The lieutenant (abbreviation according to Duden : Lt. ) is a rank of the Federal Armed Forces , the Federal Army , the Swiss Army and former armed forces . In Austria , Leutnant is also a term for certain uses in the federal police and judicial station . In many other armed forces there are comparable, sometimes similar ranks.
Lieu tenant - a participle of lieu tenir - literally means “keeping place” in French in the sense of placeholder, governor or deputy . The root of the word goes back to the medieval Latin locum tenens . From this, the rank and function designations Luogotenente and Lieutenant developed in Italian and French . Under the French kings , the Lieutenant du Roi was the king's deputy in the army or in a fortress . Napoleon Bonaparte renewed this meantime abolished titles by the Spanish campaign to marshal Jean-de-Dieu Soult in 1813 as Viceroy of the Pyrenean peninsula to Lieutenant de l'Empereur appointed. In the French armed forces and numerous other armies, the Sous-lieutenant or Second Lieutenant (second lieutenant, literal translation: "Second lieutenant", thus about sub-lieutenant ) ranks as the lowest officer rank under the lieutenant. In other Romance languages , the French term Tenente or Teniente is derived.
"Leutnant" came as a loan word Lieutenant around 1500 from French to German-speaking countries . In the Middle Ages , every captain of a little ensign chose a Lokotenenten or Leutinger as his deputy. In this sense, the word lieutenant is still used today in the German-speaking area as a rank designation. In some earlier German armed forces there was already the rank of first lieutenant (alternatively French: premier lieutenant ) up to the 19th century , which was above the lower lieutenant (second lieutenant) . The term "Unterleutnant", translated literally from French, for ranks below the lieutenant, was, however, unusual for the longest time in the German-speaking area. Only in the National People's Army and the Imperial Navy (there as a sub-lieutenant in the sea ) there was this rank designation. The current spelling "Leutnant" was ordered in the German Empire in 1899 for military use .
|NATO rank code||OF-1|
|Rank Army / Air Force||lieutenant|
|Marine rank||Lieutenant at sea|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Lt (L)|
|Grade||A 9 according to BBesO|
The rank of lieutenant is determined by the Federal President with the order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers on the basis of the Soldiers Act .
Authority to command and positions
In the German Armed Forces, the lieutenant is an officer rank who, according to the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) A-1420/24 "Ranks and Rank Groups", belongs to the rank group of the Lieutenant . Because they belong to the rank group of the lieutenant, lieutenants can issue orders to soldiers of the rank groups, men and non-commissioned officers, without and with portepee, on the basis of § 4 ("Superiors relationship based on the rank") of the Superiors Ordinance within the limits set there .
Lieutenants in the raceways of troops service are usually still in the study . By the time they graduate, they usually only have contact with the “regular” troops, if at all, through internships . Depending on their rank, they are then usually deployed as deputy platoon leaders or deputy company commander. Few officers with a short degree are already trained in the basic weapon systems of their branch in order to then serve as the military leader of their branch (usually first as first lieutenant ). The few officers without a degree have already completed the basic courses for their military category (in the army, officer course 3 is to be mentioned) or they are completing them in the first few months as lieutenants and then serve as military leaders in the troops with the rank of lieutenant. Typical uses are as platoon commander, company operations officer, deputy company commander or aircraft commander . Military service officers have often already completed their training at a technical and officer school or are finishing them with the rank of lieutenant. They are then assigned to their posts , which are seldom similar to the positions mentioned above, most likely in flight service , but mostly serve in specialist departments in specialist areas whose basic features they often already know from their time as NCOs . These lieutenants deal there, for example, with technical issues relating to armaments , logistics and personnel planning , material testing , procedures for material conservation, or they plan and monitor flight operations . Medical officer candidates and music military officer candidates finish their training in the rank of lieutenant and are then immediately promoted to one of the ranks of captains. Similar to the studying lieutenants of the troop service, they are not employed in regular service posts of the troops in this rank. The last phase of training for medical officer candidates specializing in human medicine is the practical year , which ends with the last part of the state examination , which also marks the end of their training for the other medical officers. Military music officer candidates with the rank of lieutenant complete their training with the Kapellmeister exam . On the basis of these and similar (possibly only temporary) positions, lieutenants can issue orders to all officially or professionally subordinate soldiers in the cases listed in the Superiors Ordinance.
