The Lieutenant General is a rank for soldiers of the German Armed Forces and the Federal Armed Forces as well as other modern and earlier armed forces. In some other armed forces such as the Swiss Army , comparable ranks are referred to as corps commander or similar.
The term “Generalleutnant” (also the corresponding, similar or identical English and other language designations) is made up of the terms “ General ” and “ Leutnant ” (the French word origin means roughly “deputy”). The lieutenant general was originally the deputy of the senior general. Indeed, in the 16th and 17th centuries, the highest officer who represented the Roman-German Emperor in peacetime was designated as Lieutenant General . He was endowed with extensive military powers as well as with great political powers . He was therefore often more than “just” a military commander in chief . In the event of war, the lieutenant general was the deputy of the highest commanding officer . In the imperial army of the Holy Roman Empire , this was often the emperor himself, who then carried the title of general as supreme warlord . The war constitution of the German Confederation of 1821/22 still determined the election of a lieutenant general as deputy commander-in-chief. The rank designation Vice Admiral is formed according to a very similar pattern, literally as the deputy admiral in many armed forces, the equivalent of the naval forces to the lieutenant general.
Since the rank insignia of lieutenant-general in many armed forces, including the army , or the armed forces of the United States , often show three star lieutenant general is colloquially often called "three-star general."
|NATO rank code||OF-8|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Lieutenant General|
|Marine rank||Vice admiral|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||GenLt (GL)|
|Grade||B 9 according to BBesO|
The rank of Lieutenant General is determined by the order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers on the basis of the Soldiers Act .
Authority and positions
In the Federal Armed Forces, the Lieutenant General is an officer rank who, according to the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) A-1420/24 "Ranks and Rank Groups", belongs to the rank group of the generals . Because of this affiliation, soldiers in the rank of lieutenant general can issue orders to soldiers of the rank groups men , non-commissioned officers with and without porters , lieutenants , captains and staff officers on the basis of § 4 ("Superiors relationship based on the rank of rank") of the superiors ordinance within the limits set there .
Like most generals, lieutenant generals generally do not serve as military leaders in the "fighting" troops . Typical uses are in managerial positions as head of department in a ministry or in NATO institutions . The deputy of the inspector general of the Bundeswehr is lieutenant general. In the ministry, the departments (as of April 2015) Personnel , Planning , Strategy and Operations , Armed Forces Command and Equipment, Information Technology and Use are headed by Lieutenant General. In the NATO Military Committee is German Military Representative , a lieutenant general. The particularly required in the use of national departments Operations Command Bundeswehr , central air operations of the Air Force , Air Force troops command and Multinational Operations Command are also of commanders and commanders out in the rank lieutenant general. As inspectors of the army , the air force and the armed forces base, lieutenant generals are directly responsible to the inspector general for the operational readiness of their military organizational area. Your deputies are also lieutenants general; In the Army Command , this is also the “Commander Operation”. In the listed armed forces , the lieutenant general is the highest achievable rank. A few lieutenant generals are used as military leaders in large units. Typical is the use as commanding general of a multinational corps , which today are, however, operational command staffs rather than classic large units. Due to the described and similar positions, soldiers with the rank of lieutenant general can issue orders to all officially or professionally subordinate soldiers in the cases listed in the superior ordinance. As unit leaders, commanders and commanders are the disciplinary superiors of the soldiers subordinate to them in accordance with the military disciplinary code .
Appointment, salary and age limit
The legal basis for the appointment as lieutenant general is set by the Soldier Career Ordinance (SLV) and, in addition, the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) 20/7. In detail, the careers there are only regulated up to the rank of colonel . The appointment as lieutenant general, on the other hand, is essentially a decision to be made by the employer based on the suitability, qualifications and performance of the soldier, which is hardly subject to any further requirements. In practice, only professional officers are usually appointed lieutenant general . According to the Soldier Career Ordinance, the ranks should be passed through regularly in the order described in the order of the Federal President and a minimum period of service in the previous rank of at least one year should be the rule; in practice, a lieutenant general had previously been major general for several years. Most lieutenant generals have regularly completed the general staff / admiralty staff course at the command and control academy of the Bundeswehr .
Lieutenant general are paid B 9 according to the federal salary regulations (BBesO) . According to the personnel budget of Section 14 (2014), 25 posts are provided for soldiers in grade B 9. Five of these belong to the Federal Ministry of Defense and 20 to the armed forces ( subordinate military area ).
