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As salutation is called the language formula with which a person is a conversation , a speech or a document begins. The person or group of people addressed is called the addressee . A formal salutation can be omitted, for example in emergency or aggression situations, but the normal salutation contains at least one or more of the following elements:

  1. a greeting that precedes the salutation , e.g. B. Hello , good afternoon,
  2. an expression of respect or appreciation , e.g. B. gracious , dear , dear ,
  3. possibly an addition to the name , e.g. B. Mr , Mrs , Doctor , a professional or nobility title ,
  4. for individual addressees the name appropriate to the situation, e.g. B. first name , surname or nickname ,
  5. possibly special names, e.g. B. Comrades , comrades , brothers and sisters ,
  6. the pronominal form of address appropriate to the situation with you , your , you etc.

This article summarizes some general and specific cases as well as regional and institutional specific cases.


The form of address differs according to the geographical area, the age and social position of the person being addressed, the social relationship of the person being addressed to the person being addressed, the current situation, for example in an intimate dialogue or in formal public, and the form of communication, whether verbally or in writing . It is also subject to changes over time. The use of additions to names is subject to social rules, some of which differ in the oral and written form of address. Correct addressing of people of high social standing is often regulated by protocol.

While in hierarchical organizations (eg the military ) are prescribed styling found styling are in a casual society usually a polite expression that also behind the acquisition of a university degree or an office -benefit respect unpaid. In correspondence , the forms of address are more closely tied to custom than in oral communication. Salutations and greetings have a more solid form and are largely obligatory as the opening formula and introduction to speeches .

Even the greeting differentiates between oral and written forms of communication and between more or less formal occasions. The informal “Hello” is contrasted with the official form of courtesy “Dear Sir or Madam”. Ordinary cover letters within authorities do not contain any form of address or formulas .

The form of address in feudal or dictatorial states was used to convey ranks and functions, but also to consolidate power (like prince , count , leader , general secretary , lord ). In contrast to this, a uniform form of address for each member is an attempt to represent the equality of all people ( citizen , comrade , Mr / Ms). For example, the salutation comrade in the GDR represented the subordination and inclusion in the existing state system for soldiers of the National People's Army , in particular the customs of the Soviet Union were taken over here to designate all people with tovarishch .

By choosing the salutation, however, subtle messages can always be conveyed. The use of academic degrees and official titles in the salutation is always a correct and often common written and oral form of address, even if the right to use an academic degree (e.g. doctor ) or an official title (e.g. professor ) does not include the right to be addressed with the same.

Titles of nobility have been abolished in Austria since the end of the First World War , in Germany they have become part of the surname since the legislation of 1928. With these changes as a result of the Princely Laws of the Weimar Republic, other external name additions became part of the civil name, such as "gen." (As part of the name: mentioned).

Salutations in Germany, Austria and Switzerland


When addressing holders of public offices and functions, depending on their gender, a “Mr.” or “Ms.” is usually placed in front of the title or the official title, but without the surname: If the official form is “Ms. Federal Chancellor Dr. Angela Merkel ”is used when addressing“ Ms. Chancellor ”. The name of the public official is usually only mentioned in correspondence, in the postal address .

Since 1975, the domestic protocol of the federal government in the German Federal Ministry of the Interior, for Building and Home Affairs has published a guide to addresses and salutations, which provides information and assistance on protocol salutations (and addresses) in Germany.

Holders of high public offices in foreign states, especially heads of state - unless they are monarchs -, heads of government and other members of government often receive the title of excellence , at least in written use . (Monarchs often have the right to a specific form of address such as Royal Highness .) The same applies to German officials, insofar as they are written to by a foreigner, a French person sends a letter to “His Excellency the Federal President”, a German or Swiss person only writes “Mr. Federal President ". It should be remembered that writing to a foreign head of state is a prerogative of other heads of state. The letter to a foreign head of state is better addressed to the office manager or secretary, with the request to forward the content to the head of state by means of a presentation or the request to submit a second letter to the head of state. At international conferences in the political field, all local officials are sometimes referred to as “excellence”.

Common forms of addressing official officials in Germany, Austria and Switzerland are:

If an office holder leaves office, then the address is made, in accordance with official usage, with the previous title; For example, the former Federal President in Germany (but not in Switzerland) is still “Mr. Federal President”, just as the former Federal Chancellor is still “Mr. Federal Chancellor”, provided that the former official is not only addressed by name. It is only colloquial in Germany to name and address as "Former Federal President". Retired civil servants may use their last official title with the abbreviation “a. D. “Continue to operate (out of service) in retirement unless you have been prohibited from operating following disciplinary proceedings.


