The Archeology ( ancient Greek ἀρχαῖος archaios , German , old ' and λόγος lógos , teaching'; literally so "doctrine of the antiquities") is a science concerned with the natural sciences and humanities methods, the cultural development of mankind explored. It has developed into a network of the most diverse theoretical and practical disciplines worldwide.
Archeology is only interested in people and their material legacies, such as buildings, tools and works of art. It covers a period from the first stone tools around 2.5 million years ago to the present day . Due to new finds in Africa that are around 3.3 million years old, a much earlier start of tool manufacture is also being considered. Material legacies of recent history (for example concentration camps and bunker lines from the Second World War) are also evaluated today using archaeological methods, even if this approach of " contemporary history " archeology is controversial within the specialist field.
Although archeology is a relatively young science , it is hardly possible to keep track of all periods of time, so that different disciplines emerged. The epochs can be dated differently from region to region, in some cases they cannot be documented everywhere. In addition to the orientation towards epochs (e.g. medieval archeology ) or regions (e.g. Middle Eastern archeology ), there is also specialization in certain subject areas (e.g. Christian archeology , legal archeology , industrial archeology ).
Although the methodology is largely similar, the sources can be different. In prehistory and early history one is mainly concerned with material culture, in early history it is partly possible to fall back on written sources. For archaeologists, however, these are not the focus of attention in contrast to scientists from other sub-disciplines of historical studies . Findings on the environment, climate, diet or the age of finds contribute to the reconstruction of past cultures.
Beginnings of antiquity research in Europe
In Europe archeology developed around 1450 because one wanted to find evidence of the events described in the sources of antiquity. Cyriacus of Ancona (* around 1391, † around 1455), an Italian merchant and humanist, is considered one of the founding fathers of modern classical archeology.
The rebirth of classical and ancient scholarship that began in the Renaissance led to an increased interest in Greek and Roman antiquity and a wave of passion for collecting antique art objects in the 15th and 16th centuries. But even scholars who were less willing to travel began to be interested in the evidence of past times.
From the middle of the 16th century, the passion for collecting was replaced by the meticulous collection of monuments. During this time, numerous encyclopedias and catalogs were published, many of which were illustrated with copperplate engravings and woodcuts in the late 16th century. In England, William Camden (1551–1632) published his Britannia , a catalog of visible antiquities, in 1586 . It is noteworthy that he already noticed vegetation features in cornfields and interpreted them as such.
Michele Mercati (1541–1593) is considered the first European scholar to classify stone tools as such; however, his work was not published until 1717. Despite its great popularity, archeology as a science was not yet valued, because the prevailing view was that only historical sources and the Bible were suitable for interpreting the past. So it was long considered a fact that - as James Ussher deduced from the Bible - humanity in October 4004 BC. BC originated. In 1655 Isaac de La Peyrère dared to assign the so-called thunderbolts (Stone Age artifacts) to people who lived before Adam ( preadamite hypothesis ). After an intervention by the Inquisition , he revoked his theory.
In Scandinavia , ground monuments were noted early on. As early as 1588 a dolmen was excavated near Roskilde . In 1662 Uppsala received a chair in archeology. In 1685 a Neolithic burial chamber was excavated in Houlbec-Cocherel in northern France . It is considered to be the oldest archaeological excavation because the first surviving excavation report was made here in 1722 . The Kiel professor Johann Daniel Major carried out extensive excavations in Jutland around 1690 and had numerous barrows opened. His goal was to clarify the origin of the inhabitants of the peninsula using archaeological methods.
Bernard de Montfaucon's L'Antiquité expliquée appeared from 1719. In ten volumes he presented works of art from the Mediterranean region. Montfaucon's work remained the standard work for a long time.
Mid 18th to mid 19th century
Archaeological research methods are now gradually gaining acceptance. Often, individual scholars made groundbreaking conclusions early on, which, however, often - because they were not yet up to date - went unnoticed. One of the pioneers was the French amateur archaeologist Jacques Boucher de Perthes , who was the first to correctly assign prehistoric artifacts , but for which he was only recognized more than 20 years later, through the confirmation of Charles Lyell (1797–1875). An important finding was the discovery of the stratigraphic principle . Long before that, the togetherness and thus the equality of finds that were in one layer (for example a stone artifact in connection with an extinct animal species) had been discussed again and again, but not generally accepted.
