Charles, Prince of Wales
HRH Charles Philip Arthur George, Prince of Wales , Duke of Cornwall , Duke of Rothesay and Duke of Edinburgh (born November 14, 1948 in Buckingham Palace , London , short: Prince Charles , German: Prince Charles ) is the heir to the throne of the United Kingdom . He is the eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip . Charles belongs to the House of Windsor , which belongs to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gothagoing back. On his father's side, he has ancestors in the Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg house and in the Battenberg house .
Childhood and adolescence
Charles was born as the first child of Prince Philip and Princess Elisabeth around a year after their wedding. He was the first grandchild of his maternal grandparents, the then royal couple, George VI. and Elisabeth , as well as the first great-grandchild of Queen Mary . At the time of his birth, Charles was second in line to the British throne behind his mother . Due to a special decision by his grandfather, the then King George VI., All children of the then heir to the throne Elizabeth were given the rank of royal prince or princess and the associated salutation "His / Her Royal Highness", which otherwise could only be passed on in the male line .
With his mother's accession to the throne in 1952, Charles became heir to the throne at the age of three and received the title Duke of Cornwall . The following year he attended her coronation . As a child, Charles was brought up in preparation for his future regent office. From 1954 to 1967 he enjoyed training at traditional private schools in Great Britain, including at the Cheam School (Preparatory School) and in the Gordonstoun ( Public School ) boarding school , which his father had already attended, as well as a stay as an exchange student in Geelong, Australia . He also received private lessons at Buckingham Palace. In 1967, Charles took a degree in archeology and anthropology at Trinity College of the University of Cambridge , where he then however story changed. In 1970 he made his bachelor's degree. He then attended the University of Wales, Aberystwyth , to acquire knowledge of the Welsh language . He was the first Prince of Wales to speak Welsh. In 1975 he also received a Master of Arts from Cambridge University.
Following his studies, the prince completed military training from 1971 to 1976; he served in particular in the Royal Navy and learned to fly helicopters as well as propeller and jet planes. Due to subsequent promotions (most recently on June 16, 2012), he now holds the following five-star military ranks: Admiral of the Fleet of the Royal Navy, Field Marshal of the British Army and Marshal ( General ) of the Royal Air Force .
In early 1970, Charles attended the sessions of the House of Lords as the Queen's Deputy. Towards the end of 1977, the prince was in the Privy Council ( Privy Council ) was added. When he took over these functions, he began to appear as the official representative of the British Crown at public events and state visits.
Marriage to Diana
On July 29, 1981 he married Diana Spencer , daughter of John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer , in front of a worldwide TV audience in St Paul's Cathedral in London , who thereby became Princess of Wales. In this marriage, Prince William was born on June 21, 1982 and Prince Harry on September 15, 1984 . The family lived in Highgrove , Gloucestershire and at Kensington Palace in London.
Charles re-contacted his long-time lover Camilla Parker Bowles in 1986 , which made the marriage difficult. Diana also began various affairs at this time, e. B. with her riding instructor James Hewitt . From the end of the 1980s, the marriage was considered broken. The marital crisis was resolved in 1992 by the publication of Diana: Her True Story , in which reporter Andrew Morton revealed the love affair between Camilla and Charles and Diana's psychological problems such as bulimia and suicide attempts, to a public scandal. In December 1992, the couple was forced to announce the official separation. In 1993, an intimate phone conversation between Charles and Camilla from 1989 was published. Under pressure from Queen Elizabeth II and a public dispute over the terms of severance pay, Charles and Diana were divorced on August 28, 1996. Diana was able to maintain her status as "Princess of Wales", but had to forego the title of "Royal Highness".
For more information on the marriage of Charles and Diana see: Diana, Princess of Wales
Marriage to Camilla
Charles initially announced to the public that a marriage to Camilla Parker Bowles was not planned. The Prince and Camilla Parker Bowles continued their relationship, with both appearing together in public from 2000. In July 2002, the liberalization of divorce law by the Anglican Church made a remarriage of the divorced prince, at least in the form of a purely civil marriage, appear possible. In 2003 Camilla moved to Charles at Clarence House .
