Condominium or Kondominat (from latin con- dominium , ie "common rule", German Community or total power or Samtherrschaft ) is the commonly applied rule several rulers (Kondominanten) over a field . The area itself is also known as a condominium.
There are numerous examples of condominiums in European history. A distinction is made between border condominiums and successor condominiums in terms of their origins: the former leave open a boundary between two powers, the disputed area is administered jointly. The latter arise from unresolved communities of heirs .
Examples of condominiums that exist today are:
- the rivers Our , Sauer and Mosel on the routes on which they represent the border between Germany and Luxembourg. Joint exercise of rule by the Federal Republic of Germany and the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg over the entire water surface of the Moselle with the exception of the lock structures. Insofar as it is on the border with Rhineland-Palatinate , the area of the three border rivers is the only municipality-free area in the State of Rhineland-Palatinate ( joint German-Luxembourg sovereign territory ). The approximately ten kilometer long section of the Moselle, which forms the border between Luxembourg and Saarland and is also part of the condominium, is also an area free of municipalities. The regulation made at the Congress of Vienna in 1815 was confirmed in a border treaty in 1984.
- the Brčko District in northeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina , whose administration is shared by the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska . In fact, it is directly subordinate to the Bosnian-Herzegovinian central government in Sarajevo , but has local self-government.
- Under international law, the autonomous monastic republic of Athos is a condominium under the joint rule of Greece and the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople .
- the Pheasant Island , an uninhabited inland island and the smallest condominium in the world, in whose administration Spain and France take turns every six months.
Andorra was the oldest condominium since the Peace of Lleida on September 8, 1278 and was under the administration of the Bishop of Urgell and the respective French head of state. Since the new constitution of 1993, Andorra is no longer a condominium, but a sovereign state with two heads of state (co- princes ), the Bishop of Urgell and the President of France .
For Gibraltar , a condominium with Spain was proposed by the British government in 2001 as a compromise proposal for the future of the crown colony , but was rejected by the population of Gibraltar in a referendum in 2002 .
The Obersee of Lake Constance is often referred to as a condominium, but is not such a condominium due to the lack of international treaty regulations; nor is a condominium to be assumed due to the lack of a customary law regulation or agreement on a common opinion. The Austrian, but also predominantly German, view is that no border has been agreed between the neighboring countries, but that sovereign tasks are carried out jointly by the neighboring countries of Germany , Austria and Switzerland . Austria regards the entire Obersee (probably without the Überlinger See) with the exception of the stockpile, the area close to the shore up to 25 meters water depth, as a condominium, while Switzerland - as is usual with inland waters - has for centuries been of a real division , i.e. H. a division in the middle distance to the banks. With regard to the Konstanz funnel and the Untersee, there are corresponding contractual agreements between Switzerland and Germany. The Obersee is therefore to be seen more as a "state-free area" and as an "international community area" without clarification of sovereign power, whereby all questions that arise in practice are adequately regulated by numerous intergovernmental agreements also on the division of executive responsibilities and this intensive regional cooperation clarifies the Makes the question of sovereignty superfluous.
The list of examples of condominiums in history is not complete - in Baden-Württemberg alone, 274 of the earlier municipalities can look back on a history as condominium - but lists particularly typical and bizarre cases:
- Bergedorf municipal office of the two Free Hanseatic Cities of Hamburg and Lübeck (1420–1867).
- Bieber belonged to the Counts of Rieneck and the Lords (later: Counts) of Hanau from 1339 to 1559 and then to Kurmainz and Hanau until 1684 .
- The reign of Breuberg with up to four lords between 1323 and 1497
- In the Holy Roman Empire, the place Burgau formed a condominium between the Landgraviate of Fürstenberg-Messkirch (Obervogteiamt Neufra ) and the Imperial Abbey of Salem (Oberamt Ostrach ). The Salem property fell in 1806 to Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , the Fürstenberg part of Württemberg . The Hohenzollern, from 1850 Prussian part had the status of an independent municipality in the Oberamt Sigmaringen , while the Württemberg part was incorporated into Heudorf ( Oberamt Riedlingen ) and in 1934 to Dürmentingen . The affiliation to various districts ( Sigmaringen and Saulgau ) remained until the district reform in 1968/70, when Dürmentingen and Burgau became part of the Biberach district .
