Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
Kemal Ataturk (until 1934: Mustafa Kemal Pascha , Ottoman مصطفى كمال پاشا Muṣṭafâ Kemâl Paşa ; from 1935 Kamâl Ataturk ; * 1881 in Selânik , Ottoman Empire ; † November 10, 1938 in Istanbul , Turkey ), also known as Mustafa Kemal Ataturk , was the founder of the Republic of Turkey and from 1923 to 1938 the first president of the modern republic that emerged from the Ottoman Empire after the First World War .
His services as an officer in the defense of the Gallipoli peninsula in 1915 against allied troops who wanted to bring the Dardanelles under their control, and from 1921 the defensive struggle against the Greeks who advanced into Anatolia made him a symbol of Turkish self-assertion and national consciousness. As a power politician who persistently advanced the modernization of his country based on the Western model, he created a unique type of state with the abolition of the sultanate and caliphate and with far-reaching social reforms . This is the basis - despite some controversies about his work - the personal cult-like veneration that Turkey has shown him to this day, and the unchallenged surname Ataturk (father of the Turks) , which was given to him by the Turkish parliament in 1934 .
Live and act
Origin and youth
Mustafa was born as the son of Ali Rıza Efendi and Zübeyde Hanım, who had been married since 1871, in Selânik, today's Greek Thessaloniki , which was then part of the Ottoman Empire. At the same time, it was the home of various peoples in which Muslims lived together peacefully with Jews and Christians, for the most part. Mustafa's paternal grandfather was named Kızıl Hafız Ahmed Efendi. His mother was the daughter of a long-established farming family in the town of Langaza (now Langadas ) near Thessaloniki.
There are various suspicions about Ataturk's ethnic origin - according to some reports he is of Albanian-Macedonian origin, he himself later claimed to be of the Yörük Turkmen - but there is no sufficient evidence for any of these statements. What is certain is that his parents and close relatives were native Turkish speakers.
His father Ali Rıza was initially employed as a civil servant in the Office for Religious Foundations, in 1876/77 as a lieutenant in a volunteer battalion, then as a customs officer and as a timber merchant. Of five of Mustafa's siblings, only sister Makbûle Atadan reached adulthood. Mustafa Kemal's own exact date of birth is not known. He himself later chose May 19 - the date on which he landed in the Anatolian coastal city of Samsun at the age of 38 in 1919 in order to gather strength for the liberation of the country from the victorious powers of the First World War and from the sultanate .
Mustafa's childhood was marked by several upheavals, in which his pronounced self-will and assertiveness came into play. He only attended the Koran school his mother wanted for a few days, mainly because of the admission ceremony . Then, with the support of his father, he switched to a private school based on the western model. When he was seven years old, his father died. The mother, who could hardly support her two remaining children, moved to her brother in the country, where no regular school attendance was possible. After a two-year break from school, Mustafa was left as a half-orphan in the care of his aunt in Thessaloniki so that he could take part in classes again and look after his uncle's cattle. Bad beatings, combined with bloody welts on his back from a teacher, caused him to drop out of school again and the middle school expelled him. At the age of twelve he secretly applied to the military secondary school in Saloniki, passed the entrance exam and then got his way against his mother's resistance. According to his own testimony, his math teacher there gave him the nickname Kemal (Arabic: completion), whom he impressed with his skills. He passed the final exam in 1895 as fourth best.
Military training and political beginnings (1896–1905)
He continued his education in 1896, far away from his family, in the western Macedonian town of Manastır (today Bitola ) at the higher military school there (cadet school). At this, as well as at other military training centers of the Ottoman Empire at that time, there were strong Western-oriented reform efforts.
In the course of the 19th century, tendencies towards opening up towards the West - including the constitution (including parliament ) introduced by Sultan Abdülhamid II in 1876 , which he revoked two years later - were repeatedly promoted by Ottoman rulers. This was the starting point for the Young Turkish opposition movement (especially at the military schools founded by Abdülhamid II), to which Mustafa Kemal now found a connection in Manastır.
After again successfully passing the final exam, Mustafa Kemal came to the military academy in Istanbul in 1899 as an officer candidate . Here he became conspicuous because of political opposition, but benefited from the protection of the liberal academy director. Soon after completing his officer training, he fell into the clutches of the secret service , had to spend several months in prison and was only released again through the renewed advocacy of the director of the military academy. The secret service record of his misconduct recorded not only political insubordination, but also a. also the dishonorable treatment of prostitutes and an alcoholic illness . The excessive consumption of rakı , a liquor , and cigarettes, which the insomnia sufferer suggested, would in fact later become a life-shortening health problem. In 1902 he graduated from the war school with the eighth grade and was admitted to staff training. At the same time he was promoted to lieutenant.
Military career (1906-1919)
Before he was able to work as a reorganizer of Turkish society after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I , Mustafa Kemal had made a number of unsuccessful attempts to attain a state leadership position.
He was arrested for activities for the secret newspaper "Vatan" (Turkish fatherland) and for organizing secret meetings and, after being detained in solitary confinement for weeks, was assigned to an outpost in Damascus in 1906, far from the political hot spots . There he went against the rebellious Arab Druze in the Hauran . In Damascus, Mustafa Kemal came into contact with a supporter of the opposition Young Turks who had been involved in a failed assassination attempt on Sultan Abdülhamid II . Through a bookstore he traded among other things. with forbidden French scripts. Mustafa Kemal's group "Vatan ve Hürriyet Cemiyeti" merged with the Young Turkish Committee for Unity and Progress , for which Mustafa Kemal recruited additional members in Jerusalem , Jaffa and Beirut . At the end of 1906 his military superior gave him cover for a covert trip back to Saloniki, where Mustafa Kemal founded a branch of his secret society, but sought in vain access to the leading figures of the Young Turkish opposition. He countered the risk of being discovered here as a deserter by returning to Syria in good time .