Appointment and remuneration
The military career regulation ( SLV) and the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) 20/7 are decisive legal bases for the appointment as lieutenant . Temporary soldiers and reservists can be appointed to the rank of lieutenant . The prerequisite is membership of the officers' career group . The rank can usually be achieved after 36 months of service at the earliest. Before being appointed lieutenant, an officer examination must be passed with success. With the appointment of lieutenant, officer candidates become officers . This also applies accordingly to officer candidates in the careers of medical and military music service , who at the same time remain medical and military music officer candidates .
Medical officers had until mid-2004, a 18-month tenure as lieutenant - medical resident (AIP) to complete before the approval received and then to the medical officer were transported. Dentists did not complete an AIP and were promoted from senior ensign to medical officer upon completion of their studies . Changes to the license to practice medicine and the soldier's career regulations made it possible for medical officer candidates who needed around six years to complete their studies and, in the case of prospective human medicine, around six years to be promoted to lieutenant, now after 36 months of service to be promoted to lieutenant. The aim was to make the career more attractive.
Equivalent, subordinate and superior ranks
Only army and air force uniform wearers hold the rank of lieutenant . Navy uniform bearers of the same rank hold the rank of lieutenant at sea . In the armed forces of NATO Lieutenant is at all ranks with the NATO ranking code equivalent OF -1.
According to ZDv 20/7, the lieutenant is a rank below the higher-ranking first lieutenant or first lieutenant in the sea (first rank for army and air force uniforms; second rank for naval uniforms). According to § 4 of the Superiors Ordinance, as shown above, all officers within the limits defined there are superiors of all ranks of the rank group of NCOs with portepee , whose highest ranks are the sergeant major or the senior staff officer , as well as the rank groups of NCOs without portepee and the men. In terms of the Soldiers' Career Ordinance , the lieutenant follows the senior ensign in most of the career groups of officers (in the case of reserve officer candidates, the ensign ). According to the Soldiers' Career Ordinance, lieutenants are usually promoted to first lieutenant, while medical officer candidates and candidates for military music officers, on the other hand, regularly "directly", depending on the direction in which they are licensed, to the medical officer , pharmacist or veterinary officer or, in the case of candidate military music officers, to captain .
|Lower rank||Higher rank|
Oberleutnant zur See
Rank group : Teams-NCOs-NCO-NCOs-Lieutenant-Captains-Staff officers-Generals
Use as a collective term
According to the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) 14/5 "Soldiers Act", the designation " Lieutenant " is determined for a rank group . "Leutnante" is therefore officially a collective name for the ranks of lieutenant, lieutenant in the sea , first lieutenant and first lieutenant in the sea . The plural form "Leutnante" is used almost consistently in the military parlance of the Bundeswehr , partly because of the so-called rank group , although in civil parlance the plural form "Leutnants", which is more common according to Duden , is preferred. Depending on the context, “Leutnante” often means in the plural only several soldiers with the rank of lieutenant. Sometimes the term is also used to distinguish the higher officers of the rank group of the lieutenant (i.e. the "Oberleutnanten") and then serves as a collective term for the rank of lieutenant and lieutenant at sea, which is also often used by the Navy as "Leutnant" instead of " Lieutenant at sea ”.
Federal army and guards
- Lieutenant -
Suit 75/03 | Skirt collar | Plate cap
|NATO rank code||OF-1|
|Rank Army / Air Force||lieutenant|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Lt|
In Austria the lieutenant (abbr .: Lt) is the second lowest officer rank (before the ensign), for which a 6-semester (up to August 2008: eight-semester) study course in "Military Leadership" at the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt is necessary . Since this is a university course with 180 ECTS points, the officer candidates conclude with a Bachelor's degree . The career in the militia is different . The modular training includes the so-called EF ( one-year volunteer year ) as well as subsequent courses, seminars and exercises and a final aptitude test before a committee, which also leads to a lieutenant at the earliest after four years of total service .
In addition, the usage designation Leutnant is used for senior officials (E1) of the executive branch in Austria, including the federal police and judicial guard , including in the entrance office of the highest of a total of three career levels. Since the guards mentioned are civil bodies that are only organized according to a military model, they are not “police officers”. The officials only use officer ranks as a description of use. Incidentally, a direct comparison with the ranks of the armed forces is not possible, since in the Federal Police tasks that are assigned to a low-ranking officer in the military field are performed by high-ranking officers in charge of duty (E 2a), i.e. members of the middle career level.
