhelm Raabe School is run as a combined primary and secondary school, while the Erich Kästner School is a pure secondary school. There is also a secondary school in the city, the open all-day school Leibniz secondary school . The former UNESCO project school Lessing-Realschule was closed at the end of the 2016/2017 school year. The two integrated comprehensive schools have included the Integrated Comprehensive School Wallstraße since 2010 and the Henriette-Breymann Comprehensive School since 2012 . The Wilhelm Busch Primary School , the Erich Kästner School and the Leibniz Realschule form the school complex on Cranachstrasse. In addition, there are the special schools Peter-Räuber-Schule (intellectual development) and the school at Teichgarten (focus on learning).
The secondary schools are located exclusively in the city area. In 2004, the orientation levels in Wolfenbüttel were dropped . With the increased number of pupils in secondary schools, new rooms had to be made available. The classrooms of the former Wallstraße school orientation level were initially used as an extension for the three Wolfenbüttel high schools and since 2010 as an integrated comprehensive school. The school building on Wallstrasse has housed many different types of school over the years: opened in 1885 as Wolfenbüttel's first citizen school, two types of school with an orientation level and secondary school until 2004, and the lower grades of the three grammar schools since 2004. In addition to the integrated comprehensive school Wallstraße , which has been under construction since 2010, the premises of the grammar school in the castle will be used from until 2014. The former primary and secondary school in Karlstrasse became a primary school and the secondary school branch was relocated to the school center in Cranachstrasse and renamed the Erich-Kästner-Schule .
About 3300 students attend one of the three Wolfenbüttel high schools . With over 1,450 students, the Gymnasium im Schloss (GiS) is the largest institution of its kind in Wolfenbüttel. The Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium (THG) is attended by approx. 950 students. The Great School with 900 students is the smallest high school in Wolfenbüttel.
High school in the castle
The beginnings of the grammar school in the castle go back to the Anna-Vorwerk school for girls founded in 1866 . What started with a small kindergarten in the former ducal premises of the Residenzschloss developed in the following years into a girls 'school and later into a teachers' seminar. Anna Vorwerk was able to use the rooms of Wolfenbüttel Castle with her newly founded educational institutions for girls and teachers because the entire court was relocated to Braunschweig over 100 years ago. At the end of the 19th century, the castle institutions had a kindergarten, a school for senior daughters, a boarding school for foreign pupils, a teacher’s seminar and even an after-work house for retired teachers. The educational institutions, which were initially privately run, were increasingly dependent on government support and over time were passed into the hands of the city of Wolfenbüttel and the Braunschweig region. In 1923 it was renamed Anna-Vorwerk-Oberschule under state responsibility . The grammar school has been in the castle since 1969 , today: grammar school in the castle , a school for boys and girls.
The Theodor-Heuss-Gymnasium (THG) was founded on March 24th, 1884 as a "higher middle school". The school initially had 140 students and nine teachers, but now around 950 boys and girls are taught by around 90 teachers. On September 25, 1962, the THG moved from Wolfenbütteler Schloss to Karl-von-Hörstenstrasse 7-9. At the same time, the school was named after Theodor Heuss , the first Federal President of the Federal Republic of Germany. The school building is divided into a new and an old building, in which there are 57 classrooms, two physics rooms, two chemistry rooms, two biology rooms, two gyms, two music rooms, an auditorium, a break hall, a language laboratory, a library and a large schoolyard.
The Big School has its roots in 1542 as a boys school for Christianity and ancient languages. With the move into a new school building at the Marienkirche BMV, the focus of teaching was also placed on logical thinking and knowledge of God. More than 100 years later, the Princely School in Wolfenbüttel then moved into the ducal commission in 1705. It was given its current name, Large School , in 1749, when it was renamed the Ducal Large School . Another move took place in 1879 when the new school building at Am Rosenwall 12 was moved into, which is still in use today. With Julius Elster and Hans Friedrich Geitel , who had been employed as teachers at the Great School since around 1881, two famous physicists are part of the teaching staff. The writer and classical philologist Wilhelm Brandes headed the large school from 1893 until his retirement in 1921.
