|coat of arms||Germany map|
|County :||Bad Kreuznach|
|Height :||104 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||55.63 km 2|
|Residents:||51,170 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||920 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||55543, 55545, 55583|
|Primaries :||0671, 06727 , 06708|
|License plate :||KH|
|Community key :||07 1 33 006|
|City structure:||5 districts|
City administration address :
55545 Bad Kreuznach
|Lord Mayor :||Heike Kaster-Meurer ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Bad Kreuznach in the Bad Kreuznach district|
Bad Kreuznach is a spa town and the seat of the district administration of the Bad Kreuznach district in Rhineland-Palatinate . As a medium-sized center with partial functions of a regional center , it is the administrative, cultural and economic center of a region with more than 150,000 inhabitants. Bad Kreuznach is the seat of the Verbandsgemeinde Bad Kreuznach , but as a large city that belongs to the district, it does not belong to it. It is also the seat of a federal and several state authorities , a district , regional and labor court and the Rhineland-Palatinate Chamber of Agriculture .
Bad Kreuznach is located between the Hunsrück , Rheinhessen and North Palatinate Bergland about 14 km (as the crow flies ) south-southwest of Bingen . The capital of Rhineland-Palatinate, Mainz, is located approx. 30 kilometers northeast of the city. It is located at the confluence of the Ellerbach in the lower reaches of the Nahe .
The annual precipitation is 517 mm. Only 5% of the measuring locations of the German Weather Service show lower values; the precipitation is thus in the lower third. The driest month is January. In the wettest month, around 80% more rain falls than in the driest month. It rains the most in June. The seasonal fluctuations in precipitation are in the lower third. In only 7% of all places, the monthly precipitation fluctuates less. On June 30, 2019, the highest temperature ever recorded in Rhineland-Palatinate was recorded in Bad Kreuznach in June at 39.3 degrees.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Bad Kreuznach
Prehistory and Roman times
Already in the 5th century BC The existence of a Celtic settlement is documented in the current area. Around the year 58 BC The area became part of the Roman Empire , and a Roman vicus was created , named after the Celtic Cruciniac, who left part of his land to the Romans for the supply station between Mainz ( Mogontiacum ) and Trier ( Augusta Treverorum ). Kreuznach was on the Roman road that led from Metz ( Divodurum ) over the Saar crossing at Dillingen- Lachten ( Contiomagus ) and the Vicus Wareswald near Tholey to Bingen ( Bingium ). Further Roman roads from the Kreuznach junction are via Wöllstein and Flonheim to Alzey ( Alteium ) / Worms ( Borbetomagus ), via Gensingen , Ockenheim and Ingelheim to Mainz or via Waldböckelheim, Sobernheim, Kirchberg or Denzen (Dumno), Wederath ( Belginum ) and Neumagen (Noviomagus Treverorum) suspected to Trier.
On the site of a Roman urn cemetery at the Lambs Bridge 1885/86 were small curse tablets found of lead, come n. Chr from the beginning of the second century.. The personal names mentioned show that at this time full citizens from Italy, Celts from Gaul, Spain and the Alpine regions, Greeks, Thracians, Asians Minor, Syrians and members of other oriental peoples lived in the settlement, and the professions were a coppersmith, a dyer and a timber merchant mentioned.
Around the year 234, a gigantic palace was built, unique in its dimensions of 81 m × 71 m north of the Alps and just as luxurious, in the style of a peristyle villa , which alone comprised 50 rooms on the ground floor. The finds are exhibited today in the so-called Roman Hall . Spolia found near the “pagan wall” suggests that there was a Mercurius and Maia sanctuary and an associated Gallo-Roman provincial theater . The cult of the Cybele in the settlement is also documented.
According to an inscription and brick plates from the end of the 3rd century that were found in Bad Kreuznach, a vexillation (department) of the Legio XXII Primigenia was stationed there. In the course of border security measures against the always from beyond the limes into the Roman Empire incident Germanic tribes of the Alemanni was built 370 an auxiliary fort under Emperor Valentinian I. The manuscript tradition of the resulting 371 travelogue "Mosella" of the poet Ausonius begins with the crossing of the foggy river “Nava” (Nahe) at a newly walled old settlement (“ vicus ”). In the modern text editions, “Vicus” is mostly “improved” to “Vingum” = “Bingen”, but has also been interpreted in various ways as an early literary reference to Kreuznach. Ausonius locates a loss-making battle (a " Cannae ") of the Gauls near this settlement.
After the fall of the Roman Empire , Kreuznach became the royal court and imperial village of the newly developing Frankish empire in 500 . This was followed by the construction of the first church dedicated to St. Martin . It is still unclear whether this was on the Martinsberg north of the Nahe or is identical to the later church in the walls of the Roman fort , which was dedicated to St. Kilian , the apostle of Lower Franconia and was demolished in 1590. Around 741/42, according to a document from Ludwig the Pious from 822, who referred to a preliminary document from Charlemagne , the St. Martin's Church in Kreuznach was given by his ancestor Karlmann to the diocese of Würzburg , which was newly founded in 742 in an unsafe area, for maintenance be. The Würzburg Chronicle also reports that Bishop Burkard and 24 other churches of Karlmann created the “S. Martin's Church in Creützenach ”.
After this note, Kreuznach is mentioned for the first time in the Annales regni Francorum and the Annales Bertiniani as a royal palatinate , in which Ludwig the Pious was hunting in 819 and 839, probably in the nearby Reich Forest Soonwald . Ludwig the Pious (823 "villa Cruciniacus" 825 and 839 "Cruciniacum castrum" or "Cruciniacum palatium regium"), Ludwig the German (845 "villa Cruzinacha", 868 "villa Cruciniacum"), Charles III. "The fat one" (882 "C [h] rucinachum, Crutcinacha, Crucenachum"), Arnulf von Kärnten (889), Karl III. the simple- minded (911 "villa Crustiacum", variants "Cruztiacum, Cruztiacolum"), Heinrich I. (923), Otto I. (962 "Cruciniacus"), Otto II. (977 "Krucinacha") or Friedrich I. (1179 " Cruczennach ”) mention Kreuznach in their documents. “Crucinaha” in documents from Emperor Otto III. from the year 1000 (awarding of a fair; coinage rights) today, however, is more related to Christnach in Luxembourg (district of Waldbillig ). In Latin sources from the Middle Ages and the early modern period, Kreuznach was not only referred to as Crucenacum , Crucin [i] acum or the like, but also as Stauronesus, Stauronesum (to σταυρός "cross" and νῆσος "island") or Naviculacrucis (to navicula " Nachen ”and crux “ Kreuz ”). The abbreviations used are "Xnach", " nach" ( Fraktur -X with crossbar) or "† nach".
Charles III In 882, “the fat one” gave the “ Nona ” from the royal indominicata villa (= Frongut) Crutchinaca to the Salvatorstift at the Kaiserdom in Frankfurt am Main . A Norman storm in 893, assumed in older literature , in which the Kreuznach palace and church were destroyed, probably did not take place here, but in 882 in the Trier area. In 977, Emperor Otto II confirmed the donation of Charlemagne to the Salvator Foundation. In 1065, according to a formally forged document , King Heinrich IV should take over the town of Kreuznach and Böckelheim Castle along with the feudal lordship over a fiefdom of Count Eberhard VI. from Nellenburg to the Speyer Monastery. Despite the formal falsification, the information appears to be correct. When Adalbert von Mörsberg , a grandson of Count Eberhard VI., Married his daughter Mechthild to Meginhard von Sponheim , the fiefdom passed to the County of Sponheim shortly after 1105 . Count Meginhard documented 1127 in Kreuznach ( in villa ... crucinach ) among his vassals and ministerials as the successor of his father-in-law. While the original settlement core of Kreuznach with the parish church of St. Kilian was in and around the fort, with the rise of the Sponheimers the focus of the settlement shifted to the wooden Nahe bridge they built. Count Meginhard von Sponheim began after the death of his father-in-law around 1127 with a completely spacious new construction of a settlement on the south side of the Nahe bridge ("old town") with a road cross (Mannheimer Str./Kreuzstrasse), as it was from the Zähringer town, which was built between 1091 and 1120 Freiburg is known. The old Franconian village at the former Roman fort was only called "Osterburg" ( Hosterburc ).
On Epiphany 1147, Bernhard von Clairvaux is said to have caused a miracle of healing at the church at the "castrum Gruzenach" according to the Vita S. Bernardi fundatoris of his pupil Gaufridus von Clairvaux on his journey from Speyer to Koblenz.
On July 20, 1183, half of the Osterburg burned down. Of the 21 families, 11 then moved to what is now the old town. In a deed of donation from 1203 Crucenache is first referred to as a city ( oppidum ). In the years 1206 to 1230 the Count Gottfried III. von Sponheim and Johann I. von Sponheim build the Kauzenburg despite the ban by King Philip of Swabia . This castle construction was accompanied by the construction of the new town on the northern bank of the Nahe . In 1235 and 1270, respectively, Kreuznach was granted city, market, tax and customs rights under the rule of the Counts of Sponheim , which were confirmed again in 1290 by King Rudolf I of Habsburg , who granted the citizens of Oppenheim city rights. In 1241, the childless Count Heinrich III. von Sayn († 1247) for 1100 Marks goods of the Speyer cathedral chapter in Kreuznach, which about his sister Adelheid, widow of Count Gottfried III. von Sponheim, and the Sponheim allodial property in the city increased.
A line from a song by the minstrel Tannhäuser from the 13th century, which has been preserved in a handwriting by Hans Sachs : “vur creűczenach rint aűch die na” proves that the city was early known . In 1262, “eyn Magus and miraculous Gauckler from the Niderland”, who performed an apparent beheading and other magic tricks on the Kreuznach market , received national attention. The legend of Michel Mort was born in 1279 at the Battle of Sprendlingen . The Kreuznach butcher is said to have fought on the side of the Sponheim troops against the troops of the Archbishop of Mainz . When Count Johann I von Sponheim-Kreuznach got into trouble, Michel Mort pulled the lances of the enemy on him and thus saved the Count by his death.
The settlement of Jews in Kreuznach has been documented since the end of the 13th century; in the 14th century, northern Italian merchants ( "Lombards" ) - so-called " Kawerzen " - also lived in the city. Around 1300, Count Simon II von Sponheim had the old and new towns of Kreuznach connected by a stone bridge . After the Front County of Sponheim was divided up around 1301, Simon II and his wife Lisa von Valkenburg resided mainly in Kastellaun , his brother Johann II in Kreuznach.
In the 13th century Kreuznach was a fortified city and, after the Gesta Treverorum in 1320, resisted a siege by the Archbishop of Trier, Baldwin of Luxemburg, in a feud with Simon II of Sponheim-Kreuznach. The background to this was the dispute between King Ludwig IV the Bavarian , who had been elected by the Elector of Trier, and the anti-king Frederick the Beautiful , who was supported by Simon II. In 1332 the parish church rights were transferred from the church of St. Kilian, now unprotected outside the city in the Osterburg, to the newly built Wörth church. Simon II's son, Count Walram I von Sponheim , who also inherited his uncle Johann II's share in 1340, relocated the frontsponheim residence from Kastellaun back to Kreuznach. In 1361 Emperor Charles IV granted Count Walram I a fair privilege for Kreuznach, and in January 1363 the Emperor visited Kreuznach. Even in this early period, a gunsmith ( magister pixidum tonitrualium ) was recorded in Kreuznach in 1372 .
In 1375 there was an uprising of citizens against the city council in Kreuznach. Walram I then had four of the leaders beheaded in the marketplace. During the reign of Count Simon III. von Sponheim-Kreuznach took part in a tournament in Kreuznach in 1390, Duke Wilhelm I of Jülich-Geldern . In 1399 a conflagration destroyed half of the Neustadt. 1408 was Count Palatine Stefan , son of King Ruprecht III. von der Pfalz , from the Bishop of Speyer and Chancellor Raban von Helmstatt enfeoffed with castle and town Kreuznach, because Simon III. von Sponheim-Kreuznach did not “mute” the fief in time (formally requested). Stefan von der Pfalz could not prevail against the Sponheimers because Kreuznach was not a Speyr fiefdom.
1417 died out with Countess Elisabeth von Sponheim-Kreuznach , the daughter of Simon III., The front line of the house Sponheim. In her will she divided the county between the Electoral Palatinate (1/5) and the County of Sponheim-Starkenburg (4/5). In 1418 King Sigismund of Luxembourg enfeoffed Count Johann V von Sponheim-Starkenburg with the fair, the mint , the Jews in Kreuznach and the right of escort to Gensingen on the Trier-Mainzer Fernstraße. Count Palatine Ruprecht the English (1406–1426) asked Duke Adolph VII von Berg for horses in 1423 because he wanted to take part in a tournament in Kreuznach in May. In 1437 the rule over Kreuznach was divided between the Counts of Veldenz , the Margraves of Baden and the Palatinate-Simmern .
In 1457, when there was a children's pilgrimage movement in many Upper German cities, 120 children from Kreuznach also moved through Wissembourg on their way to Mont-Saint-Michel . A strong flood, which put the Wörthkirche completely under water, flooded the city in 1458.
In 1475 the Electoral Palatinate issued comprehensive police regulations for the Kreuznach office , in which no Baden bailiff resided between 1462 ( Battle of Seckenheim ) and 1508. During the Burgundian Wars , the papal legate Alessandro Numai († 1485), Bishop of Forlì , and probably Emperor Friedrich III. on the transit in Kreuznach. In the inheritance dispute between Count Palatine Alexander von Pfalz-Zweibrücken and his brother Kaspar , a day of atonement took place in Kreuznach in 1489 under the mediation of Johann I von Pfalz-Simmern , during which Elector Philip the Sincere of the Palatinate decided to divide the inheritance.
In 1490, Elector Philip the Sincere and Duke Johann I von Pfalz-Simmern approved a second annual market for the city. In the same year 1490, Elector Philipp awarded the "saltz- und badbronnen" between Ebernburg and Kreuznach to his cooks Conrad Brunn and Matthes von Nuwendorff. The springs containing brine were probably discovered in 1478, but it was already discovered in the 13th / 14th centuries. Century mentioned a " Sulzer Hof " in today's Salinental.
On August 24, 1495, there was another uprising of citizens, this time directed against the Palatinate Kreuznach bailiff Albrecht V. Göler von Ravensburg , who had refused to release a prisoner on guarantee. Elector Philipp then had some of the leaders mutilated and put new town rules into force.
After his deposition, Duke Eberhard II of Württemberg made a stop in "Stauronesum Oppidum, vulgo Creutz dictum" for some time in 1498 on the way into exile that Elector Philipp von der Pfalz granted him at Lindenfels Castle .
The city wall, first mentioned in 1247, formed roughly a square in the old town, a few meters in front of the current Wilhelmstraße – Salinenstraße – Schloßstraße and in front of the mill pond. The Kilians or Mühlentor (demolished in 1877) served as city gates in the north, the Hackenheimer Tor (later Mannheimer Tor; demolished in 1860) in the southeast and the St. Peter gate at the end of Rossstrasse, which was often walled up for protection.
In Neustadt, the city wall stretched from the "Butterfass" (later the prison tower) on the Nahe river bank to the transition from Wilhelmstrasse to Brückes on the B 48 , where the Löhrpforte (also Lehrtor or Binger Tor; demolished around 1837) was located in the northwest. Then it ran in an arc between Hofgartenstrasse and Hochstrasse to the Rüdesheimer Tor in the southwest at the beginning of Gerbergasse, which it followed to the Ellerbach and the Nahe as a bank wall. In this section the city wall contained the Fischer or Ellerpforte as a water gate and in the south the “Great Gate” at the Nahe bridge.
The fortification of the Kauzenburg on the bank of the Ellerbach opposite the Neustadt, the Burgfrieden, included the Klappertor and a kennel , from which the street name "Zwingel" has been preserved. On the bridge to Wörth (the river island between the two parts of the city) was the "bridge gate".
In addition to the castle men, there was a kind of vigilante group or rifle guild to defend the city . From the year 1487 an invitation from the mayor and council of the city "un [d] gemeyn schießgesellen der armbrost schütze [n] da himself" to a shooting competition on 23 September was received as an incunabulum , printed by Peter Schöffer in Mainz .
On March 31, 1283 (2nd Nisan 5043) in Kreuznach (קרוצנכא, קרייצנך) Raw (Lord) Ephraim bar Elieser ha-Levi - apparently because of a court judgment - was whacked . The execution is probably related to the Mainz ritual murder accusation , which in March and April 1283 also led to pogroms in Mellrichstadt , Mainz, Bacharach and Rockenhausen . In 1301 Joseph von Crucenach was one of the creditors of Count Simon II. And Johann II. Von Sponheim-Kreuznach . In 1311 Aaron becomes Judeus de Crucenaco and in 1328, around 1333, 1342, 1343 the Jewish banker Abraham von Kreuznach in Bingen, the Archbishop Heinrich III. von Virneburg leased the Rhine toll to Geisenheim in 1342 , mentioned.
In 1336, Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian allowed Count Johann II of Sponheim-Kreuznach "to keep forever at Creützenach or elsewhere in his country's 60 home estates of freed Jews" . After further persecution during the plague of 1348/49, Jews can be traced back to Kreuznach ( iuden zů Crůcenachin ) as early as 1358, 1363 and 1367 .
At least since 1382 the Jew Gottschalk from Katzenelnbogen lived in Kreuznach, who owned the house on the corner of Lämmergasse / Mannheimerstraße 12 (later: Löwensteiner Hof) near the Eiermarkt. Under the pretext of usury, he and his family were in 1404 by Simon III. von Sponheim thrown into prison and only released against a very high ransom payment. On Gottschalk's intervention, Archbishop Johann von Nassau-Wiesbaden-Idstein abolished the cube tariff for Jews when crossing the border to the Archbishopric of Mainz .