Higher rank first
Classification: recruits - batches - NCOs - officers All ranks at a glance: Army ranks
- Lieutenant -
Service suit shoulder flap
|Rank group||Subaltern officers|
|NATO rank code||OF-1b|
|Rank Army / Air Force||lieutenant|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Lt|
|Grade||CHF 12 / day|
In the Swiss Army , the promotion to first lieutenant ( French premier lieutenant , Italian primotenente ) takes place according to " Army XXI " after completing the entire training to become a lieutenant (including practical service, i.e. earning in a VBA) and two WK as a lieutenant or after four Degree years as a lieutenant.
As a militia lieutenant, you have to work around four weeks a year (one week cadre preliminary course , three weeks repetition course). A lieutenant or first lieutenant must complete a total of 680 days of service before being discharged. In order to receive a proposal for an officer, the basic training and a non-commissioned officer school usually precede. Here the suitability of the candidate is tested in various tests. After earning 7 weeks as a sergeant, the officer candidate moves on to the central officer course, where he meets candidates from other branches of the armed forces and above all learns command technology and basic knowledge about Switzerland and the Swiss army. This is followed by the normally fifteen-week officer school in the respective military type, the climax of which is the perseverance exercise (at least eight, normally nine to eleven days). Also included is the 100-kilometer march, which not all associations do anymore. In logistics, artillery, air troops, engineering and rescue troops, armored troops and infantry (101 km), however, it is still an integral part of an officer's target. The 100-kilometer march is carried out in one piece, duration about 18 to 23 hours. With the mounted veterinary troops (part of the logistics), a 100-kilometer ride is completed in addition to the 100-kilometer march. Subsequent to the officers' school you are promoted to lieutenant. After the promotion, an officer's ball is almost always held, which is aimed specifically at the young officers. The only exception to this course of training are the KSK, who complete an 18-week officer school and only take over a train after being promoted to lieutenant.
In the Swiss Army, the rank badge shows a 3 mm wide stripe. In addition to the names in the three command languages of the Swiss Army, he is also referred to as Second Lieutenant (2Lt) on missions abroad . NATO rank code : OF-1b.
Officer grade lieutenant
Classification: crews - NCOs - higher NCOs - subaltern officers - captains - staff officers - higher staff officers - commander in chief of the army
All degrees at a glance: degrees of the Swiss Army
In NATO the lieutenant has the rank code OF-1b . In contrast to this, in the armed forces of some countries, such as Bulgaria, the lowest officer rank is the second lieutenant (here, however, OF-1c). So there are two different naming schemes for the rank of lieutenant:
- as a lieutenant as in
- as a sub-lieutenant or second lieutenant as in
- Brazil , Angola as Segundo Tenente or in Uruguay as Teniente Segundo
- Belgium as an Onderluitenant or Sous-Lieutenant
- Bolivia , Chile , Colombia as subtenants
- France and French-speaking countries as a sous-lieutenant
- Italy as Sottotenente
- Canada as Second Lieutenant in the RCAF and Canadian Army or Sub-Lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Navy OF-1c
- Netherlands as a Tweede Luitenant
- Poland as Podporucznik
- Romania as a sublocotenent
- USA as Second Lieutenant (2nd Lt.) (US Soldcode O-1)
- United Kingdom as second lieutenant or sub lieutenant in the Navy.
- Sweden as Fänrik
National Peoples Army
In the style of the Soviet armed forces and the other armed forces of the Warsaw Pact, the lieutenant in the armed organs of the GDR was the officer who followed the second lieutenant . That is why, in contrast to the NATO armed forces, two officers' stars were placed side by side on the shoulder piece.
The official rank of the People's Navy was initially lieutenant in the sea , but was later changed to lieutenant . In individual linguistic usage, however, the traditional designation Leutnant zur See was retained.
For officers of the NVA, the standard standing time for promotion from lieutenant to first lieutenant was two years.
Reichsheer, Reichswehr and Wehrmacht
In the Reichsheer , Reichswehr and Wehrmacht , the lieutenant , or in the navy the lieutenant at sea , was the lowest officer rank in the rank group of the lieutenant. In the NS ranks this rank corresponded to the SS-Untersturmführer or SA-Untersturmführer .