University of Applied Sciences
Today's Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences in Wolfenbüttel includes not only the typical engineering courses , such as electrical engineering , mechanical engineering and supply engineering , but also departments for computer science , law and social education . At the Wolfsburg location u. a. Vehicle technology and at the Salzgitter location there is also a faculty for traffic, sport, tourism and media. In the summer semester 2010, the Suderburg location with the faculties “Construction-Water-Soil” and “Trade and Social Work” was added. Ostfalia has a total of four locations, twelve faculties, 70 courses, over 11,000 students and over 800 employees (including approx. 200 professors). The technical department of the university of applied sciences emerged from the private technical center in Wolfenbüttel founded by Bernhard Harder in 1928 . As a private educational institution for electrical engineering and mechanical engineering, the Technikum am Rosenwall initially only had two teachers, Harder and Fritz Massig, and was subordinate to the Braunschweig Minister of Education. The first year consisted of 48 students. A year later, the technical center was recognized by the Braunschweig state government as a technical college . The five-semester course at the HTL Wolfenbüttel concluded with a state-recognized examination.
After the Second World War, only a few courses were held in 1947; in 1949 there was a new start as a state engineering school . At that time the Wolfenbüttel engineering school was the only intact of its kind in Lower Saxony. With the inauguration of the new location on Salzdahlumer Straße in 1955, they left the building at Am Rosenwall 14, which is now owned by the Große Schule high school . At the time of the great student protests in 1968, the state engineering school was converted into a state engineering academy . In the following years and after further protests and education strikes for more democracy in education, the merger with the higher technical college for social pedagogy of the city of Braunschweig followed in 1971 and, as part of the nationwide establishment of technical colleges in 1972, the conversion into a state technical college with the departments of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and social affairs . The Wolfsburg location was opened in the late 1980s and the Salzgitter location was opened in the early 1990s. In 2009 the college was given the current name Ostfalia . After the relocation of the Braunschweig Faculty of Social Work with the Social Pedagogy course to Wolfenbüttel in 2010, the site had over 4,000 students. The largest location is the Wolfenbüttel campus with over 5000 of a total of 11,680 students at all Ostfalia locations.
Other educational and research institutions
There are two vocational schools in Wolfenbüttel: on the one hand the public vocational school Carl Gotthard Langhans and on the other hand the private vocational Oskar Kämmer school. The Federal Academy for Cultural Education Wolfenbüttel is a training facility for people who work in all possible positions in the cultural sector and especially in cultural mediation. She regularly organizes workshops, seminars and conferences. Prison officers from the state of Lower Saxony are trained at the prison school.
Research on the Middle Ages and early modern times is carried out and funded at the Herzog August Bibliothek (HAB), including through grants. In addition to the works that can be viewed on site, digitized books, drawings and copperplate engravings can also be viewed in online databases such as the Virtual Print Cabinet on the Internet. The Lessing Academy is located on the premises of the HAB . As a non-profit association, it primarily serves to research the work and life of Lessing and his time, the Age of Enlightenment.
Since 2009 the Lower Saxony State Music Academy has also been located in the city, on the edge of the Seeliger Park. The Peter Räuber School is a special needs school founded in 1976.
Former training centers
In the past, Wolfenbüttel was the seat of a teachers' college, a preacher's college, the Rudolph-Antoniana Knight's Academy and the Federal College for the Confectionery Craft . From 1786 to 1928, the Samson School was a nationally important Jewish free school.
Honorary citizen of the city
- Librarian and literary scholar Paul Raabe , 1991
- Writer, lyricist and essayist Kurt Meyer-Rotermund , 1959
- Manfred Ammon , 2016
sons and daughters of the town
Born in Wolfenbüttel:
- 1489: Heinrich II. Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
- 1528: Julius Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
- 1680: Hieronymus von Münchhausen , Minister
- 1683: Elisabeth Sophie Marie of Schleswig-Holstein-Norburg , by marriage Princess of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
- 1685: Adolph Friedrich Graf von der Schulenburg-Beetzendorf , imperial count, lieutenant general in the Prussian army and confidante of King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia
- 1694: Philipp Friedrich Ramdohr , ducal personal surgeon and inventor of a surgical sewing technique
- 1696: Johann Georg Oldekop , general superintendent
- 1696: August Querfurt , genre, horse, hunting and battle painter.