- The parish of Edelfingen was jointly owned by the high and German masters of the Teutonic Knight Order (Tauberoberamt Mergentheim, Amt Balbach) to 5/8 ; 2/8 of Herr von Hatzfeld, who belonged to the lower nobility, who was directly under the empire ; the incorporated in the imperial knights, Frankish knights Circle, Canton Odenwald Barons of Adelsheim to 8.1 . In 1794 the share of the Lords of Hatzfeld fell to the Hochstift Würzburg and in 1803 with the secularization to the Prince of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein-Jagstberg . In 1806 the Adelsheim eighth of the place fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden , the two Bartenstein eighth of the village also went in 1806 from the Prince of Hohenlohe to the Kingdom of Württemberg . The remaining five eighths in the former possession of the Teutonic Order came to Württemberg in 1809 . It was not until the State Treaty of 1846 that the condominium with Baden ended and Edelfingen became completely part of Württemberg.
- The Federsee in Upper Swabia was the condominium of the three "sea rulers" Abbey Marchtal , Graf von Stadion-Warthausen and the imperial city of Buchau . In 1803 in the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss Paragraph 13, the city and monastery of Buchau came to the Princes of Thurn and Taxis , and in 1806 in the Rhine Confederation Act to Württemberg .
- The small area Frais in the Upper Palatinate-Bohemian border area near Eger was under the rule of the city of Eger and the Waldsassen monastery, alternating every year, from 1591 to 1862 .
- The Freigericht Wilmundsheim vor der Hart ( Alzenau , Freigericht ) as a condominium between the Counts of Hanau-Münzenberg and the Electorate of Mainz between 1500 and 1736.
- The city of Fürth in Franconia : From the 15th to the end of the 18th century there was the so-called "triple rule" of the Bamberg bishops , the margraves of Brandenburg-Ansbach and the free imperial city of Nuremberg . With the abdication of the last Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Bayreuth, Christian Friedrich Carl Alexander , the margraviate came back to the Brandenburg-Prussian Hohenzollern . In this context, Fürth also became Prussian and the previous "triple rule" ended.
- The place Gellmersbach , originally to rule vineyard belonging, was in 1335 by the wine bergischen rule half of Kurmainz , 1412 and the other half to the Kurpfalz sold. The half of the town acquired by the Archbishopric of Mainz came to the Teutonic Order in 1484 , which held this possession until the transition to Württemberg in 1809, while the half of the town acquired by the Electoral Palatinate with the entire dominion of Weinsberg at that time fell to Württemberg in 1504.
- The common dominions , which were administered jointly by different Swiss cantons between 1415 and 1798,
- The town of Heufelden , originally belonging to the Counts of Berg , was distributed among eight gentlemen through purchases and foundations: the University of Freiburg , the parish of Ehingen, the city and hospital of Ehingen , the monasteries of Salem , Söflingen and Urspring , the community itself and Count Schenk von Castell , who all exercised lower jurisdiction under Austrian sovereignty and the high authorities of the Ehingen rule . 1806 to Württemberg .
- The route between Hilst and the Eppenbrunn / Roppeviller connecting route, which formed the border between what was then part of the Kingdom of Bavaria and Alsace (until 1871 and again from 1919 belonged to France , from 1871 to 1919 German Reichsland) , has been a Bavarian-French condominium since the border was cleared in 1826 on which sovereign rights did not insist. The condominium was terminated when the Franco-German agreement of August 14, 1925 came into effect.
- The hut mountain shelter from 1396 to 1703 the joint government of the Landgrave of Hesse and the counts of Nassau-Saarbrücken .
- Kehldorf and Sundheim were a condominium until the transition to Baden in 1806, while the imperial fortress Kehl had belonged to the margraviate of Baden-Baden since 1698 . Kehldorf and Sundheim were enrolled in the Imperial Knighthood , Swabian Knight Circle , Ortenau cantonal district. The sovereign rights were shared: 1/2 St. Stephan monastery in Strasbourg , 1/4 Böcklin von Böcklinsau , 1/3 Margraviate Baden-Baden, Amt Kehl (city and fortress), 1/8 Principality Nassau-Usingen .
