Privatdozent (abbreviated PD or Priv.-Doz. ) Is the term used at a scientific university for a scientist who has qualified as a professor and is authorized to teach who does not hold a professorship . As university lecturers, private lecturers are authorized to teach academic studies independently and on their own responsibility and are usually also allowed to supervise doctorates . No employment or service relationship is established by the designation private lecturer .
In Austria , universities awarded the license to teach as a university lecturer (Univ.-Doz.) With the habilitation until 2003 , which repeatedly led to confusion with the use of the term for civil servants. It was not until 2004 that the designation Privatdozent was also introduced in Austria, so that the license to teach (as a Privatdozent) was also conceptually differentiated from the position of civil servant (Univ.-Doz.).
A distinction is usually made between teaching qualifications ( facultas docendi , achieved through the habilitation ) and teaching qualifications ( venia docendi , awarded at the request of the faculty). Private lecturers not only have a teaching qualification, but also a teaching license. As a rule, they are obliged to attend a minimum number of courses at their university, mostly free of charge. Keep these so-called Title doctrine not decrease, they lose the instructor and the designation lecturer. In the theological faculties , in addition to the habilitation, a church permit is required for the right to teach. In some federal states, the habilitation, which includes the teaching qualification , is awarded the academic degree of a doctorate with a habilitation ("Dr. habil."); The teaching authorization (Latin venia legendi ) with the designation private lecturer and membership of the university teaching staff must be applied for separately:
- In Bavaria , the person who has completed his habilitation gains the academic degree of a habilitated doctor ("Dr. habil.") With the determination of the teaching qualification. Upon request of the qualified person, the university grants the license to teach in the subject area of the teaching qualification, which is associated with the right to use the designation “private lecturer”. The designation "Privatdozent" can be withdrawn if a teaching activity (also free of charge) of at least two semester hours per week is held.
- In Brandenburg , the habilitation is regulated by the habilitation regulations of the responsible departments. Upon application, the qualified professor is granted the license to teach, which entitles him to use the title “private lecturer”. The Philosophical Faculty of the University of Potsdam awards the academic degree “Dr. phil. habil. ". The law faculty of the University of Potsdam awards the academic degree “Dr. iur. habil. ". This gives the applicant the right to add the addition “habil.” To his doctorate. At the BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg the academic degree “Dr. habil. "after completing the habilitation process. The academic title of "Privatdozent der Brandenburgischen Technische Universität Cottbus-Senftenberg" is awarded if the person having qualified as a professor applies to teach at the university and then receives a teaching permit.
- In Hesse , faculties can award the academic degree of a doctorate (Dr. habil.) After successful habilitation. Upon application, the department awards the title of "Privatdozent" to those who have qualified as a professor. Anyone who does not teach for two consecutive semesters for no good reason loses the right to use the academic title.
- In North Rhine-Westphalia , the departments / faculties of the universities make rules in their habilitation regulations on their own responsibility through statutes. These can provide that the habilitated person can add the addition “habil.” (Habilitatus) to his doctoral degree. The venia legendi , the authorization to offer courses independently, must be applied for separately. Due to the granting of the authorization, the habilitated person is entitled to use the designation "Privatdozentin" or "Privatdozent". The Priv.-Doz. has a certain teaching obligation from which he can take a temporary leave of absence.
- In Saxony , the qualification to teach is awarded with the habilitation and the authorization is granted to add “habil.” To the doctoral degree. Upon request, the Faculty Council will award a post-doctoral degree the title “Privatdozent” if he / she undertakes to take on teaching duties in his subject area for at least two semester hours per week ( (4) of the Saxon Higher Education Act).
In some federal states, due to the habilitation (teaching qualification), the teaching license and the designation "private lecturer" are awarded directly:
- In Baden-Württemberg , the license to teach a specific subject is awarded after the successful completion of the habilitation process. This automatically includes the right to use the title “Privatdozent”, as long as you hold courses of at least two hours per week in the respective subject area. The degree Dr. habil. is not awarded in Baden-Württemberg.
- In Lower Saxony , the habilitation is associated with the granting of the license to teach and the authorization to use the title of "private lecturer" and to supplement the doctoral degree with an addition referring to the habilitation (Section 9 a, paragraph 2 of the Lower Saxony University Act).
