Rhineland-Palatinate [ ˈʁaɪ̯nlantˈp͡falt͡s ] ( country code RP , abbreviation RP or RLP ) is a parliamentary republic and a state of the Federal Republic of Germany . It was created in 1946 through the unification of the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province , the Bavarian administrative district Palatinate and western parts of Hesse (such as Rheinhessen ).
With around 4.1 million inhabitants, it is the sixth largest of 16 countries, and in terms of economic output it is in the middle. The state capital and at the same time the most populous city is Mainz ; With Ludwigshafen am Rhein , Koblenz , Trier and Kaiserslautern, there are four other large cities that function as regional centers in Rhineland-Palatinate. The entire state of Rhineland-Palatinate is part of the cross-border European greater region of Saar-Lor-Lux .
Rhineland-Palatinate includes in the north of the Rhenish Slate Mountains the southern part of the Eifel , the Hunsrück , the western Westerwald , the southwest Siegerland and the northwest part of the Taunus as well as in the southern area the Mainz Basin , the Rheinhessen Hügelland , the North Palatinate Uplands , the West Palatinate Moorniederung , the Westrich plateau , the Palatinate Forest and part of the Upper Rhine Plain . It borders North Rhine-Westphalia in the north, Hesse and Baden-Württemberg in the east, the French region of Grand Est and Saarland in the south , and Luxembourg and the province of Liège in the Belgian region of Wallonia in the west . Rhineland-Palatinate is the federal state with the largest area on the left bank of the Rhine.
Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the most densely forested countries in Germany, as the forests here cover around 42 percent of the area.
rivers and lakes
The federal waterways Rhine , Moselle , Saar and Lahn flow through Rhineland-Palatinate . Other important rivers are Nahe , Sauer , Our , Glan and Sieg as first order waters . Because of their water management importance, further watercourses are listed as second order waters. These are Speyerbach , Waldlauter , Wieslauter , Wiesbach , Otterbach , Erlenbach , Michelsbach , Pfrimm , Hahnenbach , Simmerbach , Guldenbach , Ellerbach , Ahr , Irsen , Gaybach , Prüm , Enz , Nims , Leukbach , Schwarzbach , Rodalb , Wallhalb , Hornbach , Felsalb , Ruwer , Riveris , Kyll , Oosbach , Salm , Kailbach , Dhron , Kleine Dhron , Lieser , Kleine Kyll , Alf , Üßbach , Flaumbach , Elzbach , Wied , Selz , Nister and Aar . The remaining flowing waters in Rhineland-Palatinate belong to the III. Okay.
The largest lake is the Laacher See , the crater lake of a dormant volcano. Other larger lakes in the Eifel that emerged as maars from volcanoes: Meerfelder Maar , Gemündener Maar , Weinfelder Maar , Schalkenmehrener Maar and Pulvermaar .
The near-surface geological subsurface in the Rhineland-Palatinate part of the Rheinschen Schiefergebirge in the north and in the center of Rhineland-Palatinate is characterized by clay slate , greywacke and quartzite from the Lower Devonian. To the northeast of Prüm and southwest of Limburg, limestone, dolomite and slate from the Middle to Upper Devonian have also been preserved. In the south, on a line between Birkenfeld and Kirchheimbolanden, there are sandstones, conglomerates and claystones from the Carbon and Permian. They are alternated in places by old volcanic rocks, andesite and basalt . Alternating layers of the Central German Triassic form the geological subsurface of the Bitburger Gutland in the west and the Palatinate Forest in the south of the state. Sediments from the Tertiary and Quaternary periods, predominantly marl , sand and gravel, are typical for Rheinhessen. A special feature for Rhineland-Palatinate are the formations of tertiary volcanism in the Westerwald and of Quaternary volcanism in the Eifel and Neuwied basin.
Active volcanism is not known, but volcanic rock from previous activity can be found in some areas, especially in the Vulkaneifel , but also on the Pechsteinkopf in the Haardt . The Laacher See , the largest lake in Rhineland-Palatinate, is the crater lake of an old volcano, where experts still argue today whether it is really completely extinct. In the Vulkaneifel there are other maars and carbon dioxide sources, which make the geyser Andernach the highest cold water geyser in the world possible. Under the umbrella of the recognized national geopark Vulkanland Eifel , three established geoparks explain the geology of the region and the volcanic activities of the past to the public. Geological formations of volcanic origin are pumice and tuff, especially in the Laacher lake area, trachyte and phonolite in the Westerwald. There are practically no earthquakes with severe consequences, but the Rhine Graben and Neuwied Basin are classified as moderately endangered earthquake zones. The accessible geological map of Rhineland-Palatinate in the area of the state horticultural show on Trier's Petrisberg provides an overview of the geological conditions .
Rhineland-Palatinate is divided into the following regions : in the north the Westerwald and the southwestern part of the Siegerland, in the west the Eifel, in the middle of the Hunsrück, Mosel-Saar - which separates the Eifel and Hunsrück, in the east the Taunus and Rheinhessen as well in the south the Palatinate . The Neuwied Basin , Rhein-Main-Area and Rhein-Neckar-Dreieck areas form special conurbations , the last two with connection to the neighboring federal states of Hesse and Baden-Württemberg .
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded on August 30, 1946 after the Second World War . It originated mainly from the southern part of the Prussian Rhine province (administrative districts Koblenz and Trier ), from Rheinhessen , from the western part of Nassau and from the Rhine Palatinate belonging to Bavaria (excluding the Saar Palatinate district ). The joint German-Luxembourg territory is the only municipality-free area in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. This condominium is formed from the rivers Mosel , Sauer and Our , where they run on the border between Luxembourg and Rhineland-Palatinate and the Saarland.
Today's Rhineland-Palatinate was part of the French occupation zone after the Second World War and emerged from the formerly Bavarian Rhine Palatinate, from the administrative districts of Koblenz and Trier of the former Prussian Rhine province, from the left-hand side of the Rhine- Hesse province, which was formerly part of the People's State of Hesse , and parts of the Prussian province Hesse-Nassau Province ( Montabaur ).
On July 10, 1945, the occupation sovereignty in what is now the state of Rhineland-Palatinate passed from the Americans to the French. These initially divided the area provisionally into two "Oberpräsidien", Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau (for the previously Prussian administrative districts or areas of Koblenz , Trier and Montabaur ) and Hesse-Palatinate (for the previously Bavarian Rhine Palatinate and the previously Hesse-Darmstadt Rheinhessen) . The establishment of the country was ordered on August 30, 1946 as the last country in the western zones of occupation by decree No. 57 of the French military government under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig . It was initially referred to as the "Rhineland-Palatinate Land" or "Land Rheinpfalz"; the name Rhineland-Palatinate was only established with the constitution of May 18, 1947.
The then French government after the conversion of Saarland wanted to leave open the possibility originally, into a protectorate another linksrheinische to areas annex . However, when the Americans and British had pioneered the formation of German states, the French came under increasing pressure and finally followed their example with the states of Baden , Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Rhineland-Palatinate. However , the French military government prohibited the Saarland from being linked to Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz was designated as the capital in the ordinance and the "Mixed Commission", the highest state body charged with the state administration and the preparation of a consultative state assembly, began its work there. Because of the war damage and destruction, Mainz did not have sufficient administrative buildings; therefore the seat of the state government and state parliament was provisionally set up in Koblenz . On November 22, 1946, the constituent meeting of the National Advisory Assembly took place there, in which a draft constitution was drawn up. There had previously been local elections. Wilhelm Boden was appointed provisional prime minister of the newly formed state by the French military government on December 2 (after a short term as head of the state government of Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau) .
Adolf Süsterhenn presented a draft constitution to the consultative state assembly, which was passed after several negotiations on April 25, 1947 in a final vote by name with an absolute majority of the CDU and against the votes of the SPD and KPD. This came about, among other things, because the draft constitution was clearly based on the state theories of political Catholicism and, among other things, provided for schools that were separated according to denomination. On May 18, 1947, the constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate was adopted in a referendum by 53 percent of the electorate. While the Catholic north and west of the new country adopted the constitution by a majority, it was rejected by the majority in Rheinhessen and the Palatinate. The first election to the Rhineland-Palatinate state parliament took place on the same date . The constituent meeting took place on June 4, 1947 in the large town hall of Koblenz . Wilhelm Boden was elected the first Prime Minister of Rhineland-Palatinate here. A month later, Peter Altmeier succeeded him in this position.
The constitutional bodies ( state government , state parliament and constitutional court ) set up their provisional seat in Koblenz. In the period that followed, a tug-of-war between Koblenz and Mainz began, both of which highlighted their suitability as the state capital in public discussion. Prime Minister Altmeier advocated Mainz as the capital from the start, because he was aware that the south of the country, especially the Palatinate, would not accept Koblenz, which was far to the north and formerly Prussian, as a state metropolis. The Rhineland-Palatinate state parliament therefore decided on May 16, 1950 to move the state parliament and the state government from Koblenz to Mainz. After the state government and parliament moved to Mainz, many state authorities and courts remained in Koblenz, for example the Constitutional Court of Rhineland-Palatinate and the State Archives Administration of Rhineland-Palatinate . In addition, the Federal Archives and the Federal Institute for Hydrology were established in Koblenz in 1952 .