After his promotion to "kolağası" he was transferred to Macedonia in September 1907. But even that did not get him into the leadership circle of the Young Turkish Committee for Unity and Progress. It was the Young Turkish officer, who was a year younger than him, and his long-standing political rival Enver , who forced the Sultan to reinstate the constitution of 1876 with a military revolt , and who then kept Mustafa Kemal politically sidelined for a long time.
The political goals of Envers and Mustafa Kemal differed mainly on two points. While Enver wanted to keep the military ties to the German Empire as close as possible and to make “common cause” with the Germans in the event of war, Mustafa Kemal refused and sought the independent reorganization of the Ottoman army . And while Enver envisaged a pan- Turkish empire including the Turkic peoples of Central Asia for the future , Mustafa Kemal's ideas about the nation-state were roughly based on the current extent of the Turkish state from the start. In 1908 he was assigned to the General Staff of the Army Corps in Saloniki.
He was then given the opportunity to show his military organizational and leadership skills: in 1909 he was appointed head of training in those divisions, which forced Abdülhamid II to relinquish the sultan's dignity to his brother Mehmed V after Abdülhamid had taken action against the newly elected parliament . In 1910, Mustafa Kemal took part as an observer in the French autumn maneuvers near Grandvilliers in Picardy and thus came to Western Europe for the first time.
Italy's imperialist raids on North Africa in 1911 led to the dispatch of Enver Pasha, who was to lead the Ottoman troops against the Italians in Tripoli . Mustafa Kemal volunteered for this assignment and was also commissioned. The rivalry was already taking on clear traits. In October 1912 the Ottoman Empire gave up the North African provinces because the situation in the Balkans required a concentration of military forces. Bulgarians, Greeks and Serbs besieged Adrianople (now Edirne ) in the First Balkan War and prepared to remove the remnants of Ottoman rule on the European continent. When the Bulgarians and Greeks clashed in the conflict over the spoils of war in the Second Balkan War in 1913, the Young Turkish military under Enver's leadership took the opportunity to recapture Edirne. Enver had thus again recommended himself for a steep political career: He immediately became Minister of War. Mustafa Kemal was promoted to lieutenant colonel and entrusted by the General Staff with the initially not demanding task of taking over the command of the armed forces that had to defend the Dardanelles and the Gallipoli peninsula .
In autumn 1913 he was transferred to the Ottoman Embassy in Sofia as a military attaché . This was another political cold position that he shared with his political companion Ali Fethi , who was replaced as General Secretary of the Young Turk Committee for Unity and Progress and also promoted to Sofia as ambassador. Mustafa Kemal, however, used the period before the outbreak of the First World War to familiarize himself with diplomatic customs and manners in Sofia, which would later be of great benefit to him as President.
Only after repeated unsuccessful inquiries at the beginning of the World War was he given command of the 19th Division of the 5th Army stationed on the Gallipoli peninsula in January 1915. In this post he accomplished a legendary military feat in defensive struggle against the Allies who wanted to gain control of the Dardanelles, which ultimately resulted in the resignation of the British First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill . But Mustafa Kemal was still disregarded by his highest military superior Enver Pascha, so that he was already preparing a resignation letter. Through the mediation of the German commander-in-chief of the 5th Army, General Liman von Sanders , who addressed Enver as a warning, Mustafa Kemal ultimately remained on duty.
In January 1916, Mustafa Kemal was transferred to Edirne . At the end of February 1916 he and his units were transferred to the Anatolian Eastern Front to reinforce the 3rd Army. For his services in the defense of Gallipolis , he was subsequently promoted to general, combined with the honorary title of pasha . The Russian Revolution in 1917 calmed the military situation in the east, which inspired Enver to new offensive attacks against the English in Mesopotamia and Egypt , while Mustafa Kemal considered it necessary to concentrate on the defense of the Anatolian heartland and openly opposed Enver's plans. Thereupon he was given leave of absence from work - ostensibly because of illness.
As the victor of Gallipoli, at the turn of the year 1917/18 he was appointed military attaché and personal adjutant for a visit by Crown Prince Vahideddin to Kaiser Wilhelm II at the German military headquarters in Spa . Mustafa did not share the optimism of First Quartermaster General Erich Ludendorff and Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg about the planned spring offensive for 1918. Ludendorff and Hindenburg were unable to give an adequate answer to his question as to what concrete goal the offensive actually had.
Despite several attempts, Mustafa Kemal did not succeed in winning Crown Prince Vahideddin for his ideas and ambitions for power in the leadership of the Ottoman Empire. When Vahideddin actually took over the throne in June 1918, Mustafa Kemal was soon given an important army command on the Palestine front . Before returning to Turkey on July 27, 1918, Mustafa Kemal stayed for a few weeks as a spa guest in the Bohemian Karlovy Vary , where he met his old patron Cemal Pascha for the treatment of pelvic inflammation .
After the debacle in Palestine , Enver and his government representatives gave up their positions in early October 1918 and fled the country. However, their successors also refused Mustafa Kemal Pascha the Ministry of War he was aiming for. On October 30, 1918, Vahideddin appointed Mustafa Kemal commander-in-chief of Army Group Yıldırım in order to take over the defense of Syria against the British, an undertaking that was already hopeless from the point of view of the Sublime Porte , which then only resulted in an orderly retreat.