A model that is still valid today in its basic features was published by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in 1836 . He was a curator in Copenhagen and invented the “ three period system ”, which divides the prehistory of mankind into three phases: the Stone Age , the Bronze Age and the Iron Age . About 30 years later, around 1865, J. Lubbock still differentiated the Stone Age into that of the beaten and that of the polished stone. The terms "Palaeolithic" (Paleolithic) and "Neolithic" ("New Stone Age" / Neolithic) were born. The epochs are subdivided in many ways, but the subdivision found at the time still applies - with restrictions - to this day.
The first major excavations took place in the ancient cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum . According to a report by the Roman writer Pliny the Younger, both were wiped out by the eruption of Vesuvius on August 24, 79 AD . Pompeii was rediscovered at the end of the 16th century when an aqueduct was built. Excavations began in 1748. In Herculaneum was first dug in 1709, in 1738 Charles III. of Naples deliberately excavate the city. In 1768 the theater, the basilica and the Villa dei Papiri were uncovered.
With his letter from the Herculan discoveries , the first archaeological publication, Johann Joachim Winckelmann founded the new science of archeology in 1762 and has since been considered the father of (classical) archeology . Winckelmann was also the first to attempt a periodization and historical classification of Greek art. Its stages of development (old style - high style - beautiful style - style of imitators - decay of art) are overtaken by the included rating. The Göttingen professor Christian Gottlob Heyne was decisive for the dissemination of his research and its reception in contemporary literature and art. He corresponded with Winckelmann, reviewed and published his writings and used them in his lectures. In 1802 the first chair for classical archeology was established at the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel .
The Egyptian monuments, especially the pyramids, were popular travel destinations in ancient times (see Wonders of the World ). In the 17th century it was recognized that these were royal tombs. The Egyptology took Napoleon Bonaparte 's Egyptian campaign in 1798 began. Scientists were also accompanied by the army. Of particular importance was the discovery of the Rosetta Stone , which made it possible for Jean-François Champollion to decipher the hieroglyphs in 1822 .
Of particular importance for Egyptian archeology is Auguste Mariette (1821–1881), who from 1858 as director of the Egyptian Antiquities Service excavated more than thirty sites. His methods were brutal (e.g. explosive charges). The determination of the find's circumstances and scientific evaluations were not yet determined, but he ended the era of pure treasure hunters (according to Giovanni Battista Belzoni , 1778–1823), who had previously brought countless finds to Europe. Mariette herself has brought around 7,000 objects to Paris (Louvre) since 1850. Now, however, he worked hard to ensure that Egypt's antiquities were no longer dragged out of the country. To keep the finds, Mariette founded the forerunner of the Egyptian National Museum in Cairo. Karl Richard Lepsius (1810–1884) compiled a comprehensive survey of Egyptian and Nubian monuments between 1842 and 1845. In 1859 the result was published in the twelve volumes of the monuments from Egypt and Ethiopia , which alone contain 894 color plates. Ludwig Ross , who was the first to carry out systematic excavations on the Acropolis of Athens, made a special contribution to archaeological research in Greece around 1840 .
From the middle of the 19th century
In the middle of the 19th century archeology developed increasingly into science. While the excavators previously differed only insignificantly from treasure hunters and grave robbers , the excavation techniques have now been refined, and good documentation and precise classification of the finds have become increasingly important.
It was not until 1859 that mankind's advanced age was generally recognized. In the same year Darwin's On the Origin of Species appeared . The discovery of the Neanderthal man , discovered in 1856 , which Johann Carl Fuhlrott and Hermann Schaaffhausen failed to classify as Ice Age, was not able to establish itself as such in Germany until 1902, when Rudolf Virchow died, who as a pathological authority had prevented any further discussion.
In 1853/54 wooden pillars, stone axes and ceramics were discovered due to an unusually low water level near Obermeilen on Lake Zurich. The settlement was examined by Ferdinand Keller . For a long time it was believed that these damp settlements were pile dwellings in the water. From the 1920s, a heated discussion arose about the location of the pile dwellings. Bank and water pile structures competed. Today we know that there were land and water pile structures. The new investigations in Hornstaad on Lake Constance show pile dwellings in the water, up to 5 meters from the lake floor. Reconstructions (for example in Unteruhldingen on Lake Constance) show not only the various solutions proposed by archeology, but also the current state of research based on the findings of underwater archeology ( Pfahlbaumuseum Unteruhldingen ).
