Rudolf Virchow

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Portrait of Rudolf Virchow, lithograph by Georg Engelbach

Rudolf Ludwig Carl Virchow (pronunciation of the surname: [ˈfɪrço], "Fircho" ), also Rudolph (us) Virchow (born October 13, 1821 in Schivelbein / Hinterpommern , Province of Pomerania ; † September 5, 1902 in Berlin ), was a German Doctor, pathologist , pathological anatomist, anthropologist , prehistorian and politician . He achieved world renown in Würzburg and Berlin. With cellular pathology and his research on thrombosis, he founded modern pathology and represented a medicine that was both scientifically and socially oriented. He was a secret medical advisor. As a liberal politician and co-founder of the German Progressive Party and the German Liberal Party , he was highly regarded. He is considered the founder of modern social hygiene .

Live and act

Childhood and youth

Virchow's birthplace in Schivelbein

Rudolf (or Rudolph) Ludwig Carl Virchow was the only child of the trained businessman Carl Christian Siegfried Virchow (1785–1864), a master butcher's son who worked as an agricultural chamberlain in Schivelbein from 1828 and later ran a 50-acre farm, and his son from Belgard ( Belgard district ) from his wife Johanna Maria geb. Hesse (1785–1857), a sister of the building councilor Ludwig Ferdinand Hesse .

Rudolf Virchow was often ill as a child. From 1828 he went to the Schivelbein city school and also received foreign language lessons from clergymen . From May 1835 he attended high school in Köslin , where he passed his school leaving examination in spring 1839.


From October 26, 1839 to April 1, 1843, Virchow, whose financial circumstances did not allow him to study at a university, studied medicine at the medical and surgical Friedrich Wilhelm Institute in Berlin . He then worked clinically as a surgeon in surgery at the Charité and carried out, among other things, chemical and microscopic research. With a pathological dissertation at Johannes Müller he was established in October 1843 by the Friedrich-Wilhelms University for Dr. med. PhD . Note: Virchow then continued his military medical training and then worked as an assistant to Robert Froriep in the prosecution of the Charité. On May 3, 1845, as a former Pfeifhahn , he gave his first public speech on the 50th anniversary of the Pépinière . In this speech ( On the need and the correctness of medicine from the mechanical point of view ) he described the general physical and chemical laws essentially as the activity of the cell and also explained his ideas about the development of phlebitis, which caused considerable contradiction in the audience . In 1845 he described white blood in blood cancer , the name of which he coined from 1847, leukemia . (The terms thrombosis and embolism also go back to Virchow.) He passed his state exams from autumn 1845 to spring 1846.

First job in Berlin

In May 1846, Virchow, who at the age of 24 was already giving private lectures, received the vacant position of the prosector at the Charité. After he resigned from the military medical service at his own request , Virchow completed his habilitation in November 1847, immediately afterwards (instead of the usual three years after the state examination) became a private lecturer and began to disseminate his views in the form of a magazine with his Friend Benno Reinhardt to publish the archive for pathological anatomy and physiology and for clinical medicine , which has been published in over 450 volumes to this day, now known as Virchow's archive .

In 1848 Virchow was involved in the March Revolution through his participation in the building of barricades , but also fell out with the Prussian government, whose policy he considered to be the cause of the , through his social analysis of the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia , where he was active until March 10 bad hygienic and social conditions. This made his position in Berlin untenable and in March 1849 he finally lost his apartment and his position as a prosector. Several universities, including the ETH Zurich , offered him a chair .

Professorship in Würzburg

Rudolf Virchow among his colleagues in Würzburg in 1850; standing from left: Virchow, Albert von Koelliker ; seated from left: Joseph von Scherer , Franz Kiwisch von Rotterau , Franz von Rinecker
Pathological-anatomical institute in the garden pavilion of the Würzburg Juliusspital at the time of Virchow

Rudolf Virchow Carl took the winter semester 1849 the reputation of the University of Würzburg as a successor to the late Bernhard Mohr. On November 15, 1849, Virchow took over the chair of pathological anatomy there as a full professor . He had previously assured the ministry that he would withdraw from the “political arena”, and he explained to the Würzburg Medical Faculty that “if the opportunity arose, he would not also make Würzburg the playground of his earlier demonstrating radical tendencies”. He began his work in Würzburg, where there was no independent pathological institute conducting scientific research before Virchow, on November 30th, and from December 1st, 1849 he read general pathology and pathological anatomy as well as the history of medicine. The new institute was housed in the garden pavilion of the Juliusspital , which has served as the Theatrum anatomicum since 1727 , where Virchow worked right next to the anatomist Kölliker. In terms of medical publications , Würzburg was Virchow's most productive period. Among other things, he dealt with thromboses and cells .

Rose and Rudolf Virchow, 1851

On August 14, 1850, in the St. Petri Church in Berlin, he married Ferdinande Amalie Rosalie Mayer (born February 29, 1832; died February 21, 1913), the daughter of the secret medical councilor Karl Wilhelm Mayer called Rose Mayer (von Virchow Röschen ) , to whom Virchow got engaged in Berlin. In Würzburg, Virchow developed his theory of cellular pathology , which he initially formulated in an essay. In the years 1852 and 1855, calls to the University of Zurich were rejected by Virchow. Numerous students from many countries came to the institute newly created by Virchow. The zoologist Ernst Haeckel was one of his students . In order to research the phenomenon of cretinism , which was often found in the villages of Franconia at the time , he examined numerous skulls of the deceased in Lower Franconia and published on them from 1851.