In view of the allied occupation policy that began after the Mudros armistice on October 30th, he recommended demobilized troops to form guerrilla groups inside Anatolia and to be ready for a future liberation struggle. Meanwhile, Mustafa Kemal ran after a renewed dissolution of parliament by Sultan Mehmet VI. Vahideddin himself is in danger of being rendered harmless as a potential opponent. His situation cleared up in an unexpected way when he - appointed inspector general in May 1919 - to fight Greek militias in the hinterland of Samsun and to demobilize the IX. Army was sent to Eastern Anatolia, where Kâzım Karabekir and Ali Fuad, two military leaders with their troops, were ready to submit to his leadership.
War of Liberation and the founding of a republic (1919–1924)
On May 15, 1919, just before Mustafa Kemal's embarkation for Samsun, the British government-backed Greek invasion of Smyrna (now Izmir ) began. This then turned into an eastern expansion movement of Greek troops, which could not be prevented by the government in Constantinople. Inspector General Mustafa Kemal then set about organizing the resistance against the occupying powers and did not respond to the telegrams from Constantinople ordering his recall. He responded to his dismissal by taking off his uniform and calling to the congresses of Erzurum and Sivas as well as the establishment of the National Assembly on April 23, 1920 in Ankara (Ankara was gradually expanded to become the new Turkish capital). This made him its chairman and appointed a government directed against the Sultan and the Allies. Due to the opposition, he was together with other senior members of the Ottoman government by the Scheichülislam with a death fatwa occupied and sentenced by the Istanbul military court in absentia to death.
The Sèvres peace treaty signed by the Istanbul government on August 10, 1920 , which laid down extensive control by the Allies ( British , French , Greeks and Italians ) over a remnant Ottoman state, was outraged by the Grand National Assembly and declared that the signatories were traitors.
In January and March 1921, the troops of the Liberation Army won two great victories over the Greeks in the Turkish War of Liberation under the leadership of the Commander of the Western Front Colonel İsmet near İnönü . Mustafa Kemal has now been appointed Commander-in-Chief by the National Assembly. In view of the renewed reinforcements of Greek troops, Mustafa Kemal ordered a temporary tactical retreat behind the Sakarya River and was given unlimited powers in preparation for the decisive battle. With a concept of flexible territorial defense that surprised the Greeks - instead of rigid trench warfare - he succeeded in repelling the Greeks under Major General Nikolaos Trikoupis in the Battle of Sakarya in August 1921 . Five out of eight Greek divisions were wiped out. Mustafa Kemal was appointed Marshal (Turkish: Mareşal ) by the National Assembly in September 1921 and honored with the honorary title Gazi . But it was only after another year of gathering strength that Mustafa Kemal succeeded with a surprise attack near Dumlupınar on August 26, 1922, to put the Greek troops to flight.
The Treaty of Sèvres was thus invalid and, after negotiations with the government in Ankara, now recognized by the Allies, was replaced by the Treaty of Lausanne (Turkish: Lozan , name of streets and squares) in 1923 , which - except for the straits and the area of İskenderun , which was attached in 1939 - established the sovereignty of Turkey within the borders that exist today. In the subsequent population exchange between Greece and Turkey , one and a half million Greeks had to leave Asia Minor, and half a million Turks from Greece were resettled to Turkey.
With his yielding attitude towards the Allies aimed at maintaining his own power, Sultan Mehmed VI. discredits himself and his position. Mustafa Kemal's energetic abolition of the sultanate in November 1922 therefore initially met with little resistance. A caliph ( Abdülmecit II. ) Was then the nominal head of state of the old Ottoman Empire. On October 29, 1923, a major constitutional amendment finally established the Republic of Turkey, headed by a president as head of government and sole head of the executive. This office was tailored to the requirements and position of Mustafa Kemal. There was also the resident caliph in Istanbul.
Not only in its beginnings, but to this day, the Republic of Turkey is closely linked to Mustafa and his name. Its political guidelines, the principles of Kemalism , are still officially upheld. They are: republicanism in the sense of popular sovereignty, nationalism as a turn against the multiethnic state of the Ottoman style, populism as an expression of a policy aimed at the interests of the people, not a class, revolutionism in the sense of a constant continuation of reforms, secularism , i. H. Separation of state and religion, and statism with partial state economic control.
In order to safeguard the new state order and to implement the model of a secular republic, it was not only necessary to break with the Ottoman sultanate, but also with the caliphate . As caliphs, the Ottoman rulers saw themselves as “representatives of the prophet of God” and as the religious heads of all Muslims. However, the Ottoman caliphate had lost much of its influence in the Islamic world with the increasing decline of the empire. In order not to arouse opposition from the strict believers when the republic was founded, Mustafa Kemal, when he had forced the sultan into exile, had the caliph's dignity transferred to his cousin Abdülmecit II . In 1924, it seemed to him that the time had come to remove this gathering point for supporters of the old order. On March 3, 1924, the National Assembly resolved to abolish the office of caliph. The next day, all members of the Osman family had to leave Turkey. As a result, the dervish monasteries and the religious courts of justice were closed, religious schools for clergy and judges were closed, compulsory education was introduced and all schools were placed under a ministry of education .