- 1715: Elisabeth Christine von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern , wife of Queen Friedrich II in Prussia
- 1720: Georg Ludwig von Hardenberg , Protestant cathedral dean and hymnologist
- 1724: Johann Julius Walbaum , physician, natural scientist
- 1728: Urban Brückmann , doctor, mineralogist and scientific writer
- 1729: Georg Samuel Madihn , lawyer and university professor
- 1735: Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Prince, inherited Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and from March 26, 1780 sovereign in the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
- 1737: Johann Gottfried Schwanberger , court conductor, piano virtuoso and composer
- 1738: Wilhelm von Gebhardi , architect and head of the ducal-Braunschweig building department
- 1738: Herz Samson , ducal-Brunswick court banker and chamber agent
- 1739: Anna Amalie von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach , duchess and composer
- 1743: Philipp Samson , court banker, co-founder and namesake of the Samson School
- 1746: Elisabeth Christine Ulrike von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , daughter of Duke Karl I (Braunschweig)
- 1747: Karl Wilhelm Jerusalem , lawyer, prototype for the literary figure of Werther in Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther
- 1748: Ludwig Gottfried Madihn , professor and university rector of the University of Breslau
- 1752: Konrad Heusinger , educator and philologist
- 1755: Carl Ferdinand Bosse , court gardener
- 1755: Georg Anton Mackensen , lawyer
- 1757: Karoline Ludecus , writer
- 1762: Georg Anton Christoph Scheffler , Rector of the Brunswick Katharineum , director of the Collegium Carolinum there and philologist
- 1768: Wilhelm Friedrich August Mackensen , philosopher
- 1774: Carl Brandan Mollweide , mathematician and astronomer
- 1774: Friederike von Reden , mother of the Hirschberger Valley
- 1800: Johann Wilhelm Austria , lawyer and politician
- 1810: August Ludwig von Rochau , publicist and politician
- 1813: Theodor Engelbrecht , doctor and pomologist
- 1816: Theodore Eisfeld , composer, chief conductor of the New York Philharmonic
- 1831: Ernst von Unger , General of the Cavalry
- 1834: Karl Schrader (politician, 1834) , lawyer, member of the Reichstag
- 1845: Theodor Voges , teacher and local researcher
- 1851: Victor Ehrenberg , legal scholar
- 1857: Richard Ehrenberg , national economist
- 1863: Arnold Kramer , sculptor and medalist
- 1866: Erich Rosendahl , local history researcher, journalist and author
- 1868: Hans Ferdinand Gerhard , journalist, theater critic, writer, archivist and local history researcher
- 1869: Paul Friedrich Schröder , journalist and writer
- 1871: Albert Südekum , journalist and politician
- 1872: Karl Steinacker , art historian and museum director
- 1872: Paul Eyferth , mayor of the city from 1917 to 1933
- 1875: Karl Friedrich August Bergwitz , physicist
- 1875: Heinrich Lachmund , Lutheran pastor
- 1884: Wilhelm Blume , educator
- 1884: Kurt Meyer-Rotermund , writer, poet and essayist
- 1886: Ernst Heinrich Zimmermann , art historian and museum director
- 1890: Georg Scholz , painter
- 1890: August Fink , art historian and museum director
- 1893: Henry Pinkepank , politician (SPD)
- 1897: Lili Gräf , artist and sculptor
- 1899: Robert Brandes , NSDAP functionary, 1944/45 Lord Mayor of Cologne
- 1927: Friedrich Flohr , mathematics professor