A sense of community developed only very hesitantly in the “land from the retort”, which was largely created without regard to the historically grown affiliations of the inhabitants. He was given little chance of survival, especially since there were hardly any major industrial centers. The settlement of numerous military bases, both of the Allies and the Bundeswehr , caused a certain economic upturn . In 1956, on the basis of Article 29 of the Basic Law , referendums took place in the then administrative districts of Koblenz, Trier, Montabaur, Rheinhessen and Palatinate , which concerned the affiliation of the regions concerned with North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse or Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. All plebiscites except those in the Palatinate administrative district received the required majority; but it took almost 20 years before the referendums that were required were finally carried out . In the vote of January 19, 1975, a majority in favor of reclassification (and also not the necessary quorum of 25 percent of the electorate) was achieved in none of the regions concerned . This was the end of a discussion that had lasted for decades. Politicians are only concerned with the AKK conflict to this day.
The young Rhineland-Palatinate is rich in cultural treasures with its 2000 year old history. Numerous cities in the country go back to a Roman foundation. The Romans left behind some important buildings and a large number of archaeologically proven relics. In the Middle Ages it was German kings and emperors , archbishops and electors as well as numerous other imperial estates ruling in the area of today's country who left behind a multitude of historically significant buildings. Occupying powers such as Sweden (in the Thirty Years' War ) and France (several times between 1688 and 1930) and, after the fall of the Holy Roman Empire, the states of Prussia , Hesse , Bavaria and smaller territories also left their mark.
Ground monuments, churches and secular buildings
The Goloring bei Wolken is a prehistoric earthwork and a registered soil monument . The Eifel- Stonehenge is one of the most important facilities in Rhineland-Palatinate. There is also a Celtic ring wall on the Donnersberg , which has been partially restored.
Numerous buildings still bear witness to the cultural splendor from Roman times. In particular, in the old Roman provincial capitals Trier ( Augusta Treverorum ) and Mainz ( Mogontiacum ), a large number of Roman buildings have been preserved. In Trier these are the Porta Nigra , the amphitheater , the Imperial Baths , the Constantine Basilica and the Roman Bridge , the oldest preserved bridge in Germany . On the Rhine, Mainz has a Roman theater , parts of a Roman aqueduct (the so-called Roman stones ), remains of the Roman city fortifications, the remains of a sanctuary of Isis and Mater Magna as well as several Roman monuments, Roman ships recovered in the Rhine and a multitude of other finds. In addition, there are remains of Roman architecture in numerous other cities, most of which have decayed or been built over over time. These include, for example, the Igel column , a Roman tomb that has been preserved above ground, and the Limes .
After Christianization at the end of the Roman period and during the rule of the Franks, the territorial rule of the archbishops and later electors of Kurtrier, Kurmainz and Kurköln developed alongside the secular rule of the Electoral Palatinate. The entire Middle Ages were characterized by the construction of spacious church buildings . In Trier, the oldest bishop's church in Germany was built with the construction of the Trier Cathedral . Elsewhere, the Roman-German emperors or the archbishops built magnificent churches from the high Middle Ages. The three imperial cathedrals in Mainz , Speyer and Worms are epochal works in architectural history. The Romanesque buildings of the Maria Laach Abbey and the St. Castor Basilica in Koblenz are also outstanding buildings of their time. The Liebfrauenkirche in Trier is one of the first Gothic buildings on German soil. The Katharinenkirche in Oppenheim is also one of the most important Gothic sacred buildings in what is now Rhineland-Palatinate. The rock church built between 1482 and 1484 in Idar-Oberstein is unique in Germany .
There are also medieval secular buildings in Rhineland-Palatinate : In Bingen, the Drusus Bridge, the oldest stone bridge of the Middle Ages in Germany, crosses the Nahe, and in Koblenz the Balduin Bridge over the Moselle has been preserved.
There are also a large number of sacred and secular buildings from the Baroque period in Rhineland-Palatinate. The metropolises of Mainz and Trier at that time still have an inventory of Baroque buildings. Mainz in particular had the reputation of a “baroque city” until the Second World War: the western section of the Mainz Cathedral was built over in baroque style by Franz Ignaz Michael Neumann ; In addition to the Augustinian Church , the Peterskirche and the Ignazkirche, there are several baroque religious settlements, secular buildings and aristocratic courts in Mainz; many other buildings known as outstanding in their time, such as the Jesuit church, the cathedral mechanics and the Favorite Palace, have perished. In Trier, the interior of St. Paulin was made by Balthasar Neumann ; The Electoral Palace , Monaise Castle and the Quinter Castle are examples of baroque secular buildings in Trier. Baroque buildings have also been preserved in the (then) bishopric places of Speyer and Worms and in Koblenz as the residence of the Archbishops of Trier, as well as in numerous other places.
During the Romantic period , historicizing buildings in medieval forms were built in the Middle Rhine Valley in particular : the Binger Mouse Tower , a former defense and watchtower, is located near Bingen ; in Rhens, the king's chair reminds of the negotiations of the electors on the elections of the Roman-German kings, which were often carried out at this point.
Karl Marx was born in Trier in 1818 . A museum, the Karl-Marx-Haus , reports on his life and work. From the 19th century, the Rhineland belonged to Prussia. After the death of Kaiser Wilhelm I , the Prussian provincial administration in Koblenz erected the monumental equestrian monument at the Deutsches Eck , located directly at the mouth of the Moselle and the Rhine.
Castles, palaces and fortresses
→ Because of the large number, only a selection of important castles, palaces and fortresses in Rhineland-Palatinate is discussed here. More can be found in the list of castles, fortresses and palaces in Rhineland-Palatinate .
For more than a thousand years previously, today's components of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate belonged to a large number of secular and spiritual rulers, e. For example, the influential electors of the Palatinate, Mainz, Cologne and Trier (the last three were also archbishops ) or knights , who were less important and whose - initially not hereditary - status developed from feudalism . Marriages and inheritance had contributed to ever more restructuring and fragmentation, so that a veritable patchwork of domains had emerged.
Every self-respecting sovereign, including the smallest, endeavored to draw attention to its importance with at least one building, be it a castle, a fortress or a palace. The edges of the low mountain ranges (Eifel, Haardt) and the river valleys ( Middle Rhine , Moselle ) are lined with castles or fortresses, the Donnersberg massif in the North Palatinate Uplands was even surrounded by five castles, and in the larger cities such as Mainz and Koblenz and Trier, the magnificent castles and palaces are particularly striking.
Although the great wars ( Peasants 'War , Thirty Years' War , Palatine War of Succession , Napoleonic Wars ) had repeatedly caused destruction, the ruins of razed castles or burned-down palaces were often the result of successor buildings, which even surpassed the former in splendor. And the damage caused - especially in cities - by the shelling and bombing of the two world wars of the 20th century has now largely been eliminated.
The Middle Rhine Valley has been a tourist attraction for 200 years and is now home to around 450,000 people. The landscape shows an extraordinary wealth of cultural evidence. The Middle Rhine Valley owes its special appearance on the one hand to the natural shape of the river landscape and on the other hand to the design by people. For two millennia it has been one of the most important transport routes for cultural exchange between the Mediterranean region and northern Europe. Located in the heart of Europe, sometimes border, sometimes bridge of cultures, the valley exemplarily reflects the history of the West. With its high-ranking architectural monuments, the vine-covered slopes, its settlements crowded together on narrow banks and the hilltop castles lined up on rocky outcrops, it is the epitome of the romantic Rhine landscape. Not least, it inspired Heinrich Heine to write his Loreley song .
The most outstanding castles are the Marksburg, the only undestroyed castle in the Middle Rhine Valley, Pfalzgrafenstein Castle , which is located on a rocky island in the middle of the Rhine, and Rheinfels Castle , which has been expanded into a fortress over time. The Stolzenfels Castle stands like no other castle as a synonym for the Rhine romanticism , which was not only limited to the reception of existing buildings, but also stimulated restorations and new buildings. The Electoral Palace in Koblenz was the last residence of the Elector of Trier until the French revolutionary troops smashed the electoral state. The mightiest fortress in Rhineland-Palatinate, Koblenz Fortress , was built by the Prussians in the 19th century. As part of the fortification system, Ehrenbreitstein Fortress towers over the Rhine Valley to this day .
Moselle / Eifel
The Moselle river valley is also peppered with hilltop castles. The Reichsburg Cochem and Thurant Castle with its two Bergfrieden are particularly worth mentioning here . France wanted to secure its interests in the region with the help of the Mont Royal fortress . But it was demolished in the year of its completion. If you leave the valley in a northerly direction into the Eifel, you will come to Eltz Castle near Münstermaifeld . The castle, located in a small river valley, is considered by many to be the most beautiful castle in Germany. It once adorned the 500 DM note of the third series of the Deutsche Mark . Similar to Bürresheim Castle and Lissingen Castle, it is one of the very few castles that have never been destroyed.
In Mayen with its still existing medieval fortifications, the rises Genovevaburg and close to the town with the Castle Bürresheim a never conquered or devastated jewel. Other important castles in the Eifel were the Neuerburg , Schönecken Castle and the two Manderscheider castles .