Society reformer (1924–1938)
The break with the structures and institutions of the Ottoman Empire remained a risk that provoked resistance. Some of the important comrades-in-arms from the beginning of the war of liberation, including Kâzım Karabekir and Ali Fuad, separated from the President's People's Party and, with Mustafa Kemal's permission, founded the opposition Progressive Party in November 1924 . This made itself inter alia. added respect for freedom of conscience and religious sentiments to the program and gained support among followers of Sharia law . This development became a serious challenge for the young republic and its president when there was an uprising by Kurds in Southeast Anatolia in February 1925 , whose spiritual leader, Sheikh Said, advocated a return to the sultanate and caliphate. The Sheikh Said uprising was put down militarily with all severity and brutality, with the aim of wiping out the Kurdish opposition as far as possible. The Progress Party was banned in June; Emergency laws, press censorship and the judiciary were brought into position against opponents. A murder plot of three conspirators against the president, uncovered in Izmir in 1926, was used by Mustafa Kemal as an opportunity to settle accounts with the heads of the opposition as alleged masterminds of the planned attack as part of a show trial before the "Freedom Court". The republic assumed the features of a dictatorship.
His imperious and restlessly pushing forward nature was committed to the model of a modern republican state based on a western pattern of orientation. In a diary from June 6, 1918, he had already formulated the basic motive for all subsequent reform steps:
“Should I one day have great influence or power, I think it is best to change our society suddenly - immediately and in the shortest possible time. Because, unlike others, I do not believe that this change can be achieved by only gradually leading the uneducated to a higher level. My insides resist such a view. After many years of education, studying civilization and social history, and experiencing the satisfaction of freedom at all stages of my life, why should I return to the lower class of the general population? I'll make sure they get there too. I am not allowed to approach them, but they must approach me. "
He realized this program step by step after he was victorious and held the desired key position in the function of President. It was a multitude of deep changes in tradition and habits that he told his compatriots to implement within a few years.
The abolition of the caliphate was followed by an outward sign of pro-Western secularization by propagating the hat as a male headgear as part of the “national costume” ( hat revolution ) instead of the Fez (tassel cap made of felt) and the, which had been prescribed for the entire Ottoman Empire until then In addition, oriental headgear turban (sarik) and lambskin hat Kalpak were used . Anyone who was subsequently found wearing these oriental headgear in public risked a fine or imprisonment. The ban on religious brotherhoods and orders falls during the same period . In Eastern Anatolia, some bitter resistance arose against these developments, which was responded to by imposing a state of emergency, harsh police measures and arrests. In this context, 138 death sentences were pronounced by independence courts. In 1934 a second dress reform took place, which allowed the clergy to wear their robes only in their work areas (mosque, funeral).
The steps to women's emancipation initiated by Mustafa Kemal meant a revolution in social structures , which was expressed in a reorganization of marital divorce law, in the legal equality of men and women, in the promotion of higher education and in university access for girls and women as well.
As with almost all of his reform work, Mustafa Kemal has also set an example here. When the longtime bachelor finally married, it was Latife Uşşaki , a self-confident woman shaped by Western influences, whose emancipated demeanor impressed him. The wedding on January 29, 1923 took place without a religious ceremony and was performed by the mayor of Izmir, with Mustafa Kemal taking the opportunity to announce that all future marriages in Turkey would also be carried out by representatives of the state. In marriage as well as in public, Latife was able to express its own points of view and thus contribute to a modernization of the image of women in Turkey. It also showed, however, that Mustafa Kemal was too busy with his state affairs and nightly discussions to offer the young woman a married life according to her wishes (he is said to have said "Above all my country needs me as a father"). When their criticism after two and a half years of marriage exceeded what he could tolerate, he pursued the separation that took place on July 22, 1925 and the divorce announced on August 12, 1925 by a talak name . As a result, he succeeded in promoting the goal of women's emancipation successfully through targeted support for girls and young women who had been adopted by him in his own sphere of influence. The introduction of active and passive women's suffrage was of fundamental importance for society as a whole. Women have been able to vote in local elections since 1930, and in parliamentary elections since 1934.
It is characteristic of his work and approach that Mustafa Kemal presented the reform ideas, which he had broadly developed early on, to a group of selected advisors and experts at late evening dinner parties, for each of whom he issued a special list of those to be invited. He did not endure open criticism and hardly tolerated it; but without having heard the advice and ideas of experts, he did not set out to implement his projects politically.
At the end of 1925, the Islamic year counting based on the Hejra was replaced by the Christian calendar (for details of the reform of the calendar and the year counting see: Rumi calendar ). Ten years later, Sunday took the place of Friday, which is holy for Muslims, as a day off. The metric system was also introduced. The Koran- based jurisprudence was replaced by Swiss civil law, which was adopted with only insignificant adjustments. The adoption of the law also included the modern law of inheritance and family law of the civil code . In addition, German commercial law and Italian criminal law were adopted.
The standard Ottoman language of the previous elites, which was strongly influenced by the courtly language Persian and the sacred language Arabic , was replaced as the official language by the Turkish vernacular in a process accompanied by linguists . According to Islamic tradition, the Ottoman language was written in Arabic until 1928 . Mustafa Kemal did this by the Latin alphabet to replace that of the vowel rich Turkish language better met. In addition, it could be learned with significantly less expenditure of time and strengthened the western orientation aimed at by Mustafa Kemal. In this field, too, he personally lent a hand by giving lessons while traveling with blackboard and chalk. He had the Koran translated into Turkish and was the first to read from the translation in the Dolmabahçe Palace . However, the goal of praying in the mosques only in Turkish instead of Arabic turned out to be unattainable and was not pursued after his death.