The excavations in Hallstatt begin in 1846 . Archaeological research into the Celts began in 1858 when Colonel Schwab carried out the first excavations in La Tène on Lake Neuchâtel (Switzerland). In 1872, the Iron Age of Europe was divided into an older phase ( Hallstatt period ) and a younger phase ( Latène period ) for the first time .
Édouard Lartet (1801–1871) examined a site in the Pyrenees ( Massat ) in 1860 and found an antler tip with an engraved bear's head, the first discovery of Upper Paleolithic art. He later excavated several French cave sites (Gorge d'Enfer, Laugerie-Haute, La Madeleine and Le Moustier). Particular attention was paid to the magnificent cave paintings discovered in the Altamira Cave in 1879 .
The development of classical archeology in the second half of the 19th century was dominated by Heinrich Schliemann (1822–1890). The businessman and "amateur archaeologist" Schliemann is considered to be the founder of prehistoric archeology in Greece and the Aegean region. In 1869 he dug on Ithaca and in 1871 he started digging in Hissarlik . There he suspects Homer's Troy and is proved right, although he was wrong during the construction period. His excavation methods were very controversial, and some experts thought nothing of Schliemann's abilities. His fame is based above all on the valuable finds (for example " Priam's Treasure "). His discovery of prehistoric (pre-Homeric) cultures and settlements triggered numerous other excavations in the Aegean region. The methodological advances he brought about, such as the emphasis on stratigraphy or the use of photography as a means of archaeological documentation, were long underestimated.
In 1892 the founder of the Institute for Prehistory and Protohistory at the University of Vienna, Moritz Hoernes , received the first teaching license in Europe to cover the entire field of prehistoric archeology.
20th and 21st centuries
In Egypt, Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853–1942) did pioneering work as a researcher and excavator from 1880 . A milestone in archaeological research are his methods and goals of archeology , which he published in 1904. In it Flinders Petrie set out four principles:
- Care in dealing with the monuments that are excavated and consideration for potential future excavators
- meticulous care in the excavation and registration of every detail found
- detailed and neat surveying and mapping
- complete publication of the results
The first volume of the Handbook of Archeology appeared in 1913 and was edited by Heinrich Bulle (1867–1945). The excavation of the burial ground of Assini ( Argolis ), which began in 1922 and was carried out by Swedish archaeologists, was regarded as an exemplary excavation of this time . The entire excavation was screened and first-class excavation documentation was created. The most famous archaeological find of the 20th century was made by Howard Carter (1873–1939) in the same year. After six years of searching, he found the tomb of Tut-anch-Amun .
Gustaf Kossinna (1858–1931) presented his settlement archaeological methods in 1920. His interpretations, which ascribed to the Germanic peoples an outstanding cultural significance, served the National Socialism as evidence of the superiority of the Germanic peoples and the Aryan race. The discrediting in the post-war period meant that for decades the connection of archaeological finds to ethnic groups was obsolete.
The first full professorship was created in Marburg in 1927 and was filled with Gero Merhart von Bernegg from Bregenz the following year . He completed his habilitation in 1924 with The Bronze Age on the Yenisei . Until his forced retirement by the National Socialists in 1942, 29 students were doing their doctorate with him, and five more were added after the war. From 1950, the Marburg School , which these academics formed, dominated Germany . Gero von Merhart, as he is usually called, set the subject on strict recording, systematization and cataloging and largely avoided the cultural-historical interpretation.
Since the 20th century, archeology has increasingly resorted to techniques from other sciences. Examples are the 14 C dating developed in 1949 for the dating of organic substances and the strontium isotope analysis for researching the migratory movements of prehistoric and ancient people. Archeology has developed into a composite science. The research into the prehistoric corpse found in 1991 in the Ötztal Alps ( Similaun-Mann / Ötzi ) is an example of this. With the help of the DNA analysis , the relationships of 40 individuals from a Bronze Age burial site in the Lichtenstein cave could be reconstructed for the first time worldwide .
The New Archeology of the 1960s brought about the introduction of knowledge from the life sciences into archeology. The concept of carrying capacity comes from ecology and was used to investigate questions of population density and settlement development. Optimal foraging could explain reactions to climate change in the same way as seasonal migration and land use. In addition, mathematical simulations and modeling and computer-aided geographic information systems were introduced into archeology as methods. The New Archeology was particularly strongly developed in the Anglo-Saxon cultural area and was never able to establish itself in the German-speaking area. The reason is that in the Anglo-Saxon tradition archeology traditionally belongs to anthropology , not to the history or cultural studies.