On February 10, 2005, a spokesman for the heir to the throne confirmed that Charles would be married for the second time. The wedding to Camilla Parker Bowles was initially scheduled for April 8th. However, there were some problems with the preparations for the wedding. For legal reasons, the wedding could not take place in Windsor Castle , as it was originally planned. There were also some legal concerns about the marriage beforehand. Queen Elisabeth initially indicated that she did not want to take part in the wedding ceremony. Her husband also left his appearance open. International guests such as Sweden's Crown Princess Victoria or Denmark's Crown Prince Frederik also canceled, as it was not an official “royal wedding”.
Due to the death of Pope John Paul II , the wedding was postponed for one day. On April 9, 2005, Charles and Camilla Parker Bowles were married at Windsor Parish Church of St John Baptist . Following the civil wedding in the town hall, a church blessing was held in St. George's Chapel in Windsor Castle. Millions of television viewers watched the ceremony. As the wife of the Prince of Wales, Camilla is now the Princess of Wales; however, she does not have this title, but is referred to (outside of Scotland) as the Duchess of Cornwall. Charles let it be known that after his accession to the throne she would not call herself Queen Consort , as usual , but Princess Consort (princess consort) - based on Prince Albert , Queen Victoria's husband ; in the meantime he has questioned this again.
The British people have now accepted the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall, especially since it became known that Charles' sons, Prince William and Prince Harry, had agreed to his new marriage.
Activities, tasks and interests
- Official commitments
- The prince plays a central role in representing the queen in public. He has been attending a number of appointments every year for many years. Another focus of his work is the position as patron of organizations.
- As one of four state councilors ( English Counselors of State ) can he perform certain official duties and prerogatives of the Queen when she bored or abroad otherwise prevented (such as a short-term illness). Any two councilors of state can attend Privy Council meetings , sign government documents, or receive letters of recommendation from new ambassadors .
- Like almost all members of the royal family, Charles is Colonel of Honor in a large number of units in all branches of the armed forces in the United Kingdom and in other Commonwealth of Nations . These include, for example, the Welsh Guards , the 1st The Queen's Dragoon Guards and the Parachute Regiment .
- The Prince's Trust , a charity founded by Charles in 1976 to help disadvantaged youth and young adults.
- Architectural interest
- Architecture and urban planning have been his main interests for many years. Charles often speaks out on this in public. He calls for a contextual, sustainable architecture that is based on the classic design language and regional traditions. In 1989 Prince Charles published the book A Vision of Britain , the ideas of which are partly realized in the model town of Poundbury . His favorite architect is Quinlan Terry . It is said that because of his admiration for its classical architecture, Prince Charles worked towards his being named Commander of the British Empire in 2015 .
- Prince Charles resigned the patronage of the Society for the Protection of Old Buildings in July 2009, following an internal dispute about his conservative stance on architectural issues. The monument society refused to print a foreword written by the prince for a planned manual. In it, Charles demands that old buildings should always be restored to their original style. In contrast, the management of the association is open to the inclusion of modern elements.
- In 2010, Prince Charles opened a pension with five double rooms in the village of Zalánpatak (Romanian Zălan ) in the district of Covasna in Transylvania, Romania . This facility and another boarding house with three double rooms planned for 2011 in Viscri (Deutsch Weißkirch) are intended to finance maintenance measures on buildings in the area. He also supports the Mihai Eminescu Foundation, which is committed to the preservation of cultural assets, monuments and natural landscapes in Transylvania and Maramures .
- Agriculture, nature conservation and climate change
- Prince Charles owns, inter alia. for the Duchy belonging goods in Cornwall and High Grove House with a production plant for food (eg. as the biscuits Duchy Originals ), which are produced according to biological and environmental principles with proceeds to charity. In Tetbury (Gloucestershire) he has been running the Duchy Home Farm, which is part of the Highgrove estate, in organic farming since 1985. Above all, the vegetable boxes delivered from there became known. Overall, he promotes organic agriculture and the food obtained in this way within the scope of his possibilities, whereby he has been advised by the German organic farming mastermind Hartmut Vogtmann since the 1980s . As part of more transparency in the whereabouts of EU agricultural subsidies, the British government published the names of recipients and amounts of the amounts paid in Great Britain for the first time in 2005. According to this, Prince Charles received the equivalent of 990,000 euros for his goods in Cornwall and Highgrove in 2004.
- Since October 2007 he has been involved in The Prince's Rainforests Project for the protection of the rainforests.