Mustafa Kemal had a distant relationship with Islam. During the Dardanelles battle he wrote in a French-language correspondence with Madame Corinne that it was strange that Mohammed, who promised men many huris , did not stand up for women at all. Hence, while men enjoy the possession of the women of Paradise after death, women would find themselves in an unbearable condition. During the Wars of Liberation, he also used religious rhetoric to mobilize. As a young president in 1923 in a sermon in the Zaganos Pasha Mosque , he encouraged the population, with the “last and most perfect religion”, Islam, not to see any conflict with the scientific achievements of the modern age, and called for the Islamic Sermon in the mosque is understandable for everyone in Turkish and to be held in accordance with scientific knowledge. Existing theological objections (e.g. regarding the position of women and the understanding of art) should be reinterpreted by theologians. Later as a consolidated statesman, he renounced religious references or expressed himself more critically.
In the autumn of 1929, Mustafa Kemal said the following in an interview with Emil Ludwig on the subject of religion:
“You are surprised that the mosques empty so quickly, even though nobody closes them? The Turk was not a Muslim by nature, the shepherds only know the sun, clouds and stars; Farmers all over the world understand that, because the harvest depends on the weather. The Turk worships nothing but nature. […] I am now also having the Koran appear in Turkish for the first time, and also translating a life of Muhammad. The people should know that it is pretty much the same everywhere and that the priests only want to eat. "
"Father of the Turks"
At the end of the far-reaching reform process, there was a change in naming law , which was supposed to lead to a more effective administration of civil status and, in turn, was based on Western models: every citizen of Turkey was obliged to accept a family name . Mustafa Kemal received from the National Assembly with Law No. 2587 of November 24, 1934, the suffix or surname Ataturk (father of the Turks), which was placed under legal protection with Law No. 2622 . For some confidants and companions, he himself selected the future honorable surnames. This is also the case for Ismet Pascha, who was given the surname İnönü because of his services in the war of liberation against the Greeks after the location of his two great battles. As Prime Minister, İsmet İnönü has relieved Mustafa Kemal Ataturk from the daily routine of government for many years and became his successor as President after his death. Mustafa Kemal's choice of name and the honors he received (a first monument was erected in Istanbul in 1926, followed by countless others across the country, see below) corresponded to the forms of personality cult typical of the time in authoritarian regimes. This subsequently developed an integrating effect for the Turkish state that continues to this day. As a freedom fighter (known as the “hero of Çanakkale”), president and “supreme teacher of the nation”, Ataturk managed to fill the vacuum with his person that came with the abolition of the sultanate and caliphate and the abandonment of traditional customs for the purpose of modernization went along. So he undoubtedly saw it as his task to give his people, to be organized in a completely new state framework after the war defeat, a self-confidence and an identity, without which they might not have been able to form a stable new state association. He went very far. Not only by glorifying the roots of Turkishness in Central Asia back to Attila and Genghis Khan , but above all by spreading the doctrine that the Turks are the oldest people in the world through the Turkish thesis of history and the solar language theory from which all other races descended directly or indirectly.
Democracy , compliance with human rights and the primacy of the law were not always fully guaranteed. Ethnic minorities such as Kurds and Armenians were suppressed in their linguistic and cultural life of their own and, in the event of resistance, fought with military means. Armenians who fled the genocide during the First World War were granted the right to return, which was also used during Ataturk's presidency. The rights of the religious minorities remaining in Turkey ( Orthodox Christians and Jews) to church self-government were expressly guaranteed under Ataturk. In contrast, racists and communists were politically persecuted in Turkey. In 1930, as a renewed attempt by Ataturk to establish a moderate opposition party, the establishment of the Free Republican Party was approved, which was dissolved again after disputes.
Foreign policy work
Ataturk's nationalism avoided foreign policy adventures as it was aimed at creating a secular Turkish nation out of the people of Turkey who saw the basis of their identity in Islam. He rejected a pan-Turkish imperialist expansion:
“Today all the nations of the world have almost become relatives or are trying to become so. As a result, man must think not only of the existence and happiness of the nation to which he belongs, but also of the existence and well-being of all the nations of the world ... We do not know whether an event we believe far away will one day reached. It is for this reason that one must consider all of humanity as one body and one nation as its member. "
In 1932 Turkey joined the League of Nations . 1936 it was the Montreux Agreement in the Treaty of Lausanne still withheld sovereignty over the straits Bosporus granted and Dardanelles and the related control of shipping. A good neighborly relationship with Greece could be established as early as 1930, and with the Balkans Pact in Athens in 1934 it was primarily Ataturk's multilateral efforts to achieve a compromise that brought Turkey, Greece, Yugoslavia and Romania together. In the same year the Greek Prime Minister Venizelos suggested - albeit unsuccessfully - Mustafa Kemal Ataturk for the Nobel Peace Prize.
Ataturk kept his distance from the fascist dictators Mussolini and Hitler unequivocally and welcomed a large number of European scientists, artists and architects who fled into Turkish exile at the beginning of the Nazi regime and who wanted the exiles to participate in the modernization of the country and in the construction of the country Turkish higher education could use well. For some of them, especially German and French scientists, the universities of Ankara and Istanbul became new places of activity as part of the university reform initiated by Ataturk. Among those who found refuge in Turkey, for example at Numune Hospital , were the dentist Kantorowicz , the later Governing Mayor of Berlin Ernst Reuter in various ministries , the architects Clemens Holzmeister , who designed the government district in Ankara, and Bruno Taut , who was to design the catafalk for the funeral service for the late Ataturk in 1938 , as well as the mining engineer Hermann Eugen Müller from 1935 to 1942 as the highest adviser to the Turkish government for mining matters. Müller, who was the first general director of AG Sächsische Werke until 1933 , explored extensive lignite deposits inland.