A distinction must first be made between academic degrees (which you acquire yourself in a course of studies) and titles (which you are awarded). Common examples of degrees are Bachelor , Master , Magister , Diplom and Doctorate . The habilitation leads to the addition of “habil.” Or the title of private lecturer ; Professor forms a transition area between an academic degree (which can also be awarded without a habilitation as that of a university lecturer) and a professional title or an official title . The degrees and official titles often combined as titles are not part of the name; there is no legal entitlement to a corresponding salutation.

In the case of the degrees below the doctorate, i.e. the Bachelor, Master, Magister and Diploma, mentioning in the address has become rare in Germany ("Mr. Dipl.-Inform. Peter Muster"), and it is completely unusual in the form of address. This can only be found in higher education or in the public sector.

This is different with the doctoral degree ; this degree is usually given in the address and salutation, but is always abbreviated (Dr., not: doctor). The specification of the specialty belonging to the doctoral degree is usually not mentioned in the address of medical professionals (Dr. med.), In other disciplines rarely in the address (Dear Dr. Peters, not: Dear Dr. med.Peters ). Multiple doctoral degrees as well as a reference to a possible habilitation are recognized in the address (Dr. Dr. Silke Hofmann, Dr. med. Habil. Klaus Hermanns, Dr.-Ing.Dr. Rer. Nat. Dr. hc mult. Paul Steffens), in the salutation you basically only name the doctor, and only once (Dear Dr. Steffens).

When addressing titles, the private lecturer (habilitated scientist without professorship, but with a teaching license) and professor (with or without habilitation) are of interest in Germany. The private lecturer ("Priv.-Doz." Or "PD" for short) is only mentioned in the address and in all kinds of official names ("Head Doctor's Practice PD Dr. med. Stüben"). This title is omitted in the salutation, but not the doctoral degree (“Dear Dr. Stüben”). This is different with the professor; it is mentioned both in the address ("Frau Prof. Dr. Silke Schneider") and in the salutation ("Dear Professorin Schneider"), although it is abbreviated in the address and not in the salutation. Professors do not have a doctoral degree in the salutation. Traditionally, the job title remained the same when addressing women ("Frau Professor"). In the meantime, "Frau Professorin" is recommended and used more and more often and by some etiquette as a contemporary form.

The correct address is also used for special professional groups, e.g. B. Architects, chief or senior physicians, the job title is also mentioned, but in accordance with DIN 5008 in the line that precedes the title or degree and name:

Chief Physician Professor
Dr. med. habil. Stefan Erdmann
Surgical Department IV
District Hospital Model Village
Mustergasse 4 a
12345 Model village

Far more common in practical use is:

Chief Physician
Prof. Dr. med. habil. Stefan Erdmann

Especially among doctoral candidates or professors, it is common not to use the corresponding doctoral degree or the official title in the salutation. However, the use can also be observed here when it is mentioned in the third person. Within the same subject area, “Mr colleague” or “Mrs colleague” is also a common form of address.

On official occasions, universities traditionally use the formal salutation "(your) spectability" (lat. Spectabilitas "venerability") or "spectabilis" for a dean and "(your) magnificence" (lat. Magnificentia "sublimity, greatness") for one Rector used. Vice-Rectors are sometimes addressed as "Honorabilis". The terms are used both in the written and oral form of address. Chair holders, on the other hand, usually do not use the salutation "Your Spectability" / "Your Magnificus" when talking to deans and rectors, but "Spectabilis" or "Magnificus". However, the salutations are only used at a few universities and here mostly only on special occasions.