As a response to New Archeology, post-process archeology emerged in the 1980s, placing more emphasis on methods from the cultural and social sciences. A key concept is the agency , which comes from sociology, and which considers motives and options for action. If one also takes into account the inherent subjectivity of any interpretation of a culture from which only the material artifacts are preserved, post-process archaeologists rely on hermeneutic on the one hand and self-reflective practices on the other. Today's descendants of the cultures to be examined are equally included in the work of archaeologists, as are social perspectives that have been neglected so far.
Together with other memory institutions , archaeological finds and excavation sites are the particularly sensitive cultural memory and often the economic basis (e.g. tourism) of a state, a municipality or a region. Archaeological finds and excavation sites in particular are also politically explosive and, as part of the cultural heritage of many modern armed conflicts of the 21st century, are one of the primary goals and thus threatened with destruction and looting. Often the cultural heritage of the opponent is supposed to be permanently damaged or even destroyed, or archaeological finds are stolen and taken away. International and national coordination with regard to military and civil structures for the protection of archaeological finds and excavation sites is carried out by the International Committee of the Blue Shield (Association of the National Committees of the Blue Shield, ANCBS) based in The Hague . Extensive missions were carried out in 2011 in Egypt and Libya, 2013 in Syria, 2014 in Mali and Iraq and since 2015 in Yemen.
areas of expertise
Archeology is a collective term for many archaeological disciplines, which mostly designate certain periods or regions. The individual disciplines differ not only in the subject of research, but also in the methods used, e.g. B. in underwater archeology. In addition, archaeological methods form part of an independent science, for example in forensics . In subjects such as Ancient American Studies or Classical Archeology, the content focus can be non-archaeological.
According to epochs and regions
The disciplines of archeology differ thematically, temporally and spatially. The sources they use are correspondingly different. While there are no or very few written sources in prehistoric archeology and the material remains of this period are mainly referred to, other archaeological disciplines can also evaluate written sources.
- Prehistoric archeology deals with a period that begins with the first stone tools around 2.5 million years ago and ends with early history (Migration Period, Roman Empire, Early Middle Ages) and the first written sources.
- This specialty is located at the interface between prehistory and early history and classical archeology. Research is aimed at the Roman provinces using the methods of prehistory and early history.
- Classical archeology focuses on the legacies of the ancient world. More precisely, the Greeks, Etruscans and Romans in historical times (roughly between the 2nd millennium BC and the 5th century AD). Classical archeology also includes Etruscology and the Aegean prehistory , which deals with Cycladic , Minoan and Mycenaean finds.
- Medieval archeology or archeology of the Middle Ages
- Medieval archeology begins smoothly at the end of early history (around the 9th century) and theoretically ends with the transition to modern archeology (around the 16th century). In contrast to prehistoric archeology, it works in a period over which written sources are increasingly available. In addition, there is often a rising stock of buildings, which the archeology of the Middle Ages examines with the methods of historical building research (building or monument archeology).
- Historical archeology is a term that describes the parallel transmission of material archaeological sources and written transmission. On the one hand, it is used pragmatically for the archeology of the Middle Ages and the modern era or only that of the modern era. In the methodological-phenomenological sense, on the other hand, it aims at cultures or epochs with so-called dense (written) tradition worldwide.
The following disciplines represent geographical focuses:
- Egyptology deals with ancient Egypt (about 5th millennium BC to 4th century AD). The Coptic Studies , which examines the culture of the early Christians in Egypt, is a part of Egyptology.
- This subject arises from the predominantly philologically oriented ancient oriental studies and is dedicated to the ancient cultures of the Middle East , essentially the area of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan ( Babylon , Assyria , Sumer , Akkad , Elam , Hittites and Urartu ), but also with the successor states. The examined period extends from the 11th millennium BC. Until 7th century AD
- The Near East Archeology is closely related to Biblical Archeology , which researches the settlement and cultural history of Palestine and Egyptology , as in some epochs Egypt ruled the area of today's Israel and Lebanon, at other times oriental empires incorporated Egypt.