Numerous castles, mostly ruins, can be found on the heights of the Hunsrück . Some castles have been partially rebuilt and are therefore accessible to visitors. Which are worth mentioning Burg Kastellaun , the castle Balduinseck that Schmidtburg , the castle Waldeck , the Ehrenburg and Baldenau , one of the few water castles in the Hunsrück. Significant locks are inhabited castle Gemünden and the Schloss Simmern . Relatively few remains of the older castles can be found, some of which are of Celtic origin: the Altburg near Bundenbach , the Alteburg in the Soonwald , the Koppenstein Castle , the Wildenburg and the Ringkopf .
Mainz was heavily fortified in the 17th century . The accompanying Mainz citadel , the most important remnant of the fortress period, is considered to be the most important historical building in the city next to the Mainz Cathedral . The Electors of Mainz resided in the Electoral Palace in Mainz . The Ingelheim imperial palace from the 8th century was the residence and seat of government of Franconian emperors and kings. The Alzeyer Castle emerged from a Staufer Imperial Castle that was completed in 1118 and was expanded into a castle in the 16th century.
Impressive Celtic fortifications are around 2000 years older than the much more famous castles of the Palatinate . B. on the Donnersberg the Keltenwall or on the Haardt the Heidenmauer , a 26 hectare settlement. In the Middle Ages, with the increasing influence of the Salian dynasty , one of the centers of power on German soil arose in the area of today's Palatinate, which was also manifested in the electoral dignity . One of the most important castles was the Trifels Imperial Castle ; Imperial regalia were once kept here, and the English King Richard the Lionheart was probably the most famous prisoner. However, the castles of the Counts of Leiningen along the northern half of the German Wine Route have also made history . B. Neuleiningen Castle with the surrounding medieval village - or the Berwartstein of the alleged robber baron "Hans Trapp", which is still inhabited today . And the “last knight” Franz von Sickingen died of a serious wound in his besieged Nanstein Castle . In later history, the Hambach Castle near Neustadt an der Weinstrasse was the scene of the Hambach Festival and has been a symbol of the German democracy movement ever since.
Neuleiningen Castle : north side
UNESCO World Heritage in Rhineland-Palatinate
So far, four Rhineland-Palatinate sights or ensembles have been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List :
- 1981: The Speyer Cathedral
- 1986: The Roman monuments as well as the cathedral and the Church of Our Lady in Trier
- 2002: The cultural landscape of the Upper Middle Rhine Valley between Bingen and Koblenz
- 2005: The 550 km long Upper Germanic-Rhaetian Limes between Rheinbrohl and Eining (transnational)
In the summer of 2012, Rhineland-Palatinate applied for three other cultural heritage sites to be included in the German list of proposals at the Conference of Ministers of Culture:
- the three Rhenish imperial cathedrals of Mainz , Speyer and Worms - the existing world heritage status for the Speyer cathedral is to be extended to the entire ensemble of the three cathedrals (as early as 1981, the International Council for the Preservation of Monuments ( ICOMOS ) had in its opinion for the world heritage recognition procedure for the Speyer Dom, the three cathedrals are called "major works of Romanesque architecture in Germany").
- the legacy of the ShUM cities , the three Rhenish Jewish centers of Schpira ( Speyer ), Warmaisa ( Worms ) and Magenza ( Mainz );
- the Sayner hut in Bendorf .
As part of the Greater Region , Rhineland-Palatinate took part in the 2007 European Capital of Culture program. Rhineland-Palatinate has a permanent cultural representative in Dijon , Mainz's twin town, the House of Rhineland-Palatinate , which promotes cultural and economic exchange between Burgundy and Rhineland-Palatinate.
There are five larger theaters in Rhineland-Palatinate. Specifically, these are the Mainz State Theater and three city theaters, namely the Theater im Pfalzbau Ludwigshafen, the Koblenz Theater and the Trier City Theater . The Pfalztheater Kaiserslautern is supported by the District Association of the Palatinate and therefore occupies a special position between the state theater of the state and the city theaters. With its annual budget of 18.2 million euros (2008) it is financially better equipped than the state's municipal theaters or the Saarbrücken State Theater in neighboring Saarland. In addition, there are many medium-sized and countless small theaters up to and including pure amateur theater.
In 2005 the city of Ludwigshafen am Rhein also received its own film festival, which emerged from an initiative of the Mannheim-Heidelberg International Film Festival. The Festival of German Films is held every summer on the Ludwigshafen Parkinsel in two cinema tents.
The Hachenburg Film Festival of New German Films took place for the third time in 2009.
The state museums of Rhineland-Palatinate are located in Mainz, Trier and Koblenz. The Landesmuseum Mainz , one of the oldest museums in Germany, which has existed since 1803, including its predecessor institutions , is home to the most important art and cultural history collection in the country, the Rhenish State Museum in Trier shows in its departments the art of the Renaissance and Baroque as well as the Roman Trier and the State Museum Koblenz on the Ehrenbreitstein Fortress sees itself as a technical museum with additional departments on the economic and social history of the region.
Other important museums are the Middle Rhine Museum and the Defense Technical Study Collection in Koblenz; the Roman-Germanic Central Museum and Gutenberg Museum in Mainz; the Palatinate History Museum and the Technology Museum in Speyer and the Wilhelm Hack Museum in Ludwigshafen.
The two large open-air museums in the state are the folklore and open-air museum Roscheider Hof and the Rhineland-Palatinate open-air museum Bad Sobernheim . The mining history of the country is currently (2009) documented in 14 visitor mines and several open-air museums with mining history.
- The Rhineland-Palatinate cultural summer offers an extensive cultural program from May to October.
- The Rhineland-Palatinate Day has been an annual state festival since 1984.
Festivals and festivals:
- FILMZ - Festival of German Cinema , Mainz
- Nibelungen Festival , Worms
- Antique Festival , Trier
- Trier Old Town Festival
- Rock am Ring , Nürburgring , one of the largest rock festivals in Europe
- Nature One Festival, Pydna (former missile base) near Kastellaun
- Ludwigshafen Festival , Ludwigshafen am Rhein
- Festival of German Films , Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region , Ludwigshafen am Rhein
- Castle Festival , Mayen
- Wine and Festival , Oppenheim
- Juggler and cabaret festival , Koblenz
- Dürkheimer Wurstmarkt , largest wine festival in the world, Bad Dürkheim
- Karl May Festival, Mörschied
- Karl May Festival, Pluwig
In the Rhineland in particular, the street carnival is a traditional tradition. The Mainz Carnival with the largest Rose Monday procession in the country is important; But the carnival is also celebrated in other cities, for example at the Trier Carnival , Koblenz Carnival or in Ludwigshafen.
The Rhine in Flames fireworks display takes place every year at various locations on the Middle Rhine . Passenger ships travel in convoy along the Rhine and thus allow a view of the fireworks set off by various castles. The biggest fireworks spectacle as part of the Rhine in Flames is shot every year on the second Saturday in August from the Ehrenbreitstein Fortress in Koblenz and watched by hundreds of thousands of spectators.
In the city of Koblenz which took National Garden Show 2011 held the first National Garden Show in Rhineland-Palatinate. According to the state government, it was the largest event in the history of the country. With a visitor number of over 3.5 million people, it was the most successful federal horticultural show since the introduction of the electronic counting system in 1997.
The first Rhineland-Palatinate state horticultural show took place in 2000 in Kaiserslautern . In 2004 , the city of Trier took over the organization of the state horticultural show , followed by the city of Bingen in 2008 . The following state horticultural show was organized by the city of Landau in 2015 . This should actually take place in 2014, but had to be postponed due to several bombs found on the site.
The future German Empress Augusta had the Rhine grounds in Koblenz designed as a park from 1856 . She was also the patroness of the Catholic pastor Kraus and supported his efforts to create the Pfarrer-Kraus-Anlage , a landscape picture Bible, named after him today .
The following nature, leisure and animal parks are located in Rhineland-Palatinate:
- Geopark Vulkanland Eifel
- Worms Zoo
- Kaiserslautern Zoo
- Landau Zoo in the Palatinate
- Neuwied Zoo
- Eifelpark in Gondorf
- Holiday Park in Haßloch
- Kurpfalz Park in Wachenheim
- Klotten wildlife and leisure park in Klotten
- Wildlife and hiking park Südliche Weinstrasse in Silz
- Hunsrück Game Protection Park in Rheinböllen
- Wildlife enclosure Wildenburg near Kempfeld
- Eifel Zoo near Lünebach , near Prüm
- Rheingönheim Wildlife Park Ludwigshafen am Rhein
- Daun Wildlife Park on the German Wildlife Road
- German University of Administrative Sciences Speyer
- Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
- Technical University of Kaiserslautern
- University of Koblenz-Landau - locations: Koblenz, Landau
- University of Trier
- Technical University of Bingen
- University of the Deutsche Bundesbank - location: Hachenburg
- University of Applied Sciences for Finance - Location: Edenkoben
- University of Public Administration Rhineland-Palatinate - Location: Mayen
- Rhineland-Palatinate Police College - location: Hahn
- University of Applied Sciences Kaiserslautern - locations: Kaiserslautern I and II, Pirmasens and Zweibrücken
- Koblenz University of Applied Sciences - Study locations: Koblenz, Höhr-Grenzhausen , Remagen
- University of Ludwigshafen am Rhein (with East Asia Institute )
- Mainz University of Applied Sciences
- Trier University of Applied Sciences - Locations: Trier, Idar-Oberstein, Birkenfeld Environmental Campus
- University of Worms
- Catholic University of Applied Sciences Mainz
- WHU - Otto Beisheim School of Management (formerly: Scientific University for Management ) , Vallendar near Koblenz (private university)
- Philosophical-Theological University Vallendar of the Society of the Catholic Apostolate (Pallottines) (ecclesiastical university)
The cuisine in Rhineland-Palatinate is determined by the mild temperatures on the Rhine and Moselle . An important export item is wine from the Palatinate , from Rheinhessen , from the Middle Rhine , from the Nahe and Ahr valleys and from the Moselle wine-growing region . Well-known foods are the Palatinate Saumagen , Weck, Worscht un Woi , Lewwerknepp , Spundekäs and Handkäs ( Mainzer cheese ). Throughout the northern part of the country, but especially to Idar-Oberstein , which is spit roast spread, in Birkenfeld land applies potato sausage (Grumbierewurscht) are a specialty.