Ataturk's relationship with the neighboring great power of the Soviet Union was ambivalent . Both states supported each other in an effort to overcome the international isolation of the victorious powers. Mustafa Kemal was also happy to accept the limited amount of reconstruction aid granted to the young Turkish state by the Soviet side. However, he clearly distanced himself from communist ideology and the Soviet social model.
At the ceremony marking the tenth anniversary of the Republic of Turkey in October 1933, Mustafa Kemal foresaw a possible new war in Europe and, in this case, set his country on a course of neutrality. The American General Douglas MacArthur , who visited Turkey in the early 1930s to observe maneuvers, he gave the following prophecy, which was not published until 1951:
“In my opinion, the fate of Europe will depend on the attitude of Germany tomorrow, as it did yesterday. This extraordinarily dynamic and disciplined nation of 70 million, as soon as it surrenders to a political tendency that whips up its national desires, will sooner or later seek to eliminate the Treaty of Versailles. In a very short time Germany will be able to raise an army that will be able to occupy all of Europe, with the exception of England and Russia ... the war will break out in 1940/45 ... France no longer has the possibility to raise a strong army. England can no longer rely on France to defend her island. America will not be able to remain neutral in this war, as in World War I. And Germany will lose this war because of the American entry into the war ... "
Death and succession
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk died on November 10, 1938 at 9:05 a.m. in Istanbul of cirrhosis of the liver . According to the constitution of the Turkish state , the President of the Grand National Assembly Mustafa Abdülhalik Renda became temporarily president after his death , until İsmet İnönü was elected as the new president by the parliament the following day .
He left behind a country that was characterized on the one hand by its authoritarian leadership style and by its sometimes demonstrative harshness in eliminating political opponents, but which on the other hand had opened up to the Western way of life and enlightened political thought.
Appreciation, criticism and aftermath
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk is seen as the "founder of modern Turkey".
Not only in Turkey, where any disparaging remarks about the founder of the state are still a punishable offense , Mustafa Kemal Ataturk was and is respected for his lifetime achievement and an honorable memory is kept.
The range of his admirers ranges among others. From the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, the opponent in World War I, to the " Nazi leader" and dictator Adolf Hitler , who also sought an alliance with Turkey, to the American Presidents Franklin D. Roosevelt and John F. Kennedy , the Kemal Ataturk paid a speech in 1963 on the 25th anniversary of his death. In 1981 the United Nations and UNESCO proclaimed the Ataturk Year to mark the 100th birthday worldwide .
As a role model that encouraged imitation, Ataturk was especially revered in states of the so-called Third World, which saw in him the champion of independence from the colonial powers, such as B. Mustafa Kemal's Iranian contemporary Reza Schah Pahlavi , India's future Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru , the Tunisian President Habib Bourguiba or the Egyptian President Anwar al-Sadat . The Pakistani poet and philosopher Muhammad Iqbal and the Bengali national poet Kazi Nazrul Islam wrote poems in his honor.
As the leading head of the national movement from 1919 to 1923, he was described by the Allies and the nationally known Istanbul journalist Ali Kemal as the "robber chief"; Lord Balfour called him in this context the " most terrible of all the terrible Turks " . After the war of independence the paths of former comrades-in-arms, like General Kâzım Karabekir and intellectual Halide Edib Adıvar, who were ousted from power and opposed to his radical reform program and authoritarian leadership, parted in the power struggle for the future of the country . Sections of the clergy, especially those of the disempowered Tekkes , including Said Nursî , compared him to the Deccal . There were numerous assassination attempts.
The army, from whose ranks Mustafa Kemal had risen and which he had committed himself to since the Wars of Liberation, remained authoritarian, especially with regard to Islamist tendencies, not only in the vicissitudes of political development after Ataturk's death, but throughout the entire 20th century Kemalism's guarantee power. This special position of the army in the Republic of Turkey, which has existed until recently, is part of the political legacy left by Ataturk, even though a pluralistic party system has long since existed and there have been frequent changes of government after elections.
In the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul, where Mustafa Kemal died on November 10, 1938 at 9:05 a.m., all clocks were stopped and set to the time of his death. This was maintained for decades, and the clock in his death room still shows this time today. His body was brought to Ankara, first laid out in the local ethnographic museum and laid to rest in 1953 in the specially created mausoleum Anıtkabir . Young bridal couples still pay him their respects there today . On the day of Mustafa Kemal's death, a minute of mourning is inserted in Turkey at 9:05 a.m., at which sirens sound nationwide. His image can be found on all coins and banknotes in the Turkish currency. In many Turkish cities there are several Ataturk statues in public squares and parks. In addition, busts of Ataturk can be found in almost all public buildings , and many streets and facilities, such as the Ataturk Dam , Ataturk Airport and the Ataturk Olympic Stadium, bear his name.
Important memorials and monuments:
- The birthplace of Ataturk in Thessaloniki is now a museum. In Turkey, two faithful replicas of the house were built as monuments: in Istanbul (district Avcılar / Ambarlı) and in Ankara in Ataturk Orman Çiftliği . Ataturk's other places of residence such as his apartment in Istanbul , Yalova House , Villa Kostaki or the Florya Sea Villa are also museums. In the Dolmabahçe Palace in Istanbul Ataturk's study and death room are part of the museum.
- The first monument to Ataturk by the Austrian sculptor Heinrich Krippel in Sarayburnu in Istanbul was inaugurated on November 6, 1926. Another portrait by Krippel was unveiled in Konya on November 29, 1926. This was followed by the Victory Monument (1927) on Ulus Square in Ankara in a mounted pose next to the then parliament.