The special taxes for Jews ordered by King Sigismund of Luxembourg were also levied in Kreuznach in 1418 and 1434. In 1432 two Jews who were accused of having committed a ritual murder of a child from Braunweiler in the "Wolfsheck" (near Bockenau ) were burned in front of the city wall in Kreuznach.
In the Middle Ages, the eastern part of today's Poststrasse in Neustadt was Judengasse, from where Kleine Judengasse led to what is now Magister-Faust-Gasse. In 1482 a " Jewish school " is mentioned, which was possibly already in Fährgasse 2 (previously: "Kleine Eselsgass"), where the " Old Synagogue " of Bad Kreuznach later stood (mentioned here for the first time in 1715; new baroque building in 1737, renovated in 1844, Devastated in 1938, demolished in 1953/54, last remnants of the wall removed in 1975).
In 1525, Count Palatine Ludwig V allowed Meïr Levi to settle in Kreuznach for 12 years, to organize the money trade there, to receive visits, to set up his own burial place and to trade in medicines. In 1532 Meïr Levi seems to have moved to Frankfurt am Main. In the first half of the 16th century his son, the doctor Isaak Levi, lived in Kreuznach, whose collection of medical prescriptions has become known as The Jewish Book of Kreuczenach . The work is preserved in a manuscript that was personally copied by Ludwig V of the Palatinate.
The oldest Jewish cemetery in Kreuznach was in the area of what is now the Bangert manor (mentioned in 1525 and 1636). The Jewish cemetery on Stromberger Strasse was purchased in 1661 (a preserved tombstone dates back to 1630) and expanded in 1919. It is considered to be one of the best preserved in Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Jewish Creizenach family, originally from Kreuznach, has been attested to in Mainz and Frankfurt am Main since 1733 and produced important scholars ( Michael Creizenach , Theodor Creizenach , Wilhelm Creizenach ).
The Yiddish name for Kreuznach was צלם־מקום (abbreviated צ״מ) Zelem-Mochum (Celemochum), literally “image place” , since the term “cross” was avoided by pious Jews.
In 1828 425 of 7,896 inhabitants of the mayor's office in Kreuznach (5.4%) and in 1890 611 of 18,143 inhabitants of the city of Kreuznach (3.4%) were Jewish.
In the Middle Ages and in the early modern period, there were various guilds in Kreuznach in which economic life was organized: the hammer guild (metal and woodworking professions, fishermen, rope makers, bricklayers, Leyendecker, etc.), the traders' guild, the baker's guild, the millers which Metzger guild, which Gerber guild, the Ringer guild , the jaw guild , the brewers guild, which Leinenweber- and Wollweber guild, which Schneider guild, which Schuhmachernzunft that Geschenkten- or "Hundsgässer" -Zunft (not manual professions) and the Rebstöcklerzunft. The guilds and cities on the Middle Rhine closed mainly in the 13th – 15th centuries. In the 19th century, agreements on the rules of the trade were among themselves. Federal letters of the cooper (1341), blacksmiths (1383), tanners (1390, 1440, 1490), saddlers and equipment makers (1439), clog makers (before 1473) or tailors (1496, 1520, 1565, 1589) with Kreuznach participation have been preserved.
Before the Thirty Years War there were seven monasteries in Kreuznach with a population of about 8,000. In the Middle Ages and the early modern period, the following are mentioned:
- St. Marien Monastery (legendary monastery property) or St. Marien Church on the Wörth, allegedly donated by King Dagobert I († 639) at the site of today's St. Paul's Church ,
- Monastery of St. Kilian (old parish church; monastery property uncertain), raised to a parish church in the "Osterburg" (old Roman fort, Palatinate of Charlemagne) on the "Heidenmauer" instead of the Constantinian St. Martins Church, which was first mentioned in 741 and was later destroyed, Connected to a hospital in 1310, in the 14th century Beguinage cave with prayer house, demolished around 1590. The patronage of St. Martin and St. Kilian was added to the St. Marienkirche on the Wörth in 1332,
- Augustinian Choir Monastery of St. Peter , donated around 1140 by Rheingraf Wolfram I (III.) Vom Stein († around 1179), canceled 1566/68, later Oranienhof Palace ; today "Oranienpark",
- Convent of the Carmelites of St. Nicholas , so-called " Black Monastery ", in 1281 donated by the Sponheim family Graf, 1290 confirmed by Archbishop Gerhard II. Of Eppstein of Mainz, abolished in 1802,
- Cluse at the St. Antonius and St. Katharinen chapel (so-called “ Bubenkapelle ”) at the entrance to Mühlengasse, which belonged to the Augustinian monastery of Pfaffen-Schwabenheim ; Count Walram von Sponheim (around 1305-1380) relocated the Beguinage of St. Kilian here in the inner city, the nuns accepted the Augustine Rule and were transferred to the St. Peter Monastery in 1491,
- Franciscan monastery of St. Wolfgang , founded in 1472 by Elector Friedrich I of the Palatinate and Count Palatine Friedrich I of Palatinate-Simmern , confirmed by Pope Sixtus IV , repealed in 1802, today a high school on the city wall ,
- St. Vincent Monastery, location uncertain.
In the Thirty Years War and after
- Jesuit offices around 1623, 1625 to 1632 and 1636 to 1652 in the choir of the Wörthkirche (bridge church, today Pauluskirche), received the St. Peter monastery from Emperor Ferdinand II in 1631 and took possession of it in 1636. The prefect of studies Johann Engelbert Oliverius (1588–1631) worked and died in Kreuznach.
Plague, leprosy and epidemics
The plague threatened the city several times in its history. Large epidemics are documented in 1348/49 ( Johannes Trithemius speaks of 1,600 victims), 1364, 1501/02, 1608, 1635 (from September) or 1666 (allegedly 1,300 victims). During the epidemic in 1501, the humanist and prince educator Adam Werner von Themar , a friend of Abbot Trithemius, wrote a poem in Kreuznach about the plague saint Sebastian . In 1503 the Ruhr raged in the region and claimed many victims in Kreuznach.
In the Landshut War of Succession against Count Palatine Philipp bei Rhein , the city and castle were besieged in vain for six days by Duke Alexander von Pfalz-Zweibrücken, Landgrave Wilhelm von Hessen and Duke Heinrich I von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel after they had devastated the surrounding area. The Sponheim abbot Johannes Trithemius (1462–1516) had brought the monastery property, the library and the archive to Kreuznach to safety. The besieged city was by the Elector Palatine Captain Hans III. Landschad von Steinach (1465–1531) appalled.
In 1507, Magister Faust took up the post of Rector at the Kreuznach Latin School, which Franz von Sickingen had arranged . He fled the city a short time later on allegations of pedophilia . This is evidenced by a letter from Johannes Trithemius to Johannes Virdung , in which Virdung is warned against Faust.
Emperor Maximilian I , who had spent Whitsun 1508 in Boppard, stayed in Kreuznach in June 1508 on the onward journey to Speyer and from there wrote to his daughter Margaret of Austria , the Duchess of Savoy. Also on November 11, 1512, the emperor visited "Creyzenach".
From 1516, King Charles I of Spain - later Emperor Charles V - set up a regular weekly course for the Imperial Imperial Post from Vienna via Augsburg , Rheinhausen and Lieser to Mechelen / Brussels ( Dutch postal rate ), which ran via Wöllstein and Kreuznach (1587 first occupied as a station) should lead.
At the end of April 1523, Count Palatine Ludwig V of the Palatinate , Archbishop Richard von Greiffenklau zu Vollrads von Trier and Landgrave Philip I of Hesse came together on their campaign against Franz von Sickingen for a council of war in Kreuznach. Another meeting of the three princes in the city took place on May 25th after the surrender of the sicking castle Ebernburg .
Elector Friedrich III. "The Pious" from the Palatinate married Marie von Brandenburg-Kulmbach in Kreuznach in 1537 . Her brother, Margrave Albrecht II. Alcibiades von Brandenburg-Kulmbach, then 15 years old, fell seriously ill after the celebration. In 1540, in Kreuznach, Count Palatine Johann II of Simmern and Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse concluded the marriage contract for the marriage of Count Palatine Georg von Simmern with Landgrave Elisabeth of Hesse .
On the journey to the Speyer Reichstag , Emperor Charles V received the papal cardinal legate Alessandro Farnese in Kreuznach on January 21, 1544 , who was accompanied by Chancellor Nicolas Perrenot de Granvelle and his nephew Cardinal Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle , Bishop of Arras. Also on May 14, 1545, Emperor Charles V stopped in Kreuznach on his trip to the Reichstag in Worms, which he reached two days later, and handed over the regalia to Melchior Zobel von Giebelstadt as the new Bishop of Würzburg . In the Second Margrave War , which also affected the Nahe area, Albrecht II. Alcibiades of Brandenburg-Kulmbach suffered a hunting accident near Kreuznach in 1553.
After an Electoral Palatinate church visitation had already been carried out in Kreuznach under the direction of Johannes Marbach , during which two Anabaptists were forced to revoke, in 1557, after the death of the owner, the Kreuznach parish priest , Wild and Rhine Count Jakob von Dhaun-Kyrburg was closed Salm († 1557), introduced the Reformation by Elector Ottheinrich of the Palatinate .
In 1561 Achates Cornarius († 1573) published a complete Latin edition of the ancient philosopher Plato as the city medicus in Kreuznach , which his father, the doctor and humanist Janus Cornarius had compiled. In 1580, postmaster Jakob Henot set up a second “Postgasse” from Cologne via Bonn and Remagen to Wöllstein / Kreuznach for connection there to the taxis post to Brussels.
During the Truchsessian War , the Kreuznach spring fair was canceled in 1588 when the Spanish mercenary regiment " Saint-Bellemont " of Gérard de Reinach-Montreux († 1596) plundered along the Moselle to the Rhine. A halo over the city on March 5th jul. / March 15, 1592 greg. which was also observed in distant Wittenberg , attracted a lot of attention. In 1601 the precious Sponheim monastery library, which had been brought to Kreuznach during the War of the Landshut Succession, was transferred to the electoral library in Heidelberg.
According to the "List of all glorious and justice of the Stätt and Dörffer of the front county Sponheim in the Ampt Creutznach " of 1601, which the electoral Palatinate Oberamtmann Johann von Eltz-Blieskastel-Wecklingen (1553-1610) created, the city had and was 807 farmsteads the seat of a court court , which had to be assigned with lay judges by the "Freidörfer" Waldböckelheim , Wöllstein , Volxheim , Braunweiler , Mandel and Roxheim , which were exempt from customs at Kreuznach. In 1604, the taxis postmaster Johann von Coesfeld, called zum Bach, opened a postal route from Strasbourg-Worms-Kreuznach. The Thurn and Taxis post office was located at Alte Poststrasse 27 .
Thirty Years' War
During the Thirty Years War , the city was mutually taken,
- by Imperial Spanish troops of General Marqués Ambrosio Spinola under Wilhelm Ferdinand von Effern († around 1628) on August 31st jul. / 10th September 1620 greg. . Spinola took winter quarters in the city in 1620/21. Katharina Belgica of Orange-Nassau traveled there to see him in 1621 to ask for protection for the county of Hanau-Münzenberg . General Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba , to whom Spinola had given command in the Lower Palatinate, entrenched himself in Kreuznach, Oppenheim and Alzey after the siege of Frankenthal in autumn 1621 , when he was harassed by Ernst II von Mansfeld's troops . As governors general of the Lower Palatinate resided in Kreuznach from April 1623 to January 1629 Don Guillermo (Guilelmo, Wilhelm) de Verdugo di Fauleria (1578-1629), Freiherr zu Böhmisch-Mascha , Duppau and Neprowitz , then Don Philipp de Sylva († 1644) and until February / March 1632 Louis de la Tour. Civilian "Superintendant" was Claude de Humyn (1581–1639) from Bastogne . The governor of the Spanish Netherlands Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain sent the Franciscan Commissioner General for Germany and the Netherlands Joseph Bergaigne (1588–1647) to Kreuznach in 1626 and 1631 to settle disagreements between the Governors General and the Commander-in-Chief Spinola.
- of Swedish, British, French and German troops under King Gustav II Adolf on February 20, Jul. / March 1, 1632 greg. (the castle surrendered on February 23 jul. / 4. March 1632 greg. ). Colonel Johann Georg from the Winckel (1596–1639) commanded the foot troops (the " Blue Regiment "); eight or nine officers and about 250 soldiers of Gustav II Adolf fell, about 175 others were wounded, including Lord William Craven, 1st Earl of Craven (1608-1697) and Sir Francis Fane of Fulbeck (* around 1611; † 1680). 12 companies of Spanish cavalry under General Commissioner Don Lucas Caïro, which shortly afterwards crossed the Nahe near Kreuznach, were on April 12th jul. / April 22, 1632 greg. beaten by General Otto Ludwig von Salm, Wild and Rhine Count of Kyrburg and Mörchingen near Nieder-Saulheim . In mid-July 1632 Field Marshal General Gustaf Horn came with his troops through Kreuznach on the way from the Moselle to Mainz.
Commanders of the city were the Scots Colonel Alexander Ramsay († 1634) and Lieutenant Colonel George Douglas of Torthorwald-Mordington († 1635). Julius Wilhelm Zincgref was appointed Kreuznacher Landschreiber in 1632 by the Allied Count Palatine Ludwig Philipp . At the end of 1634, the Scottish regiment of Lieutenant General Patrick Ruthven (Rüdwen) of Bandean (Ballendean) (* around 1573 - † 1651), later Baron Ruthven of Ettrick (1639), Earl of Forth (1642) and Earl of Brentford (1644 ), in the city,
- by imperial troops who briefly invaded the city on July 14, 1635, but were driven out again by the castle garrison; Saxon-Weimar and French troops under Duke Bernhard von Sachsen-Weimar and Cardinal Louis de Nogaret de La Valette (1593–1639), who were allied with the Swedes, arrived on July 27th . / 6th August 1635 greg. and on their retreat on September 9th jul. / September 19, 1635 greg. through the city; the last "Swedish" commander of Kreuznach was Colonel Johann Georg Stauff (1603–1683; ennobled in 1661) from Dirmstein ,
- by Imperial Spanish and Croatian troops under General Matthias Gallas on December 20, 1635; the castle was after an armistice agreement of December 30, 1635 jul. / January 9, 1636 greg. between Colonel Stauff and Lieutenant Colonel Bernhard Studnitzky von Beneschau (Studnický z Benešova) held by the Swedes until May 1636. In the town there were regiments of Margrave Wilhelm von Baden , as a neutral place it was placed under the joint government of Baden and Pfalz-Simmern, town commander was the Baden sergeant-major Ladislaus Podstatzký von Prussinowitz († 1637),
- of French and Saxon-Weimar troops under Duke Henri II. d'Orléans-Longueville on November 11th jul. / November 21, 1639 greg. after the city commander, Nikolaus Braun von Schmidtburg zu Schweich, defected to them. Hugo Grotius reports that Longueville's guns were held in Kreuznach by prolonged frost in early 1640,
- from Imperial Bavarian and Spanish troops of Field Marshal Guillaume de Lamboy under the "Schillerhaas" General Field Sergeant Gilles de Haes (1597–1657). After an attack had been repulsed in March 1641, the siege began on May 17th July. / May 27, 1641 greg. . First the old town surrendered, on May 27th July. / June 6, 1641 greg. also the new town and on June 2nd jul. / June 12, 1641 greg. the fortress. The siege and storming was carried out by de Haes' officers Giulio Antonio Frangipani (1606–1656), commander of the Beck regiment , Count Gerolamo II of Lodron-Laterano (* around 1620, † 1657), Don Francisco del Hierro, Claude-François the Elder 'Iselin de Lanans (Claudius Franz de Lannoy) († 1650), Franz Paradeiser zu Neuhaus and Gradisch († 1659), John Henderson († after 1645), Eichhorn, Zeiler from an Electorate of Mainz regiment, Camillo Gonzaga, Marchese di Mantova (1600 –1659), owner of the regiment "Mantoue" on foot, and Christian (Adrian) led by Henning,
- by the French under Marshal Henri de La Tour d'Auvergne, vicomte de Turenne on October 25th jul. / November 4th 1644 greg. (the castle was even until December 16 jul. / 26 December 1644 greg. held by the Bavaria) by the French Maréchal de camp Guy de Bar (1605-1695), passed to Palatinate-Simmern.
The city was badly affected, the population decreased from around 8,000 to around 3,500. “He was born in Kreuznach” became the proverbial expression for someone who has to struggle with a lot of misery.
On January 4th jul. / January 14th 1650 greg. A district council of the Upper Rhine District, which was advertised by Pfalz-Simmern and only visited by Protestant estates, took place in Kreuznach, where complaints from the district estates to the emperor about the location of the district and the garrisons of foreign powers were passed. The French garrison did not move until July 14th . / July 24th 1650 greg. from Kreuznach.
On August 9th, July / August 19, 1663 greg. the city was hit by an exceptionally strong Nahe flood. The town was spared in the Palatinate wild- catching dispute (1664–1666), although Lorraine troops had come before their "bad Maur and ... bit by bit in front of the Thor".
In November 1676 the troops of the imperial major general Johann Heinrich von Dünewald and Duke Georg Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle united near Kreuznach before their attack on Zweibrücken during the Dutch War . Johann Georg III. von Sachsen crossed the Nahe with his Saxon auxiliary troops, who supported the imperial army in the war against France, on May 5, 1677 on the train to Lorraine near Kreuznach.