- 1938: Mechthild Wiswe , historian, folklorist and author
- 1943: Maina-Miriam Munsky , painter
- 1946: Jörg Beiderbeck , shipbuilding engineer
- 1949: Burghard Krause , Lutheran theologian and state superintendent
- 1950: Sigrid Engeler , translator
- 1950: Rainer Westermann , Rector of the Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald
- 1951: Klaus-Peter Bachmann , politician (SPD), since 2013 Vice President of the Lower Saxony State Parliament
- 1953: Uwe Kullnick , writer
- 1955: Marion Kobelt-Groch , historian
- 1956: Tine Schneider , jazz pianist
- 1957: Rainer Esser , journalist, lawyer and media manager
- 1957: Lutz Niemann , General of the Bundeswehr
- 1959: Christian Schrader , lawyer, judge and university lecturer
- 1960: Jürgen Lossau , television producer, book author and journalist
- 1961: Kristian Köchy , Professor of Philosophy
- 1961: Anna Susanne Jahn , painter
- 1961: Gunnar Kunz , writer and illustrator
- 1962: Dagmar Freist , historian
- 1963: Thorsten Stelzner , poet, satirist, publisher and gallery owner
- 1964: Hans-Jörg Meyer , marksman
- 1966: Kai Nürnberger , national basketball player
- 1965: Martin Biastoch , historian and classical philologist
- 1968: Christian von Treskow , director and general manager
- 1968: Andreas Weiß , filmmaker
- 1970: Sybille Hein , children's book author, illustrator and designer
- 1972: Ina Dietz , journalist and television presenter
- 1972: Claudia Loss , politician (SPD)
- 1972: Norms Odenthal , journalist and television presenter
- 1975: Tim Frühling , radio and television presenter
- 1977: Stefan Schempershauwe , soccer referee
- 1980: Annabelle Leip , actress
- 1985: Anike Hage , comic artist
- 1987: Arnd Peiffer , biathlete
- 1990: Tobias Goebel , football player
- 1990: Ricarda Ramünke , singer and actress
- 1991: Lars Kokemüller , actor and director
Persons connected with Wolfenbüttel
- Mihai Albu (1938–2017), basketball player and coach
- Anton Wilhelm Amo (around 1703 - after 1753), philosopher and legal scholar
- August Carl Eduard Baldamus (1812–1893), Protestant theologian, teacher and ornithologist
- Emil Berliner (1851–1929), inventor of the record
- Gottlieb Bertrand (1775–1813), writer
- Gottfried Philipp von Bülow (1770–1850), statesman and historian
- Conrad Buno (1613–1671), painter and engraver, first bookseller in the city and city treasurer
- Jakob Burckhard (1681–1752), classical philologist and librarian, head of the Herzog August Library
- Wilhelm Busch (1832–1908), poet and draftsman
- Philipp Ludwig Dreyzigermark (1676–1750), Protestant clergyman
- Dominicus Dreuer († before 1568), court servant to Duke Heinrich the Younger of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Braunschweig regional historian
- Johann Conrad Eichler (1680–1748), court painter to the dukes of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel
- Julius Johann Philipp Ludwig Elster (1854–1920), high school teacher and physicist
- Johann Eberhard zu Eltz (1594–1655), Chancellor in the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1626/27) and in the service of Wallenstein's Chancellor in the Duchy of Mecklenburg (1628–34)
- Paul Francke (1537–1610), ducal master builder
- Hans Friedrich Geitel (1855–1923), high school teacher and physicist
- Ludwig von Gemmingen-Hornberg (1694–1771), Councilor of Appeal and Vice-President in Celle, Extraordinary Minister of King George II of Great Britain
- Christian Giermann (* 1936), flotilla admiral ret. D.