The rank badge for Lieutenant General shows golden oak leaves and three golden stars as shoulder badges . The underlay of the shoulder flaps (in the case of army uniforms also the flat braids ) are bright red .
Equivalent, subordinate and superior ranks
Only army and air force uniforms bear the rank of lieutenant general . Navy uniform wearers (except medical officers ) of the same rank hold the rank of Vice Admiral . The medical officer ranks of the same rank are the ranks of the General Oberstabsarzt or Admiraloberstabsarzt , which differ according to the area in which they are wearing uniforms (first rank designation for army and air force uniforms; last rank designation for naval uniforms). In the armed forces of NATO , the lieutenant general is equivalent to all ranks with the NATO rank code OF-8.
In the sense of ZDv 14/5 and the arrangement of the President of the General Lt. is above the lower rank Maj or Konteradmiral and under the higher-ranking General or Admiral arranged. The medical officer ranks of the same rank as major general are the general staff doctor or the admiral staff doctor . (First rank designation for Army and Air Force uniform wearers; last rank designation for naval uniform wearers.)
|Lower rank||Higher rank|
General Staff Doctor Admiral Staff
Vice Admiral Chief Medical
Officer Admiral Chief Medical Officer
Rank group : Teams-NCOs-NCO-NCOs-Lieutenant-Captains-Staff officers-Generals
- Lieutenant General -
Suit 75/03 | Skirt collar | Plate cap
|Rank group||Staff officers|
|NATO rank code||OF-8|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Lieutenant General|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Genlt|
The lieutenant general is the second highest rank in the armed forces.
Rank lieutenant general
Classification: recruits - batches - NCOs - officers All ranks at a glance: Army ranks
French armed forces
In the French armed forces , the rank Général de corps d'armée is comparable to the German lieutenant general. The Général de corps d'armée ranks above the Général de division and below the " Général d'armée ". According to the rank designation, the lieutenant general leads a corps d'armée ( German : army corps ).
On February 25, 1793, the Lieutenant-général was made a regular rank. It concerned a general de division in his capacity as commander of an army corps. From King Louis XVIII. Abolished again on March 16, 1814, it was reintroduced by Napoleon during the reign of the Hundred Days and lasted until 1848. On February 28 of the same year, he was once again the Général de division, for the commander of an army corps the rank "Général de corps d'armée ”introduced.
Russian armed forces
The armed forces of the Russian Federation took over the General -leiterant ( Cyrillic : генера́л-лейтена́нт ) from the armed forces of the Soviet Union in 1991 . The Russian lieutenant general corresponds to the NATO rank code OF-7. Therefore he can only be compared phonetically, but not functionally, to the German Lieutenant General, as he is a 2-star general, like the Lieutenant General in the Wehrmacht in the Third Reich and the Lieutenant General in the National People's Army (NVA) in the GDR before the German reunification on October 3, 1990, whereas the lieutenant general in the Bundeswehr in the FRG before October 3, 1990 and the all-German lieutenant general from October 3, 1990 is a 3-star general, according to the NATO rank code OF-8.
- Badge of rank Lieutenant General Russia
GenLt (OF7) Police of the Russian Federation - shoulder piece uniform basic form.
United States Armed Forces
In the United States Army , the US Air Force and the US Marine Corps , the rank of Lieutenant General is comparable to the German Lieutenant General. In the hierarchy, the lieutenant general is above the major general and below the general . The US pay level is O-9. The NATO rank code is OF-8. If necessary, a lieutenant general leads a corps with two or more divisions as the largest task force in the US Army . Otherwise, a Lieutenant General is used as a commander or his deputy in regional commands and high functional commands.
In the Red Army of the Soviet Union , the general ranks were reinstated on May 7, 1940. The rank general-leitenant ( Cyrillic : Гнера́л-лейтена́нт ), which is phonetically similar to the German Lieutenant General, replaced the KomDiw . Lieutenant General was the second lowest rank in the group of generals.
National Peoples Army
In the land and air forces of the National People's Army , as well as in the border troops of the German Democratic Republic , the lieutenant general was a rank from the rank group of the generals. In the People's Navy , the equivalent of Lieutenant General was the Vice Admiral . According to the NATO rank code , the lieutenant general was classified with OF-7 and thus corresponded to the major general of the Bundeswehr.
Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire
In the Imperial Army of the Holy Roman Empire, Lieutenant General was at times the highest military rank. The military high command of the Imperial Army was nominally headed by the Kaiser himself. In fact, a Reich Lieutenant General acted as his deputy (= lieutenant), later a Reich Field Marshal . In practice, this could only be appointed jointly by the Emperor and the Reichstag, since a clear determination was never really made. Because of the parity decided at the Reichstag in Augsburg in 1555 , a Catholic and a Protestant Reich Lieutenant General or Reich Field Marshal were appointed.
Reichsheer, Reichswehr and Wehrmacht
With the establishment of the Reich in 1871 , the ranks of the Prussian army were transferred to the Reichsheer , which were later taken over by the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht . A typical leadership role for lieutenant general was that of a division commander . According to today's conception, the Lieutenant General of the Wehrmacht is comparable to the Major General of the Bundeswehr in terms of rank .
In the course of the 17th century, the lieutenant general in Prussia developed into a rank under the general and from the end of the 18th century became the commander of a division . Until 1918 he held the title of excellence .
- analog is at lower levels of management of Colonel the deputy Colonel and Lt. the deputy of the captain .
- cf. also "Einsternegeneral" , "two-star general" , "four-star general" .
- Left: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for army uniform wearers. Right: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for Air Force uniform wearers.
- alternatively a vice admiral
- The position is not always held by a lieutenant general of the Bundeswehr, but is given alternately to the armed forces involved. In the Army Command , however, the commander of the German units of multinational corps in the rank of Lieutenant General (alternatively Vice Admiral ) is always responsible for the German units in the multinational corps in the sense of the military disciplinary order if the unit leader is a foreigner.
- In principle, temporary soldiers , professional soldiers and reservists can be appointed lieutenant general, although in practice (especially in times of peace) almost only professional officers are promoted to lieutenant general. Examples of the appointment to lieutenant general d. R. are (in contrast to → Brigadier Generals ) not known in the Bundeswehr. Generals a. D. are also reservists . However, they are usually not promoted and do not do military exercises. In practice, the promotion of a reservist to lieutenant general is also excluded because no corresponding posts have been planned and therefore no corresponding (non-formally) required appointment can be made in the sense of the Soldiers' Career Ordinance in connection with ZDv 20/7 . In the sense of the Soldiers ' Career Ordinance, membership of the officers' career group is also obvious, although this can only be inferred implicitly, because all generals continue to be counted as officers in the sense of the Federal President's order . In the area of application of the Soldiers ' Career Ordinance, officers can only be promoted within a career path of the officers' career group. Even if the career paths of the career group over and above the colonel are not described in more detail in the Soldiers' Career Ordinance, promotion to a rank of the rank group of generals is carried out analogously in continuation of one of the careers of officers. The promotion of officers from one of the career paths of the military technical service , the geographic information service or the military music service is practically excluded . In practice, they cannot be promoted because no relevant posts are shown. The career in the military service ends in practice and in the description of the soldiers' career regulation at the staff captain . For military music officers, due to the limited number of posts, the highest rank of colonel can be achieved. In geospatial information, the top line manager is a brigadier general.
- Minimum service periods since being appointed to a previous rank are therefore not formally required. Theoretically, the rank of lieutenant general could also be "skipped over" by colonels, brigadier generals and major generals, or it could be reached shortly after being appointed colonel, brigadier general or major general; Theoretically, a position with the rank of lieutenant general is also possible. A rare example of one of these "special cases", which would be fully transferable to army and air force uniforms and the rank of lieutenant general, is Ulrich Weisser , who was first appointed flotilla admiral in 1992 and was appointed vice admiral that same year . Weisser skipped the rank of rear admiral , cf. Hans Ehlert : A life for the Bundeswehr. Mine sweeper, super brain, gray eminence. In: FAZ.NET . Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH, Werner D'Inka , Berthold Kohler , Günther Nonnenmacher , Holger Steltzner , May 6, 2011, accessed on August 15, 2014 (first edition in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung of April 27, 2011. No. 97 / page 8) .