Wine capital Mainz / Rheinhessen
Since May 2008, Mainz and Rheinhessen have been members of the Great Wine Capitals Global Network (GWC) , an association of the most famous wine-growing cities worldwide. In addition to Mainz, this network includes cities and regions such as Bilbao: Rioja , Bordeaux: Bordeaux (wine-growing region) , Florence: Tuscany , Cape Town: Cape Winelands , Mendoza: Mendoza , Melbourne / Melbourne region, Porto: Douro Valley and San Francisco: Napa Valley .
Orders, decorations and honorary citizenship
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate awards the following orders and decorations :
- Order of Merit of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
- Honorary citizenship of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate
- Medal of Merit of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
- Badge of Honor of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate
In addition, the following are awarded in Rhineland-Palatinate:
Until the state elections in 1991 , the CDU was the dominant party in Rhineland-Palatinate, which is structurally more rural and small-town and has a high proportion of members of Christian churches, especially Catholics. From 1971 to 1987 she ruled there with an absolute majority (Cabinets Kohl I , II and III , Vogel I , II , III and IV ). In 1991 the SPD Rhineland-Palatinate became the strongest party in a state election in Rhineland-Palatinate for the first time; Rudolf Scharping became Prime Minister (red-yellow cabinet Scharping ). Factors for the CDU's losses are the long-standing quarrels of the Rhineland-Palatinate CDU and the fact that Chancellor Helmut Kohl had broken an election promise - he had announced in the election campaign before the federal elections on December 2, 1990 that reunification should be financed without tax increases .
When Scharping switched to federal politics after the federal election in 1994 , Kurt Beck was elected as the new Prime Minister. The SPD was the strongest party in the state elections in 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016. Beck remained Prime Minister until January 2013; he was followed by Malu Dreyer (cabinets I and II ).
The FDP was only not elected to the state parliament in the 1983 and 2011 elections. In all other election periods it was always the third largest parliamentary group in the state parliament; only since 2016 has it been the fourth largest group (behind the AfD).
For a long time, the Greens had a difficult time in Rhineland-Palatinate. In 2001 they barely made it into the state parliament; In 2006 they failed with 4.6% of the five percent hurdle . The 2011 state election took place on March 27, 16 days after the start of the Fukushima nuclear disaster . The Greens received 15.4 percent of the vote; The SPD and the Greens formed a coalition (→ Beck V cabinet ).
The state of Rhineland-Palatinate goes back to regulation number 57 of the French occupying power of August 30, 1946. This ordered the formation of a "Rhineland-Palatinate" state. A first draft constitution was created “in the awareness of responsibility before God, the source of justice and creator of all human community, inspired by the will to secure human freedom and dignity, to order community life according to the principle of social justice, and economic progress to promote everyone and to shape a new democratic Germany as a living member of the international community ”in the so-called Consultative State Assembly . Its members were elected by the Rhineland-Palatinate district and community assemblies in November 1946.
The constituent meeting of this Consultative State Assembly took place on November 22, 1946 in Koblenz. Shortly afterwards, on December 4, 1946, a provisional state government was formed under Wilhelm Boden (CDU). After the state constitution was adopted by referendum on May 18, 1947, the previous head of the state, Boden, was elected as the new state's first prime minister on June 13 . On July 9, 1947, Peter Altmeier (CDU) was his successor.
Article 79 paragraph 1 of the state constitution provides that the state parliament is “the highest body elected by the people for the formation of political will”. "He represents the people, elects the prime minister and confirms the state government, passes laws and the state budget, controls the executive power and helps shape the state's will in the handling of public affairs, in European policy issues and in accordance with agreements between the state parliament and State government. "
The state is represented at the federal level by an authorized representative whose seat is in the Representation of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate in Berlin .
The elections to the Rhineland-Palatinate state parliament take place every five years. The state parliament has 101 members and has its seat in the Deutschhaus in Mainz . In the last state parliament elections for the 17th state parliament on March 13, 2016 , the SPD remained the strongest force. The AfD moved into parliament with 12.6 percent of the vote. After being elected from the state parliament in 2011, the FDP moved in again. The Greens lost a lot of votes and have just returned to the state parliament. The 17th state parliament was constituted on May 18, 2016. The next election is expected to take place in 2021 .
|No.||Surname||Life dates||Political party||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires|
|1||Wilhelm Boden||1890-1961||CDU||December 1, 1946||July 9, 1947|
|4th||Bernhard Vogel||* 1932||CDU||1976||1988|
|6th||Rudolf Scharping||* 1947||SPD||1991||1994|
|7th||Kurt Beck||* 1949||SPD||1994||January 16, 2013|
|8th||Maria Luise "Malu" Dreyer||* 1961||SPD||January 16, 2013||in office|
|State Chancellery||Clemens Hoch (SPD), State Secretary, Head of the State Chancellery|
|Ministry of Finance||Doris Ahnen (SPD)|
|Ministry of the Interior and Sport||Roger Lewentz (SPD)|
|Ministry of Social Affairs, Labor, Health and Demography||Sabine Bätzing-Lichtenthäler (SPD)|
|Ministry of Education||Stefanie Hubig (SPD)|
|Ministry of Science, Education and Culture||Konrad Wolf (SPD)|
|Ministry of Economy, Transport, Agriculture and Viticulture||Volker Wissing (FDP), Deputy Prime Minister|
|Ministry of Justice||Herbert Mertin (FDP)|
|Ministry of the Environment, Energy, Food and Forests||Ulrike Höfken (Greens)|
|Ministry of Family, Women, Youth, Integration and Consumer Protection||Anne Spiegel (Green)|
The state flag consists of the German tricolor, on which the coat of arms of Rhineland-Palatinate is applied up to half of the red horizontal stripe in the upper corner of the pole. This in turn consists of the Palatinate Lion , the cross of the Archdiocese and Electorate of Trier and the Mainz Wheel and is reminiscent of the Electorates of Trier , Mainz and Palatinate, which existed until 1801 in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation . As a symbol of popular sovereignty, the entire coat of arms is raised by a golden folk crown, five stylized vine leaves.
Rhineland-Palatinate is subdivided into 24 rural districts , 12 independent cities , 29 independent cities and municipalities (eight of which are large municipalities) as well as 129 association municipalities , to which 96 association-associated cities and 2,165 local municipalities belong. On December 31, 2017, there were 3,009,555 inhabitants in the rural districts of the country and 1,064,124 in the twelve independent cities.
The only higher municipal association in the formerly Bavarian Palatinate is the Palatinate District Association, which was anchored in the state constitution under pressure from the former occupying power of France. The political body of this regional authority is the Palatinate District Parliament .
- List of administrative districts and cities in Rhineland-Palatinate
- List of cities and municipalities in Rhineland-Palatinate
- List of municipalities not subject to association and association municipalities in Rhineland-Palatinate
(Listing with license plate )
One district cities
(Listing with license plate)
Large district cities
(Listing with license plate)
Former administrative districts
- Koblenz (until 1999)
- Montabaur (until 1968), later Koblenz district
- Pfalz (until 1968), later administrative district Rheinhessen-Pfalz
- Rheinhessen (until 1968), later administrative district Rheinhessen-Pfalz
- Rheinhessen-Palatinate (1968–1999)
- Trier (until 1999)
On January 1, 2000, the three remaining district governments of Koblenz, Trier and Rheinhessen-Pfalz were transferred to new structures, whose responsibilities are no longer regional, but functionally determined and in some cases extend to the entire state:
- Supervision and Service Directorate (ADD), Trier
- Structure and Approval Directorate North (SGD North; South Rhine and West Nassau), Koblenz
- Structure and Approval Directorate South (SGD Süd; Pfalz and Rheinhessen), Neustadt an der Weinstrasse
Nevertheless, the boundaries of the former administrative districts for the NUTS 2 regions still exist .