- Martin Gosky (1586–1656), physician and poet of the Baroque period
- Carl Heinrich Graun (1704–1759), composer and tenor
- Johann Friedrich Ludwig Günther (1773–1854), legal scholar, judge, university professor and politician
- Gunzelin von Wolfenbüttel (≈1170–1255), Truchsess under Otto IV. And Friedrich II., Imperial Legate in Tuscany and general
- Otto von Heinemann (1824–1904), librarian and historian; from 1868 to 1904 he headed the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel
- Isaak Markus Jost (1793–1860), historian
- Erhart Kästner (1904–1974), writer, librarian in Wolfenbüttel from 1950 to 1968
- Franz Anton Knittel (1721–1792), general superintendent and paleographer
- Heinrich Andreas Koch (1707–1766), lawyer and regional historian
- Ludwig Köpp (1800–1890), politician in the Duchy of Braunschweig and member of the Braunschweig State Assembly
- Hermann Korb (1656–1735), ducal master builder
- Gerhard Kubetschek (1909–1976), founder of the Kuba-Imperial clay furniture factory
- Bernhard Lambrecht (1897–1971), confectioner and author, author of several textbooks and specialist books on the confectionery trade and founding director of the Federal College for the Confectionery Trade
- Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729–1781), poet; from 1770 librarian in Wolfenbüttel
- Johann Balthasar Lauterbach (1663–1694), mathematician and architect; designed the princely pleasure palace in Salzdahlum near Wolfenbüttel
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716), universal scientist, librarian at the HAB
- Günter Mast (1926–2011), entrepreneur and former member of the management and supervisory board of Mast-Jägermeister SE
- Bernhard von Mila (1498–1561), Swedish admiral, Saxon colonel and governor; from 1542 to 1547 governor of the Wolfenbüttel residence
- Hieronymus Carl Friedrich von Münchhausen (1720–1797), nobleman, also known as Baron Münchhausen
- Rudolf August Nolte (1703–1752), lawyer and local historian
- Justus Oldekop (1597–1667), lawyer, councilor and lawyer
- Georg Austria (1664–1735), composer
- Albert Plücker (1864–1945), medical adviser, honorary member of the medical profession of the city and district of Wolfenbüttel, most recently chief physician of the Protestant hospital in Wolfenbüttel
- Michael Praetorius (1571–1621), composer and court conductor
- Wilhelm Raabe (1831–1910), writer
- Johannes Reiske (1641–1701), educator and historian
- Johann von Reuschenberg (1603–1660), commandant of the Wolfenbüttel fortress from 1634 to 1643, later Bavarian and imperial field marshal
- Johann Rosenmüller (1619–1684), composer
- Christian August Salig (1692–1738), scholar and head of the Wolfenbüttel grammar school
- Karl Schaper (1920–2008), painter, sculptor, graphic artist and conceptual artist
- Werner Scholem (1895–1940), politician (KPD), member of the Reichstag and victim of National Socialism
- Justus Georg Schottelius (1612–1676), poet and language scholar of the Baroque period
- Heinrich Julius Friedrich von Schrader (1764–1829), senior appellant and councilor in Wolfenbüttel
- Georg Caspar Schürmann (1672 / 73–1751), court conductor, composer and singer
- Georg Stölting (1836–1901), school and seminar director in Wolfenbüttel and rector of the Calvörde community school
- Julius Adolph von Söhne († 1616), printer and editor of the second oldest German-language newspaper, the Aviso Relation or newspaper
- Reinhold Stoevesandt (1909–1986), architect, local politician and opponent of nuclear power
- Friedrich Karl von Strombeck (1771–1848), legal scholar
- Johann Theile (1646–1724), composer and court conductor
- Ernst Christian Trapp (1745–1818), pedagogue and first German holder of a chair for pedagogy
- Christian Friedrich Weichmann (1698–1770), lawyer, publicist and poet
- Widekind von Wolfenbüttel († around 1118), builder of the Wolfenbüttel moated castle and founder of the Wolfenbüttel line
- Levin Zanner , called "Rittmeister Immern sober" or "Nimmern sober" († 1641), Freireuter (free militant, free corps leader) in the Thirty Years' War; from 1634 to 1641 supported the commandant of Wolfenbüttel Fortress Johann von Reuschenberg with his horse troop
- Leopold Zunz (1794–1886), Jewish-German religious scholar
General literature on city history
- Karl Bege : Chronicle of the city of Wolfenbüttel and its suburbs. Wolfenbüttel 1839 ( digitized version ).