- At the opening speech of the international conference on climate impact research , Impacts World 2013 , Prince Charles spoke out strongly in favor of action against climate change .
- Arts, writing and sports
- In his private life he is a watercolor painter .
- He has written several books on his main interests. The book Harmony - A New View of Our World can be seen as its philosophical manifesto.
- As a horse lover, he rides and hunts a lot. His commitment to fox hunting , which was banned by the Hunting Act in 2005 , was controversial. The sport of polo , which he practiced intensively in the past, has since given up due to his age.
- Since 1978 the Prince has been traveling regularly to ski in Klosters , a holiday resort near Davos in the Swiss canton of Graubünden . In 1988 he narrowly escaped a serious avalanche accident there. One companion died in the avalanche.
- Prince Charles supports homeopathy .
- In 1993 he founded The Foundation for Integrated Health (FIH) . The foundation promotes non-conventional medical substances designated as alternative, the effect of which has not been proven beyond the placebo effect, and supports the demand that homeopathy be integrated into the National Health Service . The foundation closed in 2010 following allegations of fraud and money laundering. The successor organization was the College of Medicine .
- British health experts warn against the Prince Duchy Herbals Detox Tincture - a dietary supplement with artichoke and dandelion that is said to be used for detoxification. They describe the production as "implausible, unproven and dangerous".
- Charles is a member of the renowned White's Club , where he also celebrated his bachelorette party.
Title, predicates and name
The heirs to the throne of Great Britain traditionally bear the English titles Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester and the Scottish titles Duke of Rothesay , Earl of Carrick , Baron of Renfrew , Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland . These came automatically to Charles when his mother became queen on the death of his grandfather on February 6, 1952. The title Prince of Wales will later be awarded separately. The English term “Prince” is ambiguous and in German means either “Prinz” (king's or prince's son) or “Fürst”. In the case of the “Prince of Wales”, “Fürst” is the correct translation since Wales is a historical principality. Charles is the 21st holder of this title, awarded on July 26, 1958. His solemn investiture as Prince of Wales took place on July 1, 1969 at Caernarfon Castle . He is usually addressed as His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales , but in Scotland as His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay . When his father died on April 9, 2021, he inherited the title of Duke of Edinburgh , Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich as his eldest son .
Title and predicate from birth to today
- His Royal Highness Prince Charles of Edinburgh (1948–1952)
- His Royal Highness Prince Charles, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Chester, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1952–1958)
- His Royal Highness Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Chester, Earl of Carrick, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1958-2021)
- His Royal Highness Prince Charles, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Chester, Earl of Carrick, Earl of Merioneth, Baron Greenwich, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles, Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (since 2021)
"His Royal Highness The Prince Charles Philip Arthur George, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, Duke of Rothesay, Duke of Edinburgh, Earl of Chester, Earl of Carrick, Earl of Merioneth, Baron Greenwich, Baron of Renfrew, Lord of the Isles , Prince and Great Steward of Scotland, Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter , Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle , Great Master and First and Principal Knight Grand Cross of the Most Honorable Order of the Bath , Member of the Order of Merit , Knight of the Order of Australia , Companion of the Queen's Service Order , Member of Her Majesty's Most Honorable Privy Council , Aide-de-camp to Her Majesty "
Possible name as a king
At the end of December 2005, some confidants announced that Charles would not be King Charles III in the event of his accession to the throne. (Charles III.), But want to call King George VII. The last bearer of this name, George VI. , was the father of Elizabeth II and thus his grandfather.
The name Karl / Charles does not have a positive connotation in the history of the British kings, Karl I was executed, Karl II was known for the rule of mistresses at his court and had numerous illegitimate children, but no legitimate heir to the throne. There was also the pretender to the throne, Charles Edward Stuart , who, as the grandson of the deposed Jacob II, laid claim to the throne and was named Charles III by his followers, the Jacobites . was designated. In the line of succession there is also King Charles Emanuel IV of Sardinia, who was led by the Jacobites as Charles IV (or Charles IV ).
A renaming is not uncommon at the accession to the throne. King Edward VIII was called David, his brother, King George VI, was called Albert. Since Albert was not a common royal name in Great Britain and Queen Victoria had wished that no British king should bear the name Albert, he decided on the name Georg. Like Charles, this was one of his first names.
