Superiors are natural persons who have been entrusted within an organization ( company , public administration , authority , military ) with the authority to issue instructions to subordinate personnel .
The division of labor also requires a division into executive and managerial activities , which are characterized by a mutual ranking . A manager has the authority, within the framework of the right of direction, by means of instructions to instruct those carrying out activities, which actions they must undertake and which they must refrain from . Superiors can make use of their right to give instructions orally ( order , order ) or in writing ( work instructions , service instructions ). Through their leadership skills , they take on external responsibility and delegate implementation skills . The managerial tasks of a superior include organization , planning , goal setting , decision-making , coordination , information , employee evaluation and control . In addition, superiors (in the case of legal entities only the legal representatives) also assume the responsibility under criminal and contractual law that their subordinates are adequately trained, particularly with regard to occupational safety .
In general, a distinction is made between disciplinary superiors ( service superiors ) and specialist superiors :
- The disciplinary superior performs the supervision over officials and service personnel and by Reinhard Höhn a supervisor, who has two powers:
- A line manager has the power under a particular subject area or work area with all the necessary for task performance actions of its employees to decide and issue appropriate instructions. He participates in the creation of job descriptions for his subordinates, plans the technical requirements at the workplace , determines work content , controls the work results of the employees and ensures their further professional qualification . Reinhard Höhn also devotes a separate chapter to the line manager and sees it as a legitimate breach of the principle of unity of leadership . It often happens that employees report to both a line manager and a disciplinary manager.
In a line organization , one speaks of a (strict) hierarchical order , because the representatives of one hierarchical level represent the (only direct) superior of the next subordinate hierarchical level. In a matrix organization , an employee can have several managers, but the managerial function in terms of personnel responsibility generally lies with one person.
According to Werner Thieme , there are hierarchical relationships
- Authority to issue orders , ie the right to “determine the actions of another”;
- Supervisory law: professional , legal and service supervision ;
- Right of evocation : superiors may take over the processing of a matter without an inadmissible return delegation being present;
- Right to object with the right to annul decisions;
- Right of sanction : is limited to the disciplinary superior in the case of authorities and superiors and
- Information obligation by subordinates.
Supervisors for officials and soldiers
The superiors of civil servants and soldiers - which are regulated nationwide in laws - are particularly clearly structured . The German Judges Act (DRiG) stipulates that the civil service regulations are to be applied mutatis mutandis to judges in the federal service ( DRiG).
In civil service law , the superior is who is allowed to issue official orders ( (3 ) BBG ). The disciplinary manager is called the service manager . The superior in accordance with (2) BBG is someone who is responsible for civil service decisions on the personal affairs of the civil servants who are subordinate to him or her. The superior of a supreme authority (e.g. Ministry of Finance ) is the finance minister , a middle authority ( Federal Finance Directorate ) is the president and a lower authority ( main customs office ) is the head of office .
- The most important competencies of the supervisor include:
- Appointment ( recruitment , promotion ) in accordance with (1) BBG,
- Service assessment of the civil servant according to BBG,
- Decision on implementation , transfer , secondment and assignment (§ to BBG),
- Dismissal of the civil servant on request ( BBG),
- Establishing incapacity for work (Section ff. BBG),
- Transfer to retirement ( ff. BBG),
- Prohibition of conducting official business (§ ff. BBG),
- Granting and refusal to give a statement ( BBG),
- Granting and refusal of vacation and special leave (§ f., BBG),
- Approval of a secondary activity (Section ff. BBG),
- Disciplinary decisions in the event of a breach of duty ( ff. BDG ). The immediate superior is also the disciplinary superior , of a disciplinary procedure may initiate against the official.
- A line manager is someone who isallowed to issue orders toa civil servant for his official work( (3) BBG). He is the one officer on duty parent PTA . According to (1) BBG,civil servants areobliged to carry out official orders andto follow thegeneral guidelines of the superiors. This does not apply if the civil servants are not bound by instructions according to special statutory provisions and are only subject to the law. Official orders from the supervisor are almost without exception internal measures with internal effects . The administrative organizational structure determines who performs service and who performs managerial functions. Not every line manager is also a line manager, but every line manager is also a line manager.
- Immediate superiors (Section 1, Paragraph 1 of the VorgV) lead a military division (from the group to the association ) or lead a military agency .
- Specialist superiors ( general pharmacist is the highest specialist in the field of military pharmacy). VorgV) have technical authority to give orders in a specialist service to the soldiers under their command (the
- Superiors with a special area of responsibility ( company sergeant ). VorgV) are soldiers whose position requires a special area of responsibility with special authority to command (for example
- Superiors based on rank ( rank group is superior to members of the lower rank groups. (the colonel across from the sergeant major ). VorgV): a soldier in a higher
- Superiors based on special orders ( task ; for business reasons, a lower-ranking soldier can also be the superior of a higher-ranking soldier in exceptional cases. VorgV) are only temporarily active for a special
- Superiors based on their own declaration ( VorgV) are superiors by virtue of an “emergency” with limited authority.
Supervisors in an organization
Superiors occupy their own position in the organizational chart of the organizational structure , exercise a function there and are often given an official title that describes their function . In business it as hot (from bottom to top) group leader , head of unit , head of department , authorized signatory , authorized officer , director or board , in the public administration as commissioner , magistrate , senior administrator , Councilor , Councilor , Secretary , Assistant Secretary of State or Secretary of State . The function also provides information about which area the function holder belongs to and whether he is in a leading or an executive role. The managerial function of supervisor is considered to be a coordinating instance because it serves to coordinate cooperative processes.
- Klaus Altfelder / Hans G. Bartels / Joachim-Hans Horn / Heinrich-Theodor Metze, Lexikon der Unternehmensführung , 1973, p. 83
- Reinhard Höhn / Gisela Böhme, Management Brevier der Wirtschaft , 1974, p. 305 ff.
- Reinhard Höhn / Gisela Böhme, Management Brevier der Wirtschaft , 1974, p. 298 ff.
- Werner Thieme, Verwaltungslehre , 1969, p. 89 ff.
- Sabine Leppek, Beamtenrecht , 2015, p. 32
- Sabine Leppek, Beamtenrecht , 2015, p. 33
- Frank Less / Gudrun Schattschneider / Bernhard Gertz, Soldiers' Law Commentary , 2008, p. 51 ff.
- Fritz Neske / Markus Wiener (eds.), Management-Lexikon , Volume II, 1985, p. 466