- Jochen Bepler : A short history of Wolfenbüttel town . Pustet, Regensburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-7917-2328-0 .
- Horst-Rüdiger Jarck , Gerhard Schildt (ed.): The Braunschweigische Landesgeschichte. A region looking back over the millennia . 2nd Edition. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2001, ISBN 3-930292-28-9 .
- Horst-Rüdiger Jarck , Dieter Lent et al. (Ed.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon - 8th to 18th century . Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2006, ISBN 3-937664-46-7 .
- Horst-Rüdiger Jarck , Günter Scheel (Ed.): Braunschweigisches Biographisches Lexikon - 19th and 20th centuries . Hahnsche Buchhandlung, Hannover 1996, ISBN 3-7752-5838-8 .
- Oskar Karpa: Wolfenbüttel ( German Land - German Art ). 2nd Edition. Munich / Berlin 1965.
- Wolfgang Kelsch, Wolfgang Lange: Treasury Wolfenbüttel. 2nd Edition. Wolfenbüttel 1983, DNB
- Jörg Leuschner , Karl Heinrich Kaufhold , Claudia Märtl (eds.): The economic and social history of the Braunschweigisches Land from the Middle Ages to the present , Volume 1: Middle Ages , Volume 2: Early Modern Times , Volume 3: Modern Times. Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 2008, ISBN 978-3-487-13599-1 .
- Paul Jonas Meier : The art monuments of the city of Wolfenbüttel . Osnabrück 1978, DNB (reprint of the 1904 edition).
Literature on the history of the city from the Middle Ages to the early modern period (history of the residence and fortress Wolfenbüttel)
- Martin Fimpel: First a major construction site and then another city. The long farewell to the Wolfenbüttel Fortress. In: Braunschweigisches Jahrbuch für Landesgeschichte, Vol. 94, 2013, pp. 161–192.
- Hans Henning Grote: Wolfenbüttel Castle, residence of the Dukes of Braunschweig and Lüneburg. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2005.
- Ulrich Schwarz (Ed.): On the way to the ducal residence. Wolfenbüttel in the Middle Ages. Appelhans Verlag, Braunschweig 2003.
- Friederich Thöne: Spirit and splendor of an old residence. F. Bruckmann, Munich 1963.
Literature on the history of the city from the Empire to the Weimar Republic
- Marlies Buchholz: Wolfenbüttel 1871 to 1914. From the history of a small town in the German Empire. Contributions to the history of the city of Wolfenbüttel, Volume 4, Wolfenbüttel 1992, DNB
- Christina Wötzel: The history of the city of Wolfenbüttel 1914 to 1933. Contributions to the history of the city of Wolfenbüttel, Volume 8, Wolfenbüttel 1995, DNB
Literature on city history in the time of National Socialism
- Jannik Sachweh: "... sentenced to death for looting." Crimes committed by the judiciary in Wesermünde during the Second World War . In: Men from the Morgenstern Heimatbund at the mouth of the Elbe and Weser. V. (Ed.): Niederdeutsches Heimatblatt . No. 839 . Nordsee-Zeitung GmbH, Bremerhaven November 2019, p. 1–2, 4 ( digital version [PDF; 4.2 MB ; accessed on December 18, 2019]).
- City of Wolfenbüttel (Ed.): Wolfenbüttel under the swastika. Five lectures by Reinhard Försterling, Dietrich Kuessner , Hans-Ulrich Ludewig , Wilfried Knauer, Dieter Lent. Heckner-Print-Service-GmbH, Wolfenbüttel 2000, GBV
Series of publications in search of traces, published by the Aktiongemeinschaft Altstadt Wolfenbüttel e. V.
- Dieter Kertscher: Wolfenbüttel in old maps ; Issue 1 (2002).
- Dietmar Dolle u. a .: Wolfenbüttel on old postcards ; Issue 2 (2003).
