Gifting from Limpurg

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Coat of arms of the Limpurg taverns from Scheibler's book of arms 1450–1480

The Limpurg taverns , a Swabian - Franconian aristocratic family with extensive branches at times , produced numerous high-ranking imperial officials, bishops and canons. They take their name from Limpurg Castle near Schwäbisch Hall . Their former domain , which stretched between Schwäbisch Hall, Schwäbisch Gmünd and Ellwangen , is still called Limpurger Land today. The main town of the former county is the town of Gaildorf ( Schwäbisch Hall district ).

As so-called Reichserbschenken the von Limpurg held one of the Reichserbämter of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation since the 12th century . Formally, the Lords of Limpurg were given the office of donation as an after-fief of the ore taverns and kings of Bohemia, whose task they had to take over in the coronation ceremony of German kings and emperors. As such, they are mentioned in the Golden Bull of 1356. The family died out in 1713.


Family tree of the legacies from Limpurg to Obersontheim 1593

The ministerial beginnings of the Limpurg family of Schenken are in the reign of King Konrad III. (1138–1152) with the (imperial) taverns of Schüpf , with Walter Kolbo (1144/57) and Konrad Pris (1138/46) recognizable. Also under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa (1152–1190), Emperor Heinrich VI. (1190–1197), King Philip of Swabia (1198–1208) and Emperor Friedrich II. (1212–1250) the taverns appear near the king. Some members of the family exercised the court office , the court service of an imperial tavern with the Staufer rulers; the gifts can be traced on farm days and trains to Italy. The family named themselves after the family castle Schüpf ( Main-Tauber-Kreis ), around which the focus of the possessions was.

A Schenk Walter (1200/18) served Philip of Swabia, Emperor Otto IV (1198–1218) and Friedrich II. His son Walter was in the entourage of King Henry (VII) (1220–1235) from 1226 and is 1230 / 1234 attested as Walter (I.) Schenk von Limpurg. Before 1230, Walter near Schwäbisch Hall must have built Limpurg Castle on his own property . It is believed that the property complex in the Haller area came into the hands of the family through the marriage of Schenk Walter's father to Adelheid von Bielriet . When Heinrich (VII.) Outraged his father, Emperor Friedrich II., The taverns were on the side of the son, had to pay compensation after the collapse of the uprising and lost their home to the Main and Tauber. After all, Walter I exercised his gift-giving office again from 1245 under King Conrad IV (1237–1254). When Walter died, his son Walter II (1249–1283) followed him as a present. His second son was the minstrel Schenk Konrad von Limpurg auf Bielriet (1255/86), a subsequent son was Ulrich von Lorbach (adult from 1277) at Lohrbach Castle . Konrad, the son of Ludwig von Schüpf who had also opposed Friedrich II, found himself in 1255 under the name Conradus de Mathenberch as a ministerial at the Madenburg . when his father had to compensate the Teutonic Order in Franconia, Austria and Styria.

In the course of the 13th century, the official title "Schenk" became a family name. The taverns, above all Walter II, tried to gain their own sovereignty and had at times influence over Schwäbisch Hall, but the Hall court became independent from the taverns by 1280 at the latest. The Limpurger remained restricted to an area between Kocher and Rot . The Golden Bull of Emperor Charles IV (1347–1378) mentions the Limpurgians as vicarious and hereditary imperial taverns ("Reichs-Erb-After-Schenken") alongside the Bohemian kings as archbearers of the empire.

Friedrich III. († 1414) raised Gaildorf to town in 1404 . Schenk Albrecht von Limpurg-Gaildorf-Schmiedelfeld, from the line created by a division in 1441, had the old castle built in Gaildorf from 1479 in a three-year construction period , initially by the knights of Geilndorff, ministerials of the taverns, after they died out as a hunting lodge was used. The four-wing construction of the castle was completed in 1482. Albrecht Schenk von Limpurg and his wife Elisabeth von Oettingen resided in Gaildorf Castle from then on. They were followed by seven more generations of Limpurg-Gaildorf pubs until the line with Wilhelm Heinrich (1652–1690) in the male line died out. The Gaildorfer rule and with it the castle came to the relatives from the Obersontheimer line, which died out in 1713 with Schenk Vollrath von Limpurg-Speckfeld (1655-1713) also in the male line entitled to inheritance. The last three taverns had left a total of ten heir daughters, whose descendants further split up the already small rule.