Professorship in Berlin

At the request of the Medical Faculty of Berlin University and confirmed by the Prussian Minister of Culture Karl Otto von Raumer , Rudolf Virchow was appointed professor of pathology and therapy in Berlin in 1856. In the same year he took over the newly created professorship for pathology on the premises of the Charité and his old position as a prosector at the Charité. A separate institute building was also set up for Virchow, the first pathological institute in Germany. From October 15, 1856 to May 1, 1873, Virchow was also the doctor of the department for sick prisoners at the Charité hospital. Also in 1856 he published his findings on thrombosis as part of his Collected Treatises on Scientific Medicine . This work influenced thinking about blood diseases and their development. The factors in the development of thrombosis later became known as the Virchow triad .

In 1858 his book Die Cellularpathologie appeared in its justification on physiological and pathological tissue theory . The theory presented in 20 lectures from February to April 1858 states that diseases are based on disorders of the body cells. He derived this from his studies, which were mainly carried out in Würzburg, and which showed that all (plant, animal and human) cells arise from other cells and not, as previously assumed, from a misshapen primordial mucus (blastema). The well-known principle of Virchow's cell theory has been "Omnis cellula e cellula" since 1855, translated as "Every cell [arises] from a cell".

Rudolf Virchow, portrayed by Hanns Fechner (1891)

The principle of the cause of thrombosis recognized by Virchow and the theory of cellular pathology were decisive for the replacement of the krasen theory previously applied in medicine , which attributes diseases to an uneven mixture of body fluids, and thus the humoral pathology that has existed since ancient times , which harmful mixtures of body fluids as Look at the cause of the disease through a modern, scientifically based pathology and pathophysiology.

Virchow also worked as a medical historian . He was also active as a publicist and published several magazines. Until his death he regularly visited the up-and-coming Dürkheim brine bath for grape cure and was on friendly terms with the local district doctor Veit Kaufmann . In 1870 Virchow coined the term malpractice as a "violation of the recognized rules of healing as a result of a lack of proper attention or caution". In court practice, the term malpractice relates to violations of generally accepted rules of medical science ( Latin Lege artis ), i.e. "such mistakes which are usually based on ignorance or poor knowledge, less on inability or even on sheer inattention". Virchow stayed in Berlin for 46 years until his death. In 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, he organized hospital trains, with which he himself traveled to the front, and had barrack hospitals built on Tempelhofer Feld. He expanded the existing pathological-anatomical collection, and from June 27, 1899, it could now be provided with more than 20,000 exhibits in the newly built Pathological Museum of the Royal Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Berlin - today's Berlin Museum of Medical History at the Charité - can be viewed by the interested public.

Europe-wide activities

Virchow, observing a skull operation, Paris 1900

Virchow, who was also in close contact with writers and publishers as well as scientists outside the medical field, remained active into old age and worked tirelessly. In June and July 1887 as well as in January 1888 he prepared expert reports on the microscopic larynx findings in Crown Prince Friedrich Wilhelm . On August 2, 1900, he attended a skull operation in Paris.

Creeds of Faith Virchow

Virchow was a Protestant, but was also critical of the church in public. For Virchow, the fact that each individual could believe in whatever he liked was an expression of the humane. He cannot be understood as an opponent of belief in a god, because for him this was part of human existence, which was to be tolerated. The saying "Thousands of corpses dissected, but found no trace of the human soul" is often attributed to Virchow, but he defended himself on February 22, 1877 in the Prussian House of Representatives against this accusation of having said something like that. After his funeral, a dispute broke out in the ranks of the Protestant Church as to whether it was permissible to take care of the person “who is undoubtedly damned according to believers ” and to arrange a Christian burial for him. For the funeral service with funeral procession from the town hall to the cemetery on September 9th, thousands of mourners had gathered to pay their final respects.

End of life

Burial place of Rudolf and Rose Virchow in the old St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof Berlin

On the way to a meeting of the Geography Society , he fell on the evening of January 4, 1902 while jumping from a still moving tram on Leipziger Strasse and broke his thigh neck. He did not recover from the protracted consequences of this accident despite an initially promising bathing and spa stay in May 1902 in the Bohemian town of Teplitz . As early as August 11, 1902, the Neue Preussische (Kreuz-) Zeitung reported on his poor health. He died eight months after his accident on September 5, 1902 at 1 p.m. in Berlin.

His grave (field H, HS-012/013, G2) is in the Old St. Matthew Cemetery on Großgörschenstrasse in Berlin-Schöneberg . Since 1952 it has been dedicated to his citizen Virchow as an honorary grave of the city of Berlin .

Rudolf Virchow's successor as professor in Berlin was his former assistant Johannes Orth , who also wrote an obituary for his predecessor, in which he praised his teacher as “ Praezeptor orbis terrarum”.

Special fields of activity

Virchow as a social hygienist


Rudolf Virchow, portrayed by Hugo Vogel in 1861

In 1848, on behalf of Friedrich Eichhorn , Virchow, together with the secret chief medical officer Barez, investigated the situation there due to a typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia and came to the conclusion that the policy of the Prussian government was responsible for the suffering of the starving and poor population. He recommended that the mixed Polish-German population be supplied with medicines and food and, as a consequence of the epidemic, demanded “full and unrestricted democracy” and “above all education with their daughters, freedom and prosperity”. This makes Virchow the founder of modern social hygiene. Virchow also worked as a practical hygienist . In this role he advised German and foreign governments on disease issues. In 1859 he received an order from the Norwegian government to assess the leprosy that was widespread there. Virchow took care of the introduction of the obligatory Trichinenschau in Prussia.

During his time in Würzburg, in 1852, he published a medical-geographical-historical sketch on the distress in the Spessart , written on behalf of the Bavarian State Government , in the eight-day research of which he examined the connection between the chronic hunger state of the population and the occurrence of epidemic diseases.