War of the Palatinate Succession
In the Palatinate War of Succession , the city was on October 1 July. / October 11, 1688 greg. who have favourited Kauzenburg on October 8th jul. / October 18, 1688 greg. captured by Marshal Louis-François de Boufflers . French city commander was the future Marshal of France Léonor-Marie du Maine, comte du Bourg (1655-1739). The city fortifications and the castle were razed in May 1689 under his command by French troops from Brigadier Ezéchiel de Mélac and Lieutenant General Nicolas du Blé, Marquis d'Huxelles, and the city was largely destroyed. On October 8th, July / October 18, 1689 greg. the Kreuznach churches were burned down by the French. In 1691, the city was allowed to repair the city gates and to be provided with "Gewöhr" because it was threatened by marauding vagabonds.
On September 3rd, Jul. / 13th September 1697 greg. the troops of Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden crossed the Nahe on their way to conquer the Ebernburg in Kreuznach. The executioner of his general staff was charged with a crime on September 5th July. / September 15, 1697 greg. executed in town.
In 1698 the family from the Rhine and Wildgraves and the princely Salm-Kyrburg family gave the rights to the Kreuznacher Osterburg with all its accessories to the Electoral Palatinate.
During the War of the Spanish Succession , a meeting planned on May 20, 1705 in Kreuznach between John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough and Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden, of whom he was an ally, did not take place because of his wounding, but was relocated to Rastatt. Marlborough wrote to the Elector Georg Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg from Kreuznach on May 24th . In June, Count Julius Heinrich von Friesen (1657–1706) stayed in the city with his troops for three days as the margrave's military leader.
From 1708 Kreuznach belonged completely to the Electoral Palatinate with the exception of the Oranienhof in front of the city wall, which remained part of the Imperial County of Wartenberg formed in 1707 .
On May 13, 1725, after a downpour and hailstorm , Kreuznach was hit by an extreme flood in which 31 people were killed, 300 to 400 head of cattle drowned, two houses were completely destroyed, many were damaged and parts of the city wall were torn down.
Under Elector Karl Philipp of the Palatinate was 1729 Saline Karl hall built for salt extraction, under Elector Karl Theodor 1743 Theodor hall. The General Salt Director of the Electoral Palatinate, Baron Joachim Friedrich von Beust (1697–1771), introduced thorn graduation works in Kreuznach to increase the salt concentration more economically.
In March 1745, during the War of the Austrian Succession, troops of the French Lieutenant General Count Ulrich von Löwendal , who were to reinforce the Middle Rhine Army of Marshal Jean-Baptiste Desmarets , marquis de Maillebois in the Rhine-Main area, came through the city from Trier.
From 1766 onwards, Princess Henriette Amalie von Anhalt-Dessau acquired real estate worth 46,207 guilders in Kreuznach and the surrounding area (including Hundheim's estates with Hundheimer Hof (later “Dessauer Hof”, today town house) and Kilian's garden, Rittergut Bangert (later “Dessauer "Or" Amalienschloss ") in today's" Dessauer Straße ", Kammeralgut on the Kauzenberg with the Kauzenburg, Koppensteiner-Cramm'sches Gut in Mandel, the so-called Wambold'schen goods near Hackenheim : Bonnheimer Hof and Hackenheimer Hofgut), which they testamentary bequeathed to the Amalienstiftung in Dessau . The goods were placed under sequestration by the French administration in 1799 and then auctioned.
In 1781, Freemasons from Kreuznach also took part in the founding of the Masonic Lodge at the rebuilt Temple of Brotherly Love in Worms . As early as 1775, the large Kompturei (prefecture) of the Rhenish Masonic lodges (8th province) of strict observance ( high degree freemasonry) founded in Frankfurt am Main had received the name "Kreuznach".
In the extreme winter of 1783/84 the city was on 27./28. Badly damaged by ice and floods in February 1784; the pharmacist Johann Daniel Riem (1730–1784) and the son of his neighbor Speyer perished in the floods when his house "Zum Weisse Schwan" collapsed.
In the wake of the unrest that also occurred in Germany after the French Revolution , the guilds held a formal congress in Kreuznach in 1789 and opposed the magistrate. In the course of the First Coalition War (1792–1797), up to 1200 French emigrants came to Kreuznach in June / July 1792, including Louis V Joseph de Bourbon, prince de Condé . In October 1792 French troops under General Adam-Philippe de Custine occupied the country around Kreuznach, where they stayed until March 28, 1793. The city was briefly occupied on January 4 and then again on October 16, 1794 by French troops under General François Séverin Marceau . Before the Treaty of Basel on April 5, 1795, secret negotiations between the Prussian Field Marshal Wichard von Möllendorff and the French Republic took place in July 1794 in Kreuznach and Basel through the mediation of the Kreuznach merchant Gerhard Heinrich pain (1740-1810) . Möllendorf moved its headquarters from Flonheim to Kreuznach in August .
From October 30 to December 1, 1795, imperial troops of the Lower Rhine Army led by Friedrich August Joseph von Nauendorf and Paul Kray von Krajowa under Rhine Count Karl August von Salm-Grumbach (1742-1800) held the city, defending on November 11 In a fierce battle, the French under General Marceau invaded the city, but were initially driven out of Kreuznach by the marshals Jean-Baptiste Jourdan and Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte in bloody battles. The city suffered badly from looting and contributions during this period . On December 1, 1795, a division under General André Poncet (1755-1838) moved into the city. After the French withdrew on December 13, it was occupied by an Austrian battalion under Captain Alois Graf Gavasini (1759–1834), who withdrew on May 30, 1796. On June 9, 1796, the city was again occupied by the French. The commander of the Corps d'armée du Hundsruck of the French Sambre and Maas Army , General René Charles Élisabeth de Ligniville (1760-1813), established his headquarters in Kreuznach in autumn 1796.
In 1796 Kreuznach became the seat of a French district government, which was temporarily relocated to Alzey in November / December 1797. In the context of efforts to form a Cisrhenan republic , a tree of freedom was erected by republican-minded clubists in Kreuznach on September 22, 1797 - on the occasion of the five-year celebration of the founding of the First French Republic .
After the Peace of Campo Formio , Kreuznach was annexed by the French Republic on November 4, 1797, together with all areas on the left bank of the Rhine , confirmed under international law with effect from March 9, 1801 in the Peace of Lunéville . On January 23, 1798, the districts north of the Nahe were assigned to the arrondissement Simmern in the department de Rhin-et-Moselle (Rhine and Moselle), the southern districts to the arrondissement Birkenfeld in the department du Mont-Tonnerre ( Donnersberg ). In 1800 Andreas van Recum and in 1806 Ludwig von Closen (1752-1830) were sub-prefect in Simmern, Franz Joseph Potthoff (1755-1827) from 1800 Kreuznacher Maire and Karl Joseph Burret (1761-1828) from 1806.
On September 20 and October 5, 1804, the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte visited Kreuznach. “Perhaps he was received in such a good mood in a few German cities as here,” reported a contemporary witness. On the occasion of his victory in the Battle of Austerlitz , a solemn Te Deum was held in the Catholic churches in January 1806 by order of the Bishop of Aachen Marc-Antoine Berdolet , whose diocese Kreuznach was assigned from 1801 to 1821 . In 1808 Napoleon gave the two Kreuznach salt pans to his favorite sister Pauline . In 1809 van Reccum founded the Kreuznach Freemason Lodge "Les amis réunis de la Nahe et du Rhin", which initially only existed until 1814, but was re-established in 1858. In 1810, in honor of Napoleon, Maire Burret's Kreuznach fair was set for the Sunday after his birthday (August 15). On the French side, Kreuznachers also took part in Napoléon's Russian campaign in 1812 , for whom a memorial that still exists in the Mannheimer Strasse cemetery was erected in 1842.
The subsequent wars of liberation ended French rule. After crossing the Rhine at Kaub , the Prussian field marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher struck his headquarters on 4th / 5th. January 1814 in the later so-called "Blücherhaus" on Kornmarkt ( Mannheimer Strasse 114 ) in Kreuznach.
From the Congress of Vienna to the First World War
Until the permanent reorganization by the Congress of Vienna , the area south of the Moselle was under the administration of a joint Bavarian-Austrian "Provincial Administration Commission (LAK)" based in Kreuznach from June 16, 1814. As a result of the First Peace of Paris , Kreuznach came to the Kingdom of Prussia and from May 28, 1815 belonged to the province of Grand Duchy of Lower Rhine (from 1822 Rhine province ). The Bavarian-Austrian LAK was relocated to Worms in June 1815. Kreuznach became a border town to the Grand Duchy of Hesse in the east and to the Bavarian Rhine District in the south in the Prussian administrative district of Koblenz , which was newly formed on April 22, 1816 . The border triangle was located from 1815 to 1945 at the meeting of the districts Bad Kreuznach, Altenbamberg and Frei-Laubersheim near the "Schäferplacken".
The two Kreuznach salt pans were domains of the Grand Duchy of Hesse from 1816 to 1897 , but have been subject to Prussian co-determination rights since the peace treaty of 1866. In 1817 Johann Erhard Prieger opened the first bathing room with brine-containing water and formed the basis for the rapidly growing spa business .
In 1834 Josef Stöck from the Mainz emigration agency Strecker, Klein & Stöck , which had acquired land in Tennessee , founded an office in Kreuznach. Many Kreuznachers emigrated to North America, England or Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul) in the 19th century.
In 1843 Karl Marx married Jenny von Westphalen in Kreuznach, presumably in the Wilhelmskirche , which was built between 1698 and 1700 and was demolished in 1968 except for the tower . In Kreuznach in 1843 he also wrote essential parts of his book On the Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Law .
The construction of the Nahe Valley Railway from Bingerbrück to Saarbrücken in 1858/60 laid the foundation for the industrialization of the city. This, together with the increasingly emerging spa business, led to a development boost for the city after years of stagnation. However, the railway was not only built for industry and spa operations, but also as a supply line for an expected war with France. Before that, however, in 1866, Prussia and Bavaria were once again hostile to each other on Kreuznach's city limits. Considerations that were not influenced by this led to the fact that before the First World War a second railway line, the "strategic railway", was led from Bad Münster via Staudernheim, Meisenheim, Lauterecken and Kusel to the west, making Bad Kreuznach an important distributor for transports to the west . It was not until 1950 that this line was partially dismantled and finally shut down. Today it serves a tourist attraction between Staudernheim and Kusel, the trolley train.
In 1891 three friars of the Franciscan friars of the Holy Cross settled in Kreuznach. In 1893 they took over the Kiskys-Wörth hospital , which has been called St. Marienwörth since 1905 . Since 1948 they have been running this together with the sisters of the Congregation of the Maidservants of Mary of the Immaculate Conception , today as a standard care hospital .
The pharmacist Karl Aschoff discovered the radon content of Kreuznach brine in 1904 and then introduced the radium therapy , including radon therapy, which had already been practiced in the Bohemian Sankt Joachimsthal . Despite its far lower radon levels, Bad Kreuznach became a "radium spa" alongside the Saxon Bad Brambach and Bad Gastein in the Salzburg Pongau. In 1912 a radon inhaler was put into operation, into which the more radon-containing air was introduced from an old mine tunnel in Kauzenberg. The inhalatorium was destroyed in 1945. In 1974 the tunnel itself was expanded into a therapy room. Radon inhalation is still used today as a natural pain reliever for rheumatic diseases.
During the First World War, the Kreuznacher Kurhaus as well as other hotels and villas became the headquarters of Kaiser Wilhelm II's headquarters on January 2, 1917. The Kaiser took up residence in the Kurhaus. As General Staff Building was hotel Oranienhof used. In the Kurhaus on April 23rd and on 17th / 18th May 1917 the Kreuznach war target conferences were held. On June 29, the emperor received the nuncio Eugenio Pacelli here , who conveyed a papal message of peace. On December 19, 1917, General Mustafa Kemal Pascha, better known as Ataturk ("Father of the Turks") and later President of a strictly secular Turkey , Kaiser Wilhelm II, Hindenburg and Ludendorff met for talks in the Oranienhof . It was not until an extreme, wintry flood on the Nahe in January 1918 that the Supreme Army Command was relocated to Spa in Belgium .
Weimar Republic and the time of National Socialism
After the end of the war, French troops occupied the Rhineland and the city until 1930, and the majority of the large hotels were then demolished.
Kreuznach has been allowed to use the name Bad since 1924 . The “ Bund Rheinischer Dichter ”, an association of around 130 writers from the Weimar Republic, founded informally in 1926 and dissolved in 1933, was constituted at a workshop in the Bad Kreuznacher Kurhaus in 1930, chaired by Alfons Paquet as e. V.
After the Nazi takeover of power in 1933, the trade unionist Hugo Salzmann organized resistance against the National Socialists. Despite his imprisonment, Salzmann survived the Nazi era and sat on the city council for the KPD after 1945 . The Jews from the Kreuznach district who remained after the start of the war were brought to the former Kolping House in 1942 on the instructions of the district administration and deported from there to Theresienstadt on July 27th .
Bad Kreuznach, whose spa facilities and remaining hotels were again the headquarters of an army command from 1939 to 1940, was in the course of the war due to the Wehrmacht barracks in Bosenheimer, Alzeyer and Franziska-Puricelli-Strasse as well as the strategically important Berlin-Paris railway line at that time led through the city, repeatedly the target of Allied bombing raids. The last city commandant, Lieutenant Colonel Johann Kaup († 1945), saved Bad Kreuznach from even greater destruction when he no longer offered any resistance to the advancing formations of the US Army and on March 16, 1945 left the city largely without a fight to the Americans. Shortly before, German troops had blown up part of the old Nahe bridge and destroyed residential buildings near the bridgeheads.
Bad Kreuznach was occupied by US troops in March 1945 and was thus under American command. This also extended to one of the Rhine meadow camps for German prisoners of war and internees, which was located near Bad Kreuznach on the road to Bretzenheim and whose former location is still marked today by a memorial for this field of misery . In the Lohrer Wald there is a cemetery of honor for war and camp victims.
In accordance with the Potsdam protocols for the definition of so-called zone boundaries, Bad Kreuznach then became part of the French occupation zone for some time . In an exchange at the beginning of the 1950s, instead of French units, US forces returned to the Kreuznach, Birkenfeld and Kusel districts. On December 14, 1957, the headquarters and the headquarters company of the 8th Infantry Division were established in Bad Kreuznach and housed in the Rose Baracks barracks. Until mid-2001, the US armed forces maintained four barracks, a missile dump, a shooting range, a small airfield and a training area in and around Bad Kreuznach. Most recently, parts of the 1st US Armored Division (called Old Ironsides ) were stationed.
In Bad Kreuznach, the French President Charles de Gaulle and the German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer agreed in 1958 to institutionalize the special relations between the two countries, which resulted in the Élysée Treaty in 1963. A memorial stone in front of the former Kurhaus commemorates the historic event of 1958.
On April 1, 1960, the city of Bad Kreuznach was declared a large district city by the state government at their request .
On June 13, 1961 in Bad Kreuznach the "Finance and Compensation Agreement" on the regulation of the consequences of war in relation to the politically persecuted, resettlers and social security by the ministers Gerhard Schröder and Franz Etzel for the Federal Republic of Germany and Bruno Kreisky and Josef Klaus for the Republic of Austria initialed (so-called "Kreuznach Agreement"), in which both sides agreed on a German payment of DM 101 million. On October 28, 1962, the Rhineland-Palatinate State Fire Brigade Association was founded in Bad Kreuznach.
As part of an administrative reform in Rhineland-Palatinate, on June 8, 1969, the previously independent communities of Bosenheim , Ippesheim , Planig (all three of which belonged to the district of Bingen ) and Winzenheim were incorporated. In addition, Rüdesheim was also incorporated, which, however, objected to this in court and was given back its independence after a few months.
In the course of the 2009 Bundestag elections , a public survey was carried out on the subject of the “Merger of Bad Kreuznach and Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg ”. 68.3% of the polled citizens of Bad Kreuznach spoke out in favor of negotiations between the two cities. On the occasion of the 2013 Bundestag election , another public survey took place, in which 54.7% of the citizens surveyed were in favor of a merger. On October 1, the Lord Mayor of Bad Kreuznach and the City Mayor of Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg signed the relevant area change agreement; the change of territory came into effect on July 1, 2014. As a result of the incorporations, the urban area of Bad Kreuznach , which belonged to Prussia until 1945 , now extends to the formerly Hessian (Bosenheim, Ippesheim, Planig) and Bavarian (Ebernburg) area. That is why there are now three Catholic dioceses ( Trier , Mainz , Speyer ) and three Protestant regional churches ( Evangelical Church in the Rhineland , Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau , Evangelical Church of the Palatinate ) represented in the city.
After the 2009 election, a Jamaica coalition of CDU , FDP and Greens ruled in Bad Kreuznach , which broke up in 2013. The city council was last elected in the local elections on May 26, 2019 and is composed as follows:
|proportion of||Seats||± proportion||± seats||proportion of||Seats|
|Groups of voters||10.6%||5||−0.9%||± 0||11.5%||5|
|voter turnout||48.4%||+ 3%||45.4%|
The percentage results of the municipal council elections are shown as “weighted results”.
In 2009, the five mandates for the electoral groups were divided between the Faires Bad Kreuznach party, the citizens' list and the FWG. In 2014, the BüFEP, the Alliance for Social Energy Prices and Just Politics , was added, and in 2019 Progressives Bad Kreuznach .