In 1413 the Limpurgers acquired half of the Hohenlohe-Speckfeld estate . In the 15th and 16th centuries the Limpurg territory was divided under the lines Limpurg-Speckfeld and Limpurg-Gaildorf.

From 1540 onwards, the Reformation was introduced in the Limpurger parts of the country . Heinrich I. Schenk von Limpurg-Schmiedelfeld (1534–1585) signed the Concord Formula from 1577 and the Concord Book from 1580.

After the death of the last Catholic tavern, Gottfried II (1474–1530), the Speckfelder Linie found itself exposed to such a heavy burden of debt that it finally had to sell the Limpurg family castle, which gave it its name, to the imperial town of Schwäbisch Hall and its residence at Obersontheim Castle in 1541 misplaced. The castle Speckfeld was in the Peasants' War destroyed and later rebuilt. During the Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648), the castle was plundered several times by Swedish troops and imperial officials and was no longer inhabited from 1693 after the Limpurg-Sontheim-Speckfeld taverns had built a new castle in Markt Einersheim .

Since 1557 there was a branch line of the Gaildorf line at Schloss Schmiedelfeld , and since the beginning of the 16th century in Speckfeld one of the Limpurg-Sontheim line. With Wilhelm Heinrich († 1690) the Gaildorfer died out, with Vollrat († 1713) the Sontheimer line in the male line. The heirs married into different count families, the Limpurger parts of the country split up further (→ Limpurger inheritance dispute ). In the 19th century, considerable parts of the former county were reunited under the House of Waldeck-Limpurg .

Name bearer

Coat of arms of the taverns at Gaildorf Castle

Particularly noteworthy from the von Limpurg family:

Well known is a ballad by Johann Ludwig Uhland "The Schenk von Limburg", which describes the legendary award of the Reichsschenkenamt.

Gift from (Schüpf or) Limpurg

  • Donation Konrad Pris (1136/46)
  • Konrad (1152/85)
  • Walter (1200/18)
  • Walter I. Schenk of Limpurg (1226, † 1249)
  • Walter II (1249/83)
  • Friedrich I (1274 / after 1300)
  • Frederick II (?) († 1333)
  • Conrad II († 1376)
  • Friedrich III. († 1414)


  • Conrad IV. († 1482)
  • Albrecht III. († 1506)
  • Christoph († 1516)
  • Wilhelm († 1552)
  • Christopher III. († 1574)
  • Albrecht VII († 1619)
  • Joachim Gottfried († 1651)
  • Wilhelm Ludwig († 1657)
  • Philipp Albert († 1682)
  • Wilhelm Heinrich († 1690)

Limpurg, Obersontheim:

  • Frederick V († 1474)
  • Georg († 1475)
  • Gottfried († 1530)
  • Erasmus († 1553, from 1541 in Obersontheim)
  • Frederick VII († 1596)
  • Heinrich († 1637)
  • Ludwig Kasimir († 1645)
  • Heinrich Casimir († 1676)
  • Full Council († 1713)

See also


  • Gisela KornrumpfSchenk von Limburg. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 22, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-428-11203-2 , p. 673 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Karl Otto Müller: The sex of the Imperial Heirloom from Limpurg until the male line died out. In: Journal of Württemberg State History 5 (1941), ISSN  0044-3786 , pp. 215–243.
  • Johann P. Prescher: Heinrich Prescher's history and description of the imperial county Limpurg belonging to the Franconian district, which at the same time explains the older Kochergau history . 2 volumes. Erhard, Stuttgart 1789–1790 ( full text volume 1 in the Google book search; full text volume 2 in the Google book search)
  • Gerd Wunder, Max Schefold, Herta Beutter: Limpurg's taverns and their country. With pictures of old views . Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1982, ISBN 3-7995-7619-3 ( Research from Württembergisch Franconia, Volume 20)

Web links

Wikisource: Schenk von Limpurg  - Sources and full texts
Coat of arms of the Limpurg taverns at the town hall of Markt Einersheim
Commons : Limpurg donation  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The Limpurg gifts - Historisches Lexikon Bayerns
  2. Württembergisches Urkundenbuch, Volume V., No. 1343, Pages 107-108
  3. The Limpurg-Speckfeld line continued to reside at Limpurg Castle until 1541, but then had to sell it to the city of Schwäbisch Hall due to financial difficulties and moved to Obersontheim Castle .
  4. See BSLK , p. 15, 765.
  5. ^ Johann Ludwig Uhland : The Schenk von Limburg Ballade at