- Archeology of the New World, a branch of ancient American studies
- According to phases and aspects of cultural development
- Primate archeology (earliest phase of mankind, first tools)
- Settlement archeology (from the Neolithic )
- Mining archeology (mining and metallurgy, from the Bronze Age )
- Christian archeology (especially late antiquity )
- Church archeology
- Legal archeology (especially the Middle Ages )
- Industrial archeology
- According to special sites
- Glacier archeology
- Coastal archeology
- Battlefield archeology (time horizon: Bronze Age to 20th century)
- Urban archeology (excavations in today's cities)
- Route archeology (along railway, canal, line and road construction measures)
- Underwater archeology
- Special objects of investigation
- Special issues
- Cognitive archeology (question about consciousness at the time)
- Archaeological gender research (question about the roles of the sexes at the time)
- Special methods
- Archaeoinformatics (use of modern data processing)
- Archaeometry (use of modern scientific methods)
- Geoarchaeology (use of geoscientific methods)
- Aerial archeology
- Experimental archeology
- Auxiliary sciences
- Analysis of animal bones, pollen and plant finds to reconstruct the environmental conditions. The objects of investigation include soil samples as well as stomach contents, garbage pits and latrines.
- Paleopathology (interface to medicine)
- Paleopathologists perform medical examinations on human bones and tissues to determine the age and gender of individuals and to infer their health. Paleopathology enables knowledge about living conditions, eating habits and diseases. Furthermore, conclusions can be drawn about the medical care and social cohesion of our ancestors.
- Archaeoastronomy or astroarchaeology , also palaeoastronomy (interface to astronomy)
- Archaeoastronomy is required to analyze prehistoric places of worship. For example, the solstice points of a specific time are calculated to reveal the possible astronomical significance of sites.
- Historical building research (interface to architecture)
- Historical climatology and paleoclimatology
Archaeological research methods are divided into those of source identification and those of interpretation. The public usually only takes note of the indexing of the sources. The typological and chronological evaluation is also part of the source indexing. The historical interpretation only follows after the sources have been identified and processed.
The excavation is the best known research method, but only a small part of the archaeological work. The documentation, evaluation, conservation and archiving of the finds represent by far the largest part of the archaeological activity. In addition, the excavation must be carefully prepared.
Prospecting and preliminary investigations
Prospecting encompasses non-destructive methods that enable the investigation of potential or known sites. This includes the site inspection (survey), aerial archeology and geophysical methods ( geoelectrics , electromagnetic induction, geomagnetic mapping as well as ground radar and LIDAR ). Phosphate analysis can also be used prospectively .
An excavation is initiated by preliminary archaeological investigations. Search trenches, magnetic probes, soil resistance measurements, aerial photographs and other methods of soil research are used here. The preliminary investigations serve to get an idea of the potential excavation site in order to better plan the actual excavation.
Most of the sites are discovered today through construction work. The archaeological monument conservation department tries to evaluate these findings before they are finally destroyed by means of emergency excavations , also known as rescue excavations . Research excavations are rarer, in which, with primarily scientific interests, sites can be selected for excavation and examined without external time pressure.
Since every excavation leads to the destruction of a finding, exact documentation should make the place of discovery, at least on paper, reconstructable later in detail. The most important tools of the excavation are, besides the trowel , "paper and colored pencil".
Building research is an essential part of both classical and medieval archeology ; whereas in prehistory and early history it only played a subordinate role due to the lack of structures that have been preserved. One of the documentation methods is photogrammetry .
The very popular example of the glacier mummy Ötzi shows that the excavation represents only a fraction of the archaeological work. The find, discovered in 1991, is still being scientifically investigated today.
Typology is the classification of objects according to criteria of shape and material. It is fundamental for the classification of the find material, as it enables comparisons with find situations at other sites and becomes the basis of combination analyzes (for relative chronological dating as well as for socio-economic classification) and distribution analyzes.
As with prospecting and age determination, modern scientific techniques are also used for material determination (see archaeometry ). For the identification and detailed investigation of artifacts, a. the microscopy , infrared - and scans , x-ray , chemical analysis, spectral analysis and laser scans.
One focus of the find analysis is the dating of the findings (e.g. grave) on the basis of the finds (e.g. grave goods ). When determining the age, a distinction is made between absolute chronology and relative chronology .
The relative chronology puts one find in relation to another. Is he younger, older or even at the same time? JJ Winckelmann's “comparative vision” is one of the first methods of relative chronology.
- Find combination of closed finds (see also seriation and correspondence analysis ).
In the case of absolute chronology, an absolute date (year, century) is assigned to a find
- 14 C dating (for organic substances)
- Thermoluminescence dating also: TL dating (for ceramics)
- Dendrochronology (for wood)
- Potassium-Argon method (for rocks)
The methods of interpretation are usually more humanistic. For prehistoric archeology, the inference by analogy is the essential possibility of interpretation. In historical archeology (e.g. classical archeology or archeology of the Middle Ages) it is the comparison with information from other sources, such as written or pictorial tradition.