Mayor and Lord Mayor
- 1800–1806 Franz Joseph Potthoff
- 1806–1813 Carl Josef Burret *
- 1813–1814 Jacob Friedrich Karcher *
- 1814 Stanislaus Schmitt *
- 1814–1817 Joseph Dheil (Theil) *
- 1817–1818 Ruprecht *
- 1819–1845 Franz Xaver Buß *
- 1845–1846 Karl Joseph Movius
- 1846–1850 Berthold
- 1851–1875 Heinrich Küppers
- 1875–1881 Gerhard Bunnemann
- 1881–1896 Felix Albert Scheibner
- 1897 Hermann Bemme
- 1897–1909 Rudolf Kirschstein *
- 1909–1914 Karl Schleicher
- 1917–1919 Hans Koernicke
- 1921–1933 Robert Fischer
- 1934–1942 Friedrich Wetzler
- 1945 Viktor Risse
- 1945–1947 Robert Fischer
- 1947–1949 Willibald Hamburger ( CDU )
- 1949–1952 Josef Kohns ( CDU )
- 1952–1956 Ludwig Jungermann ( CDU )
- 1957–1967 Gerhard Muhs * ( FDP )
- 1967–1985 Peter Fink * ( SPD )
- 1985–1995 Helmut Schwindt * ( SPD )
- 1995–2003 Rolf Ebbeke * ( CDU )
- 2003–2011 Andreas Ludwig * ( CDU )
- 2011– Heike Kaster-Meurer * ( SPD )
The mayors are marked with an "*" at the end of the name, people without an "*" were mayors.
coat of arms
|Blazon : “In silver (white) a bar made of gold (yellow) and blue in two rows, between three two floating black paw crosses set to one; in the upper coat of arms a three-tower wall crown in natural colors. "|
Justification of the coat of arms: The coat of arms is based on a seal from the late 15th century. It was awarded by the Prussian king in 1817. The crosses are speaking for the city name. The chess bar comes from the coat of arms of the Counts of Sponheim . The top of the wall stands for the city charter granted in the 13th century.
The coat of arms can be found in this form for the first time in the keystone of the Church of St. Nicholas in the late 13th century. In 1373, Henne von Cruzenach, Burgrave of Vianden , illegitimate son of Count Johann II von Sponheim-Kreuznach, placed a stake with three crosses over the Sponheim Chess in his coat of arms.
Partnerships exist with the following cities:
- Bourg-en-Bresse ( Ain department , France ), since 1963
- Neuruppin ( Brandenburg , Germany ), since 1990
Culture and sights
- The bridge houses from the 15th century on the Alte Nahebrücke are the landmark of the city of Bad Kreuznach
- Kauzenburg castle ruins (1206)
- Nicholas Church
- Pauluskirche with Gothic Pauluskapelle (burial chapel of the Sponheim Counts von der Kauzenburg and the Rheingrafen) in the immediate vicinity of the bridge houses.
- The Heilig-Kreuz-Kirche , built by Ludwig Becker , is a Catholic church
- Crucenia thermal baths ( thermal baths )
- Kurhaus (1912–1913 by Emanuel von Seidl )
- near the train station an older residential area (Sprendlinger Gasse area) with cobblestones (so-called "Paris Quarter")
- Bath house: one of the largest wellness and sauna facilities in Germany .
- Salinental: With its six 9 m high graduation towers , it is the largest natural open-air inhalatory in Europe over a length of 1100 m. Even the Celts extracted salt from the salty springs in the area. In the Salinental, salt has been produced in an elaborate process since 1732 with the help of graduation towers.
- Former manor Bangert with three museums today:
- Roman Hall : The Roman Hall shows u. a. the finds from the excavations of a Roman palace villa from the 3rd century . This was in the possession of a presumed large landowner, respectively. Politician. However, a road was built right through the archaeological site in the 1950s. The two large stone carpet mosaics found in Bad Kreuznach , which were transferred to the Roman hall built for this purpose, are particularly worth seeing . They are among the most important Roman mosaic floor finds north of the Alps and are world-famous for their quality. However, a small piece was incorrectly reconstructed.
- Castle Park Museum (including the town history of Bad Kreuznach). Particularly noteworthy is the permanent exhibition about the sculptor dynasty Cauer , which has European artistic standing.
- The Museum for Puppet Theater Culture, which opened in 2005, exhibits the collection of Karl-Heinz Rother (1928–2010), which is now owned by the State of Rhineland-Palatinate, as well as other puppet theater masterpieces (PuK collection).
- Dr. Faust House (1507)
- "Little Venice", a former tanners' quarter, which is located at the confluence of the Nahe and Ellerbach rivers and looks picturesque due to the two arms and the small, old houses.
- The public observatory in Bad Kreuznach on the Kuhberg.
- The Bad Kreuznacher Neustadt , the medieval quarter of the city at the foot of the Kauzenburg on the western bank of the Nahe with its many restaurants, which today houses the oldest still inhabited buildings in the city.
- Schanzenkopf , a wooded elevation west of the city
- "Hungry Wolf", an elevation north of the city on the former Heerstrasse to Stromberg and the Rhine with a 360-degree view, during the Napoleonic era the location of a semaphore operated by French officials on the optical telegraph line Paris - Metz - Mainz .
- The current synagogue is an American chapel that was rebuilt in 2001/02.
Music associations and choirs
- Capella Nicolai
- Choir Cantamus
- Choir mosaic (St. Mark's Church)
- Gospel choir boundless
- Kantorei at the Pauluskirche
- Concert Society Bad Kreuznach
- Kreuznacher Diakonie Kantorei
- Musikverein "Musikfreunde Winzenheim" e. V.
- MC Harmonie 1845 Planig e. V.
- Pop and gospel choir ReJOYSing, Planig
- Art workshop Bad Kreuznach e. V.
Regular festivals and events
- Weekly market on the Kornmarkt: Tuesday and Friday, 7 a.m. to 1 p.m.
- Altweiberfastnacht in the "fool's cage" on the Kornmarkt: Shrove Thursday
- Kreuznacher Fool's Tour: Shrove Saturday
- Nahe valley tournament for junior soccer players: always on Whitsun, Friday to Monday
- International Easter hockey tournament Kreuznacher Hockey Club
- Automobilsalon: largest automobile exhibition in Rhineland-Palatinate, last weekend in April
- Egg market festival: mid-July
- Wine festival: July
- Kreuznacher fair : (since 1810) third weekend in August (Friday to Tuesday)
- Jousting : first weekend in September
- Autumn canoe slalom of the RKV in the Salinental: last weekend in September
- Nikolausmarkt: always on the egg market until 2008, the future still unclear
- Festival “marionettissimo” / The art of playing on a thread in November in the Museum for Puppet Theater Culture
- French market: once a year traders from the French partner municipality Bourg en Bresse organize a French market on the grain market, last held in 2007.
Culture award of the city of Bad Kreuznach
The Culture Prize of the City of Bad Kreuznach is a sponsorship prize of the City of Bad Kreuznach, which is awarded annually alternately in the fields of music, visual arts and literature.
In Bad Kreuznach there are numerous clubs that can show success on a national level. The city is a federal base for trampoline gymnastics and canoe slalom , while state performance centers exist for shooting and boccia .
The largest club is VfL 1848 Bad Kreuznach , where the first basketball department in Germany was founded in 1935 . Even after the Second World War , the club produced numerous important personalities, including several national players. In addition, the club's hockey department, which was temporarily represented in the women's Bundesliga, is important. The first hockey department in the city was held by the Kreuznacher HC , which made it to the semi-finals of the German championship in 1960 and still organizes the traditional Easter hockey tournament today.
In football , Eintracht Bad Kreuznach is the city's most successful club. She played u. a. in the Oberliga, when it was the top division in Germany, and later in the Second Bundesliga. The MTV Bad Kreuznach has won the most titles and is one of the most successful clubs in Germany in trampoline gymnastics. Canoeing , especially canoe slalom, is operated by the RKV Bad Kreuznach . In rowing pointing Creuznacher RV on a long tradition. The shooting clubs SG Bad Kreuznach 1847 and BSC Bad Kreuznach are also important . In sports for the disabled , the Sportfreunde Diakonie are particularly successful in boccia .
Bad Kreuznach sports badge
The sports plaque is an honor that is given once a year by the city. Individual athletes, entire teams, deserving supporters of sport and deserving employees of sport are honored. With this honor, the city would also like to underline its image as a sports city in Rhineland-Palatinate. The sports badge is awarded to athletes in three stages:
- Participation in a world championship or the Olympic Games
- World Cup rankings 1st to 3rd place
- 1st to 3rd place at European Championships
- World Cup ranking position 4 or 5
- European Championships 4th or 5th place
- 1st place at German championships
- World Cup ranking 6th or 7th place
- Participation in a European championship
- 2nd or 3rd place in a German championship
Sports sponsors and employees must have been involved in sports on a voluntary basis for at least 25 years in order to receive this honor.
Economy and Infrastructure
|Largest wine-growing communities
in the growing area
|White wine||red wine|
|1) among all Rhineland-Palatinate wine-growing communities according to vineyards|
Bad Kreuznach is significantly shaped by viticulture and with 777 hectares of vineyards, 77 percent of which are white wine and 23 percent red wine, the largest wine-growing community in the Nahe area and the seventh largest wine-growing community in Rhineland-Palatinate .
Industry and Commerce
Bad Kreuznach has around 1,600 companies with at least one employee and thus offers 28,000 jobs, half of which are occupied by commuters from the surrounding area. The economic structure is primarily characterized by small and medium-sized companies that are very nationally oriented, for example the wood wholesaler Kurz KG . But also large companies like the tire manufacturer Michelin , the machine manufacturer KHS , the Meffert Farbwerke or the Schneider Optischen Werke can be found. In 2002 the traditional Seitz filter works were taken over by the American company Pall . The manufacturing industry is of great importance, particularly strongly represented by the chemical industry (tires, varnishes, paints), the optical industry, as well as mechanical engineering and automotive suppliers.
In particular, the retail trade and gastronomy are particularly important in the city center, but competition from chain stores is also increasing here.
Spa and tourism
As the oldest radon brine bath in the world and rheumatism center in Rhineland-Palatinate, the health resort and wellness tourism also have a special position for the city . There are 2,498 * beds available in the city, which were used for 449,756 * overnight stays, 270,306 * of which were used by guests in rehab clinics. The Parkhotel Kurhaus is considered the most famous hotel . A total of 92,700 overnight guests visited the city (* as of December 31, 2010). There are also six spa clinics, spa sanatoriums, the “Crucenia Thermen” thermal brine exercise bath with salt grotto, a radon tunnel, graduation towers in the Salinental and the brine atomizer in the spa park as open-air inhalers and the “Crucenia Health Center” for outpatient cures. The therapeutic indications are: rheumatic diseases, joint changes caused by gout, degenerative diseases of the spine and joints, gynecological diseases, diseases of the respiratory organs, diseases in childhood, vascular diseases, non-contagious skin diseases, disorders of internal secretion, psychosomatic diseases and eye diseases. After a significant decline in spa operations in the mid-1990s, the spa was realigned. A wellness temple with twelve large saunas on an area of 4,000 square meters was created with the Bäderhaus sauna landscape, which has around 80,000 visitors annually. Due to demographic change , the health tourism offer is becoming increasingly important again. In addition to health and wellness tourism, active vacation topics such as hiking and cycling are becoming increasingly important for the region.
Hospitals and specialist clinics
With the hospital of the kreuznacher diakonie foundation (397 beds) and the St. Marienwörth hospital (279 beds) Bad Kreuznach has two general hospitals that have the most modern special departments for heart and bowel diseases as well as for strokes. In the spa area there is also the Sana Rheumatism Center Rhineland-Palatinate, consisting of a rheumatism hospital and a rehabilitation clinic, the Karl Aschoff Clinic. Another privately owned rehabilitation clinic is the Nahetal Clinic. There is also the St.-Franziska-Stift psychosomatic clinic, the Viktoriastift rehabilitation and prevention clinic for children and adolescents, and a day clinic run by the German Red Cross .
Due to its geographical location in the narrow Nahe valley , all traffic routes upstream run parallel to the river. In addition, Bad Kreuznach is also an important crossroads for all modes of transport.
The Bad Kreuznach station is one of a few key stations in Rhineland-Palatinate, where the branches railway line to Gau Algesheim from the Nahe Valley Railway ( Bingen am Rhein - Saarbrücken ) from. Since the introduction of the Rhineland-Palatinate cycle in the mid-1990s, the routes away from the ICE / EC / IC routes have regained importance. In addition to the introduction of the hourly service , this was associated with an expansion of traffic into the night. Regional trains run from Bingen am Rhein via the Alsenz Valley Railway , which branches off the Nahe Valley Railway in the Bad Münster am Stein district, to Kaiserslautern , which can be reached in around 65 minutes. Regional express trains and regional trains run on the route to Saarbrücken and via Gau Algesheim and the left Rhine route to Mainz . The travel time to Mainz is between 25 and 40 minutes, that to Saarbrücken between 1:40 and 2:20 hours.
The Kreuznacher Kleinbahnen , a rural narrow-gauge railway network, existed from 1896 to 1936 . An original steam locomotive and the associated hall, which was moved from Winterburg, are still in the Kreuznach community of Bockenau today .
The Kreuznacher trams and suburban railways opened in 1906 , in addition to an inner-city network, also operated routes to the surrounding area: to Bad Münster am Stein , Langenlonsheim and St. Johann . In 1953 all operations were discontinued.
Bad Kreuznach can be reached by car via junction 51 of the same name on Autobahn 61 and federal highways 41 , 48 and 428 . With the exception of the B 48, all the roads mentioned lead around the city center, the motorway is approx. 12 km from the city center.
Local public transport is carried out by the Verkehrsgesellschaft mbH Bad Kreuznach (VGK), a member of the Rhenus Veniro Group , through an inner-city bus network every 15 or 30 minutes on seven bus routes . In addition, there are a large number of regional bus routes in the vicinity, which are operated by VGK and Omnibusverkehr Rhein-Nahe GmbH (ORN). The regular services of the various operators are part of the Rhein-Nahe-Nahverkehrsverbund RNN .
In order to comply with the Traffic Noise Protection Ordinance, the 30 km / h zone in Rüdesheimer Strasse , which has existed since February 2018, will be extended to almost the entire street from 2019.
- Radio station Antenne Bad Kreuznach
- domradio Studio-Nahe UKW 87.9, Pfarrradio, with main program of domradio Cologne, local program on Saturday morning and service broadcast on Sunday
- Citizen TV nearTV
- SWR Studio Bad Kreuznach
- Free internet radio Gässjer FM
- Allgemeine Zeitung Bad Kreuznach: Daily newspaper for Bad Kreuznach and the surrounding area, belonging to the Rhein Main publishing group . Circulation approx. 13,000.
- Public Anzeiger: Daily newspaper for Bad Kreuznach and the surrounding area, belonging to the Rhein-Zeitung ( Mittelrhein-Verlag ). Circulation approx. 22,000.
- In-depth urban history: Bad Kreuznacher Heimatblätter , irregularly appearing supplement to the public gazette
- VorSicht - The Rhein-Nahe-Journal . Edition 15,000
- Lifetime: City magazine for Bad Kreuznach
- Wochenspiegel Bad Kreuznach: weekly advertising paper, belonging to SW-Verlag .
- Kreuznacher Rundschau, until October 1, 2010: Neue Kreuznacher Zeitung: weekly advertising paper. The first issue appeared in October 2006.
- Kreuznach blog - News and information about Bad Kreuznach from the region and the Internet. Since June 1, 2008.
- Nightlife Kreuznach - News about upcoming events in Bad Kreuznach. The best bars, clubs and discos in Bad Kreuznach
- Extrawelle - news for Bad Kreuznach
Education and Research
In Bad Kreuznach there are several primary schools, some of which also offer all-day care, schools of all three types of secondary schools as well as vocational preparatory or accompanying schools such as B. Vocational schools, vocational high schools and technical schools, which are located at the vocational schools:
- Elementary school Bad Munster am Stein-Ebernburg
- Dr. Martin Luther King School (all-day school)
- Primary School Kleiststraße (all-day school)
- Hofgartenstrasse primary school
- Planig primary school
- Winzenheim primary school
- Crucenia Realschule plus (all-day school)
- Realschule plus at Rotenfels Bad Munster am Stein-Ebernburg
- IGS Sophie Sondhelm (all-day school)
- Lina Hilger High School
- Gymnasium at the city wall (with ancient language and mathematical-scientific branches)
- Gymnasium at the Roman fort (with a bilingual branch)
- Vocational high school specializing in economics (only upper secondary level)
- Vocational high school specializing in technology (only upper secondary level)
- Higher vocational school police service and administration (only technical college entrance qualification)
- Vocational school for technology, trade, home economics, social affairs
- Vocational school for business
- Agricultural Vocational School
- DEULA Rheinland-Pfalz GmbH Institute for agricultural and environmental technology
- Bethesda School School for the Physically Disabled (all-day school)
- Don Bosco School School for the mentally handicapped (all-day school)
- Schule am Ellerbach School for people with learning disabilities (all-day school)
In 1950 the Max Planck Institute for Agricultural Labor Science and Technology was relocated from Imbshausen to Bad Kreuznach and used the premises of the Bangert manor there . From 1956 until its closure in 1976 it was called the Max Planck Institute for Agricultural Labor and Technology . The head of the institute was Gerhardt Preuschen .
From 1971 to 1987 the agricultural department of the Rhineland-Palatinate University of Applied Sciences , Bingen department, was located in Bad Kreuznach. After the agricultural sector moved to Bingen, Bad Kreuznach also offers training courses similar to a technical college for prospective winegrowers and farmers with the DLR ( Service Center for Rural Areas ). This two-year technical school for viticulture and oenology as well as agriculture is a training course at the Agricultural College. It continues the tradition of the earlier well-known Higher Viticulture School or the Engineering School for Agriculture and closes the gap in the training of the next generation of viticulture and cellar management between the technical college and one-year technical college.