- In Rhineland-Palatinate, as the only state, the title of private lecturer was not awarded between 2003 and 2008. By a unanimous decision of the state parliament on February 27, 2008, the name was reintroduced by amending the University Act. Those who have completed their habilitation can teach independently at the university at which they completed their habilitation (teaching license) and in this case are entitled to call themselves “private lecturers”. The license to teach can be revoked if the license to teach is not used for an inappropriately long time. The habilitation regulations of the various faculties can stipulate that the habilitated person may also add the addition “habil.” (Habilitatus) to his doctoral degree.
- In Saarland, successful completion of a habilitation process entitles the holder to use the title “private lecturer”. With this, the habilitation candidate receives the license to teach the desired subject. Private lecturers must offer courses in their subject area for which they have been granted the license to teach in the amount of one hour per week per semester.
- In Saxony-Anhalt , the degree "doctor habilitatus" ("Dr. habil.") Is awarded after successful habilitation. With the award of this degree, the license to teach and the right to use the title “Privatdozent” is awarded.
Position within the scientific universities
Habilitation and teaching authorization do not establish an employment relationship and no entitlement to a justification of such. Private lecturers (from approx. 1947 to approx. 1959) at the university were able to stand as " diet lecturers " in an employment relationship as probationary civil servants. Even today they can be employed by the university, for example as a research assistant (e.g. as an academic adviser or as an employee) or work part-time. In the 1960s, in place of the earlier diet lecturers, the civil servant positions of a " scientific council ", a "department head", a "university lecturer" or "university lecturer" and a "civil servant private lecturer" were introduced were transferred to grade AH 5 or 6. The unscheduled professor, who was also the "Scientific Councilor", was promoted to full professor (AH 6).
Private lecturers originally belonged to the group of university lecturers everywhere, but now only in some federal states. As such, they have the right to be a supervisor, reviewer and examiner in the context of doctoral and habilitation procedures and to conduct academic and - if appointed accordingly - church and state examinations. The right to take examinations is different depending on the state law.
At the suggestion of the respective faculty or the respective department, the title Extraordinary Professor (apl. Prof.) can be awarded on the basis of a corresponding procedure that attests to excellent performance in research and teaching . In some federal states, minimum periods of teaching work as a private lecturer are prescribed (usually two to six years). The title of adjunct professor does not constitute an employment relationship either.
At the beginning of the 1970s, university and university lecturer laws in the federal states provided for a limited period of time for professorships ( grades AH 3 to 5 ) for those who were in positions of the so-called middle-class academic staff at the time of their habilitation . These reconciliations led to legal disputes in some federal states (Hamburg, North Rhine-Westphalia). In this context, it must be emphasized that the requirements of the Federal Assistant Conference (BAK) at that time - "every assistant who teaches is a professor" - were met. For example, at the West Berlin universities between 1970 and 1975 also those who did not qualify as professors, such as senior assistants and senior engineers (AH 5), assistants who had received their doctorate for at least four years, and senior engineers and academic advisors who had not received a doctorate as professors AH 4 (later C2) were transferred (in Berlin jargon "April professors" or "discount professors"). Other non-PhD senior engineers and academic councilors who had just started their employment during this period were successfully taken over as "AH 4", later C2 professor, through lawsuits. The new university framework law of January 1, 1976 ended the transfer of mid-level faculty to professorial positions. The abolition of the above-mentioned academic “intermediate positions”, which were no longer provided for in the new higher education framework law, also had a disadvantageous effect on all subsequent generations of habilitates.
Intervention rights of the state until 1945
Since they were not employed, private lecturers were initially subject to the faculty with regard to their teaching, but as a rule not subject to state supervision. However, after the physicist Leo Arons joined the SPD as a private lecturer at the Berlin Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität , the Prussian state issued the so-called "Lex Arons" in 1898, which ruled out an activity at a Prussian university with simultaneous membership in the SPD. Such rights of intervention of the state were abolished again in the Weimar Republic . This independence from the state was again lost in the Third Reich .
The status as a private lecturer is completely independent of an employment relationship. For private lecturers who are not in a service or employment relationship with a university (e.g. as an academic councilor or academic employee), various income opportunities can open up. Until around 1965, like professors, they received listening fees based on the number of students attending their courses. For private lecturers this was the only wage, for the regular professors it was an additional income on top of their salaries; however, this is a thing of the past. Today, some private lecturers are rewarded from third-party funds as part of research projects. It is also possible to represent a professorship for a limited period, for example until the appointment procedure is completed or during a leave of absence for the position holder; the salary or remuneration then corresponds to that of a correspondingly classified professor.