- Dieter Kertscher u. a .: fortress architecture in Wolfenbüttel ; Issue 3 (2004).
- Rüdiger Hagen u. a .: Mill construction in and around Wolfenbüttel ; Issue 4 (2005).
Braunschweiger newspaper "Special"
- Residenzstadt Wolfenbüttel - A Foray through History, No. 9 (2004).
- Young life in old houses - 25 years of urban redevelopment in Wolfenbüttel, No. 9 (2005).
- Ludwig Güßfeld , Homann heirs : The principalities of Grubenhagen, Calenberg, Wolfenbüttel and Blankenburg 1786. Historical map, Verlag Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza, reprint 1786/2002, ISBN 3-936030-51-0 .
- Peter Moers : Picture Book Germany - Wolfenbüttel; Documentation (NDR 1996)
- Jürgen Lossau : Six women from the grill (where sausages are secondary); Documentation (NDR 2006) aktion.tv
- Helmut Käutner : The Feuerzangenbowle ; Movie (1970) imdb.com
- Christian Görlitz : The hostage; TV movie (2003) imdb.com
- Sebastian Grobler : The really big dream; Movie (2011) imdb.de
- Michael Praetorius : There is a rose , Evangelical hymn book (EG 30), Christmas mass (1609)
- Otto Waalkes : The Strangler von Wolfenbüttel , Otto (1973)
- Bonaparte : Wolfenbüttel (2017)
- ↑ State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- ^ City of Wolfenbüttel: Geographical data
- ↑ a b Information from the Wolfenbüttel land registry office (email from October 7, 2010)
- ↑ City planning office / land registry office Wolfenbüttel: wolfenbuettel.de (status 2001)
- ↑ PDF at www.weltenbuettel.de
- ↑ The individual areas of the districts of the core city were measured from the map with the Get Area script
- ^ Population of the localities and districts of Wolfenbüttel
- ↑ Cf. Dieter Lent: Johannes Reiske and the early modern beginnings of historiography on the medieval history of Wolfenbüttel. In: Ulrich Schwarz (ed.): On the way to the ducal residence. Wolfenbüttel in the Middle Ages. Appelhans, Braunschweig 2003, pp. 258-261 (chapter The name Wolfenbüttel ).
- ↑ Data from the city of Wolfenbüttel .
- ↑ History ( Memento of the original from December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , on the website of the cath. Parish of St. Petrus Wolfenbüttel; Retrieved December 5, 2015
- ↑ James Rives Childs: Casanova: The Great Biography. Blanvalet, Munich 1977, ISBN 3-7645-0683-0 , pp. 280, 323.
- ↑ Giacomo Casanova: Memories, Volume 5, Chapter 18 (transl. Heinrich Conrad, Verlag Georg Müller, Munich / Leipzig 1911).
- ^ Friedrich Ortlep : General register or repertory on all and every criminal matter ... de Anno 1569. 1597.
- ^ Wilhelm Bornstedt : The ducal "High Court" in the Stöckheimer Streitholz, on the Lecheln Holze, from the 16th to the 19th century (theft, murder, robbery and burning of witches). Braunschweig 1982, p. 42 ff.
- ^ Gerhard Schormann: Witch Trials in Northwest Germany. Hildesheim 1977, p. 50 f.
- ^ Wilhelm Gottlieb Soldan , Heinrich Heppe , Max Bauer (arr.): History of the witch trials. Reprint of the 3rd (last) edition in the new edition by Max Bauer, 1999, p. 44, ISBN 3-88059-960-2 .
- ^ Joachim Lehrmann : Faith in witches and demons in the state of Braunschweig. The story of persecution from a regional perspective. 2nd Edition. Lehrte 2009, ISBN 978-3-9803642-8-7 . (Oldekop specifically pp. 311-358).
- ↑ Bernd Reuschenberg: "Jesus Maria and no quarters!" Johannes Ernst Freiherr von Reuschenberg zu Setterich raised to the status of imperial baron. in: Yearbook No. 2 / 2011–2012 of the Baesweiler History Association, 2012, p. 33.