- The municipality of Kißlegg is dominated by two castles, of which two lines of the Waldburg family ruled the place as a condominium until 1806. Kißlegg, originally enrolled in the Imperial Knighthood , Swabian Knight Circle , Canton in Hegau, Allgäu and on Lake Constance , belonged half to the Truchsess from Waldburg-Wolfegg-Waldsee (Reign of Kißlegg) and half to the Truchsess from Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach , who inherited their share of the Scheer-Trauchburg line in 1793.
- The royal seat of Künzelsau was originally a site of imperial knighthood. From 1328 on, the Lords of Stetten and their successors gradually sold shares to other imperial estates. 1489 agreed the Archbishopric of Mainz , Hohenlohe , the imperial city of Schwäbisch Hall and the von Stetten a Ganerbenverwaltung . At the end of the Old Kingdom, shares owned: Principality of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (Amt Künzelsau); Kurmainz (Oberamt Krautheim , Amtsvogtei Nagelsberg) ; Würzburg Monastery ( Jagstberg Office) ; Ritterstiftskirche Comburg ( Reichsritterschaft , Frankish knights circle , Ritter Canton Odenwald ). Künzelsau was the residence of the Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Künzelsau line, died out in 1689. In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803, § 18 stipulated that the Mainz, Würzburg and Comburg shares in the market town of Künzelsau should go to the Principality of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein , but already in 1804 Künzelsau fell through inheritance and division to Hohenlohe-Kirchberg and Hohenlohe-Langenburg , which were incorporated into Württemberg in 1806 .
- The municipality of Kürnbach as a condominium between the Landgraviate of Hessen-Darmstadt (Vogtei Kürnbach) and the Duchy of Württemberg . In 1810, the Württemberg portion of Kürnbach was transferred to Baden . The condominium existed until 1905.
- The city of Ladenburg as a condominium between the Bishops of Worms and the Elector of the Palatinate (1383–1705).
- The Grafschaft der Schenken von Limpurg owned various allodial heirs from 1441 to 1806. Gaildorf remained in the joint ownership of the Limpurg taverns until 1441 and was then divided into several parts in 1557, 1690 and 1774. The Limpurg-Gaildorf line died out in 1690. The heirs of the Limpurg-Gaildorf line formed the "Landesteile" Solms-Assenheimischer Landesteil with the share in the city of Gaildorf , offices of Gschwend and Oberrot ( 1/4 Count of Waldeck-Bergheim , 1/4 Count of Leiningen , 1/4 Count of Ysenburg-Büdingen-Meerholz , 1/4 Graf zu Solms-Assenheim-Rödelheim ) and Wurmbrandscher Landesteil with the share in the city Gaildorf, Ämter Gaildorf-Land and Gschwend ( 1/2 Fürstin zu Leiningen-Hardenburg-Dagsburg, 1/2 Württemberg ). The 1/2 town of Gaildorf was ceded to the Sontheimer and Speckfelder line in 1690 . The individual lords of the heirs of the Limpurg-Sontheim line belonged to various allodial heirs, the Gaildorf lordship to Count Pückler . The heirs of the Limpurg-Speckfeld line were 2/3 Count von Rechteren , 1/3 Count Pückler.
- The city of Lippstadt as a condominium between Brandenburg-Prussia and the Principality of Lippe from 1666 to 1850.
- The historical district of Merzig-Saargau as a condominium between Kurtrier and the Duchy of Lorraine from 1368 until the division in 1778.
- The neutral Moresnet , which was administered jointly by Prussia (or from 1871 the German Empire ) and the Netherlands (or from 1830 Belgium ) from 1816 to 1919 .
- The Munzenberg inheritance with Munzenberg Castle from 1255 to 1935 under numerous noble families of the Wetterau
- The municipality of Nennig as a condominium between Kurtrier , the Duchy of Luxembourg and the Duchy of Lorraine until it was occupied by the French revolutionary troops in 1794.
