Name and word origin
The rank designation "Colonel" goes back to the superlative of " above ". Therefore, the name is because due to the increase of Manpower and weapons species of army of the 16th century the lead through (field) captains led troop was difficult warlords therefore about ten troop (about 4,000 to 5,000 mercenaries) to a regiment grouped and appointed a "supreme (field) captain" as the superior of the (field) captains. From this the abbreviation "Obrist" developed and in the 18th century in Prussia and Austria the rank designation "Colonel", which is still used today. Until 1945 the rank in the German Reich was usually abbreviated to "fruit."
The English and French rank designation Colonel as well as identical or similar terms in most Romance languages (e.g. Italian Colonello , Spanish and Portuguese Coronel ) go back to the Latin word columnella ( diminutive of columna , German column ). In the military , this designation became the term for a military formation , which also found its way into German with the loan word “column” .
In Rome , however , columnella was not a rank. It was not until the Italian military in the 16th century that the term colonello emerged as the title of a military leader. Presumably Colonello short for the use designation Colonello capitano (German: " Captain of a column," foreman). The term column was also used in the Spanish military under Ferdinand II as colunela . The Spanish columns at that time consisted of almost 1,000 to 1,250 men, their leader was the cabo de colunela (German: "head of a column", column leader). In French, the term appeared in the 17th century in the variant colonel . The British adopted the name colonel from the French army. Over time, the pronunciation in England has become today's ˈkəːn (ə) l .
In Russian , the traditional name of the rank is Polkownik ( Russian Полковник ), similar in many related languages (e.g. Polish Pułkownik , Czech Plukovník , Bosnian Pukovnik ). The word comes from the Old Slavic root polk (полк), which in a military context means a gathering of troops (usually translated as “regiment”) and is related to the German loan word “Pulk”; Polkownik therefore means svw. Chief of an army or "regimental leader".
The plural of "Colonel" is, according to Duden mostly "Supreme" or less frequently "Supreme". A particularly clear preference for one of the two plural forms in civil as in military parlance not identify. "Obersten" is used more often in connection with a specific article , while "Oberste" can always be used.
|Rank group||Staff officers|
|NATO rank code||OF-5|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Colonel|
|Marine rank||Sea captain|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||- (O)|
|Grade||A 16 / B 2 / B 3 according to BBesO|
The rank of Colonel is determined by the Federal President with the order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers on the basis of the Soldiers Act .
Authority to command and positions
In the German Armed Forces, the colonel is an officer rank who, according to the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) A-1420/24 "Ranks and Rank Groups", belongs to the rank group of staff officers . Because they belong to the rank group of staff officers, soldiers in the rank of Colonel can issue orders within the limits set there to soldiers in the rank groups of crews , non-commissioned officers with and without porters , lieutenants and captains on the basis of § 4 ("Superiors relationship on the basis of rank") of the Superiors Ordinance.
The Supreme serve as most staff officers primarily to staff positions and usually not in the troops as military leader . Typical uses are in managerial positions, head of department , (sub) department head or head of division in command authorities , offices or as head of division in the ministry . There they are ultimately responsible, for example, for personnel and material planning , strategy development or deployment planning . Some colonels are commanders (mostly smaller) teaching institutions (in the army, for example at a military school or centers ). Colonels, mostly commanders of a teaching institution at the same time, are often responsible for the training and further development of their military category and hold the service position - not the rank - general of the telecommunications force , general of the NBC defense force , general of the army reconnaissance force , etc. At the command academy of the Bundeswehr , the Army officers' school or similarly distinguished teaching institutions teach colonels as lecturers . As military attaché , adjutant to the minister or liaison officer (e.g. in the office of the Federal President ), colonels also perform important (military) political tasks. In units from brigade level , they serve in staffs, in brigades and divisions partly as chief of staff , partly as department heads who are responsible for a basic management area. In this post they directly support the unit commander in leading the troops . Some colonels, primarily soldiers in the troop service , are also used in the troops as military leaders of units . Typical uses are as regimental commander , deputy brigade commander and commander of brigade units or (more rarely) commander of division troops . In particularly prominent battalions (key battalions such as officer candidate battalions ), colonels are also battalion commanders . Experienced colonels are occasionally deployed as brigade commanders. As a rule, among all military music officers , only the head of the military music service and the military music center of the Bundeswehr is a colonel; In the military musician's career, the top rank is de facto. Some of the Supreme listed above are on posts for officers in the General Staff used. General staff officers have usually already completed a course for general / admiral staff service at the command academy of the Bundeswehr before being appointed colonel and are among those who can later be promoted to brigadier general .