The meeting of German naturalists and doctors at the 1868 conference in Dresden addressed this question. Virchow advocated the alluvial sewer system , in contrast to the Frankfurt doctor Georg Varrentrapp , who advocated removal and use as fertilizer. From 1869, together with James Hobrecht , Virchow was instrumental in ensuring that Berlin received a sewer system and a central drinking water supply around 1870. The city was drained via twelve independent radial systems , which led to sewage fields outside the city, the cleanest solution for wastewater disposal at the time .

Virchow, like many other representatives of the medical establishment, was very skeptical of the knowledge of medicine about the causes of illness , for example the connection between autopsy exercises and puerperal fever uncovered by Ignaz Semmelweis .

health care

Rudolf Virchow also campaigned for basic medical care for the population: "Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing more than medicine on a large scale". he wrote in 1848 in the weekly " Die medicinische Reform " published by him with Rudolf Leubuscher from July 1848 to June 1849, quoting his friend and colleague Salomon Neumann. In the foreword of the first edition it can also be read that medicine is also "a radical Reform [...] can no longer be postponed ”. In the parallel bars dispute he was asked for an expert opinion and decided in favor of German gymnastics and against Swedish gymnastics as a national health and military preparedness. The establishment of the first municipal hospitals in Berlin goes back to Virchow , for example in Friedrichshain (1874), Moabit (1875, now closed) and Am Urban (1890). Parks and children's playgrounds should also improve the situation of the urban proletariat. Last but not least, Virchow vehemently demanded the possibility of professional training in nursing as well as the nationwide establishment of nursing schools at every large hospital, even beyond denominational affiliations, in order to ensure the nursing health care of the population. Virchow called for the doctor and nurses to work together intelligently.

Virchow's utopia remained the constitution of medicine and society on a scientific basis.


Virchow had become a politician in 1848 by declaring that "prosperity, education and freedom" are mutually dependent. His journal Medical Reform , published from July 1848, spread his socio-political ideas and principles. From 1859 until his death Virchow was an elected member of the Berlin city council , with which he had started his political activity again. As a city councilor, he campaigned for the construction of hospitals , market halls and a hygienic slaughterhouse (the central cattle and slaughterhouse built in 1881 ). The most important project was the planning of a modern sewer system for the city , which he and city councilor Arnold Marggraff pushed ahead .

In 1861 he was a founding member and chairman of the liberal German Progressive Party . His goal was "freedom with their daughters, education and prosperity". He pleaded for a liberal society and social medicine that should be based on scientific education . But he wanted to keep a distance from unproven hypotheses in the popularization of the natural sciences and thus turned against the German Darwinist Ernst Haeckel.

From 1862 he sat in the Prussian House of Representatives (from 1865 also for the constituency of Saarbrücken-Ottweiler-St. Wendel), where the German Progressive Party had the majority until 1866. In 1869 he applied there to limit the military spending of the North German Confederation and general disarmament , resolve conflicts through international courts of arbitration, and create the United States of Europe . After the establishment of the German nation-state as an empire in 1871 , Virchow coined the term Kulturkampf in 1873 as the liberation of culture from the influence of the church .

Members of the Liberal Party in the old Reichstag in 1889, Virchow at the table on the left. Also to be seen: Johann Heinrich Nickel , Eugen Richter , Hugo Hermes , Friedrich Witte , Albert Hänel , Gustav Münch , Constantin Bulle , Paul Langerhans and Wilhelm von Unruhe-Bomst , not or not clearly visible: Karl Schrader and Max von Forckenbeck

From 1880 to 1893 Virchow was also an elected member of the German Reichstag . After the Reichstag elections in 1881 , 1884 , 1887 and 1890 he represented Berlin constituency 2 ( Schöneberger Vorstadt , Friedrichsvorstadt , Tempelhofer Vorstadt , Friedrichstadt-Süd ). From 1884 onwards, as a member of the faction of the German Liberal Party, he particularly campaigned for the establishment of basic state medical care . Politically he was already a staunch opponent of the Prussian Prime Minister in 1862 and from 1871 also Chancellor Otto von Bismarck . On June 2, 1865, Virchow verbally attacked Bismarck to such an extent that he was challenged to a duel the following day because of his doubts about his love for truth , which Virchow refused with the words that it was not a contemporary type of discussion. Virchow campaigned for local self-government and for minority rights , including the numerically strong Polish ethnic group in Prussia, and resolutely fought against emerging anti-Semitic tendencies. He didn't think much of colonial politics.

Anthropology, ethnology and archeology

Rudolf Virchow was also a basic researcher in anthropology and was also active in a variety of ways in the fields of ethnology and prehistory .

Virchow began researching prehistory in June 1865, when he examined prehistoric objects in a pile building on the Plöne near Lübenow for their age. In 1870 he explored a branch of the Balver cave in the Sauerland . The Balver cave is an important site of the Middle Paleolithic . Virchow was the first to differentiate between Slavic ceramics ( castle wall type ) and Bronze Age ceramics ( Lusatian type ) and thus promoted castle wall research.

Together with Adolf Bastian and Robert Hartmann , he founded the Berlin Anthropological Society in November 1869 , from which the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory emerged. Virchow was elected chairman of the company and remained so until the end of his life. The German Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory was founded as a national umbrella organization in 1870 . In addition, he published the journal for ethnology in the 1890s . In 1879 he carried out body measurements on seeds in the Berlin zoo as part of his anthropological-ethnological research . Virchow, who had already published a fundamental anthrophological work on skull shapes in 1857, also suggested an anthropological study of German school children: With the consent of all federal states except Hamburg, the hair, skin and eye color of 6,760,000 school children was surveyed and the skull shape was determined. Separate lists were kept for the Jewish students. The results were published in 1886: According to this, there were 31.8% blondes, 14.05% brunettes and 54.15% mixed types in the German Empire. For the approximately 75,000 Jewish children, 11% blondes, 42% black-haired and 47% mixed types were counted. Virchow's expectation was confirmed: There were no pure races in Germany. Rudolf Virchow was therefore hated by the National Socialists. Virchow was thoroughly defamed in a 1939 propaganda fictional film dedicated to Robert Koch and in a Bismarck fictional film the following year. The myth that Virchow and Koch were personal enemies also dates from this period. However, this was not the case. Virchow valued Koch's work, even if he initially did not accept his findings on anthrax and tubercle bacillus, and demanded that the Berlin city council appoint a bacteriologist to Koch's school in Berlin.