- ZDv 20/7 on the basis of Careers Ordinance ( Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002, Section 44 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] revised) by announcement of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2, Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730). ) the Soldiers '
- The age limits were redefined with the Service Law Reform Act 2009, cf. especially changes regarding Bundesanzeiger Verlag (Hrsg.): BGBl . Part 1, G 5702 . tape 2009 , no. 7 . Bonn February 11, 2009, p. 160–275 ( Federal Law Gazette 2009 I No. 7 [accessed on November 14, 2014]). SG and transitional provisions according to SG. See Act on the Reorganization and Modernization of Federal Service Law (Service Law New Order Act - DNeuG) . In:
- For reasons of space, shortened captions. What is meant are army uniform wearers and air force uniform wearers . The crimson flat braid shown next to the slip-on loop for army uniform wearers is always the indicator for belonging to the rank group of generals for army uniform wearers . In addition to the slip-on loops for the field blouse in the five-color camouflage pattern shown here on the shoulder flaps, there are a number of other types of rank insignia, which are described in more detail in the article → "Rank insignia of the Bundeswehr" .
- Note the remarks in the → chapter on the color of the weapons of the generals in the article "Color of the weapon"
- Dictionary of German military history . 1st edition. Military Publishing House of the German Democratic Republic , Berlin 1985, Lieutenant General, p. 232 (Liz. 5, P189 / 84, LSV: 0547, B-No. 746 635 0).
- Hartmut Bagger , Command Staff of the Armed Forces I 3, Federal Ministry of Defense (Ed.): ZDv 37/10. Suit regulations for soldiers in the Bundeswehr . Bonn July 16, 2008, 4 labels, p. 539 ( dmb-lv-westfalen.de [PDF; 3.5 MB ] Reprint October 2008 replaces first edition from July 1996). dmb-lv-westfalen.de ( Memento from September 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act. DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008 . Bonn August 21, 1978, rankings in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (Not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Law) ).
- Agreed English texts. STANAG 2116. NATO standardization agreement (STANAG) . NATO codes for grades of military personnel . 5th edition. 1992 (English, rankmaven.tripod.com [accessed March 25, 2014]).
- The Federal President (Ed.): Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers . BPresUnifAnO . July 14, 1978 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF] Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and uniforms of soldiers from July 14, 1978 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 1067 ), last amended by Article 1 of the order of 31. May 1996 ( BGBl. I p. 746 ) has been changed).
- Federal Minister of Defense ; Command Staff of the Armed Forces IV 1 (Ed.): Abbreviations for use in the Bundeswehr - German Abbreviations - ZDv 64/10 . Bonn January 19, 1979 ( pingwins.ucoz.de [PDF] as of September 17, 1999).
- Appendix I (to § 20, paragraph 2, sentence 1) Bundesbesoldungsgesetz orders of A and B . ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Federal Pay Regulations (BBesO) only apply to professional and temporary soldiers and are an annex to the Federal Pay Act (BBesG)).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 4 para. 3 (2) - ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF; accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art . 1 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act. DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008 . Bonn August 21, 1978, The Superiors Ordinance, p. A 12 1 (Not to be confused with the Ordinance on the Regulation of Military Superiors (Superiors Ordinance - VorgV) ).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956, § 4 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Military disciplinary code (WDO). In: Laws on the Internet. Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection , August 16, 2001, accessed on November 5, 2014 (from August 16, 2001 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 2093 ), last amended by Article 7 of the Act of August 28, 2013 ( Federal Law Gazette I p . 3386 ) has been changed).
- Ordinance on the career paths of soldiers (Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2 Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- Note also:
- The Federal Minister of Defense ; Personnel, Social and Central Affairs Department (Ed.): ZDv 20/7. Provisions for the transport and for the recruitment, acceptance and admission of soldiers . Bonn March 27, 2002, Art. 635 ( PDF ( memento of October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on March 26, 2014] DSK AP210100187, reprint January 2008). [[Central Service Regulations | ZDv]] 20/7. Provisions for the transport and for the recruitment, acceptance and admission of soldiers ( memento of October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal Budget 2014 - Section 14. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Federal Ministry of Defense , pp. 143, 147 , archived from the original on October 21, 2014 ; accessed on November 23, 2014 .
- Federal Ministry of Justice and for Consumer Protection , juris GmbH (Ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 45 Paragraph 2 (3) - ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF; accessed on November 10, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art . 1 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- The equivalent, higher and lower ranks are given in accordance with ZDv 14/5 B 185, cf. The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, rank designations in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (Not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Act) . The order of the ranks shown in the info box does not necessarily correspond to one of the regular rank sequences provided for in the Soldiers' Career Ordinance , nor does it necessarily correspond to the rank hierarchy described in the Superiors Ordinance a managerial relationship ).
- Hanns Weigl : The war constitution of the old German Empire from the Worms register to its dissolution . Bamberg 1912 (inaugural dissertation from the law faculty of the Friedrich-Alexander University in Erlangen). P. 61f.