- The Taksim Square was the new center of the modern city of Istanbul to the Republic monument of Italian sculptor Pietro Canonica designed from the year 1928th Canonica also created the statue of Ataturk in uniform a year earlier on Victory Square in Ankara.
- The monument of trust is located in Güvenpark in Ankara . It was built in 1935 according to the designs of the Austrian sculptors Clemens Holzmeister , Anton Hanak and Josef Thorak and bears a quote from Ataturk as an inscription: "Turk, boast, work and trust." (Türk, öğün, çalış, güven.) . It is dedicated to the secret service and the military police.
- There are numerous memorials abroad, such as the memorial at the ANZAC Parade in the Australian capital Canberra (1985) and the Ataturk memorial in Wellington , New Zealand , streets named after him in India ( New Delhi ), Bangladesh ( Dhaka ) and Pakistan ( Islamabad , Larkana ), Dominican Republic ( Santo Domingo ).
In 1922 some cities were named after Ataturk:
- Kemaliye (formerly Eğin) in Erzincan,
- Mustafapaşa (formerly Sinasos) in Nevşehir,
- Kemalpaşa (formerly Nif) in İzmir and
- Mustafakemalpaşa (formerly Kirmasti) in Bursa.
Mustafa Kemal is listed as a Freemason in some dictionaries ( Lodge : Macedonia Risorta et Veritas No. 80 , Thessaloniki ). According to the historian and Ataturk biographer Andrew Mango , his membership has not been fully established, but at least very likely.
- He played a supporting role in the 1932 film Bir Millet Uyanıyor ( A Nation Awakens ) by Muhsin Ertuğrul , one of the most important films in Turkish cinema about the Turkish Liberation War. General Kâzım Özalp also took part in the film .
- In the feature film Çanakkale 1915 produced in 2012 , Mustafa Kemal is interpreted by İlker Kızmaz .
- The mini-series of the TRT Ya İstiklal Ya Ölüm , published in 2020, describes in six episodes the events between the dissolution of the last Ottoman parliament on March 16, 1920 in Istanbul and the opening of the new National Assembly on April 23, 1920 in Ankara.
Nutuk (“Speech” - Ataturk's programmatic marathon speech at the second party congress of the CHP ). Published in German in two volumes:
- Mustafa Gasi Kemal Pascha: The Way to Freedom, 1919–1920. Translated from the French by Paul Roth. With an introduction and comments by Kurt Koehler, KF Koehler Verlag, Leipzig 1928.
- Mustafa Gasi Kemal Pascha: The National Revolution, 1920–1927. Translated from the French by Paul Roth. With notes by Kurt Koehler, KF Koehler Verlag, Leipzig 1928.
- Takımın Muharebe Tâlimi (translation from German - 1908)
- Cumalı Ordugâhı - Süvari: Bölük, Alay, Liva Tâlim ve Manevraları (1909)
- Ta'biye ve Tatbîkat Seyahati (1911)
- Bölüğün Muharebe Tâlimi (translation from German - 1912)
- Ta'biye Mes'elesinin Halli ve Emirlerin Sûret-i Tahrîrine Dâir Nasâyih (1916)
- Zâbit ve Kumandan ile Hasb-ı Hâl (1918)
- Vatandaş için Medeni Bilgiler (together with his adopted daughter Afet İnan - 1930)
- Geometri (mathematics book - 1937)
- Türk Gençliğine Hitabe (1927)
- Onuncu Yıl Nutku (1933)
- Bursa Nutku (1933)
- Balıkesir Hutbesi (1923)
- Dursun Atılgan: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Life, guiding principles, performance . Önel Verlag , Cologne 1998, ISBN 3-929490-66-8 .
- Kurt Bittel (ed.): Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 1881–1981. Lectures and essays on his 100th birthday . Groos, Heidelberg 1982, ISBN 3-87276-272-9 .
- Mahmut Esat Bozkurt: Ataturk İhtilâli . Istanbul 1995, ISBN 975-343-095-7 .
- Çağatay Emre Doğan: Formation of Factory Settlements Within Turkish Industrialization and Modernization in 1930s: Nazilli Printing Factory ( Turkish ). Middle East Technical University, Ankara 2003, OCLC 54431696 .
- Johannes Glasneck : The role of the personality of Kemal Ataturk in the national liberation struggle of the peoples of the Middle East . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1983. (New edition: Kemal Ataturk and modern Turkey . Ahriman-Verlag, Freiburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-89484-608-4 ).
- Dietrich Gronau: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk or the birth of the republic . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-596-11062-9 .
- Halil Gülbeyaz : Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. From state founder to myth . Parthas-Verlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-932529-49-9 .
- M. Şükrü Hanioğlu: Ataturk. An intellectual biography . 2nd, improved edition. Princeton University Press, Princeton 2017, ISBN 978-0-691-17582-9 .
- Stefan Ihrig: Ataturk in the Nazi Imagination . Harvard University Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-674-36837-8 .
- Friedrich Karl Kienitz: Ataturk, Kemal . In: Biographical Lexicon on the History of Southeast Europe . Volume 1. Munich 1974, pp. 108-110
- Patrick Kinross: Ataturk. The Rebirth of a Nation . Weidenfeld Nicolson Illustrated 1993, ISBN 0-297-81376-5 .
- Klaus Kreiser : Ataturk. A biography . CH Beck Verlag, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-66594-3 .
- Andrew Mango : Ataturk . John Murray, London 1999, ISBN 0-7195-6592-8 (English).
- Bernd Rill : Kemal Ataturk . Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, ISBN 3-499-50346-8 .
- Dirk Tröndle: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Myth and Man . Muster-Schmidt Verlag Gleichen, Zurich 2012, ISBN 978-3-7881-0169-5 .