- The place Niedernhall with the saltworks, which is important for the salt supply, was administered as a condominium by three imperial estates: Principality of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (Amt Forchtenberg ); Kurmainz (Oberamt Krautheim , Amtsvogtei Nagelsberg ); Schöntal Abbey under the sovereignty of the Archbishop of Mainz. In 1799 the rights of the Archdiocese of Mainz were taken over by the Principality of Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen , and in 1806 Niedernhall fell entirely to Württemberg .
- The Parkstein-Weiden community office was a condominium that existed from 1421 to 1714 within the Holy Roman Empire in the northern Upper Palatinate, which was under two frequently changing territorial rulers.
- The Office Partenstein belonged 1277-1684 divided equally to men (later Count) of Hanau and the Archdiocese of Mainz .
- The rule of Poltringen and Oberndorf was registered in the Imperial Knighthood , Swabian Knight Circle , Canton on the Neckar and Black Forest ; However, the rule was exercised by two members of the high nobility, namely from the Lower Imperial County of Hohenberg , which belonged to Swabian Austria and thus to Upper Austria , to 2/3 , and the Duchy of Württemberg (Stabskellerei Tübingen) to 1/3 . At the end of the 13th century, the Count Palatine of Tübingen held suzerainty , since then Poltringen and Oberndorf have formed a unit with regard to the rights of rule. In the 14th century, rule was divided between the Counts of Eberstein and the Lords of Hailfingen . From the latter, rights came to the Counts of Hohenberg and later to Austria and Württemberg . The barons of Ulm zu Erbach (1702–1762 hereditary bailiffs of the Austrian county of Hohenberg) exercised local rule.
- The Prechtal lordship in the upper Elz Valley was a condominium of the Margraviate Baden-Hachberg (or the legal successors, Margraviate Baden and Margraviate Baden-Durlach ) and the Counts (later Prince) of Fürstenberg . It existed from 1409 to 1810.
- The common rulership of Riegel represented a special form of local rule in the Breisgau region of Upper Austria between 1381 and 1806, in which several landlords exercised the office jointly in rotation. It all began with the unusual testament of a special woman from the Malterer family , who had gotten rich with the silver trade in Breisgau. Before her death in 1381, the widow Gisela Malterer bequeathed the rule of Riegel with Riegel Castle to her eleven grandchildren - six sons and a daughter of the knight Johann von Blumegg or Blumeneck († 1383), who with Margarete Malterer, a daughter of Johann and Gisela Malterer , was married, as well as four daughters of their son Martin Malterer , who in the battle of Sempach in 1386 the body of the dying Duke Leopold III. von Habsburg covered with his own and found death in the process - in equal parts and thus established the common partial rule. For centuries, the local proportions were calculated based on these eleven grandchildren and were called eleventh . Since these could be inherited, sold, given away and shared, there was a huge shift in the shares over time, and the various noble families from Breisgau and Alsace became joint owners in Riegel. From 1661 until the end of the rule at the beginning of the 19th century there were three landlords, namely the princes of Schwarzenberg as owners of the Lichteneck rule with 5 ¾ eleven, the Ettenheimmünster abbey with 2 ⅞ eleven and from 1687 the imperial barons of Sickingen with 2 ⅜ Elevenths of the entire rule.
- The Principality of Salm from 1802 to 1811 as a condominium of the Princely Houses of Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg (with the special case here that an area does not refer to a shared sovereignty of two rulers, but includes two sovereignty titles, namely that of the Prince of Salm- Salm and that of the Prince of Salm-Kyrburg).
- The Prussian - Austrian condominium in Schleswig-Holstein from 1864 to 1866
- The rule of Schmalkalden was under the joint administration of the County of Henneberg -Schleusingen and the Landgraviate of Hesse between 1360 and 1583 .