Virchow was a friend and sponsor of Heinrich Schliemann and Franz Boas . Virchow personally took part in an excavation in Troy in 1879 . Upon his mediation, Heinrich Schliemann left his Trojan collection, the treasure of Priam , to the city of Berlin, where it ended up in the Berlin Ethnological Museum (instead of in London as originally planned).

Virchow was involved in the founding of several Berlin museums, including the Märkisches Provinzialmuseum (today Märkisches Museum ) and the Museum of Ethnology, which opened in December 1886 (today the Ethnological Museum ). In 1889, the "Museum for German Folk Costumes and Household Products", which had been built up by Virchow and his friends since 1874, was opened in Berlin's Klosterstrasse 36 (later the State Museum for German Folklore, in 1999 merged with the Museum of European Cultures ).

Virchow in his study at the Royal Charité in Berlin, 1895

He saw Charles Darwin's theory of evolution as an interesting model of thought, but overall he could not warm up to it. From 1873 Virchow became increasingly concerned with prehistoric studies and visited relevant places, museums and collections all over Europe. In 1874 he wrote that prehistory was not and probably would not be a subject. Another mistake that the prehistorian Virchow remained with until his death was his misinterpretation of the Neanderthal skeleton of Homo neanderthalensis . On April 27, 1872, he spoke to the Society for Anthropology about his investigation of the Neanderthal skull and considered the Neandertal 1 find secured by Fuhlrott in 1856 from the Kleine Feldhofer Grotte in Neandertal to be a pathologically altered specimen of anatomically modern humans ( Homo sapiens ). Although some of the pathologies described by Virchow were actually present, with the opinion that it was a representative of Homo sapiens , Virchow was wrong (as Otto Walkhoff was able to show radiologically in 1903).


Rudolf Carl Virchow with his children Ernst and Adele (around 1860)

The marriage of Rose and Rudolf Virchow had six children:

  • Carl (1851–1912), born in Würzburg
  • Hans (1852–1940), anatomist, born in Würzburg
  • Adele married Henning, born in Würzburg
  • Hanna or Johanna (* 1852) born in Berlin
  • Ernst (1858–1942), court gardener at Wilhelmshöhe Palace , married to Sophie Niepraschk (1865–1941), born in Berlin
  • Marie, born in Berlin, married to the anatomist Carl Rabl in 1891 . She communicated Rudolf Virchow's letters to his parents' house.

The pathologist Carl Ruge was a nephew of Virchow.


Postage stamp from 1952 (issue date January 24th 1953) from the series Men from the History of Berlin

Orders and Medals

Memberships in academies and associations


Memorial near the Charité by Fritz Klimsch (1910)
Bronze bust of Virchow in front of the pathological institute of the Charité Berlin, which he made world famous
Sculpture in the entrance area of ​​the Museum of European Cultures

The sculptor Fritz Klimsch created the Virchow monument in front of the Charité on Karlplatz in Berlin-Mitte from 1906–1910 .

A bronze bust stands in front of the Charité's Pathological Institute, which was built in 1856 and expanded for the first time in 1873. It is a copy of the marble bust in the deanery, which was made by Bernhard Afinger in 1882 .

Another sculpture by the Potsdam sculptor Marcus Golter is located at the Langenbeck-Virchow-Haus . It was donated by Veronika Hahn from the Berlin Medical Society on the occasion of the restoration of the building in 2004.

Memorial stone for Rudolf Virchow in Schivelbein, now Świdwin , Poland

In Virchow's hometown Świdwin , a memorial stone was placed on a square in the center on September 25, 2013 and the square was named after him. Before that, the memorial stone was placed on Drawskaer Strasse.


The Rudolf Virchow Medal is the highest award of the German Society for Pathology .

Medal for Virchow's 70th birthday

Until 1902 Virchow was chairman of the Rudolf Virchow Foundation (the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory), the basis of which came from the donations for a gold medal minted on the occasion of his 70th birthday in 1891 (made by Anton Scharff).

The Rudolf Virchow Hospital has been part of the Humboldt University in Berlin since 1995 and has been the Charité's Virchow Clinic (CVK) campus since 1998 .

The Glauchau Clinic and the Research Center for Experimental Biomedicine in Würzburg were given the suffix “Rudolf Virchow”.

The Rudolf Virchow Lecture is an important award for prehistoric scholars. It has been awarded by the Paleolithic Research Department of the Roman-Germanic Central Museum since 1987 . This honors Virchow's services to prehistory , in particular his pioneering interdisciplinary approach.

Many streets in Germany are named after Virchow. Several postage stamps with his likeness were issued as well as commemorative medals for Rudolf Virchow.

Since 1960 he has given its name to Virchow Hill , a hill on the Brabant Island in Antarctica.

A moon crater has been named Virchow since 1979 , see Virchow (moon crater) . In 2000 the asteroid (13084) Virchow was named after him.

Is named after him, the plant genus Virchowia Schenk from the family of Figworts (Scrophulariaceae).

In the biographical film Robert Koch, The Fighter of Death from 1939, which is based on a novel by Hellmuth Unger , Rudolf Virchow is played by Werner Krauss .