Due to the described and similar positions, soldiers with the rank of Colonel can give orders to all soldiers under official or technical subordinate positions in the cases listed in the Supervisor Ordinance. Commanders of a training facility, brigade and regimental commanders , commanders of brigade units, etc., as unit leaders, are disciplinary superiors of the soldiers subordinate to them in accordance with the military disciplinary code .
Appointment, salary and age limit
The decisive legal basis for the appointment as colonel is the Soldier Career Ordinance (SLV) and, in addition, the Central Service Regulations (ZDv) 20/7. To rank Colonel can soldier on time , professional soldiers and ordered reservists are appointed. The prerequisite is membership of the officers' career group . Officers (except military music officers) can be appointed colonel 14½ years after being appointed lieutenant; Military music officers ten years after being appointed captain at the earliest . A setting with the rank Colonel is with one of the use possible also corresponding qualification.
The Supreme after the Bundesbesoldungsgesetz order (BBesO) with A 16 , B 2 or B 3 remunerated . Salary according to B 3 is only provided for in prominent positions (e.g. head of department in the ministry ).
Equivalent, subordinate and superior ranks
The rank of colonel is held only by army and air force uniforms . Marine uniform wearers (except medical officers ) of the same rank hold the rank of sea captain . The ranking same medical officer ranks are made after approval direction different denominated and Uniform area Ranks Colonel doctor , Colonel pharmacist and Colonel veterinary or fleet doctor and fleet pharmacist (first three grade designations for military and air Uniform carrier; past two grade designations for Marine Uniform). In the armed forces of NATO Colonel is at all ranks with the NATO rank code OF-5 equivalent.
In the sense of ZDv 14/5 and the order of the Federal President , the colonel or sea captain is placed above the lower - ranking lieutenant colonel or frigate captain and below the higher-ranking brigadier general or flotilla admiral (first rank for army and air force uniforms; second rank for naval uniforms ). The rank equal to Colonel medical officer ranks are to Approbations differently denominated Ranks direction Oberfeldarzt , Obernfeld pharmacist and upper field of veterinary or flotilla surgeon and Flottillenapotheker (first three grade designations for military and air Uniform carrier; past two grade designations for Marine Uniform). The medical officer ranks of the same rank as the brigadier general are the ranks of general doctor and general pharmacist or admiral doctor (first two rank designations for army and air force uniforms; last rank designation for naval uniforms).
|Lower rank||Higher rank|
Frigate Captain, Chief Medical
Officer, Chief Pharmacist, Chief
Flotilla Doctor, Flotilla
General Doctor General Pharmacist
Rank group : Teams-NCOs-NCO-NCOs-Lieutenant-Captains-Staff officers-Generals
Federal army and guards
- Colonel -
Suit 75/03 | Skirt collar | Plate cap
|Rank group||Staff officers|
|NATO rank code||OF-5|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Colonel|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||fruit|
In the Austrian armed forces, the colonel (abbreviation: fruit) standing between lieutenant colonel and brigadier is the fifth highest officer rank (employment group M BO 1 and M BO 2).
… Paroli kk mountain troop
Classification: recruits - batches - NCOs - officers All ranks at a glance: Army ranks
In addition, the usage designation Colonel is used for senior officials (E1) of the executive branch in Austria, including the Federal Police and Justice Guard . Since the guards mentioned are civil bodies that are only organized according to the military model, they are not "police officers", but only use officer ranks as a designation.
- Colonel -
|Rank group||Staff officer|
|NATO rank code||OF-5|
|Rank Army / Air Force||Colonel|
|Abbreviation (in lists)||Colonel|
|Grade||CHF 23 / day|
In the Swiss Army , the colonel stands above the lieutenant colonel and below the brigadier. In peacetime he is the fourth highest officer rank. In foreign missions he is referred to as a Colonel (Col) .
The colonel is in command of a commando (Gren Kdo, Flpl Kdo), the army's engineering staff or a Flab cluster. These formations are comparable to regiments. As a staff officer, the colonel performs various specialist functions in the staff of the Army, the Air Force and the territorial regions. In the brigades, the colonel (in the general staff - i Gst) assumes the role of the deputy commander and / or the chief of staff. In military justice, the Presidents I of the Military Courts hold the rank of colonel. The rank badge shows three wide stripes in the Swiss Army.
Officer grade Colonel
Classification: crews - NCOs - higher NCOs - subaltern officers - captains - staff officers - higher staff officers
- commander in chief of the army
All degrees at a glance: degrees of the Swiss Army
Brazilian Armed Forces
Capita de Mar e Guerra
In Brazil , the rank of "Colonel" corresponds to the rank of Coronel in the army. This rank is above the Tenente Coronel ( German : Oberstleutnant) and below the General de Brigada (German: Brigadegeneral).