State authorities and courts
State authorities and state companies
- Supervision and Service Directorate , Trier
- Structure and Approval Directorate North , Koblenz
- Structure and Approval Directorate South , Neustadt an der Weinstrasse
- General Directorate for Cultural Heritage Rhineland-Palatinate
- State investigation office with locations in Koblenz, Landau, Mainz, Speyer and Trier
- State Office for Geology and Mining , Mainz
- State Office for the Environment , Mainz
- State Office for Surveying and Basic Geographic Information Rhineland-Palatinate , Koblenz
- Landesbetrieb data and information
- Landesbetrieb property and construction management
- State Office for Mobility Rhineland-Palatinate
- State Library Center Rhineland-Palatinate
- State forest administration
- State Archives Administration Rhineland-Palatinate
- State educational institute
- Audit Office of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate, Speyer
- State Criminal Police Office Rhineland-Palatinate
- Rhineland-Palatinate police
- University Medicine of the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
- Rhineland-Palatinate State Hospital
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate , Bad Ems
- State Office for Taxes Rhineland-Palatinate
- State Center for Environmental Education Rhineland-Palatinate (LZU)
- State Office for Social Affairs, Youth and Supply, Mainz / Koblenz
- Fire brigade and disaster control school Rhineland-Palatinate
- Constitutional Court of Rhineland-Palatinate in Koblenz
- Regional Labor Court of Rhineland-Palatinate in Mainz
- Labor courts in Kaiserslautern , Koblenz , Ludwigshafen , Mainz and Trier
- Regional Social Court of Rhineland-Palatinate in Mainz
- Social courts in Koblenz , Mainz , Speyer and Trier
- Rhineland-Palatinate tax court in Neustadt an der Weinstrasse
- Higher Regional Court of Koblenz
- Regional courts in Bad Kreuznach , Koblenz , Mainz , and Trier
- Palatinate Higher Regional Court Zweibrücken
- Regional courts in Frankenthal (Palatinate) , Kaiserslautern , Landau in the Palatinate , and Zweibrücken
- Higher Administrative Court of Rhineland-Palatinate in Koblenz
- Administrative courts in Koblenz , Mainz , Neustadt an der Weinstrasse and Trier
Rhineland-Palatinate maintains partnerships with:
- Thuringia in the project country partnership East-West from 1990,
- Burgundy Franche Comté in France,
- of the Polish Opole Voivodeship ,
- the German-speaking Community of Belgium ,
- the Central Bohemian Region in the Czech Republic,
- the Republic of Rwanda in East Africa,
- the US state of South Carolina ,
- the Chinese province of Fujian
as well as friendly relationships with
A partnership has existed between Rhineland-Palatinate and Rwanda since 1982 . Such a partnership between a German country and a developing country did not exist before. The majority of development cooperation in the state of Rhineland-Palatinate is therefore also concentrated on the small East African country.
For this purpose the association partnership Rhineland-Palatinate-Rwanda e. V. founded. In addition, the department responsible for “ Development Cooperation ” in the Rhineland-Palatinate Ministry of the Interior is simply referred to as the “Rwanda Department” . However, it is especially the small projects that make up the partnership. Schools and other institutions in Rhineland-Palatinate are regularly involved in projects related to the partner country. There is a dedicated coordination office in Kigali , the capital of Rwanda, in which Rhineland-Palatinate employees overlook the implementation of the various projects and take care of cultural exchange.
Rhineland-Palatinate and the US state of South Carolina have been linked by an official regional partnership since 1997. Initially, so-called transatlantic conferences were held at the technical level. Today, activities tend to focus on the civil society and education sectors. There are various university exchanges and projects in the field of school and sport. The Atlantic Academy in Kaiserslautern regularly offers regional student workshops on the partner country. The online project Transatlantic Partners, which is supported by the multimedia initiative of the state government rlpinform and organized as part of a student working group at the University of Koblenz-Landau (Campus Landau) and a partner editorial office at Francis Marion University in Florence, SC, documents the partnership and offers a wide range of information and exchange opportunities.
The population development in the area of today's Rhineland-Palatinate since 1815:
The population increased in the fifty years between 1950 and 2000 from around three million to over four million people. An almost continuous increase to almost 3.7 million inhabitants by the beginning of the 1970s followed, due to the so-called pill kink , an approx. 20-year phase of slight decline and stagnation until the population had increased since 1987 and especially since the early 1990s. Years as a result of the fall of the wall and the process of European unification and the associated high migration surpluses rose to today's level. In 1996 the population of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate exceeded the four million mark for the first time.
In 2004 a maximum population of 4,061,105 was determined. In the coming years and decades, however, the number of inhabitants will most likely decrease again. As early as 2005, the State Statistical Office diagnosed the "trend reversal". As of March 31, 2011, the population shrank again below the four million mark. In extreme cases, the population will decrease by around 25 percent to the level of 1950 by 2050. Even with a favorable development, the number will decrease by 314,000 people by then.
This population decline is distributed very differently across the various regions. The districts in the immediate vicinity of the larger cities will be least affected. H. the districts that border the cities of Mainz, Ludwigshafen, Koblenz, Kaiserslautern and Trier. In all probability, the south-west Palatinate, especially the cities of Zweibrücken and Pirmasens, will be hardest hit.
- Population forecast
In the 2011 population forecast by the Bertelsmann Foundation “Wegweiser Kommune”, Rhineland-Palatinate is predicted to see a slight population decline (4.5 percent by 2030).
|December 31, 2009||4,009,210|
|December 31, 2015||3,969,410|
|December 31, 2020||3,928,360|
|December 31, 2025||3,882,700|
|December 31, 2030||3,828,740|
Source: Bertelsmann Foundation
Population of the largest municipalities
The population of the largest municipalities in Rhineland-Palatinate is listed in the following table at the end of each year:
|Ludwigshafen am Rhein||168.497||164.718||161,518||163,340||162,233||+2.3|
|Neustadt an der Weinstrasse||53,353||52,999||52,400||53,525||53,917||+0.7|
|Landau in the Palatinate||46.292||45,362||43,825||42,994||41,122||+2.1|
|Bingen am Rhein||25,441||24,987||24,234||24.134||24,710||+1.8|
|Ingelheim am Rhein||24,833||26,546||24,283||24,050||24,678||−6.4|
At the end of 2019, Rhineland-Palatinate had 39.4% Catholic and 26.3% Protestant residents; 34.2% of the population either had another religion or no religion.
According to the 2011 census, 1.0% of the population at that time belonged to a Protestant free church , 1.1% to a Christian Orthodox church , 0.1% to a Jewish community and 2.3% to other religious communities recognized under public law in Rhineland-Palatinate (see include Old Catholics and Jehovah's Witnesses ).
Dioceses of the Roman Catholic Church in Rhineland-Palatinate
Regional churches of the Evangelical Church in Rhineland-Palatinate
- Evangelical Church in the Rhineland
- Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau
- Evangelical Church of the Palatinate (Protestant State Church)
In Rhineland-Palatinate, West Central German dialects are mainly spoken, which belong to Middle Franconian and Rhine Franconian . A small area in the south of the Palatinate belongs to the South Franconian language area , which is one of the Upper German dialects.
In ancient times, most of the country belonged to Gaul , Trier was the capital of the province of Belgica in the late antiquity and at times one of the capitals of the entire Roman Empire . The population mix of immigrated Romans and Romanized Celts persisted even after the Frankish conquest, their language, Moselle Romanic , persisted on the Moselle until the high Middle Ages , but was isolated from the rest of Romania by the purely Franconian- speaking areas in what is now the west of Rhineland- Palatinate and in present-day Luxembourg , see also: Moselle Franconian .
In the eastern part of the country there was already a mix of Celtic and Germanic tribes in Roman times. During the Great Migration the Alemanni and Franks settled this part of the country. The mixture resulted in different variations of the Palatinate dialects . Through the centuries-old tradition of emigration due to poverty or religious beliefs, the Palatinate formed the basis for various German dialects abroad. Russian Germans, Banat, Amish ( Pennsylvania Dutch ) and some of the Germans in Brazil ( Riograndenser Hunsrückisch ) have partly retained this dialect to this day.
According to the State Statistical Office in 2018, almost three quarters (2.97 million, 74%) of the people of Rhineland-Palatinate are ethnic after Germans and have no migrant background . Accordingly, a quarter have a migration background (1.04 million, 26%), i.e. This means that at least one parent is of non-German origin. These include almost 450,000 foreigners with non-German citizenship. The five most common countries of origin are Turkey (58,000), Poland (44,000), Syria (39,000) and Italy (30,000) and Romania (30,000).
The average life expectancy in the period 2015/17 was 78.6 years for men and 83.0 years for women. The men are fourth among the German federal states, while women are 10th. Regionally, the Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis (expectation of the total population: 81.96 years), Mainz (81.84) and Mainz-Bingen (81.79) had the highest in 2013/15, as did the Donnersbergkreis (79.39), Birkenfeld (79.21) and Pirmasens (77.35) have the lowest life expectancy. Pirmasens also came last in Germany.
In 2015 there were 87 hospitals with 25,282 beds and 3 day clinics with 87 places in Rhineland-Palatinate. The country had 7,835 doctors and an additional 48,000 employees in hospitals.