The agency for quality assurance, evaluation and independence of schools and the Pedagogical Center Rhineland-Palatinate , which supports the state's schools in their pedagogical and didactic further development, are also based in the city, as is the state study seminar Bad Kreuznach for teaching at grammar schools.
Administration of justice
So far, 15 people have been made honorary citizens of Bad Kreuznach. Three of these rights were revoked: Adolf Hitler , Wilhelm Frick and Richard Walther Darré . The twelve remaining honorary citizens are (year of award in brackets):
- Otto von Bismarck (1895)
- Berthold von Nasse (1901)
- Otto Agricola (1902)
- Jean Winckler (1904)
- Otto Hersing (1915)
- Paul von Hindenburg (1918)
- Erich Ludendorff (1918)
- Franz Ernst Potthoff (1924)
- Joseph Schneider , entrepreneur (1928)
- Werner Forßmann , Nobel Prize Winner for Medicine 1956 (1957)
- Hans Staab , owner of a magazine wholesaler , a foundation named after him (1996)
- Alex Jacob , hotel owner, socially committed Honorary Consul General for Romania (2008)
sons and daughters of the town
- Konrad von Kreuznach , † October 13, 1368 in Mainz, poet (minstrel) and musician
- Nikolaus von Kreuznach , * around 1430; † August 10, 1491 in Vienna, lawyer, theologian and rector of the University of Vienna
- Conrad Faber von Kreuznach , * around 1500; † 1552/53 in Frankfurt a. M., painter and draftsman
- Kaspar Stemper , * around 1555/57; † 1608/09 in Speyer or Regensburg, lawyer, advocate at the Imperial Court of Justice, councilor and syndic of the city of Regensburg and councilor of the Palatinate-Neuburg region
- Karl Konrad Achenbach , * 1655; † 1720 in Berlin, Protestant Reformed theologian and university lecturer
- Johann Heinrich von Carmer , born December 29, 1721; † May 23, 1801 in Rützen, Prussian Grand Chancellor and judicial reformer
- Friedrich Müller , born January 13, 1749; † April 23, 1825 in Rome, pseudonym: Nasturtius, poet and painter
- Franz Christoph Braun , born November 13, 1766; † June 9, 1833, pastor and member of parliament
- August von Frays , born April 15, 1790; † October 24, 1863 in Munich, ennobled Bavarian major general, chamberlain and director of the court theater
- Friedrich Lorentz , born November 9, 1803; † May 10, 1861 in Bonn, historian and educator
- Carl Löwig , born March 17, 1803; † March 27, 1890 in Breslau, chemist
- Eberhard Anheuser , born September 27, 1806; † May 2, 1880 in St. Louis, entrepreneur, owner of the large Anheuser-Busch brewery
- Wilhelm Lossen , born May 8, 1838; † October 29, 1906 in Aachen, chemist
- Karl August Lossen , born January 5, 1841; † February 24, 1894 in Berlin, geologist
- Erich Prieger , born October 2, 1849; † November 27, 1913 in Bonn, musicologist
- Arthur Quassowski , born November 26, 1858; † June 17, 1943 in Berlin, lieutenant general
- Carl Quantity , born August 18, 1864; † October 9, 1945 in Munich, gynecologist
- Hella O'Cuire Quirke , born March 26, 1866, † unknown, writer
- Ludwig Cauer , born May 28, 1866; † December 27, 1947 in Bad Kreuznach, sculptor
- Johannes Mumbauer , born July 27, 1867; † December 22, 1930 in Bad Kreuznach, pastor, theologian and literary critic
- Stanislaus Cauer , born October 18, 1867; † March 8, 1943 in Königsberg, sculptor and university professor
- Hans Driesch , born October 28, 1867; † April 16, 1941 in Leipzig, biologist and natural philosopher
- Alexe Altenkirch , born July 5, 1871; † September 25, 1943 in Bad Kreuznach, painter, designer and art teacher
- Friedrich Karl Johann Vaupel , born May 23, 1876; † May 4, 1927 in Berlin, botanist
- Heinrich Kohl , born May 4, 1877; † September 26, 1914 at Moronvilliers near Reims, architect and building researcher
- Nelli Schmithals , * July 23, 1880; † June 12, 1975 in Bad Kreuznach, photographer
- Edmund Pnicck , born February 19, 1883; † April 11, 1954 in Eltville, politician
- Ilse Peters , born March 10, 1893; † November 27, 1980 in Hilden, Protestant religious educator, professor
- Ludwig Hartenfels , born June 17, 1894; † April 6, 1955 in Hamburg, politician of the FDP
- Hermann Baruch , born November 3, 1894, † 1942 in Auschwitz; European champion in wrestling
- Karl Sack , born June 9, 1896; † April 9, 1945 in Flossenbürg concentration camp, lawyer and resistance fighter
- Herbert Eimert , born April 8, 1897; † December 15, 1972 in Düsseldorf, composer
- Karl Kuhn , born February 14, 1898; † October 18, 1986 in Bad Kreuznach, politician, member of the state parliament of Rhineland-Palatinate
- Max Rheinstein , born July 5, 1899; † July 9, 1977 in Schwarzach im Pongau, lawyer
- Karl Hornberger , born March 30, 1900; † May 29, 1988 in Bad Kreuznach, athlete
1901 to 1950
- Hanna Cauer , born March 8, 1902; † May 16, 1989 in Bad Kreuznach, sculptor and painter
- Hugo Salzmann , born February 4, 1903; † 1979, communist and anti-fascist
- Edmund Collein , born January 10, 1906; † January 21, 1992 in Berlin, architect
- Konrad Frey , born April 24, 1909; † May 24, 1974 in Bad Kreuznach, Turner
- Ekkehard Liehl , born May 28, 1911; † March 5, 2003 in Kirchzarten, geographer and librarian
- Paul Yogi Mayer , born September 8, 1912; † July 8, 2011 in London, athlete, sports journalist and educator, emigrant
- Jakob Kiefer , born December 3, 1919; † January 18, 1991 in Bad Kreuznach, Turner
- Heinz Hesdörffer , born December 30, 1923; died May 3, 2019 in Frankfurt am Main, Holocaust survivor and contemporary witness, holder of the Federal Cross of Merit on ribbon
- Rudolf Anheuser * November 9, 1924; † October 27, 2009 in Bad Kreuznach, basketball official
- Hans Schumm , born December 26, 1927; † June 13, 2007 in Bad Kreuznach, District Administrator
- Albrecht Martin , born July 9, 1927; † July 14, 2014 in Bad Kreuznach, educator and politician (CDU)
- Heijo Hangen , born April 29, 1927, constructive artist and participant in documenta
- Karl-Rudolf Hornberger , born July 27, 1931, dialect poet
- Harald Winkel , born May 30, 1931; † August 8, 2005, economist, historian and publisher
- Georg Johann Rieger , born August 16, 1931, mathematician
- Elmar Pieroth , born November 9, 1934; † August 31, 2018 in Berlin, German politician (CDU)
- Ursula Hill-Samelson , born December 22, 1935; † January 10, 2013 in Seefeld (Upper Bavaria), mathematician and computer science pioneer
- Robert Stern , * 1936, pathologist
- Rudolf Wohlleben , born June 4, 1936, engineer, writer and student historian
- Wolfgang Dohle , born November 13, 1936, zoologist
- Manfred Ströher , born March 25, 1937, basketball official
- Rudolf Stertenbrink , born May 26, 1937; † November 8, 2017 in Reinbek, Dominican, author and cathedral preacher in Cologne
- Peter Anheuser , born March 23, 1938; † October 27, 2016, winegrower and politician (CDU)
- Wolfgang Bötsch , born September 8, 1938; † October 14, 2017, politician (CSU)
- Werner Stenger , born November 14, 1938; † June 7, 1990 in Krumbach, Roman Catholic theologian
- Harald Scheid ; * 1939, German mathematician
- Hans Maria Mole , born December 13, 1940, painter and performance artist
- Wulf-Dieter Schmidt-Wulffen , born August 18, 1941, geography teacher
- Jürgen Schweizer , born December 16, 1941, molecular biologist
- Gerhard Bahrenberg , born May 3, 1943, geographer
- Hein-Direck Neu , born February 13, 1944; † April 14, 2017 in Wiesbaden, discus thrower
- Volker Pudel , born March 1, 1944; † October 7, 2009, nutritional psychologist
- Günter Verheugen , born April 28, 1944, politician (SPD, before that FDP)
- Ursula Reindell * 1946, painter and sculptor (2008 Culture Prize Winner)
- Joachim Werren * 1948, politician
- Ulrich Birkenheier , * 1949, President of the Office for Military Counterintelligence
- Udo van Kampen , born April 4, 1949, journalist
- Wolfgang Donsbach , born November 9, 1949; † July 26, 2015 in Dresden, communication scientist
- Andreas Höfele , born September 19, 1950, English studies and writer
- Gernot Meyer-Grönhof * 1951, visual artist
- Willy Ketzer , born February 3, 1951, drummer, big band leader
- Armin Emrich , born June 16, 1951, handball coach
- Horst Klee , * 1952, guitarist and music teacher
- Wolfgang Schömel , born May 7, 1952, author
- Hans-Werner Wagner , born August 12, 1952; † July 2, 1998 in Dresden, State Secretary (CDU)
- Heijo Höfer , born September 6, 1953, lawyer and local politician (SPD), mayor of the Altenkirchen community
- Michael Klein * 1954, psychologist and university professor
- Lee Charm , born April 3, 1954 as Bernhard Quandt, President of the National Tourism Authority of South Korea
- Holger Härter , born April 24, 1956, manager
- Yaacov Lozowick , * 1957, philosopher and educator
- Sabine Hassinger , * 1958, author
- Helmut Freitag , * 1960, university music director
- Ise Thomas , born January 10, 1960, politician (Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen)
- Torsten Fink , born September 1960, author
- Karl Christoph Klauer , born October 30, 1961, cognitive psychologist and professor
- Ralf van Bühren , born February 3, 1962, art historian and professor in Rome
- Peter Eich , born June 18, 1963, soccer goalkeeper
- Hans-Peter Burghof , born November 14, 1963, economist
- Jürgen Mayer , * 1964, radio presenter, journalist and author
- Thomas Gerards , born October 31, 1964; † September 8, 1993 in Berlin; Entertainer and travesty artist
- Aiman Abdallah , born January 3, 1965, TV presenter
- Karsten Thormaehlen , born July 28, 1965, photographer, editor and curator
- Kerstin Hamann , * 1966, writer
- Petra Erdtmann , * 1967, flutist
- Gregor Beyer , born September 11, 1968, politician (FDP)
- Sven Faller ; * 1969, jazz double bass player
- Heribert Germeshausen , * 1971, German director
- Katharina Saalfrank , born November 22, 1971, qualified pedagogue and columnist
- Andreas Fischer-Lescano , born September 14, 1972, lawyer and professor
- Michael Senft , born September 28, 1972, canoeist
- Julia Klöckner , born December 16, 1972, politician (CDU) and chairwoman of the CDU parliamentary group in the Rhineland-Palatinate state parliament
- Yanou , * 1974, DJ and music producer
- Martin Kirschner , born April 6, 1974, Roman Catholic theologian and university professor
- Siegfried Kärcher , born October 4, 1974, visual artist
- Thomas Reichenberger , born October 14, 1974, football player
- Thomas Schmidt , born February 18, 1976, canoeist
- Alexander Graeff , born September 24, 1976, writer
- Alexander Esters , * 1977, painter and sculptor
- Mark Vogelsberger , born December 10, 1978, professor and theoretical astrophysicist
- Manuel Friedrich , born September 13, 1979, football player
- Niklas Meinert , born May 1, 1981, hockey player
- Christian Böhmer , * 1984, street artist
- Jens Werrmann , born May 29, 1985, athlete (hurdle sprint)
- Benjamin Kessel , born October 1, 1987, football player
- Matthias de Zordo , born February 21, 1988, athlete (javelin)
- Pierre Merkel , born May 25, 1989, football player
- Lisa Hattemer , born June 13, 1992, world champion in single-art cycling
- Lena Zelmel , born June 27, 1993, handball player
- Jonas Reinhardt , born July 30, 1998, volleyball and beach volleyball player
- Armand de Gramont , Comte de Guiche, * 1637; † November 29, 1673 in Kreuznach, courtier, adventurer and military.
- Ludwig Heinrich Moritz von Pfalz-Simmern , born October 4, 1640 in Sedan; † December 24, 1673 in Kreuznach, Duke of Simmern-Kaiserslautern
- Marie Eleonore von Brandenburg , born April 1, 1607 in Kölln; † February 18, 1675 in Kreuznach, married Countess Palatine and regent of Simmern from 1655 to 1658
- Marie of Orange-Nassau , born September 5, 1642 in The Hague; † March 20, 1688 in Kreuznach, married to Count Palatine Ludwig Heinrich Moritz von Simmern, redesigned the abandoned Augustinian convent of St. Peter into "Oranienhof Palace"
- Friedrich Christian Laukhard , born June 7, 1757 in Wendelsheim; † April 28, 1822 in Kreuznach, theologian and political writer; spent the last years of his life here
- Emil Cauer the Elder , born November 19, 1800 in Dresden; † August 4, 1867 in Kreuznach, sculptor
- Gustav Pfarrius , born December 31, 1800 in Heddesheim, today part of Guldental; † August 15, 1884 in Cologne, German poet, teacher and professor
- Stephan Lück , born January 9, 1806 in Linz am Rhein; † November 3, 1883 in Trier, theologian, cathedral music director of Trier and publisher; worked from 1828 to 1831 as a chaplain in Kreuznach
- Carl Prinz zu Solms-Braunfels , born July 27, 1812 in Neustrelitz; † November 13, 1875 at Rheingrafenstein Castle near Kreuznach, called "Texas-Carl"; buried in the town cemetery of Bad Kreuznach
- Gustav von Jagow , born September 7, 1813 in Dallmin; † February 1, 1879 in Potsdam, 1846 to 1861 district administrator of the Kreuznach district, MdPrA, 1862 Prussian interior minister. MdR
- Georg Franz Heinrich Stockmann , born January 14, 1825 in Ritzerau; † January 6, 1906 in Bad Kreuznach, businessman and founder of the Finnish department store chain Stockmann
- Robert Cauer the Elder , born April 2, 1831 in Dresden; † April 2, 1893 in Kassel, sculptor, son of Emil Cauer the Elder. Ä. and brother of Karl Cauer
- August Stern , * 1837; † around 1914, choirmaster of the Kreuznacher Diakonie Kantorei
- Carl Heinrich Jacobi , * 1824 probably in Neuendorf near Koblenz; † after 1890, photographer known for his collotype and stereo photographs
- Gisbert Enzian , born August 11, 1847; † May 23, 1919, city music director, head of the concert company
- Hugo Reich , born March 30, 1854 in Elberfeld; † July 23, 1935 in Bad Kreuznach, German theologian, founder of Diakonie
- Emil Thormählen , born May 24, 1859 in Moorhusen (Wilstermarsch); † April 1, 1941 in Bad Kreuznach, architect and director of the Cologne School of Applied Arts
- Elsbeth Krukenberg-Conze , born February 5, 1867 in Vienna; † August 16, 1954 in Calw, writer and women's rights activist
- Lina Hilger , born March 8, 1874 in Kaiserslautern; † April 13, 1942 in Frankfurt a. M., German educator
- Sophie Sondhelm , born March 18, 1887 in Kleinlangheim; Lost in Auschwitz in 1944, nurse and home manager, escape helper during the National Socialist era
- Elisabeth Jaeger , (born March 13, 1892; † February 26, 1969), head of the Diakonieanstalten Bad Kreuznach from 1932–1968
- Klaus Thormaehlen , born April 23, 1892 in Hanau; † July 4, 1981 in Bad Kreuznach, engineer, winemaker and inventor
- Julius Baruch , born September 7, 1892 in Gemünden; † February 12, 1945 in Buchenwald concentration camp, German wrestler and weightlifter of ASV Bad Kreuznach and European weightlifting champion in 1924
- Hermann Niebuhr , born June 14, 1904 in Strasbourg, † January 29, 1968 in Bad Kreuznach, basketball pioneer in Germany
- Werner Forßmann , born August 29, 1904 in Berlin; † June 1, 1979 in Schopfheim, chief physician at kreuznacher diakonie, cardiologist, Nobel laureate
- Gerhardt Preuschen , born January 22, 1908 in Darmstadt; † March 22, 2004 in Goslar, Director of the MPI for Agricultural Work and Technology
- Kurt Dossin , born March 28, 1913 in Leipzig; † April 26, 2004 in Bad Kreuznach, handball player and Olympic champion as well as three-time German champion. Lived in Bad Kreuznach from 1986 until his death.