In the Air Force, the Coronel stands above the Tenente Coronel and below the Brigadeiro .
In the Navy is the equivalent of the Capitão de Mar e Guerra (German: Captain of the Sea). This rank is above the Capitão de Fragata (German: Frigattenkapitän) and below the Contra Almirante (German: Rear Admiral).
French armed forces
In France, the rank of "Colonel" corresponds to the rank of Colonel . This rank stands above the Lieutenant-Colonel ( German : Oberstleutnant) and below the Général de brigade . A colonel leads u. a. a regiment.
The forerunner of the Colonel was the Mestre de camp . When the rank of " Colonel général " was abolished in the infantry in 1661 , the Mestre de camp there took over the name "Colonel". This was valid until 1721, then the old name was reintroduced, which only lasted until 1730, then again Mestre de camp until 1780 and then Colonel until 1793. By 1803 the name Colonel was replaced by the Chef de brigade , as it was in the infantry in this period (1793 to 1803) gave the so-called demi-brigades instead of regiments .
In the cavalry, the colonel (as regiment owner and regimental commander) continued to be referred to as "Mestre de camp". From 1793/94 to 1803, the rank of Colonel or Mestre de camp was replaced by the Chef de brigade , even if the name regiment was retained in the cavalry - in contrast to the infantry. After that the rank for both branches of service was again Colonel .
If the regiment owner was a higher-ranking person who had no interest in leading his regiment personally (e.g. the king), he left the command to a "Colonel en second" (or colonel lieutenant) or a "Mestre de camp" en second "(or Mestre de camp-lieutenant)
United States Armed Forces
In the armed forces of the United States , the corresponding German colonel's rank of Colonel ([ kɛːnəl ] or [ kərnəl ]) and in the US Army , the Air Force and the Marine Corps used. In the army hierarchy the Colonel to the stands Lieutenant Colonel (equivalent in English the Lieutenant Colonel ) and the Brigadier General ( Brigadier General ). Based on the stylized eagle of his rank badge , the colonel is sometimes referred to in US military jargon as " full bird " (freely translated: "adult bird") or " full bird colonel ".
Russian armed forces
The Russian rank corresponding to the German rank of Colonel is the Polkownik ( Russian spelling : Полковник ). The Polkownik was in czarist Russia at the time of Ivan IV. Introduced in the 16th century. He was still in the Imperial Russian Army until 1917. Commanders of military units with regimental status were generally assigned to this rank . In the Red Workers 'and Peasants' Army , the old Russian denomination of polkownik was reintroduced with changing badges of distinction and has been retained ever since. Both in the former armies and in today's Russian army , the rank of Polkownik ( OF-5 ) is between the ranks corresponding to the German lieutenant colonel and the German major general .
British armed forces
In the British Army , in addition to the regular colonel ( Colonel ([ ˈkɛːnəl ] or [ ˈkərnəl ]), abbreviation Col), who is often the commander of a regiment, there is also the honorary colonel . This corresponds to the German regiment chief . Members of the royal family are often colonel-in-chief of a regiment.
So is z. B. the heir to the throne Charles, Prince of Wales Chief of the Welsh Guards Regiment, Harry, Duke of Sussex Colonel of Honor of the Blues and Royals and his brother William, Duke of Cambridge Colonel of Honor of the Irish Guards .
Often at the end of their careers, generals became honorary colonels of the regiment of the regiment with which they had a special relationship during their service. In 1892 , Lieutenant General Drury Curzon Drury-Lowe became chief of the 17th Lancers Regiment, which he had led as commander in the battle of Ulundi in 1879 .
In the Royal Air Force , on the other hand , the equivalent of the German colonel is the Group Captain (salutation Captain , abbreviation Gp Capt). The group captain , like the army colonel and the navy captain, has the second highest rank in the officer corps. In the troop hierarchy he is above the Wing Commander and below the Air Commodore . Its NATO rank code is OF-5.
Note: In the British Army there is also the rank of captain (Capt), but this refers to an officer of the NATO rank code OF-2, i.e. an officer with a significantly smaller area of responsibility. The German equivalent for this is a captain .
More modern armed forces
In the Swiss Guard , the colonel is also ranked because of his close ties to the Swiss Army. In the Italian armed forces , the colonnello is comparable. In the Dutch armed forces it corresponds to the kolonel . The Portuguese and Spanish variants are coronel . In the Danish and Norwegian Armed Forces of the corresponding German colonel rank is colonel .