In Germany, Rhineland-Palatinate stands for wine and sparkling wine , but the industrial share of economic output is higher than the national average. With an export quota of around 46 percent, the country is in the top group of the German federal states. Alongside foreign trade and industry, medium- sized businesses are a cornerstone of the economy . Even the tourism plays an important role. In comparison with the EU's gross domestic product, expressed in purchasing power standards, Rhineland-Palatinate achieved an index of 112.0 in 2014 (EU-28: 100.0).
In 2014, the gross domestic product in Rhineland-Palatinate was around 127.6 billion euros.
The ten most important locations of employment subject to social insurance are ( place of work ):
June 30, 2012
June 30, 2007
June 30, 2012
|Ludwigshafen am Rhein||94.174||+8.68||+37,815||953|
|Landau in the Palatinate||19.902||+6.05||+4,851||700|
|Unemployment rate in%||7.3||6.8||7.2||7.7||7.7||8.8||8.0||6.5||5.6||6.1||5.7||5.3||5.3||5.5||5.4||5.2||5.1||4.8||4.4|
Important sectors in the chemical industry are BASF in Ludwigshafen (the largest employer in the country), pharmaceutical industry Boehringer Ingelheim (second largest employer), vehicle and mechanical engineering, e.g. B. Daimler plant in Wörth am Rhein (the largest truck plant in the world), Wirtgen Group in Windhagen (world market leader for road construction machines), KSB Aktiengesellschaft in Frankenthal (largest German pump manufacturer), Opel plant in Kaiserslautern, Stabilus Koblenz (world market leader in the Manufacture of gas pressure springs ), Schottel (marine engineering), food manufacturer Griesson - de Beukelaer (leading pastry company), Schott AG (manufacturer of glass and glass ceramics) in Mainz and the beverage manufacturers Bitburger Brauerei , Koblenz Brewery Koblenz and Gerolsteiner Brunnen . In Trier , cigarettes have been manufactured by formerly Johann Neuerburg called Haus Neuerburg , RJ Reynolds Tobacco Company and today JT International Germany and since 1925 by Heintz van Landewyck in Trier .
The service industry is based predominantly on smaller companies, whereby this economic sector is below the national average. In addition, there are nationwide leading companies in the service sector in the state such as Debeka Koblenz (insurance) and United Internet , one of the leading Internet service providers in Germany. The trade in local mineral resources and agricultural and forestry products (wine, wood, clay, stones, etc.) as well as jewelry is particularly important.
Important shopping centers in Rhineland-Palatinate are the Römerpassage in Mainz, the Löhr-Center and the Forum Mittelrhein in Koblenz, the Rathaus-Center in Ludwigshafen, the Rheingalerie in Ludwigshafen and the Trier-Galerie in Trier. The Lotto Rheinland-Pfalz GmbH, headquartered in Koblenz is the lottery company the state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
Mainz has been one of the four headquarters of Landesbank Baden-Württemberg since 2008 . That of WestLB belonging West German real estate bank has its headquarters in Mainz, just the two development banks in the country, namely the Investment and Economic Development Bank of Rhineland-Pfalz (ISB) and the state trust bank Rheinland-Pfalz (LTH) . The savings banks in Rhineland-Palatinate form an important backbone in the financing of medium-sized businesses as well as in business development and location security. In addition, they are committed to culture, sport, science and social affairs through donations and sponsoring in considerable amounts.
The only nuclear power plant in Rhineland-Palatinate, the Mülheim-Kärlich NPP , was completed in 1986. It had to be taken offline in 1988 due to an incorrect building permit. The dismantling should essentially be completed by 2012 and by 2013 only the steam generator and the actual reactor pressure vessel should remain in the plant.
Agriculture and Forestry
Agriculture plays a role especially in the Rheinhessen hill country and in the Upper Rhine Graben. The agricultural area covers around 719,400 hectares, which corresponds to about 36 percent of the country. These areas are used by around 24,700 businesses. Organic farming is practiced on around 10 percent of the total agricultural area.
In Rhineland-Palatinate, the six wine-growing regions Ahr, Middle Rhine , Mosel, Nahe , Rheinhessen and Palatinate have a total of approximately 64,000 hectares of vineyards. Of the approximately 98,000 hectares in Germany, Rhineland-Palatinate has the largest share. On average over the years, between 6.0 and 6.5 million hectoliters of wine are harvested in the country, of which around 1.6 million hectoliters are exported.
The most widely planted white wine grape varieties (about 45,563 ha) are in descending order: Riesling , Müller-Thurgau (Rivaner), Silvaner , Kerner , Scheurebe , Pinot Blanc , Bacchus , Pinot Gris (Pinot Gris), Faberrebe , Huxelrebe , Ortega , Chardonnay , Morio -Muskat , Elbling , Gewürztraminer , Reichensteiner , Ehrenfelser , Siegerrebe , Optima , Regner , Würzer , Sauvignon Blanc , Auxerrois . For the red wine grape varieties (approx.18,648 ha) these are in descending order: Dornfelder , Blauer Portugieser , Pinot Noir , Regent , St. Laurent , Dunkelfelder , Merlot , Müllerrebe , Cabernet Sauvignon , Heroldrebe , Frühburgunder , Cabernet Mitos , Acolon , Cabernet Dorsa , Domina .
The country itself manages four state wineries in Oppenheim, Trier, Bad Kreuznach and Neustadt an der Weinstrasse.
The sparkling wine cellars are also important : Kupferberg and Goldhand ( viticulture in Mainz ), Deinhard (Koblenz), Bischöfliche Weingüter (Trier) , Sektkellerei Bernard-Massard ( Trier ), Schloss Wachenheim (Wachenheim an der Weinstrasse) and Faber, both owned by Günther Reh AG (Trier) as well as many medium-sized producers of sparkling wine . Some larger German commercial wineries such as Reh Kendermann are based in Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Tourism for Rhineland-Palatinate an important economic factor.
The current analyzes for tourism in Rhineland-Palatinate show: With over 8.3 billion euros in sales and almost 3.7 billion euros in income in 2009, tourism is one of the main pillars of the state's economy. According to official information from the State Statistical Office in Bad Ems, a total of 21,700,612 guests stayed in Rhineland-Palatinate in 2010 . Compared to the previous year, this meant an increase of 1.3 percent.
In addition, there is tax revenue from tourism of over 180 million euros, which annually fills the coffers of the municipalities in Rhineland-Palatinate. In addition, the state participates in sales tax and income tax as part of the state financial equalization scheme. These numbers arise because every year millions of holidaymakers come to the country for camping or wellness stays, spa guests, city, wine and event travelers as well as day trippers, for example hiking or cycling , not to mention business travelers and conference participants. A particular tourist attraction in the Palatinate is the 85 km long German Wine Route . Next to it, there is the 70-kilometer German Gemstone Road near Idar-Oberstein on the Upper Nahe and in the Hunsrück . The Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park has existed since 2015 and covers around 10,120 hectares.
The largest airport in Rhineland-Palatinate is Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , which is located in the Hunsrück not far from the municipality of Hahn . This is not to be confused with Frankfurt am Main Airport, which is about 100 kilometers away . It was converted from a US military airfield to a civil airport in 1993. In terms of passenger traffic, the “low-cost airport” is mainly served by various low-cost airlines, especially Ryanair . The airport is connected to the A 61 via the four-lane B 50 , which was expanded in 2011 . The long-discussed reactivation of the Hunsrück railway line has been postponed indefinitely.
The second airport with regular, international connections was Zweibrücken Airfield , developed from Zweibrücken Air Base, which was used from 1953 to 1991 by the Allied Air Forces ( Royal Canadian Air Force 1953-1969, United States Air Force 1969-1991). On November 3, 2014 the commercial line service was stopped there.
The federal highways 1 , 3 , 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 and 65 run from north to south, and the A 6 , A 8 , A 48 , A 64 , A 602 and A 650 from west to east . About 861 km of motorway run through Rhineland-Palatinate. The Moselle valley bridge, the crossing of the A 61 over the Moselle, was the highest motorway bridge in Europe when it was built. In the Middle Rhine Valley , a crossing of the Rhine over the Middle Rhine Bridge between St. Goar and St. Goarshausen was planned. During the coalition negotiations after the state elections in 2011, the SPD and the Greens agreed not to build the “Mittelrheinbrücke” project for the time being, while the large bridge known as the Hochmoselübergang was being built. The longest road tunnel is the Malberg tunnel near Bad Ems at 1540 m .
The most important junction stations for long-distance passenger rail transport are Mainz Hauptbahnhof , Koblenz Hauptbahnhof , Ludwigshafen (Rhein) Hauptbahnhof , Montabaur station , Neustadt an der Weinstrasse Hauptbahnhof , Trier Hauptbahnhof and Kaiserslautern Hauptbahnhof . The right and left Rhine lines and the Mainz – Mannheim line are important railway lines along the Rhine . The Moselle line is located on the Moselle , the high-speed Cologne – Rhine / Main line, completed in 2004, runs through the Westerwald . The connection from central Germany to Paris via Mannheim, Kaiserslautern and Saarbrücken runs through the Palatinate Forest with the Mannheim – Saarbrücken railway line . The longest railway tunnel is the Kaiser Wilhelm Tunnel near Cochem at 4205 m .