- Yakovos Bilek , born July 7, 1917 in İzmir; † May 4, 2005 in Athens, German-Turkish basketball player, referee and trainer of Greek origin
- Hanna Breidinger-Spohr , born July 26, 1922 in Eberbach; † September 7, 2000 in Bad Kreuznach, painter and woodcut artist
- Werner Danz , born June 3, 1923 in Koblenz; † March 18, 1999 in Bad Kreuznach, German politician (FDP)
- Fridel Grenz , born October 2, 1929; † September 14, 2018, church musician of the Nikolauskirche
- Dieter Wellmann , born January 28, 1933 in Berlin, church musician of the Pauluskirche from 1960 to 1996
- Heiner Thabe , chief physician for orthopedists ( kreuznacher diakonie )
- Inge Rossbach , actress and director
- Hans-Robert Lichtenberg , born June 18, 1943 in Wallhausen, prominent (Frédéric von Anhalt)
- Carsten Pörksen , born June 18, 1944 in Nebel / Amrum, politician (SPD) and MdL
- Walter Brusius , * 1950 in Niederwörresbach, painter (winner of the 1999 Culture Prize)
- Kurt-Ulrich Mayer , born June 27, 1950 in Idar-Oberstein, Politician (CDU) Professor and President of the Saxon State Agency for Private Broadcasting and New Media (SLM)
- Matthias Schmidt-Ohlemann , * 1951 in Münster, orthopedist (kreuznacher diakonie)
- Rudolf Geissler , * 1953 in Germersheim, radio journalist, lived in Bad Kreuznach from 1956 to 1983 and until 1991 was the record keeper of the "Kreuznach Carnival Club (KKC) green-yellow" and the large joint meetings of 5 Kreuznach carnival corporations
- André Borsche , * 1955 in Berlin, chief physician for plastic surgery (kreuznacher diakonie)
- Helmut Kickton , born June 28, 1956 in Cologne, cantor of the kreuznacher diakonie
- Gabriele B. Harter , born October 28, 1962, archaeologist and author
- Ulrich von Plettenberg , born August 6, 1964 in Birkenfeld, Roman Catholic priest and vicar general in the Diocese of Trier; worked as a chaplain in Bad Kreuznach
- Frank Leske , * 1965, sculptor (2002 Culture Prize Winner)
- Sabine Wassermann , born September 6, 1965 in Simmern / Hunsrück; † March 31, 2017 in Bad Kreuznach, writer and artist (winner of the 2001 Culture Prize)
- Susanne Schäfer , born November 18, 1966 in Düsseldorf, author and precision optician
- Anna Dogonadze , born February 15, 1973 in Mzcheta, German-Georgian Olympic champion in trampoline gymnastics
- Beate Rux-Voss , * 1967, organist and church musician; Cantor of the Pauluskirche, cultural award winner of the city of Bad Kreuznach 2000
- Selina Herrero * May 28, 1993 in Mainz, pop singer
- In Eisenach the wealthy merchant and patrician Conrad Creutznacher left off 1507/39 in addition to the St. George's Church , the later so-called " Creutznacher House " in Renaissance style built. It was integrated into the old residential palace at the beginning of the 17th century (today: Markt 9).
- In the novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe , published in 1719, the eponymous hero, who was typically born in 1632, tells us that his mother's family originally went by the name Kreutznaer and immigrated to England via Bremen. The family name Crusoe is now often explained as a sloppy Kreuznacher . In 1720, Defoe's novel Memoirs of a Cavalier appeared - initially anonymously : Or A Military Journal of the Wars in Germany, and the Wars in England; From the Years 1632 to 1648 , in which the capture of "Creutznach" in 1632 is described.
- Johann Goswin Widder: Attempt of a complete geographic-historical description of the Kurfürstl. Palatinate on the Rhine. Volume IV, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1788, pp. 22-48. (online at: books.google.de , accessed on December 21, 2011)
- Anonymous: Historical notes about Kreuznach. In: Johann Jacob Nöggerath (Ed.): Gemeinnützige und enthaltende Rheinische Provinzial-Blätter NF 2/2 (1835), S. 3-11 and 93-110 ( Google-Books ); 2/3 (1835), pp. 14–24 ( Google Books )
- Johann Jakob Wagner: Documented history of the villages, monasteries and castles in the Kreuznach district up to the year 1300 . Cappallo, Kreuznach 1909, pp. 170-190. ( Digitized version of the University and City Library Cologne)
- Walter Zimmermann (edit.): The art monuments of the Kreuznach district. (The art monuments of the Rhine Province 18/1). L. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1935. (Reprint: Deutscher Kunstverlag, Munich / Berlin 1972, ISBN 3-422-00540-4 )
- Ernst Emmerling: Bad Kreuznach. (= Rheinische Kunststätten. Issue 187). 2nd Edition. Society for book printing, Neuss 1980, ISBN 3-88094-314-1 .
- Kurt Becker (Ed.): Home chronicle of the Kreuznach district. Archive for German Homeland Care, Cologne 1966, .
- City of Bad Kreuznach (ed.): 50 years of the American armed forces in Bad Kreuznach. Bad Kreuznach 2001.
- City of Bad Kreuznach (Hrsg.): The Kreuznacher sports book. Ess, Bad Kreuznach 2006, ISBN 3-935516-34-7 .
- Spa and saltworks in the city of Bad Kreuznach (ed.): 175 years of the Bad Kreuznach spa, 1817–1992. Festschrift . Geis & Fiedler, Pfaffen-Schwabenheim 1992.
- Official website of the city of Bad Kreuznach
- Tourist information about Bad Kreuznach
- Literature about Bad Kreuznach in the Rhineland-Palatinate state bibliography
- Born in Hamm, wine merchant and art lover, received a lifelong pension of 800 thalers for mediating peace. For his work see also: Andrea Fink: The pain garden in Kreuznach. A middle-class landscape garden in the 18th century. In: Die Gartenkunst 8 (2/1996), pp. 213–220.
- State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate - population status 2019, districts, communities, association communities ( help on this ).
- State ordinance on the voluntary amalgamation of the cities of Bad Kreuznach and Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg of November 24, 2013 in the Rhineland-Palatinate Law and Ordinance Gazette No. 19/2013, p. 503ff, State law on voluntary area changes of the municipality of Lambsheim and the Verbandsgemeinde of Heßheim as well as the cities of Bad Kreuznach and Bad Münster am Stein-Ebernburg from November 22, 2013 in the Rhineland-Palatinate Law and Ordinance Gazette No. 18/2013, p. 489 ff.
- https://www.swr.de/swraktuell/rheinland-pfalz/Heissester-Ort-in-Deutschland-38-9-Grad-Juni-Hitzerekordwert-in-Bad-Kreuznach-gemessen,hitze-in-rheinland-pfalz -100.html
- The route ran roughly: Metz (Divodurum), Dillingen-Pachten, Lebach , Wareswald near Tholey. From here on the route was divided into a south and a north route. The southern route led over Schwarzerden , Medard , Meisenheim and the Lettweiler Höhe; see. Gertraud and Heinz-Egon Rösch: Roman roads between the Moselle and the Rhine . OVIMEX, Mainz 2010, p. 93. The north route led via Wolfersweiler , Heimbach (Birkenfeld district) , Baumholder , Winterhauch near Idar-Oberstein- Struth / Neuweg, Sien (Höhe), Schmidthachenbach , Becherbach near Kirn , Hundsbach , Bärweiler , Bad Sobernheim , Waldböckelheim , Almond , Bad Kreuznach, Bingen (Bingium); see. Jos. H. Friedlich: Roman monument near Schweinschied. In: Yearbooks of the Association of Friends of Antiquity in the Rhineland. Volume 4 (1844), pp. 94-106, esp. 94; Ernst Schmidt (ed.); Friedrich Wilhelm Schmidt: Research on the Roman roads etc. in the Rhineland . In: Yearbooks of the Society of Friends of Antiquity in the Rhineland. Volume 31 (1861), pp. 1-220, esp. Pp. 170-197; Josef Hagen: Roman roads of the Rhine province. 2nd Edition. K. Schroeder, Bonn 1931, pp. 390-398; Winfried Dotzauer: History of the Nahe-Hunsrück area from the beginnings to the French Revolution. Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2001, p. 38, u. a. The “Old Roman Road” of the Palatinate Forest Association runs from Kirn to Meisenheim largely on the original route.
- Walburg Boppert: Roman stone monuments from the Bad Kreuznach district. Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, Mainz 2001, pp. 16f, 23f, 47 u. a.
- Auguste Audollent (arr.): Defixionum tabellae quotquot innotuerunt . Fontemoing, Paris 1904, No. 94-103, pp. 148-155 ( digitized in the Internet Archive); August Oxé : To the Kreuznacher escape tablets. In: Germania: Anzeiger of the Roman-Germanic Commission of the German Archaeological Institute. 10, 1926, pp. 144–146 ( digitized version of Heidelberg University Library).
- Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum , Volume XIII, No. 7550-7555 IV, u. a. ( Digital copies of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences ).
- Otto Guthmann: Kreuznach and the surrounding area in Roman times . Verlag für Heimatkunde, Bad Kreuznach 1965, p. 17f.
- Inscription by a mosaic manufacturer under the consulate of Marcus Clodius Pupienus Maximus and Marcus Munatius Sulla Urbanus , location Bad Kreuznach Hüffelsheimer Strasse, 234 AD ( digital copy of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences).
- Weihestein des Masclius Satto, location Bad Kreuznach, between 171 and 230; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Volume XIII, No. 7532 ( digitized version of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences); see. No. 7533.
- Inscribed seat stones, location Bad Kreuznach, 3rd century AD; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Volume XIII, No. 7544-7546 ( digital copies of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences).
- Cruciniacum (?), Bad Kreuznach (Germania Superior) on the “Theatrum” website of the State Archeology Department Mainz ( online ( Memento from December 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive )).
- inscription for the Mater deum , location Bad Kreuznach, 1st half of the 3rd century AD; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Volume XIII, No. 7531 ( digitized version of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences); see. Elmar Schwertheim: The monuments of oriental deities in Roman Germany . (Études préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'empire romain 40). Brill, Leiden 1974, pp. 169f.
- inscription for the mother-in-law of a mounted bodyguard of the XXII. Legion, location Bad Kreuznach, 3rd century AD; Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Volume XIII, No. 7535a ( digitized version of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences).
- The conjecture of "vico" to "vinco" / "vingo" goes back to Theodor Mommsen and, like the localizations of "Dumno" and "Belginum", is based on the Tabula Peutingeriana .
- CHA [= Heinrich Cannegieter, Arnheim]: Notae ad Ausonii Mosellam. In: Miscellaneae observationes in auctores veteres et recentiores 10/2 (1739), pp. 161-200, especially pp. 164-166 ( Google Books ); see. Joachim Gruber: D. Magnus Ausonius, "Mosella". Critical edition, translation, commentary (texts and comments 42), Berlin a. a .: de Gruyter 2013, p. 99f; see. also Friedrich Wilhelm Schmidt: Research on the Roman roads etc. in the Rhineland. In: Yearbooks of the Society of Friends of Antiquity in the Rhineland. Volume 31 (1861), pp. 197-205.
- Jörg Julius Reisek: The "city of Kreuznach jedweder Seite". New aspects of the genesis of the Kreuznach cityscape with special consideration of late medieval urban planning. 2014 ( digitized at www.regionalgeschichte.net).
- Document of December 19, 823 (= 822 ). see. Royal State Archives Stuttgart (Ed.): Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch. Volume I, FH Köhler, Stuttgart 1849, p. 101; Volume 3, Addendum 1. Text and transfer of the document of Emperor Ludwig the Pious from 822 ; Regesta Imperii Online, No. 768 (accessed May 15, 2013).
- Lorenz Fries : Chronicle of the Bishops of Würzburg , around 1495; Würzburg University Library (Codex M. ch. F. 760 “Echter-Exemplar”, sheet 12) ( digital copy of the Würzburg University Library); the year “770” in the Codex contradicts the life dates of the bishop.
- Georg Waitz (arrangement): Annales Bertiniani . ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica . Scriptores rerum Germanicarum 5). Hahn, Hanover 1883, p. 22 (digitized version)
- Wirtembergisches Urkundenbuch , ed. from the Royal State Archives in Stuttgart, Volume I, FH Köhler, Stuttgart 1849, p. 101; Volume 3, addendum 1. Emended from: "villa Truciniacus".
- Jules Finot: List of the diplômes des rois carolingiens et des premiers rois capétiens conservés aux Archives du Nord. In: Bulletin de la Commission historique du Département du Nord. 26, 1904, pp. 139-162, especially pp. 147 f.
- Online search ( Memento of the original from July 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. in the “ Regesta Imperii ” of the Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz (accessed on January 26, 2012).
- Heinrich Beyer (ed.): Document book for the history of the Middle Rhine territories, now the Prussian administrative districts of Coblenz and Trier . Volume I, J. Hölscher, Koblenz 1860, p. 322 (online resource, accessed on January 26, 2012); Johann Friedrich Böhmer (welcomed); Mathilde Uhlirz (arrangement): Regesta Imperii. Volume II / 3 The Regests of the Empire under Otto III. Böhlau, Vienna a. a. 1956, p. 763.
- Eberhard Link: Cruzenache - Kreuznach an der Nahe or Christnach in Luxembourg? In: Monetary History News. 11 (1976), No. 51, pp. 7-12.
- The name attachment -ach has probably been understood as an "island" from the Middle High German ouwe ( "Aue" ), which is close to the root . the article Ache . The poem “The foundation of Kreuznach” by Gustav Pfarrius alludes to a corresponding founding legend : “And in the middle of the island / stood high a cross made of stone… And a city rose… From the nearby cross of the island / Ward Kreuznach called it” ; see. ders .: The Nahethal in songs . Ludwig Kohnen, Cologne / Aachen 1838, pp. 164–166.
- One ninth of the rest of the yield from tithing, i.e. another tenth.
- Document dated December 2, 882; Johann-Friedrich Böhmer ( arrangement ): Codex diplomaticus Moenofrancofurtanus. Document book of the Imperial City of Frankfurt , Volume I. Franz Varrentrapp, Frankfurt am Main 1836, pp. 5-7 ( Google Books ).
- Johannes Trithemius: Annalium Hirsaugiensium. Volume I. St. Gallen, 1690, p. 43 for the year DCCCXCIII; see. P. 34f on the year DCCCLXXXII ( digitized version of the Bavarian State Library in Munich).
- Document of April 12, 977; ibid. Pp. 8-10; Adam Goerz (arrangement): Mittelrheinische Regesten or chronological compilation of the source material for the history of the territories of the two administrative districts of Coblenz and Trier , Volume I from the years 509 to 1152 . Friedrich Denker & Wilhelm Groos, Koblenz 1876, No. 1058, p. 303; see. Wolf Erich Kellner: The Reichsstift St. Bartholomäus in Frankfurt am Main in the late Middle Ages . (Studies on Frankfurt History 1). Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1962, pp. 30 and 39.
- Document in the state main archive Koblenz, probably forgery of the 12th / 13th century. Century. In 1101 Kreuznach became part of the Speyer Cathedral Chapter as a gift from Heinrich III. called; see. Heinrich Büttner: The beginnings of the city of Kreuznach and the counts of Sponheim. In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine. 100 / NF 61 (1952), pp. 433-444.
- Heinrich Büttner: The beginnings of the city of Kreuznach and the counts of Sponheim . In: Commission for historical regional studies in Baden-Württemberg (Hrsg.): Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine . tape 100 , 1952, pp. 433 ff . ( mgh-bibliothek.de [PDF]).
- Documents dated September 21, 1127 for the All Saints Monastery in Schaffhausen ; Carl Borromaeus Aloys Fickler (arr.): Sources and research on the history of Swabia and Eastern Switzerland . Schneider, Mannheim 1859, No. XXIV and XXV, pp. 48-50 ( Google Books ).
- Jacques Paul Migne : S. Bernardus abbas Clarae-Vellensis (Patrologiae cursus completus. Series secunda 185). Paris 1855, col. 388; Odilo Engels: Contributions to the history of the Hohenstaufen in the 12th century (II). In: Franz-Reiner Erkens, Hartmut Wolff (Ed.): From Sacerdotium and Regnum. Spiritual and secular violence in the early and high Middle Ages . (Festschrift for Egon Boshof). Böhlau, Köln 2002, pp. 423–460, especially p. 448 with note 95.
- Adam Goerz (arrangement): Mittelrheinische Regesten. Volume II from 1152 to 1237 . Denkert & Groos, Koblenz 1879, No. 969, p. 268 ( digitized in the Internet Archive).
- Joachim J. Half Can: The older Counts of Sayn. Personal, constitutional and property history of a Rhineland counts 1139-1246 / 47 . Historical Commission for Nassau, Wiesbaden 1997, esp.p. 331 and 441.
- Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage (Mgq 414 (b), sheets 349v – 351r); Ralf-Henning Steinmetz (Ed.): The seals of the Tannhauser , No. 12 (text b) ( digitized version of the Kiel online edition).
- Kaspar Hedio : An extravagant Chronick from the beginning of the world up to the year after Christ of our own Heylands Gepurt MDxliij . Müller / Kraft, Strasbourg 1543, S. DLX for the year 1272 ( digitized version of the University and State Library of Saxony-Anhalt), ( Google Books ).
- Johann Trithemius: Chronicon ... monasterii Spanheimensis (1506). In: Marquard Freher : Johannis Trithemij Spanheimensis primo… Abbatis… secvndae partis Chronica insignia dvo , Volume II. Wechel bei Claudius, Frankfurt am Main 1601, pp. 237-435, especially p. 284 ( Google Books ).
- Document dated May 12, 1301, cf. Deed of November 18, 1305; Bavarian Main State Archives (Grafschaft Sponheim, documents 101 and 114 (old signatures: 817 and 968)).
- Document dated June 7, 1381 (“court formerly inhabited by Lombards”); Bavarian Main State Archives (Grafschaft Sponheim, document 664 (old signature: 804)); see. State Main Archives Koblenz (Reichsgrafschaft Sponheim, document 16878); Martin Uhrmacher : Freedom privileges and free places in the counties of Sponheim. In: Kurtrierisches Jahrbuch 37 (1997), pp. 77–120, especially p. 99f ( Online ; PDF; 2.9 MB).