- The rule Schüpfergrund belonged to the von Dottenheim and von Rosenberg until the 16th and 17th centuries , but apart from half of the fiefdom of the Electoral Palatinate that had been withdrawn to Sachsenflur and the Palatinate Meierhof Graffingen, which was always outside, it was under the sovereignty of Kurmainz . The owners were Ganerbe ( 1/2 Fürst von Hatzfeld , 1/4 heirs from Hoheneck , most recently Count von Fugger , 1/3 Baron von Gemmingen , 1/3 Seyfried as heir to von Adler), only Kupprichhausen with Ahornhof and Lengenrieden belonged to Hatzfeld all. After the Hatzfeld died out in 1794, the Würzburg bishopric raised claims, but Mainz took possession of the fallen fief and made it subordinate to the Oberamt Bischofsheim as the Schüpf district bailiff.
- The condominium in Sinngrund , consisting of middle sense and upper sense , was under the joint rule of the Kingdom of Bavaria and Hesse from 1814 to 1863 ; it was by the State Treaty of 18./22. Dissolved October 1860, effective December 1, 1863.
- The rule over the rear county of Sponheim was since 1437 a condominium of the margravate Baden and the county Veldenz, later the margraviate Baden and the palatinate county Pfalz-Simmern-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld as heir of Veldenz.
- The rule over the Front County of Sponheim with the offices of Kreuznach , Kirchberg and Naumburg was initially divided between the Electoral Palatinate (one fifth) and the Starkenburger Counts (four fifths) in 1417 after the line had died out in 1414 . When the latter died out in 1437, two-fifths of their share each fell to the Margraviate of Baden and the County of Veldenz (later Palatinate-Simmern ). In 1559 the three fifths of the Palatinate were united; In 1707 the condominium expired due to the division agreement between the Electoral Palatinate and Baden.
- The Umstadt condominium existed from the end of the 12th century until 1803 under changing masters: the Fulda monastery with several fiefs until 1390, the Electoral Palatinate and Hanau , from 1456: Hanau-Lichtenberg until 1504, the Electoral Palatinate and Landgraviate of Hesse and later other participating condominium owners, Briefly interrupted by individual rule triggered by warlike events, until 1803 the Landgraviate of Hessen-Darmstadt took over undivided rule.
- The town of Widdern originally belonged to the lords of Gemmingen-Horneck , who were enrolled in the imperial knighthood , Franconian knight circle , knight canton Odenwald . From the 15th century onwards, divestments formed parts that were counted after five hundred and twelfths. It owned: the Duchy of Württemberg (Oberamt Möckmühl, Rentkammer) 114/512 ; the Hochstift Würzburg (Widdern Office) 192/512 ; in the imperial knighthood Freiherr von Gemmingen 110/512 ; Züllenhardt 96/512 . In 1806 Württemberg received the Züllenhardt property, Baden the Gemmingen share, plus the remaining 192/512, which until 1803 had belonged to the Würzburg Monastery. This made Widdern a Baden-Württemberg condominium, whose shares were now calculated in thirty-second parts according to the new ownership structure. In 1843 Württemberg ( 13/32 ) acquired the Baden shares ( 19/32 ) in Aries and ended the condominium.
Rest of Europe
- The Duchy of Livonia 1561–1629 / 1660 or the rest of the area Polish Livonia 1629–1772 as a condominium for the two parts of the empire, Poland and Lithuania .
- Bosnia-Herzegovina as a condominium of the two independent Habsburg sub-kingdoms Austria and Hungary from 1908 to 1918
- The Samoa Islands were from the Berlin Samoa Conference 1889 to 1899 condominium of the German Empire, Great Britain and the USA. They were then divided between the American East and German West Samoa .
- The New Hebrides (now Vanuatu ), ruled jointly by Great Britain and France until 1980
- The Canton and Enderbury Islands (now part of Kiribati ), a condominium of Great Britain and the USA from 1939 to 1979
A distinction must be made between the common protectorates of several protecting powers, for example in the case of the Republic of Krakow from 1815 to 1846. While in the protectorate relationship the territory in question is itself a subject of international law and the bearer of (limited) sovereignty, which is only partially exercised by the protecting powers, the under condominium standing territory has no sovereignty and is not a legal subject of international law.