National Peoples Army
In the National People's Army and the other armed organs of the German Democratic Republic the colonel was the highest rank in the rank group of staff officers . The rank holder must be a career officer and have successfully completed academic training. The rank badge consisted of braided silver cords with three stars attached. The background color indicated the assignment to the branches of service. The rank of the People's Navy corresponding to the colonel was sea captain . The rank was comparable to the NATO rank code OF-5.
Reichsheer, Reichswehr and Wehrmacht
In the Reichsheer, Reichswehr and Wehrmacht, the colonel was the highest officer rank in the rank group of staff officers. In the Nazi ranks , this rank corresponded to the sea captain of the navy or the SS standard leader .
Sleeve badge on the air protection suit
- If the troops were set up and financed by a military contractor , he was called a regiment chief or regiment owner. He offered his regiment to warlords for a fee. Often the military entrepreneur himself led his regiment as a colonel as military superior.
- Cf. also the “ Regime der Colonel ”, where the term was revived in the 20th century. According to Duden, "Obrist" is now out of date as an alternative form of colonel. Instead, it denotes the members of a military junta today , cf. Colonel, the. In: Duden . Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, Dudenverlag, 2013, accessed on November 12, 2014 .
- See on this (Oberste) - (Oberste). In: Google books Ngram Viewer . Google , accessed on November 14, 2014 (English, the largest distribution of the word “Obersten” relative to “Oberste” in German-language books since 1800 has been around 1955. Since then the difference in frequency between the two terms has decreased again.).
- Knowing the etymology of the word as a superlative from "above" in the combination of "supreme captains", "Oberst" will be declined more like the superlative from "above" . If, on the other hand, “Colonel” is understood as a proper name that has been detached from its original meaning, the declination to “Oberste” is just as close as “Leutnante” or “Generale” as plural forms of “ Leutnant ” or “ General ”.
- Left: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for army uniform wearers of the NBC defense force . Right: Rank badge on the shoulder flap of the jacket of the service suit for Air Force uniform wearers.
- This is precisely why they are called staff officers in contrast to the officers of the troop service .
- then add the rank addition “i. G."
- The 14½-year period applies to flying personnel , officers in the special forces command who are used for special missions and combat swimmers . For all other officers (except military music officers), the ZDv 20/7 provides a period of 15 years. In the case of recruitment with the rank of first lieutenant, captain, major or lieutenant colonel, the deadline is shortened according to ZDv 20/7.
- The military music officers are explicitly mentioned here because, in contrast to all other officers, their minimum service time is not related to the time of appointment as officer, but always to the time since appointment as captain. The ten-year period applies to military music officers who were appointed to this career with the rank of captain. All other music officers (i.e. those who were previously military music officer candidates) can be promoted to colonel 13 years after being appointed captain.
- As a colonel (but not as a military music officer), in accordance with the Soldiers' Career Ordinance, anyone who can provide evidence of six years of practical work relevant to the planned assignment and who also (a) has successfully completed a master’s degree and has at least two additional years and six months (in total eight and a half years) has relevant professional experience or (b) has obtained qualification for judicial office (= second state examination in law ) or (c) has obtained qualification for a career in the higher service of the federal government or (d) doctoral engineer (Dr.-Ing .) or Doctor of Natural Sciences (Dr. rer. nat.).
- ZDv 20/7 on the basis of Careers Ordinance ( Ordinance on the Careers of Soldiers (Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002, Section 44 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] revised) by announcement of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2, Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730). ) the Soldiers '
- The age limits were redefined with the Service Law Reform Act 2009, cf. especially changes regarding Bundesanzeiger Verlag (Hrsg.): BGBl . Part 1, G 5702. Volume 2009 , no. 7 . Bonn February 11, 2009, p. 160–275 ( Federal Law Gazette 2009 I No. 7 [accessed on November 14, 2014]). SG and transitional provisions according to SG. See Act on the Reorganization and Modernization of Federal Service Law (Service Law New Order Act - DNeuG) . In:
- For reasons of space, shortened captions. What is meant are army uniform wearers and air force uniform wearers . The hunter-green flat braid shown next to the slip-on loop for army uniforms indicates a soldier in the armored infantry troops , infantry or special forces . In addition to the slip-on loops for the field blouse in the five-color camouflage pattern shown here on the shoulder flaps, there are a number of other types of rank insignia, which are described in more detail in the article → "Rank insignia of the Bundeswehr" .
- colonel. In: Oxford Dictionaries . Oxford University Press, 2014, accessed November 12, 2014 .
- cf. Raymond, Oliver: Why Is The Colonel Called "Kernal"? ( June 9, 2011 memento on the Internet Archive ), McClellan Aviation Museum, Office of History, Sacramento Air Logistics Center. August 1983. Accessed April 20, 2008.