Archeology in Germany
In Germany, archeology is one of the tasks of the federal states ( state archaeologist ), usually organized as a section of the monument office as ground monument preservation . Larger cities often have their own urban archeology . Several institutions support researchers and projects through archeology awards .
Archeology outside Europe
Archeology in America
In America, archeology belongs to anthropology (ethnology) and for this reason has a completely different orientation than European research. This is mainly due to the fact that at the time of the colonization of the new world, ethnographic studies were carried out on the aboriginal people who still existed. The rather sparse pre-Columbian finds are another reason for the focus of American archeology on research into cultural processes.
A pioneer of American archeology is Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), who examined some burial mounds from 1784 to determine their age. Jefferson uses a method for the first time that can be regarded as a forerunner of dendrochronology : he counts the annual rings of the trees on the burial mounds.
In 1990, near Mexico City , archaeologists found over 10,000 artifacts from the time of the Spanish conquest of the country. Not only were human bones found, but weapons, clothing, household appliances and items from the personal belongings of Hernán Cortés were also found . The site of Tecoaque (pre-Hispanic name: Zultepec ) was proposed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site .
Archeology in India and China
In 1863 the Archaeological Survey of India was founded in India . In 1921/1922 one of the oldest high cultures of mankind was discovered, the Indus culture . Are excavated u. a. the cities of Harappa and Mohenjodaro .
Archeology in China begins with the Swedish geologist J. Gunnar Andersson (1874–1960), who discovered a Neolithic cave near Yang Shao Tsun in Honan in 1921, proving that China was inhabited in prehistoric times. Anyang , the capital of the Shang dynasty of the 2nd millennium BC , is excavated in 1928 . Chr.
Archeology in Africa
Africa is not only the cradle of humanity in paleoanthropological terms, but also that of our culture. Only in Africa are stone tools that are 2.5 million years old and the manufacture of which is associated with the first homo species of our species. The tools in question - simple oldowan- type rubble tools , later hand axes, to name the main shapes - are also found in other parts of the world, but they are much younger there. In Europe, the oldest places date back to a million years. New, around 3.3 million year old finds in Lomekwi 3 , Kenya, are interpreted as evidence of an independent archaeological culture , suggested as Lomekwian .
Since the 17th century , the northeast of Africa has been the subject of intensive research by Egyptology and Coptic Studies . This region of the continent is well documented in an international comparison. However, since the oldest written sources in sub-Saharan Africa do not go back further than 600 years, archeology is of particular importance here. Due to the short research tradition in comparison to Central Europe, however, this is often just the beginning.
Preparation for the public and protection
The communication of archaeological research results takes place in different ways:
- through specialist books and journals
- through popular science publications
- in museums (see archaeological collection )
- in situ : Finds and findings can be presented in the form of an archaeological window permanently at the location of the find or at another suitable location and at the same time protected from interference and weather.
- In the area: monuments visible above ground can be made accessible through signposts or as part of a hiking trail (see archaeological hike , such as the archaeological and natural history hiking trail Lübeck ). In an archaeological park , there are mostly reconstructions. Reconstructions or the reconstruction are scientifically very controversial, since a reconstruction is always speculative and only reflects the current state of knowledge. In addition, they are often colored by the prevailing zeitgeist. However, there are also interfaces to experimental archeology in that the feasibility and practical relevance of a theory can be checked.
- through guided tours
- through museum didactic demonstrations (mostly declared as experimental archeology ). In many places there are regional societies and associations that are dedicated to archeology and carry out corresponding campaigns (see list of archaeological societies in Germany ).
The protection of archaeological finds for the public against disasters, wars and armed conflicts is increasingly being enforced internationally. This is done on the one hand through international agreements and on the other hand through organizations that monitor or enforce protection. Blue Shield International with its archaeologists and local partner organizations is a global example . The importance of archaeological finds in relation to identity, tourism and sustainable economic growth are repeatedly emphasized. The President of Blue Shield International, Karl von Habsburg , explained during a cultural property protection mission in Lebanon in April 2019 with the United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon : “Cultural property is part of the identity of the people who live in a certain place . If you destroy their culture, you also destroy their identity. Many people are uprooted, often no longer have any prospects and as a result flee from their homeland. "
- "Unter dem Boden", a film by Erich Langjahr
- Johannes Bergemann : Orientation archeology - what it can do, what it wants. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2000. ISBN 3-499-55612-X (Classical Archeology).