In response to these speculations, his office said that no decision had been made on his name as king.
The Prince's official residence since 2002, the death of his grandmother Elizabeth , has been Clarence House in London, which she previously lived in and which he had renovated while largely retaining the furnishings before moving in. Until then, Charles had privately lived in an apartment in the adjoining St James's Palace . His office is in Buckingham Palace . In 1981 he moved into the Highgrove House , which he had acquired, as a country estate , where he also runs an organic farm. In the Scottish Highlands , where he likes to stay, Charles uses the Birkhall estate , which is part of the estate of the royal summer residence Castle Balmoral and was previously also used by his grandmother, as well as the Castle of Mey , which she acquired in 1952 , where Charles starts every year August spends a week.
Orders and decorations of the Commonwealth (selection)
|country||Abbreviation||medal||Year of award||Fig.|
|United Kingdom||KG||Royal Knight Companion of the Order of the Garter||1958|
|United Kingdom||AdC (P)||The Queen's staff aide de camp||1973|
|United Kingdom||GCB||Grand Master and Principal Knight of the Bath Order||1975|
|Scotland||KT||Royal Knight Companion of the Thistle Order||1977|
|United Kingdom||Pc||Royal Member of the Privy Council||1977|
|Australia||AK||Knight of the Order of Australia||1981|
|New Zealand||QSO||Extra companion of the Queen's Service Order||1983|
|Saskatchewan||SOM||Honorary Member of the Saskatchewan Order of Merit||2001|
|United Kingdom||OM||Member of the Order of Merit||2002|
|United Kingdom||FM||Field Marshal (representing the Queen)||2012|
|United Kingdom||Admiral of the Fleet (representing the Queen)||2012|
|United Kingdom||MRAF||Marshal of the Royal Air Force (representing the Queen)||2012|
Honors from other countries (selection)
|medal||Year of award|
|Bodo Manstein Medal from BUND for its commitment to organic farming||1991|
|German sustainability award||2008|
|Eckart Witzigmann Prize for his outstanding services to sustainable agriculture||2010|
|Pedigree of Charles, Prince of Wales|
Christian IX (Denmark)
Konstantin Nikolajewitsch Romanow
Alexander of Hesse-Darmstadt
Ludwig IV (Hesse-Darmstadt)
Claude Bowes-Lyon, 13th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne
Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne (1855–1944)
William, Duke of Cambridge
* June 21, 1982
|April 29, 2011||
Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
* January 9, 1982
George of Cambridge
* July 22, 2013
Charlotte of Cambridge
* May 2, 2015
Louis of Cambridge
* April 23, 2018
Harry, Duke of Sussex
* September 15, 1984
|19th May 2018||
Meghan, Duchess of Sussex
* August 4, 1981
* May 6, 2019
* June 4, 2021
Usage of names
- In 1950, the former luxury yacht Hermann Göring , Carin II , was renamed Prince Charles and used by the royal family to travel on the Rhine before it had to be returned to the owner by the British state in 1960 after a legal dispute with Göring's widow, Emmy Göring .
- In July 2012, a rare species of frog discovered in Ecuador was named Hyloscirtus princecharlesi in honor of Charles .
- Charles is the namesake of the following geographic objects:
- Since January 27, 2007, Charles has been the longest-serving direct heir to the throne in the history of the British monarchy, followed by his great-great-grandfather Edward VII.
- During his possible accession to the throne, he will be the oldest British monarch to date. The previous record is held by William IV , who became king in 1830 at the age of 64.
- In addition to English, he speaks Welsh (as the first Prince of Wales ever), French, German and some Gaelic.
- HRH The Prince of Wales: The Future of Our Cities - A very personal examination of modern architecture. Heyne Verlag, Munich 1990, ISBN 3-453-04365-0 .
- Charles, Prince of Wales: The Old Man of Lochnagar . Olaf Hille Buchverlag, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-929174-11-1 .
- HRH The Prince of Wales: Prince Charles · watercolors. Eulen Verlag, Freiburg 1995, ISBN 3-89102-309-X .
- The Prince of Wales with Tony Juniper and Ian Skelly: Harmony - A New View of Our World. Riemann Verlag, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-570-50129-0 .
