Syntagma (from Greek σύνταγμα syntagma , German ' compound ' or 'constitution') describes in linguistics a group of related linguistic elements in a concrete utterance . The syntagma has the paradigm as an opposite concept .
Syntagma and Paradigm
In linguistics, the term Syntagma was introduced by Ferdinand de Saussure and describes a chain of elements in a given utterance. The elements are obtained through segmentation and can "consist of sounds, words, word groups, partial sentences or whole sentences". A syntactic association of the elements is usually mentioned as essential . The elements of a syntagm are usually next to each other. However, this is not necessary.
Due to the linear character of language, the concatenation of individual elements on the "horizontal" axis can be described to form a more complex unit, for example the concatenation of letters can form a word , words can be concatenated into phrases or clauses and these can be concatenated into a sentence .
In his Elements of Semiology (French 1965), Roland Barthes made this connection central to linguistics, so that today one can say: “Paradigms and syntagms form the structural patterns of language.” In the syntagm elements are combined, in the paradigm (virtually) they are compared .
Linguistic elements that can be found together in a syntagm are in a "syntagmatic relationship" with one another. Linguistic elements that can be used in the same place in a syntagm are in a “paradigmatic relationship”. The relationship between syntagms and paradigms can be illustrated by a model of “horizontal” syntagms and “vertical” paradigms.
Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationships can be determined without a meaningful meaning or with the inclusion of semantic relationships:
|Paradigm 1||Paradigm 2||Paradigm 3||Paradigm 4||Paradigm 5||Paradigm 6|
|Syntagma 1||Of the||dog||running||the||Street||down|
|Syntagma 4||Of the||whale||runs||the||rails||up|
Accordingly also meaningless word groups form a valid Syntagma as long as they all (conventional) Rektionsbedingungen correspond. Insofar as they are nonsensical in this example, this results from the respective (semasiological) paradigm or from the corresponding word fields .
If you include the semantic relations, you get z. B. to the following example:
Example 2 (semantic paradigm)
|the dog||* sings|
- Ferdinand de Saussure : Basic questions in general linguistics . Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin 1967, ISBN 3-11-000158-6 .
- Syntagma. In: Helmut Glück (Hrsg.): Metzler Lexikon Sprache. 4th edition. Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2010.
- Søren Kjørup: Semiotics. W. Fink, Paderborn 2009, p. 24.
- Hadumod Bußmann (Ed.): Lexicon of Linguistics. 3rd, updated and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2002, ISBN 3-520-45203-0 (Syntagma); otherwise probably Klaus-Michael Bogdal : BA degree in German studies: a textbook. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2008, p. 41, who only speaks of "words".
- z. B. Kessel / Reimann: Basic knowledge of contemporary German . Fink, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-8252-2704-9 , p. 29.
- Klaus-Michael Bogdal: BA course in German studies: a textbook. Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg 2008, p. 41. Kessel / Reimann: Basic knowledge of contemporary German . Fink, Tübingen 2005, p. 29.
- Piroska Kocsány: Basic Linguistics course: a workbook for beginners. Fink, Paderborn 2010, p. 92.
- Based on Angelika Linke, Markus Nussbaumer, Paul R. Portmann: Study book Linguistics. 5th edition. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2004, p. 39.