Virchow is portrayed by Ernst Stötzner in the Charité television series, published in 2017 .

Quotes about Virchow

"Virchow has set an example that in order to recognize people, one has to take both the spiritual and the scientific path."

- Christian Andree (editor of the complete edition)

Fonts (selection)

Cellular Pathology , Second Edition, 1859
  • De rheumate praesertim corneae. Medical dissertation Berlin 1843.
  • White blood. In: (Frorieps) New Notes from the Field of Nature and Medicine. Volume 36 (Landes-Industrie-Comptoir, Weimar) 1845, Sp. 145–160, here: pp. 151–156.
  • About obstruction of the pulmonary artery. In: Frorieps New Notes. No. 794, (January) 1846.
  • Rokitansky, Handbook of General Pathological Anatomy. In: Medicinische Zeitung. Volume 15, 1846, pp. 237-238 and 243-244.
  • Public health care . In: The Medicinische Reform. Volume 1, No. 5, 1848, pp. 21-22; No. 7, pp. 37-40; No. 8, pp. 45-47; No. 9, pp. 53-56.
  • The Unity Efforts in Scientific Medicin . Berlin 1849.
  • About cretinism, especially in Franconia, and about pathological skull shapes. In: Negotiations of the physical and medical society in Würzburg. Volume 2, No. 15-17, 1851, pp. 230-271.
  • About the need in the Spessart. A medical-geographical-historical sketch. Würzburg 1852; Reprinted by Olms, Hildesheim 1968.
  • as Ed .: Handbook of special pathology and therapy. Enke, Erlangen 1854 ff.
  • Investigations into the development of the base of the skull in the healthy and diseased condition and the influence of the same on the shape of the skull, the formation of the face and the structure of the brain. Berlin 1857.
  • Cellular pathology in its justification on physiological and pathological tissue theory. Berlin 1858. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive )
  • Goethe as a natural scientist and in special relation to Schiller. A speech by Rudolf Virchow. Berlin 1861.
  • Canalization or drainage? 1869.
  • Human and monkey skulls. Lecture given on February 18, 1869 in the hall of the Berliner Handwerker-Verein. Berlin 1870.
  • Cellular pathology in its justification on physiological and pathological tissue theory . Verlag von August Hirschwald, 1871 ( online digital , there also other digitized publications ).
  • The indigenous people of Europe. Berlin 1874.
  • Collected treatises in the field of public medicine and epidemiology . 2 volumes. Berlin 1879.
  • Against anti-Semitism. 1880.
  • About teaching in pathological anatomy. In: Clinical Yearbook. Volume 2, 1890, pp. 75-100.
  • The foundation of the Berlin University and the transition from the philosophical to the scientific age . Speech on August 3, 1893 in the auditorium of the Royal Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität zu Berlin, given by the future Rector Rudolf Virchow. Publishing house August Hirschwald, Berlin 1893.