The following table shows a comparison of selected degrees in the address, with the corresponding correct salutation.

address Salutation comment
Dr. jur. Peter Müller Dear Doctor. Müller Omit first name and subject area in the salutation
Miss Dr. rer. nat. habil. Stefanie Meier Dear Dr. Meier Omit habilitation addition in the salutation
Privatdozenten Dr. med. Hans Jürgen Schmidt Dear Doctor. Schmidt The PD is omitted in the salutation.
Prof. Dr. med. Dr. med. vet. habil. Klaus Althoff Dear Professor Althoff

also (more traditional and sometimes perceived as less polite): Dear Professor Althoff

Doctoral degrees are omitted when addressing a professor;

the job title “professor” can consume the salutation “Herr”

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dr. hc mult. Ingeborg Krämer Dear Professor Krämer In the salutation, the following is also used: Professor Krämer


  • Mr President, Madam President
  • Mr. Director, Mrs. Director
address Salutation comment
Mr me. Peter Müller Dear Master Müller Mr. and first name are omitted from the salutation
Mrs. me. Jasmin Schramm Dear Master Schramm Ms. and first name are omitted from the salutation

Diplomatic Corps

For the diplomatic corps , special regulations apply throughout according to the International Protocol .

Title, rank designation personal salutation
Ambassador of another state Excellence (plural: excellencies)
Ambassador of your own state (here Germany) Mr. Ambassador (plural: Ambassador)
Apostolic Nuncio Most Revered Excellency or Your Most Revered Excellency (since an Apostolic Nuncio is always an Archbishop)
Envoy Mr. envoy / Mrs. envoy
Counselor , Legation Mr / Mrs Counselor (Counselor)
Embassy secretary, delegation secretary Mr / Ms Embassy Secretary, Legation Secretary
Consul General , Consul Mr. / Ms. Consul General, Mr. / Ms. Consul (also: Ms. Consul General, Ms. Consul)

Only the ambassador of a foreign country has the right to be addressed as “excellence”. If you meet the ambassador of your own country abroad, the salutation is "Mr. Ambassador" or "Mrs. Ambassador".



armed forces

Within the Bundeswehr , since 1970 soldiers have usually been addressed as “Mr.” or “Ms.”, their rank , possibly their family name, and “You”. Bundeswehr officials are to be addressed by soldiers with "Mr." or "Ms." and the official title. For employees of the Bundeswehr, the salutation is based on "social customs". Civilians always address soldiers and officials with their real names.

Military ranks never take the feminine form. A distinction between ranks between women and men in the form of an appended "(w)" is no longer provided. At most, this is still used when labeling accommodation.



  • Captain lieutenants are traditionally addressed as "Mr. / Mrs. Kaleu"
  • Staff officers in the service of the Navy (corvette captain, frigate captain, captain zS) are addressed as Mr. / Ms. captain
  • All generals (Brigadier General, Major General, Lieutenant General, General) are addressed as Mr. / Ms. General
  • Medical officers with the rank of general (doctor general, doctor general, chief doctor general) are addressed as doctor general
  • The same applies to admirals (flotilla admiral, rear admiral, vice admiral, admiral): Salutation Mr. / Ms. Admiral
  • For naval ranks that contain the addition "at sea" ("z. S.", for example "Leutnant z. S."), this is omitted in the direct salutation
  • Rank additions are omitted in the oral, but not in the written form of address. Examples of this are officer candidates ("OA"), non-commissioned officers ("UA"), sergeant candidates ("FA"). The same applies to officers “ in the general staff ” (“i. G.”) and for the status designations of reservists (“d. R.”) and no longer active professional soldiers (“a. D.”).
  • Within a combat group, the address can be given with the function ("Zugführer", " Schirrmeister ", " Gunner ", "Ship's doctor", " SVO ", " FaFü ", " SanMeister ").

National People's Army of the GDR

In the National People's Army of the GDR , the salutation for superiors and higher ranks consisted of "comrade" and the rank or, for civilian employees, of "comrade" or "comrade" and the name. During the peaceful revolution in the GDR , the form of address was changed to Mr / Ms and the rank.

Subordinates and lower ranks were to be addressed with their rank and name or, as stated above, with "Comrade" and "Comrade" and rank. In 1989/90 the salutation was changed to Mr. or Ms. and additional rank.


In the Swiss Army , the salutation "Herr" before the degree, which was only introduced around 1900 based on the Prussian model, was officially abolished as part of the so-called Oswald Reform 1970/1974.

Officers in the General Staff (i Gst) - from the rank of Major - are addressed without the addition; the salutation is made in writing with rank and addition.