- Regest of September 14, 1367 ("Lamperten"); Ludwig Schmitz-Kallenberg (arrangement): Wild and Rheingräfliche Archives. In: Ders .: Documents of the Princely Salm-Horstmar'schen Archives in Coesfeld and the Ducal Croy'schen Domain Administration in Dülmen . (= Publications of the Historical Commission of the Province of Westphalia. Inventories of the non-state archives of the Province of Westphalia. 1,2). Aschendorff, Münster 1904, No. 516, p. 272.
- Stephan Alexander Würdtwein : Monasticon Palatinum Volume V. Cordon, Mannheim 1796, p. 324, there imprecisely: "Simon III."
- Certificate of Charles IV of January 15, 1363, issued in Kreuznach; Hessisches Hauptstaatsarchiv Wiesbaden (inventory 147 Herrschaft Homburg (Saar), No. 65); see. Certificate of January 21, 1363, issued in Aschaffenburg; Bavarian Main State Archives Munich (Sponheim, U 480).
- Cologne city accounts, entry from June 16, 1372; see. Bernhard Rathgen: The gun in the Middle Ages . VDI, Berlin 1928, p. 186 ( Google Books ).
- Gelders Archief (Graven en hertogen van Gelre, graven van Zutphen, 220 Rekening van extra-ordinaris uitgaven, 1389 July 22-1390 July 13th 1 deel, sheet 47); Gerard Nijsten: In the Shadow of Burgundy. The Court of Guelders in the Late Middle Ages . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2004, p. 179.
- Regesten des Pfalzgrafen Ruprecht III., N. 5573, 5577 and 5584, of November 12, 13 and 15, 1408, Heidelberg; ( Digitized from Regesta Imperii Online, accessed October 10, 2014).
- Landesarchiv NRW Rhineland Department (Jülich-Berg I No. 53); Georg Steinhausen: German Private Letters of the Middle Ages , Volume I. Gärtner, Berlin 1899, p. 24.
- Conrad Hofmann (Ed.): Eikhart Artzt's Chronik von Weissenburg . In: Sources and discussions on Bavarian and German history. 2, 1862, pp. 142-208, esp. Pp. 147f; Ulrich Gäbler : The children's pilgrimages from Germany and Switzerland to Mont-Saint-Michel 1456–1459. In: Journal for Swiss Church History. 63, 1969, pp. 221-331.
- Privilege for the Pedagogy for the Heavenly Gate of October 11, 1476 (probably to be corrected in October 21, 1475), issued by the Bishop of Forlì in Kreuznach; City Archives Erfurt (0-1 / 7A-54).
- Friedrich III. After the end of the siege of Neuss , accompanied the legate , traveled from Cologne via Remagen (October 12, 1475) and Linz am Rhein (October 12-18) to Frankfurt am Main (October 24), in October 1476 the imperial court in Wiener Neustadt ; see. Regesta Imperii online .
- Philipp Casimir Heintz : The former principality of Pfalz-Zweybrücken and its dukes . (= Treatises of the Historical Class of the Royal Bavarian Academy of Sciences. I / 1). Michael Lindau, Munich 1833, especially p. 415f ( Google Books ); Unification Treaty of November 27, 1489; Bavarian Main State Archives Munich (Neuburg Copial Books, No. 129).
- Franz Josef Mone : Inheritance of the saltworks and the brine bath at Kreuznach. 1490. In: ders .: About nursing, from the 13th to the 16th century in Wirtenberg, Baden, the baier. Palatinate and Rhine Prussia . In: Zeitschrift für die Geschichte des Oberrheins 2 (1851), pp. 257–291, esp. Pp. 285–287 ( Google Books ).
- Franz Joseph Mone : Stadtordnung von Kreuznach 1495. October 3rd, 1495. In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine. 18, 1865, pp. 250-256, especially p. 250 ( Google Books ); after Trithemius 1496.
- Ibid .
- Anonymi Chronicon Wirtembergense. In: Johann Friedrich Schannat : Vindemiae literariae. Volume II, Moritz Georg Weidmann, Fulda / Leipzig 1724, pp. 21-40, especially p. 37 ( Google Books ).
- On the following Karl Geib: The development of the medieval townscape of Kreuznach. In: Otto Lutsch (Hrsg.): Festschrift for the centenary of the grammar school and secondary school in Kreuznach (1819-1919). Robert Voigtländer, Kreuznach 1920, pp. 49–65 and appendix pp. 1–19 ( digitized version of the Rhineland-Palatinate State Library Center).
- Complete catalog of the Wiegendrucke , M16454; Facsimile from Ernst Freys (Ed.): Printed Schützenbriefe of the 15th century . In true replica. Kuhn, Munich 1912, panel XVII, based on the copy in the Strasbourg City Archives. Cf. also Leonhard Flechsel: Rhymed description of Frey and men's shooting with the crossbow and a port of luck . held at Worms in 1575. Adam Konrad Boeninger, Worms 1862, pp. 35–37 and 39 (3 Kreuznach participants; Cod. Pal. germ. 405, sheets 1-57).
- Siegmund Salfeld: Das Martyrologium des Nürnberger Memorbuches (sources on the history of Jews in Germany 3), Simion, Berlin 1898, p. 4: “בקרוצנכא נאפן ר׳ אפרים בר אליעזר הלוי” and p. 99, 144 and 276 ( digitized by Freimann Collection in the University Library Frankfurt am Main).
- To the following the online rainbow database Medieval Ashkenaz. Corpus of sources on the history of the Jews in the late medieval empire of the Academy of Sciences and Literature Mainz, ed. by Alfred Haverkamp, Jörg R. Müller.
- Documents dated May 12, 1301; Bavarian Main State Archive Munich (Grafschaft Sponheim, documents 100 and 101).
- Wilhelm Sauer ( arrangement ): Codex diplomaticus Nassoicus. Nassau document book. Volume I / 3. Julius Niedner, Wiesbaden 1887, pp. 210, 212 and 223; Edmund E. Stengel (Ed.): Nova Alamanniae. Documents, letters and other sources, especially on German history in the 14th century , Volume I. Weidmann, Berlin 1921 (reprint Olms, Hildesheim 2004), p. 174.
- Copy from around 1338 in the Würzburg State Archives (Mainz documents, 6206 (= KLS 616)).
- Siegmund Salfeld: Das Martyrologium des Nürnberger Memorbuches (sources on the history of the Jews in Germany 3), Simion, Berlin 1898, p. 81 and 281.
- Regest of July 11, 1358; Ludwig Schmitz-Kallenberg (arrangement): Wild and Rheingräfliche Archives. In: Ders .: Documents of the Princely Salm-Horstmar'schen Archives in Coesfeld and the Ducal Croy'schen Domain Administration in Dülmen . (= Publications of the Historical Commission of the Province of Westphalia. Inventories of the non-state archives of the Province of Westphalia. 1,2). Aschendorff, Münster 1904, No. 417, p. 256.
- Document of January 9, 1363; Fürstlich Salm-Salm'sches Archiv Anholt (Dhaun holdings, No. 831).
- Franz-Josef Heyen : Kreuznach, Bad. In: Germania Judaica. Volume III / 1 local article Aach – Lychen . JCB Mohr, Tübingen 1987, pp. 686-691, especially p. 687 (on the year 1375).
- State archive Ludwigsburg, Hohenlohe-Zentralarchiv Neuenstein branch (holdings archive of the Weinsberg rule with the estate of the Reich treasurer Konrad von Weinsberg , GA 15 drawer E, no. 58/2 and no. 59/5); Institute for City History Frankfurt am Main (Juden Akten, 372).
- Johann Trithemius: Chronicon ... monasterii Spanheimensis (1506). In: Marquard Freher : Johannis Trithemij Spanheimensis primo… Abbatis… secvndae partis Chronica insignia dvo , Volume II. Wechel bei Claudius, Frankfurt am Main 1601, esp. P. 353 ( Google Books ).
- Edgar Mais: The persecution of the Jews in the districts of Bad Kreuznach and Birkenfeld 1933–1945. (= Local history publication series of the Bad Kreuznach district. 24). District administration, Bad Kreuznach 1988, SI
- On the following Volker Zimmermann: The treatise on “daz lively water” from the Heidelberg manuscript Cod. Pal. Germ 786 - "The Jew's Book of Kreuczenach". In: Fachprosaforschung - Grenzüberreitungen, 4/5 (2008/2009), pp. 113–123; Eva Shenia Shemyakova: The Jewish book of Kreuczenach . A contribution to Jewish medicine in the Middle Ages , diss. med. Göttingen 2010, especially p. 42 (PDF; 690.2 kB).
- Institute for City History Frankfurt am Main (Juden Akten, 964).
- Heidelberg University Library (Cod. Pal. Germ. 786; cf. Cod. Pal. Germ. 241); Peter Assion : Jew from Kreuznach. In: Wolfgang Stammler, Karl Langosch (Ed.): The German literature of the Middle Ages. Author Lexicon. 2nd Edition. Volume 4, de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1983, column 887 f.
- Volker Zimmermann: Jude von Kreuznach. In: Werner E. Gerabek , Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil , Wolfgang Wegner (eds.): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4 , p. 705 f.
- Eva Shenia Shemyakova: 'Des Juden buch von kreuczenach'. Investigation and edition of the recipe part of the Heidelberg Cpg 786. In: Fachproseforschung - Grenzüberreitungen. Volume 8/9, 2012/13, pp. 207-265.
- Jörg Julius Reisek: The old "Juden Kirchoff" on the Kreuznacher Schlossberg (accessed on June 27, 2013).
- Wolfgang Klötzer (Ed.): Frankfurter Biographie . Personal history lexicon . First volume. A – L (= publications of the Frankfurt Historical Commission . Volume XIX , no. 1 ). Waldemar Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-7829-0444-3 . P. 140.
- Similarly, Zelem was the Yiddish name for the place name Deutschkreutz ; the coin “ Kreuzer ” was called Yiddish צלמר “Zalmer”.
- Eduard Fritsch: Kreuznach in the Thirty Years' War . (diss. phil.). Giessen 1929, p. 18f; Gerd Massmann: The constitution of the city of Kreuznach under French rule from 1796 to 1814 . H. Boldt, Boppard 1963, pp. 132-136.
- Document of July 24, 1390; Mainz City Archives (U / 1390 July 24).
- Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke: Association of tailors' guilds in 14 cities on the Middle Rhine. 1520. In: Anzeiger für customer of the German prehistory. 8 (1839), col. 285-290.
- Benno Schmidt, Karl Bücher (ed.): Frankfurt guild certificates up to 1612 . Part I, Volume 1–2, (= publications of the Historical Commission of the City of Frankfurt am Main. 6 / 1-2). Baer, Frankfurt am Main 1914/15 ( digitized version of the library of the Department of Economic and Social History); Gottfried Klein: The outsider policy of the Rhenish guilds (diss. Phil. Cologne). Weizel, Cologne-Kalk 1929.
- Stephan Alexander Würdtwein: Monasticon Palatinum. Cordon, Mannheim 1796, Volume V, esp. P. 311ff (on St. Peter's Monastery ), p. 345–353 (on the “ Bubenkapelle ”), p. 354f (on the Carmelite Monastery ), p. 355–360 (on the St. . Wolfgang ) (online resource, accessed December 21, 2011); Ernst Schmidt: Historical notes about the earlier churches and monasteries in Kreuznach. In: Annals of the Historical Association for the Lower Rhine. 28/29 (1876), pp. 242-259.
- Ernst Schmidt: About the excavations that took place on the terrain of the Roman fort near Kreuznach, called the Heidenmauer, from October 1858 to November 1866 . In: Yearbooks of the Society of Friends of Antiquity in the Rhineland. Volumes 47/48 (1869), pp. 66-113. According to another theory, the Martinskirche was in the place of today's St. Martin im Brückes vineyard and St. Kilian would have been relocated there.
- Peter Immanuel Dahn : Graciously abandoned General Description of the Churpfälzischen OberAmts Creuznach , manuscript from 1772; Bayerische Staatsbibliothek München (Cgm 2654, sheet 30): "St. Vincentij Monastery, is built with bourgeois houses that can be tinned to the Carmelite Monastery." ( Digitized version of the Bavarian State Library in Munich).
- Also Jean Englebert Olivier from Bastogne , editor of Giovanni Domenico Candela: De bono status virginitatis et continentiae libri tres. Peter Henning, Mainz 1613; see. Abraham Jacob van der Aa: Biographical Woordenboek der Nederlanden. Volume XIV, Jacobus Johannes van Brederode, Haarlem 1867, p. 83 f.
- Karl Hartfelder: Werner von Themar, a Heidelberg humanist . In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine. 33, 1880, pp. 1–101 (accessed May 15, 2013).
- Extensive, allegedly contemporary report in a Strasbourg manuscript from the property of the City Syndic Johann Jakob Wenker, communicated by the lawyer Franz Joseph Bodmann - although known to be unreliable : Short list of how the Pfaltz von Landtgraue Wilhelm von Hessen and other plundered, and burned. On. Dnj 1504. In: Rhenish archive for history and literature. 3, 1810, pp. 222-231 ( Google Books ).
- Marquard Freher : Rerum Germanicarum Scriptores varii , new ed. Ed. by Burkhard Gotthelf Struve , Volume III, Johann Reinhold Dulßecker, Strasbourg 1717, esp. pp. 120–130 (“Stauronesum”; (online) ; cf. edition Claudius Marnius, Hannover 1611 Google Books ); Johannes Schneider: Steinach, Hans Landschad from . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 35, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1893, pp. 670-675.
- Letter from Johannes Trithemius to Johann Virdung. Retrieved April 24, 2017 .
- Johannes Trithemius: Annalium Hirsaugiensium. Volume II Chronicon Hirsaugiense . Johann Georg Schlegel, St. Gallen 1690, p. 638f ( Google Books ).
- Letter of June 13, 1508 from "Crewtznach"; see. Hector Bossange: Catalog de la riche bibliothèque de Rosny. Huzard, Paris around 1837, p. 222 (no.2478).
- Viktor von Kraus: Itinerarium Maximiliani I. 1508-1518 . Gerold, Vienna 1899, p. 63.
- Friedrich Wilhelm Heidemann, Gottlieb Friedrich Hüttner (ed.): Contributions to the chronicle of the postal system II. In: The postal system of our time. 5, 1860, pp. 113-143, especially pp. 126, 132 and 134.
- v .: Last feud and death of the famous knight, Franz von Sickingen. From an old script. In: Ernst Ludwig Posselt (Ed.): Scientific magazine for enlightenment 3/1 (1787), pp. 61–86, esp. 62f and 78 ( Google Books ).
- Josef Beck (edit.): The history books of the Anabaptists in Austria-Hungary . (Austrian historical sources - Fontes rerum Austriacarum II, 43). Gerold, Vienna 1883, p. 31 ( Google Books ).
- F. Falk: Hike on the Hunsrücke (end). In: History sheets for the Middle Rhine bishoprics. 2 (1885), col. 238-240, esp. Col. 239.
- Marriage contract of December 10, 1540, made out in Kreuznach; Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg (holdings Urk. 1 Hessisches Samtarchiv, No. 1836).
- Will Bradford: Correspondence of the Emperor Charles V ... together with the Emperor's Itinerary from 1519–1551 . Rich Bentley, London 1850, p. 544: 20.-23. May in “Kreuzenach” ( digitized version of the Bavarian State Library in Munich); Hubert Jedin: Handbook of Church History . Herder, Freiburg i. Br. 1967, p. 297.
- Will Bradford: Correspondence of the Emperor Charles V ... together with the Emperor's Itinerary from 1519–1551 . Rich Bentley, London 1850, p. 552: 13-15. May in “Krumpach”; Alfred Wendehorst: The dioceses of the ecclesiastical province of Mainz . The Diocese of Würzburg. Volume III The Bishop's Series from 1455 to 1617 (Germania Sacra 13 / III), Berlin 1978, p. 111.
- Files of Landgrave Philip, October 1552 - September 1553; Hessisches Staatsarchiv Marburg (holdings 3 Political Archives Landgrave Philipps the Magnanimous, No. 1169).
- Charles Schmidt (ed.): The share of the Strasbourgers in the Reformation in Churpfalz . CF Schmidt, Strasbourg 1856, esp.p. 16 and 25f ( Google Books ).
- Platonis Atheniensis, philosophical svmmi ac penitvs divini Opera, quae ad nos extant omnia . Froben, Basel 1561 ( digital copy from the Bavarian State Library in Munich).
- Institute for City History Frankfurt am Main (Messsachen und Markt, Ugb-Akten, 80).
- Georg Müller: A Christian sermon ... done in the Churfuerstliche Schloßkirchen in Wittenberg ... Sampt agehengten sign of grace, which between the sermon in the bright sky vmb the suns the merciful God ... made shine and shine . Andreas Burger, Regensburg 1592.
- top v .: Newe Zeittung Unnd Abcontrafactur der Stadt Creutzennach, sampt a miraculous sign, as it was already seen in the sky, the 15th of March in the year 1592 . Nikolaus Henrich the Elder Ä., Ursel 1592 ( Google Books ; the copper engraving has not been preserved on this copy).
- State Main Archive Koblenz (holdings A.1 33/2435); Darmstadt State Archives (holdings C2 Salbuch, 510/1).
- Marcos de Guadalajara y Javier (1560-1631): La historia pontifical y catolica , Volume V (1630). Melchor Sanchez, Madrid 1652, p. 464 ( Google Books ).
- On March 29, 1627, Verdugo, as governor of the Lower Palatinate, wrote the preface to: Catholisch Manual or Handbuch, which includes the Evangelia with the epistles, cantuals or psalm books. 2nd Edition. Mainz 1627; Württembergische Landesbibliothek Stuttgart (Theol. Oct. 11490).