- Left: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for army uniform wearers of the paratrooper troops . Right: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for Air Force uniform wearers.
- Only around 5% of the soldiers of an officer class in the troop service career do not complete a degree.
- Lieutenants and captains are therefore also referred to as troop officers, as long as they do not take on any posts in staff departments "far from the troops" intended for staff officers .
- The deadline can be shortened by up to two years, as periods of service in the Bundeswehr before starting officer training (i.e. in other career groups) can be credited to a limited extent. Significantly shorter periods are attached to the minimum period of service of the reserve officer candidates , which must be completed at least partially in military exercises . Reservists are, however, treated on an equal footing with active soldiers insofar as the appointment of an officer cannot be made earlier than with corresponding active officer candidates.
- The prospective doctor or pharmacist with the rank of lieutenant is no longer an officer candidate , but is an officer in the medical service . He remains nevertheless still a medical officer candidates and will only provide the transport using a rank of the rank group of captains medical officer .
- ZDv 20/7 on the basis of Career Ordinance ( Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002, Section 44 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by Bek. V. 19 August 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2 Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730). ) the Soldiers '
- For reasons of space, shortened captions. What is meant are army uniform wearers and air force uniform wearers . The hunter-green flat braid shown next to the slip-on loop for army uniforms indicates a soldier in the armored infantry troops , infantry or special forces . In addition to the slip-on loops for the field blouse in the five-color camouflage pattern shown here on the shoulder flaps, there are a number of other types of rank insignia, which are described in more detail in the article → "Rank insignia of the Bundeswehr" .
- Lieutenant, the. In: duden.de . Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, Dudenverlag, 2013, accessed on November 6, 2011 .
- Hartmut Bagger , Command Staff of the Armed Forces I 3, Federal Ministry of Defense (Ed.): ZDv 37/10. Suit regulations for soldiers in the Bundeswehr . July 1996. Reprint from October 2008. Bonn July 16, 2008, 4 labels, p. 539 ( digitized version [PDF; 3.5 MB ] Reprint October 2008 replaces first edition from July 1996). Digitized version ( memento of the original from September 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, rank designations in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Law) ).
- Agreed English texts. STANAG 2116 . NATO standardization agreement (STANAG) . NATO codes for grades of military personnel. 5th edition. 1992 (English, NATO Rank Codes - 1992 [accessed March 25, 2014]).
- The Federal President (Ed.): Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers . BPresUnifAnO. July 14, 1978 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF] Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and uniforms of soldiers from July 14, 1978 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 1067 ), last amended by Article 1 of the order of 31. May 1996 ( BGBl. I p. 746 ) has been changed).
- Federal Minister of Defense ; Command Staff of the Armed Forces IV 1 (Ed.): Abbreviations for use in the Bundeswehr - German Abbreviations - ZDv 64/10 . Bonn January 19, 1979 ( ucoz.de [PDF] as of September 17, 1999).
- Appendix I (to § 20, paragraph 2, sentence 1) Bundesbesoldungsgesetz orders of A and B . ( Online [accessed on March 25, 2014] Federal salary regulations (BBesO) only apply to professional and temporary soldiers and are an annex to the Federal Salary Act (BBesG)).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 4 para. 3 (2) - ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF; accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art . 1 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, amendment status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, The Superiors Ordinance, p. A 12 1 (not to be confused with the Ordinance on the Regulation of Military Superiors (Superiors Ordinance - VorgV) ).
- Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956, § 4 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002 ( online [accessed on March 25, 2014] revised by notice of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2 Par. 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- Note also:
- The Federal Minister of Defense ; Personnel, Social and Central Affairs Department (Ed.): ZDv 20/7. Provisions for the transport and for the recruitment, acceptance and admission of soldiers . Bonn March 27, 2002, Art. 635 ( PDF ( memento of October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on March 26, 2014] DSK AP210100187, reprint January 2008). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The equivalent, higher and lower ranks are given in accordance with ZDv 14/5 B 185, cf. The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, rank designations in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (Not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Act) . The order of the ranks shown in the info box does not necessarily correspond to one of the regular rank sequences provided for in the Soldiers' Career Ordinance , nor does it necessarily correspond to the rank hierarchy described in the Superiors Ordinance a managerial relationship ).
- admin.ch Ordinance on compulsory military service (pdf)