According to a railroad spokesman, federal funds for the Mainz Nordkopf in the amount of 48 million euros have been approved for the expansion of the long-distance freight transport network . The increased efficiency is also required because the Gotthard Base Tunnel was opened in Switzerland in 2016 and freight traffic between the North Sea and the Mediterranean (and thus across Rhineland-Palatinate) will almost double to 40 million tons. The planning of a new route for rail freight traffic to relieve the Rhine-Main-Cargo route in 2012 is still in an early evaluation phase.
Waterways and ports
The Rhine is the most important waterway in Rhineland-Palatinate. In addition, only the Moselle , since its canalization from 1958 to 1964, and the Saar are of importance for passenger and transport ship traffic. The Lahn is navigable in its middle and lower reaches, but is almost only used for tourism.
The Ludwigshafen Rheinhafen is the largest and most efficient public port in Rhineland-Palatinate and one of the most important inland ports in Germany. It covers an area of over 150 hectares and handled 7.1 million tons of goods in 2005. The container terminal of the customs and inland port Mainz , inaugurated in 2011, has an area of 8 hectares suitable for storage of 10,300 TEU , a transshipment of 1.3 million tons and is called at by 2200 ships annually. Other important inland ports are located in Andernach (annual turnover over 2.8 million tons) as well as in Germersheim, Worms , Bendorf , Koblenz , Wörth am Rhein and Trier .
The Rheinseilbahn, Germany's largest cable car, has been operating in Koblenz since July 2, 2010. The first 890 meter long tricable gondola built in an urban setting connects the Rhine facilities at the level of the Kastorkirche with the plateau in front of the Ehrenbreitstein Fortress . With 18 cabins for 35 passengers each per hour, it can carry around 3800 people in each direction. With this conveying capacity of a total of 7600 people per hour, it is unsurpassed worldwide. It was built as an attraction and ecologically sensible transport connection to the 2011 Federal Horticultural Show . In order not to endanger the UNESCO World Heritage status of the Upper Middle Rhine Valley cultural landscape , it was agreed in a concession agreement to operate the cable car until November 2013 and then dismantle it. However, on June 19, 2013 in Phnom Penh, UNESCO decided at the 37th session of the World Heritage Committee to allow operation until 2026. The technically longest possible service life ends this year.
On November 12, 1955, the first soldiers moved the army of the newly formed Bundeswehr in the Krahnenberg barracks into Andernach. Since then, the Bundeswehr has had important locations in Rhineland-Palatinate. Koblenz was Germany's largest garrison town until the end of the 1980s. Despite the closure of some barracks, many central military and civil facilities remained here. The German Army Memorial , the Bundeswehr Medical Service Command , the Federal Office for Equipment, Information Technology and Use of the Bundeswehr , the Inner Guidance Center and the Bundeswehr Central Hospital are located in Koblenz . Until the dissolution, the Army Command , the Medical Command and the Federal Office for Defense Technology and Procurement had their headquarters in Koblenz. The Air Force has deployed Tactical Air Force Squadron 33 at Büchel Air Base . From the center Operative communication of the Bundeswehr in Mayen is troop entertainment channels of the Bundeswehr " Radio Andernach " sent. The Baumholder military training area has been used since 1937 and has been administered by the Bundeswehr since 1960. The Bundeswehr Technical Service Center 41 has been active in Trier since 1957 . In 1956 the artillery school of the Bundeswehr was stationed in Idar-Oberstein . Since 2015, the " Training Area Armed Forces Joint Tactical Fire Support / Indirect Fire " has been located there, where soldiers of the Bundeswehr and allied armed forces are trained for the Howitzer 2000 and other weapon systems using the latest technology . There is also a mobility center of the BundeswehrFuhrparkService GmbH located in Idar-Oberstein , whose vehicles are used in the whole of southwest Germany.
Foreign armed forces
Foreign armed forces have played an important role in the country's development since the 1950s. Rhineland-Palatinate was considered by NATO to be the most important regional military base for the Allied air defense. The Börfink command bunker in the Hunsrück, for example, was used for air surveillance in Central Europe during the Cold War . The Pydna nuclear missile base was also located in the Hunsrück until the end of the 1980s . The US armed forces in particular were and are present. Up to 69,000 US soldiers were stationed in Rhineland-Palatinate during the Cold War. In June 2006 there were 27,200. To this day, the USA maintains two important bases of the US Air Force , Ramstein Air Base and Spangdahlem Air Base , whose importance has increased further after the Rhine-Main Air Base in Frankfurt am Main was closed in 2005 . The US Air Force uses Ramstein, the largest NATO airport in Europe, mainly as a hub for freight and troop transports for the regions of Europe, Africa and the Middle East and as a destination for evacuation flights, as the largest US hospital is located in nearby Landstuhl ( Landstuhl Regional Medical Center ) is located outside of the United States. The Miesau Army Depot near Miesau is the largest ammunition depot in Germany and the largest ammunition depot of the US Army outside the USA. Because of the numerous military aircraft stationed in Rhineland-Palatinate, the state is also known as the "Rhineland-Palatinate aircraft carrier". Baumholder is the largest American garrison town in Germany; this is where the headquarters of the 2nd Brigade of the 1st US Armored Division are located .
Associations of the Forces françaises en Allemagne were also stationed in the country, including one armored division each in Trier and Landau. At times up to 30,000 soldiers including their families lived in and near Trier. They withdrew in the 1990s.
The United States and Great Britain stored up to 5,000 nuclear weapons in German bunkers during the Cold War . Until 2004 there were 150 atomic bombs in Germany in the bunkers of the Ramstein (130) and Büchel (20) air force bases ; here is what is known as nuclear participation . In July 2007 it became known that Büchel Air Base has probably been the only location in Germany since 2004 where nuclear weapons are located. Only in Büchel does the German Air Force continue to train nuclear missions with Tornado- type fighter-bombers .
With the Second German Television , Mainz is home to one of the largest broadcasters in Europe. In addition, Südwestrundfunk operates a third television program with SWR TV and nationwide radio programs with the radio stations SWR1 Rhineland-Palatinate , SWR2 , SWR3 , SWR4 Rhineland-Palatinate and DASDING . In addition, there are the nationally broadcast private radio stations RPR1 , BigFM and Rockland Radio as well as the local operators Antenne Koblenz 98.0 , Antenne Bad Kreuznach , Antenne Kaiserslautern , Antenne Landau , Antenne Mainz , Antenne Pfalz , Cityradio Trier , Radio Idar-Oberstein , Radio Pirmasens and Radio Cross . AFN provides the American soldiers stationed mainly in the Palatinate and the Eifel with radio in English. Metropol FM broadcasts for Turkish citizens in the Mainz, Koblenz and Ludwigshafen areas.
On January 1st, 1984, the era of private television began as part of the Ludwigshafen cable pilot project . The "PKS" (program company for cable and satellite broadcasting) went on air from a basement studio in Ludwigshafen. A year later this became the second largest private television station in Germany, Sat.1 . Regional television programs are offered in various cities in the country. In the north these are wwtv , TV Mittelrhein and rheinahr.tv as well as in the east and south Rhein-Neckar Fernsehen and gutenberg.tv . There are 16 different citizen radio stations across the country . Since 2006, students have been designing the SRRP Radio & TV . Digital television ( DVB-T ) has been available nationwide in Rhineland-Palatinate since the end of 2008.
In the 2019/20 season , 1. FSV Mainz 05 will play in the highest German soccer class, the Bundesliga . The four-time German champions 1. FC Kaiserslautern have been in the 3rd division since 2018 after relegating from the 2nd Bundesliga .
In the fourth-class Regionalliga Südwest , which has existed since 2012/13, three teams from Rhineland-Palatinate will play in the 2019/20 season: Rot-Weiß Koblenz , 1. FSV Mainz 05 II and FK Pirmasens .
The women's soccer department of SC 07 Bad Neuenahr , founded in 1969, won the German championship in 1978. The club was a founding member of the women's soccer Bundesliga . After three promotions and relegations since 1997, he has belonged to this division without interruption, from which he retired in 2013 for financial reasons. The first German champion in women's football was TuS Wörrstadt in 1974 , who also played in the women's football league from 1993 to 1996. The women's soccer department of TuS Niederkirchen (today 1. FFC 08 Niederkirchen ) also won the German championship in 1993. The Niederkirchen club was also a founding member of the women's soccer Bundesliga and belonged to it until 2000 and again in 2003/04.
On the Nürburgring in the Vulkaneifel , alongside other racing events, Formula 1 races have been held regularly since 1951 , as the Grand Prix of Germany or the Grand Prix of Europe . The Rally Germany came in 2000 from Adenau to Trier and since 2002, a round of the FIA - World Rally Championship . From 1991 to 2011 the Trier hill climb was part of the FIA European Hill Climb Championship . To be mentioned in motorcycle sport are u. a. the traditional sand track race in Herxheim on Ascension Day in front of up to 20,000 spectators, the sand track race in Altrip on Corpus Christi and the grass track race in Zweibrücken .
With the Gerolsteiner team in the Eifel a top team was the professional from 1998 to 2008 cycling home. The Rhineland-Palatinate Tour is an international, five-day cycle stage race and is part of the UCI Europe Tour .