- Colin Renfrew , Paul G. Bahn: Archeology - Theories, Methods and Practice . 5th edition, London 2005, ISBN 978-0-500-28719-4 (good introduction to English); shortened German translation by Helmut Schareika: Basic knowledge of archeology. Theories - Methods - Practice , Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2009, ISBN 978-3-8053-3948-3 .
- Manfred KH Eggert: Prehistoric Archeology. Concepts and Methods . (4th revised edition UTB Francke, Tübingen, Basel 2008). ISBN 978-3-8252-3696-0 .
- Hans Jürgen Eggers : Introduction to the prehistory. Newly published by Christof Krauskopf. With an afterword by Claudia Theune . 6th edition, scrîpvaz, Schöneiche bei Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-942836-17-3 . With a list of the writings of Hans Jürgen Eggers.
- Manfred KH Eggert, Stefanie Samida: Prehistory and Early History Archeology (2nd edition UTB, Tübingen 2013). ISBN 978-3-8252-3890-2 .
- Barbara Scholkmann - Hauke Kenzler - Rainer Schreg (Ed.), Archeology of the Middle Ages and the Modern Age. Basic knowledge, Darmstadt: Wiss. Book Society 2016, ISBN 9783534268115
- Paul G. Bahn (Ed.): Archeology. Cambridge Illustrated History. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1996. ISBN 0-521-45498-0 .
- Reinhard Bernbeck : Theories in Archeology (UTB Science Volume 1964) . Francke Verlag, Tübingen, Basel 1997, ISBN 3-8252-1964-X , ISBN 3-7720-2254-5 .
- Marion Benz, Christian Maise: Archeology. Theiss, Stuttgart 2006. ISBN 3-8062-1966-4 .
- Manfred KH Eggert: Archeology. Basics of a historical cultural studies. Francke, Tübingen 2006. ISBN 3-8252-2728-6 .
- Brockhaus archeology. High cultures, excavation sites, finds. FA Brockhaus, Mannheim / Leipzig 2008, ISBN 978-3-7653-3321-7 .
- Alain Schnapp : The discovery of the past. Origins and Adventures of Archeology (from the French by Andreas Wittenburg). Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-608-93359-8 (review by Lutz Bunk Archaeological Detective Work ).
- Jeorjios Martin Beyer: Archeology. From treasure hunt to science. Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2010, ISBN 978-3-8053-4166-0 .
- Matthias Knaut, Roland Schwab (Hrsg.): Archeology in the 21st century. Innovative methods - groundbreaking results. Konrad Theiss, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-8062-2188-6 .
- Geoffrey John Tassie, Lawrence Stewart Owens: Standards of Archaeological Excavations: A Fieldguide to the Methology, Recording Techniques and Conventions , London 2010, ISBN 978-1-906137-17-5 .
- Marco Kircher: Wa (h) re archeology. The medialization of archaeological knowledge in the field of tension between science and the public (series Historische Lebenswelten) , transcript. Publishing house for communication, culture and social practice, Bielefeld 2012, ISBN 978-3-8376-2037-5 .
- Aedeen Cremin: Great Encyclopedia of Archeology. The most important archaeological sites in the world. Konrad Theiss, Stuttgart 2013, ISBN 978-3-8062-2753-6 .
- Bruce Trigger : A History of Archaeological Thought . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1990. ISBN 0-521-33818-2 .
- S. Wolfram and U. Sommer: Power of the past - who makes the past. Archeology and politics. In: Contributions to the prehistory and early history of Central Europe. Volume 3 Beier & Beran, Wilkau-Hasslau 1993
- Archeology in Germany
- Martin Kuckenburg: Settlements of prehistory in Germany, 300,000 to 15 BC Chr. DuMont, Cologne 1994. ISBN 3-7701-2922-9 .
- Wilfried Menghin , Dieter Planck (Hrsg.): People times spaces archeology in Germany. Theiss, Stuttgart 2002. ISBN 3-8062-1596-0 .
- Uta von Freeden, Siegmar von Schnurbein (ed.): Traces of the millennia. Archeology and History in Germany. Theiss, Stuttgart 2003. ISBN 3-8062-1337-2 (Together with the next volume, the “Performance Show of German State Archeologies”).
- Archeology in Europe
- Barry Cunliffe : Illustrated Pre- and Early History of Europe. Campus, Frankfurt / Main 2000. ISBN 3-88059-979-3 .