Evangelical and Roman Catholic Church

Title, rank designation Personal address according to the protocol
Pope Your Holiness (general), Holy Father (used especially by Catholics)
Patriarch of the Catholic Armenians , the Maronites , the Melkites , the Syrian Church and of Jerusalem Your / your bliss
cardinal Your (Most Revered) Eminence
Bishop , archbishop , titular bishop , auxiliary bishop Your (Most Revered) Excellency , (Most Revered) Lord (Arch) Bishop, in full title His Excellency the Most Revered Lord (Arch) Bishop, formerly: Your (Arch) Episcopal Grace
Apostolic Protonotary and Honorary Prelate to His Holiness Most honorable prelate
Chaplain to His Holiness Monsignore , for example “Gracious Lord”, is the Italian form of address for all prelates up to the archbishop
Dept Most Revered Lord / Father Abbot, in Austria also: Mr. Prelate, before: Your Grace
Priest (world and religious priest) Reverend , Reverend Pastor / Father / Abbé
deacon Revered, Revered Lord, since the Second Vatican Council as with priests: Revered, Revered Lord
Sub-deacon Honored, honorable sir
abbess Venerable wife / mother abbess
Superior (head of a monastic community) Mother Superior, obsolete: Venerable mother, with higher superiors: Most Venerable Mother
Superior of the Order Revered Father / Brother + designation of the head of the office, e.g. B. Prior , Guardian , Provincial
Religious sister , nun Venerable sister
Lay brother and novice Venerable brother, venerable sir, venerable

Roman Catholic Church

With the Second Vatican Council , however, some of these forms of address were largely abandoned in ordinary dealings. Since then, in everyday life, in addition to the form of address with an official title, such as Mr Bishop , the civil form of address Mr Müller has also been used. This also applies to normal, written communications by email, post or the like

Protestant church

In the past, the same or similar salutations were used in the Protestant Church - insofar as the offices are parallel at all - as in the Catholic Church. So for example, drew in the Swiss canton of Grisons in the 19th century Protestant pastors the salutation reverence or Wohler Would, in the city of Basel in the 18th century reverend to. More recently, when addressing dignitaries, Mr. or Mrs. is usually placed before the title or official title, but without the surname, for example Mr. Pastor, Mrs. Pastor . Since around 1970, however, the salutation has increasingly been replaced by the name, e.g. Mr. Schmidt, Ms. Müller . Usually, the title and name of correspondence are only given in the postal address .

The title Reverend is used in the form of Reverend in the English-speaking world for a Protestant pastor or preacher .

Jewish communities

The simple form of address is also widespread in the Jewish communities . The salutation of dignitaries is usually formed from the distinction of gender and the title or official title, the personal first and last name remains unmentioned. Usually the name is only mentioned in the postal address in correspondence.

Orthodox and Eastern churches

The Ecumenical Patriarch is addressed as "Your All Holiness". The salutation "Holiness" is used in the Eastern Churches for the following church dignitaries :

The head of the Georgian Orthodox Church , the Archbishop of Mtskheta-Tbilisi and Catholicos Patriarch of all of Georgia , is addressed with "Your Holiness and Bliss". The address "Your Beatitude" is given to the Pope, the Patriarch of Alexandria and all of Africa, the Patriarchs of Antioch , the Archbishop of Athens and all of Greece ( Greek Orthodox Church ) and the Armenian Patriarchs of Jerusalem and Constantinople ( Armenian Apostolic Church ).

In the Orthodox churches and the Christian churches with the Byzantine rite, the bishop is often addressed as Vladika ("master"), which was also used as an address for nobles in the Slavic culture.

Outside Christianity and Judaism

The Dalai Lama is addressed as "Your Holiness".


The use of nobility titles is based on national or protocol customs.

In Germany

The part of the name "from"

The Friedrich von Sachsenhausen construct serves as an example .

Postal address Mr. Friedrich von Sachsenhausen
Letter and email Dear Mr. von Sachsenhausen
Card name (lexical name) Sachsenhausen, von (under "S") , in official registers: von Sachsenhausen (under "V")
Salutation Lord of Sachsenhausen
guest list Mr. Friedrich von Sachsenhausen

Earlier nobility predicates as part of the name

The privileges of the nobility and thus also the nobility titles have been abolished in Germany since 1919. Previous titles of nobility (with the exception of the primogeneity title ) became part of the family name . This can be seen from the fact that the former title of nobility is no longer before, but after the first name ( Friedrich Graf von Sachsenhausen instead, as before, Graf Friedrich von Sachsenhausen ). A peculiarity in terms of naming law, however, is that these components of the name are still movied according to gender, i.e. used in male and female form ( Graf / Countess, Freiherr / Freifrau , etc.).