Another construction to be distinguished is the coimperium. The territory itself is formally sovereign, but territorial sovereignty is exercised by several foreign states. Examples of this are the International Zone of Tangier in Morocco from 1923 to 1956 and the status of the German Reich after 1945 , which - according to the prevailing opinion in jurisprudence - did not perish and itself remained a sovereign state, but whose sovereign rights were retained by the four victorious powers were exercised. These rights were gradually reassigned, finally with the Two Plus Four Treaty of 1990.
- Condominial act - an act of power exercised jointly
- Condominalbahn - state railway in which several states are involved
- Communancy - a territorial unit of Switzerland that is under the sovereignty of several municipalities.
- Corpus separatum
- Enclave , exclave - other geographical features
- Albrecht Cordes : Condominate. In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages . Volume 5: Hiera means to Lucania. Deutscher Taschenbuch-Verlag, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-423-59057-2 , Sp. 1296.
- Alain Coret: Le Condominium (= Bibliothèque de droit international. 13, ). Pichon & Durand-Auzias, Paris 1960.
- Alexander Jendorff: Condominium. Types, functioning and development potentials of ruling communities in old Europe using Hessian and Thuringian examples (= publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse 72). Historical Commission for Hessen, Marburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-942225-06-9 (At the same time: Gießen, Univ., Habil.-Schr., 2009).
- Coret: Le Condominium. 1960.
- Georg Dahm, Jost Delbrück, Rüdiger Wolfrum: Völkerrecht. Volume I / 1, The Basics. The subjects of international law. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1989, p. 342.
Daniel-Erasmus Khan: The German-Luxembourg border, in: The German state borders - legal-historical foundations and open legal questions. Mohr Siebeck 2004, p. 474ff. ISBN 978-3-16-148403-2 ( preview at Google Books )
Bgbl II 1988, 414 ff.
- Otto Kimminich (original), Stephan Hobe : Introduction to International Law (= UTB. Law, Political Science . Volume 469 ). 9th, updated and expanded edition. Narr Francke Attempto Verlag, Tübingen et al. 2008, ISBN 978-3-7720-8304-4 , p. 101 .
- Daniel-Erasmus Khan: The lack of customary consolidation of border and sovereign relations since the 17th century, in: The German State Borders - legal historical bases and open legal questions. Mohr Siebeck 2004, pp. 254 ff. ISBN 978-3-16-148403-2 Preview at Google Books
- Allgaier Lake Constance in the legal area: condominium or real division , VBlBW 2006, 369; Veiter The legal relationships on Lake Constance , AVR (28) 1990, 458; Strätz Lake Constance as a legal object , DRiZ 1981, 54
- Karlheinz Kibele: About the importance of the cannon range for water law - Lake Constance and its specialties. In: Zeitschrift für Wasserrecht 52, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 195–208.
- Daniel-Erasmus Khan: The German State Borders - Legal-Historical Basics and Open Legal Issues. Mohr Siebeck 2004, p. 233 ff. ISBN 978-3-16-148403-2 Preview at Google Books
- Daniel-Erasmus Khan: The German State Borders - Legal-Historical Basics and Open Legal Issues. Mohr Siebeck 2004, p. 267f. ISBN 978-3-16-148403-2 ( preview on Google Books )
- Ernst Christian Schütt: Chronicle Hamburg. 2nd Edition. Bertelsmann Lexikon Verlag, Gütersloh / Munich 1997, ISBN 3-577-14443-2 , p. 61.
- K. Henß: The area of the Hanauer Union. In: The Hanauer Union - Festschrift for the centenary of the Protestant-Union church community in the consistorial district of Cassel on May 28, 1918. Hanau 1918, p. 73 f.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 77.
- Johann Daniel Georg von Memminger: Description of the Oberamt Riedlingen. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart / Tübingen 1827, section B13 Dürmentingen with Fasanenhof and Seelenhof.
- Johann Daniel Georg von Memminger: Description of the Oberamt Riedlingen. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart / Tübingen 1827. Reprint Bissinger, Magstadt 1972, ISBN 3-7644-0004-8 (The Württemberg Oberamtsbeschreibung, Volume 4).