The DJK / MJC Trier was the 2003 German women's handball champion. For the men, TSG Friesenheim will play in the 1st handball league in the 2010/11 season . The TSG Haßloch was the last German field handball champion .
In rowing , the state performance center is located at the Mainz rowing club. Together with the Ludwigshafen rowing club , the club is one of the largest and, with several Olympic champions, one of the most successful and traditional rowing clubs in the state.
The TTC Zugbrücke Grenzau plays in the table tennis Bundesliga and has won numerous titles on the German and European level. FSV Kroppach became German champions six times in the women’s category , and they too were able to win international titles.
The chess clubs SC Bann and SC Remagen played or play in the 1st Bundesliga , the SG Turm Trier 1877 played with the 1st team since the 2005/06 season in the 2nd Bundesliga , Season South, and from the 2007/08 season to for the 2016/17 season in the 1st Bundesliga. She then moved to the British Four Nations Chess League . For women, TSV Schott Mainz plays in the Bundesliga.
The women's team of the Rheinhessen Golf Club Hofgut Wißberg St. Johann e. V. plays in the 1st Bundesliga of the DGV for the first time in the 2008 season.
In American football are Kaiserslautern Pikes very successful and within five years the rise of the national league (5th Division) in the German Football League 2 (2nd Bundesliga), in which the "pike" play since 2009, managed.
- Cross - wheel - lion. Rhineland-Palatinate and its history. Verlag Philipp von Zabern , Mainz 2012;
- Hans-Martin Braun, Carsten Braun: Natural beauty in Rhineland-Palatinate. Literature publisher Dr. Gebhardt and Hilden, Idar-Oberstein 2000, ISBN 3-932515-23-4 .
- Heinz Cüppers (Ed.): The Romans in Rhineland-Palatinate. ISBN 3-933203-60-0 .
- Heinz Fischer: Rhineland-Palatinate and Saarland - a geographic study of the country. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1989, ISBN 3-534-08892-1 .
- Michael Kißener : A short history of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. 1945–2005 ways of integrating a “post-war federal state”. Braun, Karlsruhe 2006, ISBN 3-7650-8345-3 .
- Karin Leydecker , Enrico Santifaller: home construction site. Architecture guide for Rhineland-Palatinate 1945–2005. Schnell and Steiner, Regensburg 2005, ISBN 3-7954-1759-7 .
- Hans-Jürgen Wünschel (Ed.): Rhineland-Palatinate - Contributions to the history of a new country. Knecht-Verlag, Landau 1997.
- Peter Haungs: 40 years of Rhineland-Palatinate: A political study of the country. Mainz 1986.
- Ulrich Sarcinelli, Jürgen Falter, Gerd Mielke: Political culture in Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz 2000.
- Archeology in Rhineland-Palatinate. Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz (published annually since 2002).
- Ulrich Sarcinelli, Timo S. Werner: Development and change of the party system in Rhineland-Palatinate. State Center for Political Education Rhineland-Palatinate , Mainz 2010.
- Rhineland-Palatinate. Our country at a glance. State Center for Political Education Rhineland-Palatinate, Mainz 2009.
- Sheets about the country , published by the RLP regional agency for political education.
- Rhineland-Palatinate. Culture and economy. Mushakesche Verlagsanstalt / Franzmathes Verlag, Trautheim 1953.
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wiktionary||- Dictionary entries|
|Wikisource||- Sources and full texts|
|Wikivoyage||- Travel Guide|
- Website of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate
- Geoportal-Wasser Rhineland-Palatinate - information systems
- Air pollution control in Rhineland-Palatinate
- Rhineland-Palatinate Bibliography
- Literature from and about Rhineland-Palatinate in the catalog of the German National Library
- Regional database of the Federal Statistical Office www.regionalstatistik.de.
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate - population status 2019, districts, communities, association communities ( help on this ).
- Unemployment rates in July 2020 - countries and districts. In: statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on August 11, 2020 .
- Gross domestic product of Rhineland-Palatinate since 1970 on statista.com, accessed on January 9, 2018
- Source: State Statistical Office Rhineland-Palatinate
- Current seating regulations in the Rhineland-Palatinate state parliament .
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate: Population in Rhineland-Palatinate on December 31, 2018 by administrative district
- Official Journal of the French High Command in Germany, No. 35 (1946), p. 292
- full text
- May 16, 1950. Mainz becomes the seat of government of Rhineland-Palatinate. ( Memento of the original from May 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. in: State Main Archive Koblenz
- Mainz instead of Koblenz: 60 years of the capital. In: fr-online.de. May 17, 2010, accessed December 14, 2014 .
- UNESCO World Heritage Site - Triassic Romanesque Dome on the Rhine and Sayner Hut are now officially in the running Website of the Ministry of Education, Science, Further Education and Culture of Rhineland-Palatinate, from August 1, 2012.
- opening of the State Garden Show is postponed to 2015. Landesgartenschau Landau 2015 non-profit GmbH, accessed on September 10, 2013 .
- Press release of the City of Mainz from May 19, 2008 ( Memento from February 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- The Regional Officer Rhineland-Palatinate: State Result Rhineland-Palatinate - Preliminary Result
- State Statistical Office: Population of the municipalities on December 31, 2017 (PDF; 1.6 MB).
- lua.rlp.de ( Memento of the original from July 10, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Website of the State Tax Office
- Website of the State Center for Environmental Education Rhineland-Palatinate (LZU)
- Website of the State Office for Social Affairs, Youth and Supply
- Partnerships of the State of Rhineland-Palatinate. (No longer available online.) Rhineland-Palatinate, archived from the original on June 15, 2009 ; Retrieved February 21, 2012 .
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate ( Memento of the original from December 27, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Federal and Statistical Offices ( Memento of the original from January 18, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Press release of the State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate on July 20, 2011 ( memento of the original from December 30, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Evangelical Church in Germany, church membership numbers, as of December 31, 2019.
- Religion 2019 , accessed on July 18, 2020.
- population according to religious affiliation, slide 5.
- Rhineland-Palatinate: Talks with Islamic associations. Süddeutsche Zeitung , April 4, 2019, accessed on November 8, 2019 .
- Population in a regional comparison by religion (detailed). Retrieved October 28, 2018 .
- Churches, religious and ideological communities recognized in Rhineland-Palatinate as corporations under public law. Retrieved October 28, 2018 .
- Life expectancy in Germany by federal state and gender in 2015/2017. Retrieved October 22, 2019 .
- BBSR Homepage - Federal Institute for Building, Urban and Spatial Research (BBSR) - Research and policy advice - Where life expectancy is highest in Germany. Retrieved October 22, 2019 .
- Statistical reports: hospitals, supply and rehabilitation facilities. Retrieved October 28, 2019 .
- Gross domestic product (GDP) at current market prices by NUTS 3 regions. Eurostat , February 26, 2016, accessed on December 2, 2016 .
- Unemployment rates in July 2020 - countries and districts. In: statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on August 11, 2020 .
- Unemployment rates in July 2020 - countries and districts. In: statistik.arbeitsagentur.de. Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on August 11, 2020 .
- Overview of the federal and state statistical offices ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency
- census database
- © Federal Statistical Office (Destatis),: Federal Statistical Office Germany - GENESIS-Online ( en ) November 13, 2018. Retrieved November 13, 2018.
- Agriculture . Ministry of the Environment, Agriculture, Food, Viticulture and Forests RLP . 2011. Retrieved June 13, 2011.
- Organic land in Rhineland-Palatinate has more than doubled since 2010 . In: proplanta.de . 2020. Retrieved May 3, 2020.
- PDF at extranet.rlp-info.de ( memento of the original from September 3, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- PDF at www.statistik.rlp.de ( Memento of the original from July 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Günther Josten, Kurt Braatz and Wilhelm Goebel (eds.): Battle report. War Diaries 1939–1945. Commodore in the Starfighter Crisis. Twenty-nine six publishing house, Moosburg 2011, ISBN 978-3-9811615-7-1 , p. 268.
- The last passenger plane takes off at Zweibrücken Airport. airliners.de, November 3, 2014, accessed on January 12, 2019 .
- Mainzer Nordkopf: 48 million for smooth rail traffic ( Memento of the original from September 4, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Article in the Mainzer Rhein Zeitung from January 6, 2011
- FH Professor: Completion of the Gotthard Base Tunnel has consequences for railway noise in Mainz ( memento from November 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) by Michael Erfurth in Rhein Main Presse, Allgemeine Zeitung, from June 16, 2012.
- Rhein-Main-Cargo ( Memento of the original from August 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. - a new line for rail freight transport (TU Berlin 2011)
- The greatest! Koblenz's Buga cable car now gondolas over the Rhine in: Rhein-Zeitung , July 2, 2010.
- BUGA cable car in Koblenz across the Rhine goes into operation. , July 2, 2010.
- Oliver Georgi: Rhein-Seilbahn can stay until 2026. In: FAZ.net . June 19, 2013, accessed December 14, 2014 .
- Otfried Nassauer: US nuclear weapons in Germany and Europe
- Matthias Gebauer: Nuclear weapons in Germany: USA have cleared the nuclear arsenal in Ramstein. In: Spiegel Online . July 9, 2007, accessed December 14, 2014 .
- Trier Bundesliga team moves to Great Britain