Salutation for formerly noble names

There is no legally binding regulation for the question of addressing bearers of formerly noble names, but only a common usage, in some cases also administrative instructions.

It was common practice after 1919 (and as a rule still is today) to make the salutation effect of nobility qualifications sufficient. Someone could be Mr. / Ms. Sachsenhausen or Count / Countess Sachsenhausen, but never Mr. / Ms. Graf / Countess Sachsenhausen. The count replaces the salutation Mr, the countess the salutation Mrs. This usage is still common today and corresponds to the usual name usage for those affected. This use is justified historically: For example, aristocrats were traditionally only addressed by people who were directly subordinate to them (such as servants) as "Herr Graf", etc., which in addition to the nobility, a direct relationship of power was expressed. For this reason, the salutation “Mr / Ms + title of nobility” is now considered too submissive in the social field and is therefore only common in specific service professions (e.g. in catering).

There is - in contrast to what has been said above - the opinion that the salutation is fundamentally different from a name component and that therefore a further adjustment to the general naming law has to be made here. According to this view, the salutation “Herr” or “Frau” is not superfluous even when using predicates of nobility. Then it would be "Herr Graf Sachsenhausen" or "Frau Gräfin Sachsenhausen". Since "Freiherr / Freifrau von Sachsenhausen" is the family name, the address "Herr Freiherr von Sachsenhausen" and "Frau Freifrau von Sachsenhausen" would correspond to the principle of treatment as part of the name, but would result in a linguistically unsuccessful duplication. Wherever the salutation “Herr” is not to be omitted, it is therefore more advisable to completely omit the predicate “Freiherr / Freifrau”. In addition to “Freiherr von Sachsenhausen”, “Herr von Sachsenhausen” is also common. It should be noted that the nobility predicates "Freiherr / Freifrau" were never spoken historically in Germany and are therefore not spoken today. In the spoken language, the salutation “Herr von Sachsenhausen” or “Frau von Sachsenhausen” (sometimes also “Baron Sachsenhausen” or “Baronin Sachsenhausen” is common in the landscape), even if this represents a further deviation from the general naming law. The nobility predicate “noble” or “knight”, which was partly associated with the award of certain medals, is generally left out of the salutation.

Sometimes special forms are also used for unmarried daughters.

male Female female (unmarried)
Prince Princess Princess (usual)
duke duchess Princess (unusual)
Count countess Comtesse (unusual)
baron baroness Baroness (usual)
Baron Baroness Freiin (partly still common)

The forms “Freiin” and “Comtesse” for unmarried daughters, which correspond to the bourgeois abolished form “Fräulein”, are gradually disappearing. The same applies to princesses, provided that they are not the daughter of a prince or princess, but the daughter of a prince or duke.

If people of noble origin are among themselves, the “von” in oral communication and other nobility predicates on the same level or below are also omitted. A count, for example "Graf Lambsdorff", will introduce himself to another nobleman as "Otto Lambsdorff". Only the ranking of the nobility rankings applies, not the ranking based on status in society or age. Princes and dukes are generally classified as equal, with the question of the house playing a role.


Here too, Friedrich Freiherr von Sachsenhausen or Friederike Freifrau von Sachsenhausen is used as an example for clarification.

Postal address Friedrich Freiherr von Sachsenhausen

Friederike Freiin von Sachsenhausen ( married) Friederike Freiin von Sachsenhausen (unmarried)

Salutation Dear Baron von Sachsenhausen or Dear Baron von Sachsenhausen

Dear Baroness von Sachsenhausen or Dear Baroness von Sachsenhausen, Dear Baroness von Sachsenhausen or Dear Baroness von Sachsenhausen

Card name Sachsenhausen, Friedrich Freiherr von or Freiherr von Sachsenhausen, Friedrich (mandatory in official registers)

Sachsenhausen, Friederike Freifrau von or Freifrau von Sachsenhausen, Friederike (mandatory in official registers)

Salutation Baron (von) Sachsenhausen or Lord von Sachsenhausen

Baroness (von) Sachsenhausen or wife von Sachsenhausen (married) Baroness (von) Sachsenhausen or wife von Sachsenhausen (unmarried)

Foreign conception Baron Sachsenhausen, Friedrich Freiherr von Sachsenhausen

Baroness Sachsenhausen, Friederike Freifrau von Sachsenhausen (married) Baroness (von) Sachsenhausen or Baroness von Sachsenhausen (unmarried)

Historical salutations

Such honorary titles were for:

  • Princes and dukes from former ruling houses: Royal Highness (abbreviated as HRH or HRH for His / Her Royal Highness)
  • all the other princes and dukes: Highness (abbreviated as SD or ID for His / Her Highness)
  • Counts: Sublime (only for members of certain count houses, all others: Highborn )
  • Barons and Freiherren: High born

Only in postal addresses are abbreviations such as "IH" (your high-welfare born) or "SH" (his high-welfare born) sometimes used today.