- ^ Mechthild Ludwig-Mayer: Rückgefragt , p. 76. Wolfenbüttel 1991.
- ↑ 70 years of the end of the war: "Finally hell was over" , dated: April 12, 2015; accessed on: October 17, 2019
- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 273 .
- ↑ Population of the city of Wolfenbüttel: http://www.weltenbuettel.de/Stadt/Stadtportr%C3%A4t/Zahlen-Daten-und-Fakten/Bev%C3%B6lkerung
- ^ Looking for Nazi traces in the state of Braunschweig: A synagogue
- ^ Stephan Hespos: The missing synagogue. Braunschweiger Zeitung, November 8, 2008
- ^ Dietrich Kuessner: Wolfenbüttel under the swastika, Jews, church and bishops in Wolfenbüttel
- ^ Website of the communal data processing in Oldenburg , accessed on October 2, 2016
- ^ Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Law (NKomVG) in the version of December 17, 2010; Section 46 - Number of Members , accessed on January 11, 2015.
- ↑ Mayor of Wolfenbüttel resigned from the CDU. Süddeutsche Zeitung , August 10, 2018, accessed on August 21, 2020 .
- ↑ Individual results of the direct elections on May 25, 2014 in Lower Saxony , accessed on November 14, 2014
- ↑ a b c § 2 of the main statute of the city of Wolfenbüttel of November 2, 2011, accessed on October 13, 2015
- ^ Arnold Rabbow: New Braunschweigisches Wappenbuch . Braunschweiger Zeitungsverlag, 2003, ISBN 3-926701-59-5 , p. 159-160 .
- ↑ Town twinning: http: //www.wölkerbüttel.de/main.phtml? La = 1 & object = tx% 7C205.367.1
- ↑ Kulturbund Wolfenbüttel: http://www.kulturbund-wf.de/ .
- ↑ Wolfenbütteler Zeitung of May 24, 2013 on the reopening of the Lessing Theater
- ↑ Federal Academy
- ^ About us ( Memento of December 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), EDER Maschinenbau GmbH; Retrieved December 5, 2015
- ↑ Braunschweiger Zeitung / newsclick.de, Karl-Ernst Hueske, No. 1 for tractor mirrors worldwide from September 16, 2008
- ↑ Schmidt -kopplung GmbH: http://www.schmidt-kupplung.com/de/unternehmen/wir-ueber-uns.html .
- ↑ Heinz Nowak: http://www.uni-magdeburg.de/mbl/Biografien/1743.htm
- ↑ Cuba Museum: http://www.kuba-museum.de/
- ↑ Braunschweiger Zeitung / newsclick.de Wolfenbüttel attracts more tourists Overnight stays increased by 9.6 percent from March 14, 2008
- ^ State government of Lower Saxony: Lower Saxony law on shop opening and sales hours (NLöffVZG) . Ed .: Ministry of Economy, Labor and Transport. Clause 5 (1), March 8, 2007.
- ↑ Braunschweiger Zeitung / newsclick.de Land recognizes the city as a destination for excursions Wolfenbüttel wants to use the award to profile itself more intensively as a destination for tourists from January 21, 2009
- ↑ Städtische Klinikum Wolfenbüttel, figures, data, facts ( Memento from March 8, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ 30 years of "Christoph 30" - air rescue between Harz & Heide , on rth-info.de; Retrieved December 5, 2015
- ↑ a b Markus Gröchtemeier: Rothe Zeitung is the mother of regional newspapers - Pastor Braess founded the “Newspaper for Cities, Spots and Villages” in 1786, Braunschweiger Zeitung, January 15, 2009
- ↑ The student numbers of the grammar schools are taken from their websites or corresponding wiki articles; As of August 2012
- ^ Stephanie Memmert: More and more students at the Ostfalia in Wolfenbüttel. Wolfenbütteler Zeitung, November 9, 2011
- ^ Paul Zimmermann: Buno, Konrad . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 47, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1903, p. 368 f.