In the humanities in particular, some private lecturers work on the basis of teaching assignments that provide for reimbursement of expenses (travel costs, material), but are remunerated well below the subsistence level. Private lecturers who are neither employed nor have a paid teaching position must teach free of charge in order to retain their title.
Privatdozents are persons who have been granted a teaching license (venia docendi) for a scientific or artistic subject ( habilitation ) by the university on the basis of their scientific or artistic qualification . Granting the license to teach (venia docendi) neither establishes an employment relationship nor changes any existing employment relationship with the university. Private lecturers are not part of the university staff, but (like, for example, the students) are part of the university members.
- Eduard Erdmann: The importance of private lecturers. On the criticism of the Lex Arons , 1898 pdf 417 kB
- On the asymmetrical structure in the German university landscape. With the call to found a private lecturer organization (2005) ( Memento from April 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Manuel J. Hartung : " Teaching without wages: Thousands of private lecturers teach at German universities - unpaid ". In: DIE ZEIT No. 31 of July 24, 2003, p. 65.
- Academic Nobodies? On the remuneration of lecturers and private lecturers (2007). - About the questionable state practice of obliging private lecturers to work without pay. ( Memento from April 11, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Website of the initiative Berliner Privatdozenten (with Wiki)
- Volker von Prittwitz: The begging lecturer. About the scandal of free teaching and exams at universities. (Appeal)
- Bavarian Higher Education Act - BayHSchG of May 23, 2006, Article 65 .
- Bavarian University Personnel Act - BayHSchPG of May 23, 2006, Articles 30 and 27. online version .
- Brandenburg University Law - BbgHG (PDF; 530 kB).
- Habil. -ordnung Phil.-Fak. Univ. Potsdam ( Memento from June 21, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 122 kB).
- Official announcement of the University of Potsdam No. 6/00 of July 5th, 2000 . In: uni-potsdam.de . Archived from the original on August 7, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2013.
- Habilitation regulations of the Faculty of Mathematics, Natural Sciences and Computer Science at TU Cottbus (PDF; 190 kB).
- Habilitation regulations for the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Frankfurt am Main ( Memento from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 63 kB).
- juris GmbH: Hesse Law Legal and Administrative Regulations HSchulG HE 2010 - State Standard Hesse - Hessian Higher Education Act of December 14, 2009 - valid from: 01.01.2010 valid until: 31.12.2015 . In: hessen.de .
- Ministry of the Interior and Local Affairs of the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Division 56: Norm level --recht.nrw.de . In: nrw.de .
- juris GmbH: Landesrecht BW LHG - Landesnorm Baden-Württemberg - Law on Universities in Baden-Württemberg (State University Act - LHG) of January 1, 2005 - valid from: January 6, 2005 . In: landesrecht-bw.de .
- State Parliament of February 27, 2008 .
- Juris GmbH: State Law Rhineland-Palatinate . In: rlp.de .
- Habilitation regulations of the Faculty of Medicine at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz §11
- Saarland University Act §43 (PDF; 222 kB).
- juris GmbH: State Law Saxony-Anhalt HSG LSA - State Standard Saxony-Anhalt - Higher Education Act of the State of Saxony-Anhalt (HSG LSA) in the version of the announcement of December 14, 2010 - valid from: 07/27/2010 . In: sachsen-anhalt.de .
- Fritz K. Ringer : The Decline of the German Mandarins: The German Academic Community, 1890-1933 . Wesleyan University Press, 1990, ISBN 978-0-81956-235-7 , pp. 141 ff.
- Rüdiger vom Bruch , Michael Grüttner , Heinz-Elmar Tenorth (eds.): History of the University of Unter den Linden: Volume 2: The Berlin University between the World Wars 1918-1945 . Walter de Gruyter, 2012, ISBN 978-3-050-04667-9 , p. 155 ff.
- Rheinische Post dated May 30, 2007: The begging lecturer - Many lecturers and private lecturers live on Hartz IV level. They get little to nothing for their work. Two lecturers break the silence about the "trend towards cheap teaching" at German universities.
- § 102 University Act 2002 .
- § 103 University Act 2002 .
- § 94 University Act 2002 .