- The romance of Charles and Diana , USA 1982
- Charles and Camilla - Love in the Shadow of the Crown , England 2005, with Laurence Fox as Prince Charles
- The farmer and his Prince (The Farmer and His Prince) , Great Britain 2013 (documentary on the run by Prince Charles ecological farm)
- Catherine Mayer: Charles. With the heart of a king. The biography. Wilhelm Heyne, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-453-20097-5 . (The English original edition was published by WH Allen in London in 2015, ISBN 978-0-7535-5593-4 )
- Literature by and about Charles, Prince of Wales in the catalog of the German National Library
- Official website of the Prince of Wales
- News index of the Prince ( Memento of February 10, 2006 in the Internet Archive )
- The Prince's Trust Official Website
- The Royal Family name. In: www.royal.uk. Accessed April 20, 2021 .
- www.Royal.gov.uk.Retrieved July 1, 2012
- Joe Shute: Prince Charles: a lifelong love of architecture . In: The Telegraph . November 13, 2013 (English, telegraph.co.uk [accessed April 21, 2021]).
- CBE for Dedham architect. In: www.maldonandburnhamstandard.co.uk. Maldon and Burnham Standard, April 8, 2015, accessed October 21, 2016 .
- William Blacker: Prince Charles in Transylvania . In: Financial Times . August 27, 2010 (English, ft.com [accessed April 22, 2021]).
- About MET. In: www.mihaieminescutrust.ro. Mihai Eminescu Trust, accessed April 22, 2021 .
- Home Farm. In: duchyofcornwall.org. Duchy of Cornwall, accessed April 22, 2021 .
- Opening speech as video on Youtube.com, program of the Impacts World 2013 conference ( Memento from February 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), Potsdam, May 27, 2013. Accessed on July 14, 2013.
- Berit-Silja Gründlers: 40 years of holiday love Prince Charles celebrates an anniversary in Klosters . In: Schweizer Illustrierte . March 3, 2018 ( schweizer-illustrierte.ch [accessed April 22, 2021]).
- Marc Tribelhorn: «The whole mountain seemed to fall into the valley next to us» - Prince Charles and the white death . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . March 15, 2021 ( nzz.ch [accessed April 22, 2021]).
- Sarah Boseley: Prince Charles: I use homeopathy in animals to cut antibiotic use . In: The Guardian . May 12, 2016, ISSN 1756-3224 (English, theguardian.com [accessed April 22, 2021]).
- Brian Brady: He's at it again: Prince Charles accused of lobbying health secretary over homeopathy . In: The Independent . July 21, 2013, ISSN 0951-9467 (English, independent.co.uk [accessed April 22, 2021]).
- Robert Booth: Prince Charles's aide at homeopathy charity arrested on suspicion of fraud . In: The Guardian . April 26, 2010, ISSN 1756-3224 (English, theguardian.com [accessed April 22, 2021]).
- Sarah Boseley: 'Make-believe and outright quackery' - expert's verdict on prince's detox potion . In: The Guardian . March 10, 2009, ISSN 1756-3224 (English, theguardian.com [accessed April 22, 2021]).
- See also: complete list of titles and honors
- The Queen Appoints the Prince of Wales to Honorary Five-Star rank . The Prince of Wales website. June 16, 2012. Archived from the original on June 29, 2012. Retrieved on August 18, 2019.
- PPE Agency, King Willem Alexander's enthronement 2013, photo
- Printul Charles, decorat de preşedintele Klaus Iohannis cu "Steaua României"
- German sustainability award for Prince Charles. (PDF) deutscher-nachhaltigkeitspreis.de, accessed on February 23, 2021 .
- Environmental activist Prince Charles - Frog Royale. Spiegel online from July 5, 2012, accessed on July 6, 2012
- The Romance of Charles and Diana (1982) in the Internet Movie Database , accessed April 22, 2019.
Prince of Wales
|current owner of the title|
Duke of Cornwall
Duke of Rothesay
|current owner of the title|
Duke of Edinburgh
|current owner of the title|
|Duke of Gloucester||
Council of State in the United Kingdom
|current holder of the office|
|SURNAME||Charles, Prince of Wales|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Mountbatten-Windsor, Charles Philip Arthur George (full name)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||British nobleman, heir to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland|
|BIRTH DATE||November 14, 1948|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Buckingham Palace , London , UK|