- German Academy of Sciences in Berlin; German-Russian dictionary, HH Bielefeld, 7th unchanged edition, Akademie-Verlag Berlin 1970; License number : 202 100/242/70; Contents XI - “The Russian Alphabet”; Column: German transcription in proper names.
- Colonel, the. In: Duden . Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, Dudenverlag, 2013, accessed on November 12, 2014 .
- Hartmut Bagger , Command Staff of the Armed Forces I 3, Federal Ministry of Defense (Ed.): ZDv 37/10. Suit regulations for soldiers in the Bundeswehr . Bonn July 16, 2008, 4 labels, p. 539 ( digitized version ( memento from September 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [PDF; 3.5 MB ] Reprint October 2008 replaces first edition from July 1996).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act. DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008 . Bonn August 21, 1978, rankings in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (Not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers [Soldiers Law] ).
- Agreed English texts. STANAG 2116 . NATO standardization agreement (STANAG) . NATO codes for grades of military personnel. 5th edition. 1992 (English, rankmaven.tripod.com [accessed March 25, 2014]).
- The Federal President (ed.): Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and the uniform of the soldiers . BPresUnifAnO . July 14, 1978 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF] Order of the Federal President on the rank designations and uniforms of soldiers from July 14, 1978 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 1067 ), last amended by Article 1 of the order of 31. May 1996 ( BGBl. I p. 746 ) has been changed).
- Federal Minister of Defense ; Command Staff of the Armed Forces IV 1 (Ed.): Abbreviations for use in the Bundeswehr - German Abbreviations - ZDv 64/10 . Bonn January 19, 1979 ( pingwins.ucoz.de [PDF] as of September 17, 1999).
- Appendix I (to § 20, paragraph 2, sentence 1) Bundesbesoldungsgesetz orders of A and B . ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Federal Pay Regulations (BBesO) only apply to professional and temporary soldiers and are an annex to the Federal Pay Act (BBesG)).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 4 Paragraph 3 (2) - ( PDF [accessed on March 25, 2014] Revised by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art. 1 G of April 8 2013 I 730).
- The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act. DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008 . Bonn August 21, 1978, The Superiors Ordinance, p. A 12 1 (Not to be confused with the ordinance on the regulation of the relationship between military officers [Superiors Ordinance - VorgV] ).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956, § 4 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Federal Minister of Defense (Ed.): Ordinance on the regulation of the military superior relationship (Superior Ordinance - VorgV) . June 4, 1956 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Last amended by Art. 1 No. 2 V of October 7, 1981 I 1129).
- Military disciplinary code (WDO). In: Laws on the Internet. Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection , August 16, 2001, accessed on November 5, 2014 (from August 16, 2001 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 2093 ), last amended by Article 7 of the Act of August 28, 2013 ( Federal Law Gazette I p . 3386 ) has been changed).
- Ordinance on the career paths of soldiers (Soldiers' Career Ordinance - SLV) . March 19, 2002 ( gesetze-im-internet.de [accessed on March 25, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of August 19, 2011 I 1813. Last amended by Art. 2 Paragraph 5 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- Note also:
- The Federal Minister of Defense ; Personnel, Social and Central Affairs Department (Ed.): ZDv 20/7. Provisions for the transport and for the recruitment, acceptance and admission of soldiers . Bonn March 27, 2002, Art. 635 ( PDF ( memento of October 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on March 26, 2014] DSK AP210100187, reprint January 2008).
- Federal Ministry of Justice and for Consumer Protection , juris GmbH (Ed.): Law on the legal status of soldiers (Soldiers Act - SG) . Bonn March 19, 1956, § 45 Paragraph 2 (3) - ( gesetze-im-internet.de [PDF; accessed on November 10, 2014] Newly drafted by notice of May 30, 2005 I 1482. Last amended by Art . 1 G of April 8, 2013 I 730).
- The equivalent, higher and lower ranks are given in accordance with ZDv 14/5 B 185, cf. The Federal Minister of Defense (ed.): ZDv 14/5. Soldiers Act . DSK AV110100174, change status July 17, 2008. Bonn August 21, 1978, rank designations in the Bundeswehr, p. B 185 (Not to be confused with the Law on the Legal Status of Soldiers (Soldiers Act) . The order of the ranks shown in the info box does not necessarily correspond to one of the regular rank sequences provided for in the Soldiers' Career Ordinance , nor does it necessarily correspond to the rank hierarchy described in the Superiors Ordinance a managerial relationship ).
- Swiss Armed Forces pay table ( memento from September 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ): accessed on March 13, 2016