Nobility titles and salutations

The terms shown are generally customary forms, deviations are regulated by the state or house protocol. These titles, denominations of rank and forms of address are only official in countries in which the nobility and its privileges have not been abolished. In countries like Germany, Austria and Switzerland, these titles and forms of address are at best a polite character.

Title, rank designation personal salutation
Emperor Majesty (only with actually ruling, otherwise Imperial Highness)
king Majesty (only with actually ruling, otherwise Royal Highness)
Prince (from imperial house) Imperial Highness (third person)
Archduke (Austria) Imperial Highness
Grand Duke (Russia) Imperial Highness
Prince (from ruling royal house) Royal Highness (third person)
Grand Duke (from the ruling house) Royal Highness
duke Your highness
Prince (ruling) Highness
Prince (from a princely house) Highness
Count Count (of) ...

His exaltation (from the former ruling house)

baron Baron (of) ...
Baron Lord (of) ...

See also


  • Werner Besch: Duzen, Siezen, Titulates: for addressing in German today and yesterday . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1996, ISBN 3-525-34009-5 ( - in the "Digi20" project).
  • Otto Krabs: From illustrious to spectabilis. Small lexicon of titles and salutations . Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-61124-7 .
  • Albert Hauser : Grüezi and goodbye. Greetings and manners from the 17th century to the present day. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Zurich 1998, ISBN 3-85823-687-X .

Web links

Wiktionary: Salutation  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations


  1. ^ Federal government's domestic protocol on academic degrees and official titles
  2. Guide to addresses and salutations . Inland protocol of the federal government. Retrieved July 26, 2020.
  3. No claim to entry
  4. ^ Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon , Vol. 7, 1973, p. 44, sv Doktor - Recht .
  6. - letters. Retrieved April 5, 2019 .
  7. Correctly write salutations and greetings in letters and emails. Retrieved April 5, 2019 .
  8. Guide to addresses and salutations
  9. Communication with professors - ZAAR - Center for Labor Relations and Labor Law - LMU Munich. In: Retrieved April 9, 2016 .
  10. Central Service Regulation (ZDv) 10/4 The salutation
  11. THE time for backgrounds
  12. Paperback for military training, F 02: Die Anrede, 1980, Wallhalla u. Praetoria Publishing House
  13. ^ [Author?]: Grüeziwohl, (Herr) Hauptmann !, in: Der Brückenbauer from August 7, 1970; [Author?]: Introduction to the history and development of military forms of salutation and salutation (excerpt from ZDv 10/8, Chapter 6, Appendix 1), in: Information für die Truppe 1987, No. 4, pp. 44–46 ( The ZDv 10/8 is the predecessor of the central guideline A2-2630 / 0-0-3 "Military forms and celebrations of the Bundeswehr" .); Jean Pierre Peternier: Heinrich Oswald - Philanthropist and Reformer (1917–2008), in: Allgemeine Schweizerische Militärzeitschrift 174 (2008), Issue 4, pp. 8–9. Then compare the Swiss Army: Basic training for all branches of the armed forces , valid from May 1, 1963, where in the chapter on greeting and reporting (pp. 21–30) by "Mr. Major", in its addendum No. 1, valid from January 1, 1971 on the other hand there is talk of "lieutenant" and "major".
  14. In Catholic Switzerland around 1965, cf. Schweizerisches Idiotikon Volume XV column 1355, article Hōch-Wirdi , and column 1359, article hōch-wirdig .
  15. Schweizerisches Idiotikon Volume XV, Column 1355, Article Ēr-Wirdi and Hōch-Wirdi .
  16. Alexander Freiherr von Fircks / Agnes Anna Jarosch: Business etiquette for advanced learners . FAZ-Buchverlag, Frankfurt / Main 2011 ISBN 978-3-89981-178-0 , p. 37