- Gerhard Schmidt-Grillmeier: The Frais (also Fraisch). In: Oberpfälzer Heimat Volume 31, 1987, Weiden in der Oberpfalz. (on-line).
- Heinrich Brückner: The free court Willmundsheim before the Hart in its legal character and origin. In: Archive of the historical association for Lower Franconia and Aschaffenburg 68, Würzburg 1929.
- Barbara Ohm: Fürth. History of the city. Verlag Jungkunz, Fürth 2007, ISBN 978-3-9808686-1-7 .
- Barbara-Ulrike Griesinger: Gellmersbach: a chronicle of the community, created on the occasion of its 750th anniversary in 1985. City of Weinsberg, Weinsberg 1985.
- Adolf Gasser: The territorial development of the Swiss Confederation 1291–1797. Verlag HR Sauerländer, Aarau 1932, passim.
- Johann Daniel Georg von Memminger: Description of the Oberamt Ehingen. Cotta'sche Buchhandlung, Stuttgart / Tübingen 1826, section B24 Heufelden with Blienshofen.
- RGBl. 1927 II, 960, 963, 1046
- So in the result also Geisler Is there a no man's land between Germany and France? In: U. Falk, M. Gehrlein, G. Kreft, M. Obert (eds.) Legal history and other tours, Festschrift for Detlev Fischer (2018), 153, 159 ff.
- Alexander Jendorff: Condominium. Types, functioning and development potentials of ruling communities in old Europe based on Hessian and Thuringian examples. Historical Commission for Hesse, vol. 72, Marburg 2010.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 263f.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 268.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 281.
- Heike Drechsler: Kürnbach ... once a market town in two countries. regional culture publisher, Ubstadt-Weiher 2005, ISBN 3-89735-297-4 .
- Hansjörg Probst (Ed.): Ladenburg. From 1900 years of city history. Regional culture publishing house, Ubstadt-Weiher 1998, ISBN 3-929366-89-4 .
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 302.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 304, keyword Lippe .
- Anton Jacob: On the history of the former condominium Merzig-Saargau. In: Journal for local history in Saarland. Vol. 1 (1951), pp. 55-57.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 345.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 350.
- Albrecht Gelz: History of Perl. Local lore. Perl 2000.
- Festschrift for the 600th anniversary of the city of Niedernhall. City of Niedernhall, Niedernhall 1956.
- Jochen Rösel: Parkstein-Weiden, community office. In: Historical Lexicon of Bavaria (September 8, 2010).
- Uta Löwenstein: County Hanau. In: Knights, Counts and Princes - secular rulers in the Hessian area approx. 900–1806 (= Handbook of Hessian History, 3 = Publications of the Historical Commission for Hesse, 63). Marburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-942225-17-5 , pp. 196-230.
- The state of Baden-Württemberg. Official description by district and municipality. Volume VII: Tübingen administrative region. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1978, ISBN 3-17-004807-4 , pp. 120-123.
- Adolf Futterer: Income and property of the Lichteneck lordship in the communal rulership of Riegel under the Count Palatine of Tübingen and the Barons of Garnier 1391–1721. In: Schau-ins-Land . Annual issue of the Breisgau-Geschichtsverein Schauinsland, Volume 82 (1964), pp. 12–46 ( digitized version of the Freiburg University Library ).
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 474.
- Otto Brandt: History of Schleswig-Holstein. A floor plan. Walter G. Mühlau Verlag, Kiel 1957, pp. 216-227.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 498.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 502f.
- Markt Obersinn: Timeline Obersinn (PDF; 497 kB)
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 530.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 530.
- Archives for Hessian history and antiquity, 3rd volume. Darmstadt 1844, p. 126 ff.
- Gerhard Köbler: Historical Lexicon of the German Lands. The German territories from the Middle Ages to the present. 2nd, improved edition. CH Beck, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-406-33290-0 , p. 614.
- I. Arbussow: Floor plan of the history of Livonia, Estonia and Courland. Riga 1918.
- Andreas von Arnauld: Völkerrecht. 2nd edition, CF Müller, Heidelberg 2014, § 2 marginal number 33 (p. 36).