See also


  • Nekrolog (digitized version) International Archive for Ethnography, Volume XVI, Editing Dr. JDE Schmeltz, EJ Brill Verlag, Leiden, The Netherlands, 1904, accessed February 14, 2012.
  • Erwin Heinz Ackerknecht : Rudolf Virchow. Doctor, politician, anthropologist. Stuttgart 1957.
  • Christian Andree : Rudolf Virchow. Life and Ethos of a Great Doctor. Langen Müller, 2002, ISBN 3-7844-2891-6 .
  • Christian Andree: Rudolf Virchow as a prehistorian . 3 volumes. Böhlau, Cologne / Vienna 1976–1986.
  • Christian Andree (Ed.): Rudolf Virchow - Complete Works. Contributions to scientific medicine from the years 1846–1850. Department I. Medicine. Volume 4. Peter Lang, Bern 1992, ISBN 3-261-03665-6 .
  • Christian Andree: Virchow, Rudolf. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 1445-1447.
  • Christian Andree (Ed.): Rudolf Virchow - Versatility, Genius and Humanity. A reader. Olms Verlag, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2009, ISBN 3-487-08822-3 .
  • Arnold Bauer : Rudolf Virchow - the political doctor. Stapp Verlag, Berlin 1982.
  • W. Becher: Rudolf Virchow. A biographical study. S. Karger, Berlin 1894.
  • Rudolf Beneke: Rudolf Virchow . In: Pomeranian Life Pictures . II, pp. 198-236.
  • Hilmar Conrad: The professional training of the nursing, also outside the existing church organizations. Rudolf Virchow's speech on November 6, 1869 . In: History of Nursing . No. 2-2017 . hpsmedia, Nidda 2017, p. 103-113 .
  • Ludwig Aschoff : Rudolf Virchow. Science and world renown. Hoffmann & Campe, Hamburg 1940.
  • Axel W. Bauer : "... impossible to find anything specific in it". Rudolf Virchow and tumor pathology. In: Medical History Journal. Volume 39, Stuttgart 2004, pp. 3-26. ISSN  0025-8431
  • Axel W. Bauer: “Medicine is a social science.” Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902) as a pathologist, politician and publicist. In: medicine - library - information (mbi). Volume 5, Mannheim 2005, Issue 1, pp. 16-20. ISSN  1616-9026 (PDF, online; 129 kB)
  • Andreas W. Daum : Science popularization in the 19th century. Civil culture, scientific education and the German public, 1848–1914. 2nd, supplementary edition, Oldenbourg, Munich 2002, ISBN 978-3-486-56551-5
  • Wolfgang U. Eckart : Rudolf Virchow's "Cell State" between biology and social theory. In: Peter Kemper (ed.): The secrets of health. Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt 1994, ISBN 3-458-16617-3 , pp. 239-255.
  • Constantin Goschler: Rudolf Virchow: medicin - anthropologist - politician . Böhlau Verlag, Cologne [u. a.] 2002, ISBN 3-412-09102-2 . At the same time: Berlin, Humboldt University, habilitation thesis ( review sehepunkte )
  • Karl-Heinz Hense : On the 'arduous path of proper thinking' - Rudolf Virchow: The life of a scholar between science and politics. In: Mut - Forum for Culture, Politics and History No. 551. Asendorf December 2013. Pages 6–19.
  • Wolfgang Jacob : Medical anthropology in the 19th century. People, nature, society. Contribution to a theoretical pathology. On the intellectual history of social medicine and Virchow's general pathology. Enke, Stuttgart 1967.
  • Christian Jenssen: Rudolf Virchow . In: Manfred Asendorf and Rolf von Bockel (eds.): Democratic ways. German résumés from five centuries. A lexicon. JB Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 1997, pp. 859-661, ISBN 3-476-01244-1 .
  • Christian Jenssen: "Armament is the microbe of war ..." - Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902), colorful "Apostle of peace and reconciliation". In: Thomas Ruprecht and Christian Jenssen (eds.): Askulap or Mars? Doctors against the war . Donat, Bremen 1991, ISBN 3-924444-51-X .
  • Eva Johach: Cancer cell and cell state - On medical and political metaphors in Rudolf Virchow's cellular pathology . Rombach, Freiburg / Berlin / Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-7930-9511-8 .
  • Werner Köhler and Hanspeter Mochmann: Milestones in bacteriology. About discoveries and discoverers from the early years of medical microbiology . Minerva - Knowledge Edition, 1997, ISBN 978-3-936611-16-8 .
  • Ernst Meyer: Rudolf Virchow. Limes, Wiesbaden 1956.
  • Shahrooz Mohajeri: 100 Years of Berlin Water Supply and Sewage Disposal 1840–1940. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-515-08541-6 (Review by Charlotte Bühl-Gramer in: sehepunkte. Volume 6, 2006, No. 5 from May 15, 2006 )
  • Nikolaus Muschong: Hans Virchow (1852-1940). Life and work. Med. Diss., Bonn 2011.
  • Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991.
  • Thomas Sauer, Ralf Vollmuth : Letters from members of the Würzburg medical faculty in the estate of Anton Ruland. Sources on the history of medicine in the 19th century with short biographies. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 9, 1991, pp. 135-206, here: pp. 197-201.
  • Heinrich Schipperges : Rudolf Virchow. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1994, ISBN 3-499-50501-0 .
  • Hermann Schlueter: Virchow as a biologist. A compilation. Hippocrates, Stuttgart / Leipzig 1938.
  • Hellmuth Unger : Virchow. A life dedicated to research. Hoffmann and Campe Verlag, Hamburg 1953.
  • Manfred Vasold: Rudolf Virchow. The great doctor and politician. DVA, Stuttgart 1988, ISBN 3-421-06387-7 .
  • Gerhard Jaeckel: The Charité. Ullstein Verlag, 2006, ISBN 3-548-33235-8 .
  • Wolfgang U. Eckart (eds.): Rudolf Virchow and Gustav Adolph Spiess. Cellular pathology versus humoral and solidarity pathology. Springer Spectrum, Berlin / Heidelberg 2016, ISBN 978-3-642-41680-4 . (Annotated edition of the original publications)
  • Kurt Winter : Rudolf Virchow. BSB BG Teubner, Leipzig 1976.
  • Ingo Wirth (Ed.): Virchow research as a life's work. Festschrift for the 80th birthday of Christian Andree . Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 2018, ISBN 978-3-487-15703-0 .
  • Rudolf Virchow. A memorial sheet for the 100th anniversary of his birthday. Special print from: German Medical Weekly. Gustav Fischer, Jena 1921.