- Peter F. Biehl, Alexander Gramsch, Arkadiusz Marciniak (eds.): Archaeologies of Europe. History, methods and theories. Tübingen Archaeological Pocket Books Vol. 3 (2002). Waxmann Münster ISBN 3-8309-1067-3
Series of publications
- Graz antiquity studies, Peter Lang publishing house, Frankfurt am Main a. a.
- Archaeological reports of the German Society for Prehistory and Early History
- Heinrich Otte : Archaeological dictionary to explain the art expressions occurring in the writings on Christian art antiquities: German, Latin, French and English. Leipzig 1877, reprint of the original edition by Reprint-Verlag Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-8262-1513-3
- Guido Nockemann: The DAS Project - Digitization of an archaeological collection , 2011, e-paper for the Day Of Archeology 2011 (English)
- Literature on archeology in the catalog of the German National Library
- Internet portal for archeology By far the most extensive German-language access to archeology on the Internet is constantly updated.
- Online portal for prehistoric archeology . Online portal with an extensive knowledge database on prehistoric archeology
- Aerial archeology pictures (Hungarian)
- Experimental archeology, archeoparagliding, reconstructions Website of Marek Poznański (multilingual)
Clubs and organizations
- German Archaeological Association
- German Archaeological Institute
- German Society for Prehistory and Early History V. (DGUF)
- Archeology Foundation
- List of all state offices for archeology in Germany
- Innsbruck Archaeological Society Website of the Innsbruck Archaeological Society
- Archaeological museums at webmuseen.de
- www.exar.org EXAR - European Association for the Promotion of Experimental Archeology e. V.
- EXARC (European EXchange on Archaeological Research and Communication) Association of European institutions for experimental archeology.
- AG Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archeology
- Working group “Archeology and Archaeobotany of Africa” at the Institute for Archaeological Sciences at Goethe University Frankfurt
- Website for the preservation of monuments in Krefeld
- Umbrella Association of Archaeological Student Representations
- List of excavation companies and institutions active in Austria
- Sonia Harmand, Jason E. Lewis, Craig S. Feibel, Christopher J. Lepre, Sandrine Prat: 3.3-million-year-old stone tools from Lomekwi 3, West Turkana, Kenya . In: Nature . tape 521 , no. 7552 , May 21, 2015, ISSN 0028-0836 , p. 310-315 , doi : 10.1038 / nature14464 ( nature.com [accessed May 27, 2017]).
- See MKH Eggert: Archeology: Fundamentals of a Historical Cultural Studies , Tübingen / Basel 2006, UTB 2728
- Hansjürgen Müller-Beck: The Stone Age - The way of people in history. CH Beck, Munich 2008, p. 22.
- Andreas Grüner: Archeology as capital - the media strategies of Cyriacus of Ancona (1390-1452) . In: Munich Yearbook of Fine Arts . tape 63.2012 , January 1, 2012, p. 7–36 ( digizeitschriften.de [accessed December 13, 2016]).
- David Rice McKee: Isaac De la Peyrère, A Precursor of Eighteenth-Century Critical Deists . In: PMLA . tape 59 , no. 2 , January 1, 1944, p. 456-485, p. 459 , doi : 10.2307 / 459339 , JSTOR : 459339 .
- History and equipment of the institute - the beginning of prehistory in Europe. Institute for Prehistory & Historical Archeology at the University of Vienna, archived from the original on October 20, 2013 ; Retrieved February 3, 2015 .
- See homepage of the US Committee of the Blue Shield; accessed on October 26, 2016. Isabelle-Constance v. Opalinski: Shots at civilization . In: FAZ , August 20, 2014. Hans Haider: Abuse of cultural goods is a criminal offense . In: Wiener Zeitung , June 29, 2012; Aisling Irwin: A no-strike list may shield Yemen`s ancient treasures from war. In: New Scientist. Daily news of January 23, 2017 (accessed September 17, 2017).
- Karl von Habsburg on a mission in Lebanon. Retrieved July 19, 2019 .
- Jyot Hosagrahar: Culture: at the heart of SDGs. UNESCO courier, April – June 2017.
- Rick Szostak: The Causes of Economic Growth: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Springer Science & Business Media, 2009, ISBN 9783540922827 .
- Corine Wegener, Marjan Otter: Cultural Property at War: Protecting Heritage during Armed Conflict. In: The Getty Conservation Institute, Newsletter 23.1, Spring 2008