- Wilhelm Staden: Trophaea Verdugiana pace et bello. Johannes Kinckius, Cologne 1630. Verdugo died of the consequences of a fall in Kreuznach during the siege of Rheinfels Castle in 1626 .
- Surrendered in Mainz in 1631, later viceroy of Catalonia. A burial inscription of the same name of the same name from 1626 in the Franciscan monastery, which has survived and is no longer preserved, referred to another person.
- C. J. H. M. Tax, A. C. M. Tax-Koolen: De portretten van Joseph Bergaigne, bisschop van 's-Hertogenbosch en aartsbisschop van Kamerijk. In: Jaarboek Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerp. (1997), pp. 283-332, especially p. 287.
- Contemporary report based on a letter from Jacob Astley, 1st Baron Astley of Reading (1579–1652) in William Watts: The Swedish intelligencer , Volume III. Nathanael Butter, Nicholas Bourne, London 1632, pp. 75-83 ( Google Books ).
- Letter from Axel Oxenstierna and Johan Eriksson Sparre to the Swedish Imperial Council of April 19th July. / April 29, 1632 greg. from Frankfurt am Main; Arkiv till upplysning om svenska krigens och krigsinrättningarnes historia , Volume II. Norstedt, Stockholm 1860, No. 744, pp. 420-422.
- Per Sondén (arrangement): Rikskansleren Axel Oxenstiernas skrifter och brefvexling . Norstedt, Stockholm 1897, pp. 60f ( digitized in the Internet Archive).
- Alexia Grosjean: A Century of Scottish Governship in the Swedish Empire, 1574-1700. In: Andrew MacKillop, Steve Murdoch (Eds.): Military Governors and Imperial Frontiers C. 1600-1800 . Brill, Leiden 2003, pp. 53-72, especially p. 60.
- Letter of March 10, 1640 from Paris to his brother-in-law Nicolas van Reigersberg. In: Bernard Lambert Meulenbroek, Paula P. Witkam (ed.): Briefwisseling van Hugo Grotius. Volume XI. Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague 1981, No. 4554, pp. 134-136.
- Johann Philipp Abelinus: Theatri Europaei, That is: believable description of credible believable stories , vol. IV (1643). Matthias Merian, Frankfurt am Main 1643, Kupfer No. 29, pp. 575f ( Google Books ); 3rd edition Johann Görlin, Frankfurt am Main 1672, Kupfer No. 27, p. 547 ( Google Books ).
- Presumably from Friuli, since 1646 governor of the Palatinate and Spanish commander of Frankenthal .
- 1647 in command of the fortress La Bassée .
- 1644–1647 City Commander of Eger (Cheb).
- Lied in August 1640 with his regiment in Allensbach, in 1647 under Feldzeugmeister Adrian von Enkevort in Tyrol and Vorarlberg (Feldkirch).
- Since 1643 Artillery General of the Republic of Venice, brother of Annibale Gonzaga, Marchese di Mantova .
- Philipp Harpff : Kupferstich Wahre Abconderfactur der Statt Creutzenach vnd Vestung Kautzenberg…, by… Gilli de Haes… taken in , 1643 ( modified from the Merian engraving), with detailed explanations of the conquest; Herzog-August-Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel (sign. Graph-a2-62; digitized version in the Deutsche Fotothek Dresden ).
- Karl Friedrich Wilhelm Wander : German Sprichwortlexikon. Volume II, FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1870, column 1615.
- Institute for Urban History Frankfurt am Main (holdings of the Oberrheinischer Kreis, 40); Winfried Dotzauer: The Upper Rhine District from the Thirty Years War to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 and Nuremberg Execution Day 1649–50. In: Yearbook for West German State History. 25, 1999, pp. 255-284.
- Diary of Oberschultheiß Johann Jakob Kneupel († 1667): Diarium Crucinacense ; Copy from 1744 in the General-Landesarchiv Karlsruhe (Kremer-Lamey Collection, 124 C 2); see. Rudolf Buttmann (Ed.): Johann Jakob Kneupel's diary. In: Westpfälzische Geschichtsblätter 6 (1902), pp. 5f, 9-11, 13f, 17f, 21f, 29-31, 33f, 37-39 and 41 f.
- Samuel Chappuzeau : Jetztlebendes Europae , Volume III The description of a Reyse in Germany ... the year 1669 . Johann Georg Schiele, Frankfurt am Main 1672, p. 119 and p. 122 ( Google Books ).
- Matthäus Merian et al.: Theatri Europaei Eilffter Theil . Wust / Görlin, Frankfurt am Main 1682, p. 1004 ( Google Books ).
- Johann Christoph Rüdiger: Saxon Merckworthiness . Moritz Georg Weidmann, Leipzig 1724, p. 973.
- Detailed contemporary report from Christoph Boethius: Des Bey increased contestation, glantz-increased and triumph-shining, war helmets Röm. Imperial Majesty ... Fourth Part . Johann Christof Lochner, Nuremberg 1690, p. 194 ( Google Books ). On October 1st, Jul. / October 11, 1688 greg. the castle was still defended (letter from Johannes Boos to Heinrich Julius von Blum); see. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: All writings and letters. Volume V. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1954, p. 264.
- Martin Senner: Kreuznach and France - an ambivalent relationship ( online at: bad-kreuznach.de ( memento from October 27, 2014 in the web archive archive.today ), accessed on December 26, 2014).
- Kurt von Raumer : The destruction of the Palatinate of 1689 in connection with the French policy on the Rhine , Munich / Berlin: R. Oldenbourg 1930, p. 151 (reprint Bad Neustadt an der Saale: D. Pfaehler 1982, ISBN 3-922923-17-8 ).
- Mercurii Relation, or weekly Reichs Ordinari newspapers, from Underschidlichen Orthen , November 20, 1691.
- Aloys Schulte: Margrave Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden and the Imperial War against France 1693–1697. Volume IJ Bielfeld, Karlsruhe 1892, p. 464.
- Frank Heinemann: The executioners and executioners as people and cattle doctors since the end of the Middle Ages. In: Swiss Archives for Folklore. 4, 1900, pp. 1-16, especially p. 12.
- Comparison between Chur-Pfaltz and Fürstlichen Salmischen also Wild- and Rheingräflichen home, the Wildfangs-Gerechtsame, the religious essence also mutuale Succession concerning, de anno 1698. In: Johann Christian Lünig (Ed.): Das deutsche Reichs-Archiv. Volume XXIV Supplenda . Friedrich Lanckisch Erben, Leipzig 1722, pp. 925–927 ( Google Books ); Winfried Dotzauer: History of the Nahe-Hunsrück area from the beginnings to the French Revolution . Franz Steiner, Stuttgart 2001, p. 364.
- William Coxe: Memoirs of John Duke of Marlborough; with his original correspondence. Volume I. Longman et al. a., London 1818, p. 384.
- Georg Schnath, Adolf Köcher: History of Hanover in the age of the ninth cure and the English succession 1674–1714. Volume II. A. Lax, Hildesheim / Leipzig 1976, p. 467.
- Carl von Landmann: Friesen, Julius Heinrich Graf von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 8, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1878, p. 87.
- Johann Christian Heusson: Detailed and proper description of the terrible in local countries and almost never heard of the flood of water at Creutzenach. Philipp Wilhelm Stock, Frankfurt am Main 1725 ( Google Books ); o. V .: The lamentable-dignified and pathetic-prepared Creutzenach . Christian Gottfried Mayer, Frankfurt am Main 1725 ( digitized version from the Bavarian State Library in Munich).
- Prager Post Newspapers , No. 81, from March 23, 1745 ( Google Books ).
- Landeshauptarchiv Sachsen-Anhalt (Z 284, March 6th, 2009. Land in Kreuznach, 1201-1823).
- 1777 it was moved to Wetzlar as the “Alt-Creuznach” chapter , while the Frankfurt prefecture was called “Neu-Creuznach”; see. General Manual of Freemasonry. Volume I: A-Honiton. FA Brockhaus, Leipzig 1863, p. 364; Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt (holdings D 4 Grand Ducal House, individual boxes 592/4).
- Ernst F. Deurer: Complicated description of the great hardship affected by the ice drifts and floods in the cities of Heidelberg, Mannheim and other areas of the Palatinate in January and Hornung 1784. Neue Hof- und Akademische Buchhandlung, Mannheim 1784, pp. 202-206 ( digitized the Bavarian State Library Munich); see. Johann Riem: Knowledge of the emergence and extermination of various most harmful species of caterpillars for the benefit of economists , published by the author for the benefit of the Riem family who died in the last year in Creuznach in the Palatinate because of the extreme water shortage. Gottlieb Löwe, Breslau 1784, preface ( Google Books ).
- Alexander von Humboldt: Attempt on some physical and chemical principles of salt works. In: Bergmännisches Journal. 5/1 (1792), pp. 1-45 and 96-141; Steven Jan van Geuns: Diary of a trip with Alexander von Humboldt through Hesse, the Palatinate, along the Rhine and through Westphalia in the autumn of 1789. Ed. by Bernd Kölbel, Lucie Terken. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2007.
- Gottlob Benedikt von Schirach (Hrsg.): Political journal with display of learned and other things . Hamburg 1789, p. 1157 ( Google Books ); Heinrich Scheel: The Mainz Republic. The first bourgeois-democratic republic on German soil . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1989, p. 18.
- Otto Kohl: The diary of GH pain on the Basel peace 1794-1795. Based on the Kreuznach manuscript, taking into account the Berlin copy. Part I (supplement to the annual report of the Königl. Gymnasium Kreuznach, Easter 1906). Robert Voigtländer, Kreuznach 1906 (digitized version) ; Christian von Massenbach : Colonel von Massenbach, lieutenant general, three missions . Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 1808, p. 72.
- Augspurgische Ordinarii Postzeitung from 23 August and 23 September 1794 ( Google Books ).
- Leopold Bleibtreu: Memories from the war events at Neuwied from 1792 to 1797 . Carl Georgi, Bonn 1834, pp. 217-219, 220f and 224 ( Google Books ).
- Anton Joseph Weidenbach: The Nahethal. Volume III (Memorable and Useful Rhenish Antiquarian II / 18). Hergt, Koblenz 1870, especially pp. 272-274 ( Google Books ).
- Weekly special edition of the Hanauer Neue Europäische Zeitung No. 39 of September 29, 1797 ( Google Books ); Snow goose: historical-topographical description. P. 231f; Description of the celebrations during the planting of the freedom tree in Kreuznach. In addition to the speeches and a victory song of the Franks . Ludwig Christian Kehr, Kreuznach an VI (= 1798).
- Gerd Massmann: The constitution of the city of Kreuznach under French rule from 1796 to 1814 (= publications of the working group for regional history and folklore in the Koblenz administrative district. 4). Boppard: Harald Boldt 1963; Friedrich Schmitt: Kreuznach during the French rule 1792/96 to 1814. In: Stadtverwaltung Bad Kreuznach (ed.): Bad Kreuznach the city elevation to the present (contributions to the history of the city of Bad Kreuznach 1), Bad Kreuznach: Matthias Ess 1990, p 145-210.
- Karl Wilhelm Justi : Fragments from a travel diary (continuation). In: Der neue Teutsche Merkur 2, 1805, pp. 197-219, especially p. 207 ( Google Books ), with a description of various Kreuznach citizens.
- patents Prussienne sur la prize de possession of the Grand Duchy du Bas-Rhin , Vienna April 5, 1815, Publication de la part de la commission Autrichienne et Bavaroise Kreuznach, May 28, 1815 and Convention ... pour la fixation ulterieurs of frontières du pays sur la rive droit de la Moselle réuni au royaume de Prusse , Kreuznach, May 28, 1815. In: Georg Friedrich Martens (Ed.): Nouveau recueil de traités d'alliance, de paix… et de plusieurs autres actes… depuis 1808 jusqu'à présent , Volume VI = II, Dieterich, Göttingen 1818, pp. 310–316 ( digitized version of the Bavarian State Library in Munich).
- Description of the existing stone in the list in the article Dreiherrenstein
- Article 18 of the Peace Treaty of Berlin between Prussia and the Grand Duchy of Hesse of September 3, 1866 ; Landesarchiv NRW Department Rhineland Duisburg (Oberbergamt Bonn, No. 18–24); Hessisches Staatsarchiv Darmstadt (G 1, 47/3 execution of the peace treaty with Prussia, in particular the salt works Karls- and Theodorshalle, 1867-1897).
- Stadtarchiv Mainz (files and individual items, ZGS / digital, 10); o. V .: America! Faithful advisor and leader of the German emigrants to the United States of North America . Voigtländer, Kreuznach 1849; Hermann van Ham: Sources on Rhenish emigration research in the state archives Koblenz and Düsseldorf. In: Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter. 6, 1936, pp. 295-326, especially p. 311.
- Nicolas Kessler: Emigrant luck. From Fischergasse into the big wide world . Lecture at the Haus der Stadtgeschichte Bad Kreuznach Foundation ( online report ( memento from October 29, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on October 16, 2014).
- Negotiations of the German Parliament , Lfg. I. Sauerländer, Frankfurt am Main 1848, p. XI; Helmut Schwindt: Kreuznach in the revolution of 1848/49 . District administration, Bad Kreuznach 1984, p. 28 u. ö.
- This is different with radium therapy for cancer, in which strong radium radiation is supposed to destroy the cancer cells. For decades it was considered the only treatment method to fight cancer with "steel and beam".
- Gertrude Cepl-Kaufmann and others: The Association of Rhenish Poets 1926–1933 . F. Schöningh, Paderborn 2003, p. 114 ff.
- Kaub was executed in Ellerstadt in March 1945 by a section of the Waffen SS under Paul Hausser or forced to commit suicide; Martin Schwarzweller: "Ellerstadt at the time of National Socialism" (lecture); see. Monika Köhler: Consequences of racial hatred and warmongering . In: Die Rheinpfalz - Bad Dürkheim from November 19, 2018.
- Recordings of the Rose Baracks from around 1958 (accessed January 26, 2015)
- State on the large cities of Bad Kreuznach, Idar-Oberstein and Neuwied of March 29, 1960
- Statutes of the Rhineland-Palatinate Fire Brigade Association
- Official municipality directory (= State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate [Hrsg.]: Statistical volumes . Volume 407 ). Bad Ems February 2016, p. 158 (PDF; 2.8 MB).
- OB Ludwig: "Kreuznach has opened the door to BME." In: Oeffentlicher Anzeiger. September 28, 2009, p. 23.
- Citizens' survey: clear majority for city merger. In: Rhein-Zeitung. September 22, 2013, accessed February 10, 2018 .
- change agreement signed. (No longer available online.) City of Bad Kreuznach, October 2013, archived from the original on August 25, 2017 ; accessed on February 10, 2018 .
- Kreuznach's Jamaica coalition is at the end of the report in the Rhein-Zeitung from September 20, 2013.
- The Regional Returning Officer RLP: Municipal elections 2019 Bad Kreuznach. Retrieved August 16, 2019 .
- The mayors and lords of the city of Bad Kreuznach from 1806 to the present day ( Memento from June 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ); Website of the city of Bad Kreuznach, accessed on July 7, 2014.
- Klemens Stadler: German coat of arms. Volume 2. Bremen 1966, p. 15.
- Document of July 23, 1379; see. Johannes Mötsch: The Counts of Sponheim and the Battle of Baesweiler (1371). In: Rheinische Vierteljahrsblätter. 52, 1988, pp. 90-106, especially p. 101.
- Felix Hauptmann : Ten coat of arms groups from the Middle Rhine. In: Yearbook of the K. K. Heraldic Society "Adler" NF 10 (1900), pp. 1–43, esp. P. 26 and Die Gruppe mit dem Schach , Tafel 10, Fig. 147, cf. the coat of arms of the mayor Johann von Sponheim from 1356 with an anchor cross, p. 25 and plate 9, Fig. 136 ( Google Books and Google Books ; limited preview).
- City partnerships ( Memento from February 10, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
- Marcus Junkelmann: Gladiators, The game with death. Mainz 2008.
- The cradle of basket hunters is in Bad Kreuznach. Allgemeine Zeitung Mainz , accessed on June 8, 2010 .
- 7 + 5 names from 75 years of basketball. Allgemeine Zeitung Mainz , accessed on June 8, 2010 .
- Thomas Kirschey, Simone Emmerichs: The Naheland tourism region. ( Memento of March 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 240 kB). Website of the State Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate. Retrieved on July 27, 2015, pp. 702 ff.
- Bad Kreuznach - state-approved spa in the Naheland ( memento from July 27, 2015 in the web archive archive.today ). Rhineland-Palatinate Tourism website. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- The Naheland attracted more guests until April . In: Rhein-Zeitung . July 12, 2015. Accessed July 27, 2015.
- City implements noise action plan : In Rüdesheimer Straße, Tempo 30 will apply continuously from the beginning of 2019 (No longer available online.) In: bad-kreuznach.de. December 13, 2018, archived from the original on December 19, 2018 ; accessed on December 18, 2018 .
- Yuliyan Ilev: Gässjer FM. Retrieved September 9, 2019 .
- Webmaster: Home IGS Sophie Sondhelm. In: IGS Sophie Sondhelm - Bad Kreuznach. Accessed June 9, 2019 (German).
- Archive of the Max Planck Society: Dept. II, Rep. 18 - Max Planck Institute for Agricultural Work and Technology ( Memento from September 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ); Retrieved December 10, 2012.
- Stern's mission . In: Berliner Zeitung . August 15, 2009.
- Jens Werrmann . Athlete profile at IAAF.
- Robinson Crusoe . W. Taylor, London 1719, p. 1.
- 2nd edition, published by James Lister, Leeds around 1750, pp. 93–95. (on-line)