Web links

Commons : Rudolf Virchow  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Rudolf Virchow  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Collins Dictionary.
  2. Werner Leibbrand: Rudolf Carl Virchow , in: About important doctors of history , Volume II, special edition, Droemersche Verlagsanstalt , Zurich 1982, ISBN 3-426-03919-2 , p. 14.
  3. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991, p. 6 f.
  4. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 7.
  5. ^ Paul Wätzold: Master list of the Kaiser Wilhelms Academy for military medical education. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 1910, p. 19 (extract from )
  6. Dissertation: De rheumate praesertim cornea .
  7. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991, pp. 9 f., 22 f. and 25.
  8. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991, p. 10 f.
  9. ^ Christian Andree: Rudolf Virchow. Life and Ethos of a Great Doctor . Langen-Müller, Munich 2002, p. 51-52 .
  10. ^ Heinrich Schipperges: Rudolf Virchow. Portrayed by Heinrich Schipperges . Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1994, p. 17 .
  11. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991, pp. 15-19.
  12. ^ Emil Kugler : Rudolf Virchow's lectures on general pathological anatomy in Würzburg. Gustav Fischer, Jena 1930.
  13. Robert Herrlinger : The development of medical history teaching at the Julius Maximilians University. In: Messages from the Georg Sticker Institute for the History of Medicine at the University of Würzburg. Issue 1, March 1957, pp. 1–8, here: p. 4.
  14. ^ Ernst Werner Kohl: Virchow in Würzburg. Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1976 (= Würzburg medical historical research. Volume 6). ISBN 3-921456-05-3 .
  15. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 19 f.
  16. ^ Martin Benno Schmidt : Rudolf Virchow in Würzburg . Lecture given at the conference of the German Society for the History of Medicine in Kissingen on September 16, 1921. Verlag der Physikalisch-Medizinischen Gesellschaft, Würzburg 1921.
  17. Catherine N. Bagot, Roopen Arya: Virchow and his triad: a question of attribution. In: British Journal of Hematology . Volume 143, Issue 2, October 2008, pp. 180–190. Epub 2008 Sep 6. PMID 18783400 .
  18. Pathological Institute of the Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg: Rudolf Virchow and his wife Rose .
  19. ^ Rudolf Virchow: Cellular Pathology. In: Virchow's archive. Volume 8, 1855, pp. 3-39.
  20. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991, p. 21.
  21. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 28 f.
  22. Catherine N. Bagot, Roopen Arya: Virchow and his triad: a question of attribution.
  23. Hans-Werner Altmann : 1850 to 1950 - an eventful century of Würzburg pathology history. In: Andreas Mettenleiter (Ed.): Tempora mutantur et nos? Festschrift for Walter M. Brod on his 95th birthday. With contributions from friends, companions and contemporaries. Akamedon, Pfaffenhofen 2007, pp. 399-403, here: p. 399.
  24. ^ Anne-Marie Mingers: Famous Scientists in Würzburg and Their Contributions to Hemostaseology. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 8, 1990, pp. 73-83, here: p. 75.
  25. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 28 f.
  26. ^ Anne-Marie Mingers: Famous Scientists in Würzburg and Their Contributions to Hemostaseology. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 8, 1990, pp. 73-83, here: pp. 75 f.
  27. Axel W. Bauer : Causes or Motives? The dilemma of medical research between scientific and hermeneutic methods. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 17, 1998, pp. 53–63, here: pp. 54–56 ( Rudolf Virchow and Hermann Helmholtz as representatives of the scientific method in medicine in the 19th century ).
  28. See also Rudolf Virchow: The scientific method and the standpoints in therapy. In: Archives for pathological anatomy and physiology and for clinical medicine. Volume 2, 1849, pp. 3-37.
  29. ^ Rudolf Virchow: Malpractice of the Doctors, files of the Reichstag of the North German Confederation , Appendix 3 to No. 5, 1870, pp. XII-XV.
  30. F. v. Neureiter / F. Pietrusky / E. Schütt: Concise dictionary of forensic medicine and scientific criminology. 1940, p. 17 on .
  31. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 33.
  32. ^ Petra Lennig, Manfred Dietel : Pathology Museum, Charité. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , pp. 1113-1115.
  33. Christian Andree: What was Rudolf Virchow's relationship with contemporary poets, artists, publishers and editors? Attempt to approach via the correspondent. Part I in: Josef Domes, Werner Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Christoph Weißer, Volker Zimmermann (eds.): Light of nature. Medicine in specialist literature and poetry. Festschrift for Gundolf Keil on his 60th birthday. Göppingen 1994, pp. 1-20; Part II in: Würzburg medical-historical messages. Volume 12, 1994, pp. 259-286.
  34. Virchow, Rudolf: Complete Works. Bd. 33. Section II. Politics. Political activity in the Prussian House of Representatives from February 14, 1870 to December 13, 1874 as well as related documents . Ed .: Christian Andree. tape 33 . Bern 1997, p. 375 and 476 .
  35. ^ Andree, Christian: Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902) in the field of tension between faith, church and state. Who was Rudolf Virchow really? In: Meyer, Dietrich (Hrsg.): Yearbook for Silesian Church History. tape 84/85, 2005/2006 . Würzburg 2006, p. 111 .
  36. Virchow, Rudolf: Complete Works. Vol. 34. Section II. Politics. Political activity in the Prussian House of Representatives from February 6, 1875 to March 2, 1877 . Ed .: Christian Andree. tape 34 . Berlin 1999, p. 540-541 .
  37. Neues Wiener Journal, September 28, 1902, p. 9 [1]
  38. ^ Report on the funeral in: Neue Freie Presse, September 10, 1902, p. 6 f. [2]
  39. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, pp. 25, 35 f. and 38 f.
  40. Der Spiegel, No. 14, April 5, 1999
  41. See also Werner Körte : Rudolf Virchow's Accident and Illness. In: Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift. 1902.
  42. “The patient can hardly get out of bed, sometimes sleeps the whole day or at least dawns apathetically. His physical strength and especially his mental receptiveness decrease in the same way. A complete restoration unfortunately appears to be impossible ”. New Prussian Newspaper. No. 372 of August 11, 1902.
  43. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 39.
  44. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, pp. 40-42.
  45. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, pp. 11 and 14 f.
  46. ^ Kajsa Katharina Wennberg-Hilger: The epidemic occurrence of leprosy in some coastal regions of western Norway in the 19th century with a supplementary report on the corresponding situation in Sweden. Medical dissertation, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, 2011 ( online version ).
  47. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 21 f.
  48. ^ Institute for Pathology at the Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg (ed.): Virchow comments on puerperal sepsis , accessed on April 17, 2020
  49. Wolfgang U. Eckart : Medicine is a social science. Hunger, epidemics, politics and the justification of social medicine by the pathologist and politician Rudolf Virchow , University Library University of Heidelberg 2012, online resource, video recording. Medicine is a social science 2012
  50. ^ Rudolf Virchow: The doctor for the poor . In: Christian Andree (Ed.): Complete works . Dept. I - Medicine Volume 05 : The medical reform. A weekly publication, published from July 10, 1848 to June 29, 1849. Olms Weidmann, Hildesheim 2010, ISBN 978-3-487-14441-2 (first edition: Berlin 1848).
  51. ^ Günter Regneri: "Medicine is a social science." - On the genesis of a quote. German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention V., 2011, accessed on September 22, 2018 .
  52. Arnd Krüger : History of movement therapy. In: Preventive Medicine . Springer Loseblatt Collection, Heidelberg 1999, 07.06, pp. 1–22.
  53. ^ Hilmar Conrad: The professional training of nursing, also outside the existing church organizations: Speech by Rudolf Virchow on November 6, 1869; a source analysis . In: in history of nursing . No. 2-2017 . Hpsmedia, 2017, ISSN  2193-8296 , p. 103-113 .
  54. Christine R. Auer: History of the nursing professions as a subject . The curriculum development in nursing education and training, dissertation at the Institute for the History and Ethics of Medicine (formerly: History of Medicine) of the University of Heidelberg, Supervisor Wolfgang U. Eckart , Heidelberg 2008, on Rudolf Virchow: pp. 80–84 .
  55. See also Rudolf Beneke: Von Virchow's importance for public health care and public welfare. Reprint from: German Medical Weekly: Rudolf Virchow. A memorial sheet for the 100th anniversary of his birthday. Gustav Fischer, Jena 1921.
  56. Axel W. Bauer : Rudolf Virchow. In: Wolfgang U. Eckart and Christoph Gradmann (eds.): Ärztelexikon. From antiquity to the 20th century. 1st edition, CH Beck , Munich 1995, 2nd edition, Springer Verlag , Heidelberg, Berlin et al. 2001, 3rd edition, Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin et al. 2006, pp. 332–333, print and online version ( ISBN 978-3-540-29584-6 and ISBN 978-3-540-29585-3 ).
  57. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 14 f.
  58. ^ Andreas W. Daum: Science popularization in the 19th century. Bourgeois Culture, Scientific Education, and the German Public, 1848-1914 . 2nd, supplementary edition Oldenbourg, Munich 2002, p. 65-82, 127-129, 133-136, 445-447, 514 .
  59. Hans Leiner: Rudolf Virchow. An exceptional doctor and his connection to the Saarland . Bertuch publishing house. Retrieved April 30, 2019.
  60. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 30.
  61. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 30.
  62. Tanja Kotlorz: He irritated Bismarck down to the blood . Article from June 25, 1999 on, the website of the newspaper Die Welt
  63. Petra Lennig: The refused duel: Bismarck against Virchow. (PDF) In: German Historical Museum , accessed on March 25, 2017 .
  64. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 25.
  65. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 35 f.
  66. Karl von den Steinen : Rudolf Virchow and the Anthropological Society. 1921.
  67. ^ History of the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory . In: Homepage of the Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory . Retrieved March 21, 2016.
  68. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 31.
  69. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 31.
  70. George L. Mosse: The history of racism in Europe. Fischer TB, 1990, pp. 113-115; exact statistics in Erwin Ackerknecht: Rudolf Virchow. Madison 1953, p. 214
  71. ^ Wolfgang U. Eckart : Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902). In: Michael Fröhlich (Ed.): Das Kaiserreich. Portrait of an Era in Biographies. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2001, p. 106.
  72. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 25 f.
  73. ^ Christian Andree: Rudolf Virchow. Life and Ethos of a Great Doctor . Langen Müller, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-7844-2891-6 , p. 94-95 .
  74. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 37.
  75. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. Echter-Verlag, Würzburg 1991, p. 35.
  76. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 35.
  77. ^ Carl Schuchardt: Rudolf Virchow as a prehistorian. Berlin Society for Anthropology, Ethnology and Prehistory, 1921.
  78. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 31.
  79. ^ The error of Rudolf Virchow - 150 years ago the Neanderthal was discovered - German Foundation for Monument Protection .
  80. History of the Rathgen Research Laboratory ( Memento from October 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file; 4 MB), there given as source: Kürschner's German Literature Calendar . Vol. 24 (1902) and Vol. 35 (1913)
  81. Biography of Hans Virchow , Humboldt University of Berlin
  82. ^ A b Library for Research on Educational History ( Memento from October 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  83. ^ Marie Rabl (ed.): Letters to his parents 1839–1864. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig 1906.
  84. Hellmuth Unger : Afterword. In: Hellmuth Unger: Virchow. A life dedicated to research. Hoffmann and Campe Verlag, Hamburg 1953, p. 306 f., Here: p. 306 f. and 314.
  85. Court and State Manual of the Kingdom of Württemberg 1901, p. 166.
  86. ^ Members of the order Pour le Mérite: Rudolph Virchow
  87. ^ List of former members since 1666: Letter V. Académie des sciences, accessed on March 12, 2020 (French).
  88. ^ Fellows Directory. Biographical Index: Former RSE Fellows 1783–2002. (PDF file) Royal Society of Edinburgh, accessed April 18, 2020 .
  89. ^ Member Directory . National Academy of Sciences, accessed April 17, 2020
  90. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 37 f.
  91. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 10.
  92. ^ Rudolf Virchow on the website of the city of Świdwin
  93. Pomnik Rudolfa Virchowa
  94. ^ German Society for Medal Art eV: Scharff, Anton and Karl Waschmann: Rudolf Virchow .
  95. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 36.
  96. ^ Heinz Otremba: Rudolf Virchow. Founder of cellular pathology. A documentation. 1991, p. 38 f.
  97. ^ Minor Planet Circulars. 41032. International Astronomical Union.
  98. Lotte Burkhardt: Directory of eponymous plant names - Extended Edition. Part I and II. Botanical Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem , Free University Berlin , Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-946292-26-5 doi: 10.3372 / epolist2018 .
  99. Hellmuth Unger: Robert Koch. Novel of a great life. Publishing house of the German Medical Association, Berlin 1936
  100. Niels Martens: Robert Koch - Fighter of Death on
  101. ^ Heidrun Riehl-Halen: The German-language tuberculosis film in medical education and training as well as in public education (1913–1973) , dissertation at the Institute for the History of Medicine (today: History and Ethics of Medicine) Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, supervisor Wolfgang U. Eckart , 1998, on the film “Robert Koch, the fighter of death”, pp. 87–93. Video cassette