- S. Eriş Ülger: Ataturk and Turkey in the German press (1910–1944) . Schulbuchverlag Anadolu, Hückelhoven 1992, ISBN 3-923143-80-X .
- Vamık D. Volkan , Norman Itzkowitz: Immortal Ataturk. A psychobiography . London 2001, Phoenix Press, ISBN 0-226-86388-3 .
- Donald Everett Webster: The Turkey of Ataturk; Social Process in the Turkish Reformation . AMS Press, New York 1973, ISBN 978-0-404-56333-2 .
- Literature by and about Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in the catalog of the German National Library
- Newspaper article about Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in the 20th century press kit of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Levke Harders: Kemal Ataturk. Tabular curriculum vitae in the LeMO ( DHM and HdG )
- Turkish Ministry of Culture accessed on October 30, 2008 via Mustafa Kemal Ataturk .
- Turkish Embassy Vienna with information on the house where he was born and the exhibition opened on October 30, 2008
- Ataturk Archive on ataturktoday.com (English and Turkish) accessed October 30, 2008
- Mustafa Kemal Ataturk - A Biography (Video) accessed October 30, 2008
- Michael Winter: I am Turkey. For 75 years the democratic republic on the Bosporus has been vacillating between military dictatorship and re-Islamization. In: The time . No. 43, October 17, 1997.
- Ataturk in color on YouTube
- card 1934
- ID card 1935
- Mango: Ataturk (1999), p. 27.
- Mango: Ataturk (1999), pp. 27 and 28.
- Andrew Mango: Ataturk. 1st edition. Overlook Press, Woodstock, NY 2000, ISBN 1-58567-011-1 , pp. 27/29. Mango proves that the traditional story of the hard life of the customs officer and the change to the job of the timber dealer is not consistent with the dates.
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, p. 19.
- Dietrich Gronau: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk or the birth of the republic . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1994, p. 54.
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. 9th edition. Rowohlt, 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-50346-7 , pp. 25 f.
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. 9th edition. Rowohlt, 2008, ISBN 978-3-499-50346-7 , p. 45.
- Nurullah Ardıç: Islam and the Politics of Secularism: The Caliphate and Middle Eastern Modernization in the Early 20th Century. Routledge, 2013, p. 249 f.
- Bernard Lewis: The Political Language of Islam. Chicago 1988, pp. 44-50.
- Dietrich Gronau: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk or the birth of the republic . Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1994, p. 125 f.
- Halil Gülbeyaz: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. From state founder to myth. Parthas-Verlag, Berlin, 2004, p. 187.
- Webster, The Turkey of Ataturk: Social Process in the Turkish Reformation , 260
- Doğan, Formation of factory settlements within Turkish industrialization and modernization in 1930s: Nazilli printing factory
- Republic of Turkey, Ministry of Culture and Tourism: Aydın - Historical Ruins . TC Government. Archived from the original on September 7, 2007 .: “Nazilli cotton print factory was established over an area of 65,000 m2 on the Nazilli Bozdoğan highway. It is the "first Turkish cotton print factory" the foundation of which was laid on August 25, 1935 and which was opened by Ataturk with great ceremony. "
- History of Turkish Aeronautical Association . Archived from the original on December 19, 2007. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Skylife . Accessed January 1, 2020.
- Nuri Demirağ Aircraft Factory . Nuridemirag.com. Archived from the original on July 21, 2012. Retrieved January 1, 2020.
- Stone, Norman "Talking Turkey". National Interest, Fall 2000, Issue 61.
- Eastham, The Turkish Development Plan: The First Five Years , 132-136
- Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special reference to his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). Medical dissertation, Würzburg 1985, p. 260.
- The story of the divorce can be found in İpek Çalışlar: Latife Hanım. Everest Yayınları, Cağaloğlu, İstanbul 2011 (first published in 2006), ISBN 978-975-289-900-1 , pp. 298–333, German, shortened translation under the title: Mrs. Ataturk Latife Hanım A portrait , 1st edition. btb Verlag (TB), Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-442-74062-8 , pp. 149-194
- Meltem F. Türköz: The social life of the state's fantasy: Memories and documents on Turkey's 1934 Surname Law - ProQuest. SS 2 , accessed on September 1, 2018 (English).
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, p. 100.
- Klaus Kreiser: Ataturk. A biography . Munich 2008, p. 90.
- Klaus Kreiser: Ataturk. A biography . Munich 2008, p. 235 f.
- Halil Gülbeyaz: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. From state founder to myth. Parthas-Verlag, Berlin, 2004, p. 199.
- Michael Neumann-Adrian / Christoph K. Neumann: Turkey, a country and 9,000 years of history. Munich, 1990, p. 312.
- Boris Barth: Genocide. Genocide in the 20th Century. History, theories, controversies, Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2006, p. 71.
- Anahide Ter Minassian: La république d'Arménie. 1918–1920 La mémoire du siècle., Éditions complexe, Bruxelles 1989, p. 220.
- Michael Neumann-Adrian / Christoph K. Neumann: Turkey, a country and 9,000 years of history. Munich, 1990, p. 301.
- Michael Neumann-Adrian / Christoph K. Neumann: Turkey, a country and 9,000 years of history. Munich, 1990, p. 309.
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, p. 118.
- Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special reference to his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). Medical dissertation, Würzburg 1985, pp. 41-93 and 256.
- In May 1936 he had advised the dentist Sami Bey before a jaw surgery at Ataturk. Cf. Ali Vicdani Doyum: Alfred Kantorowicz with special consideration of his work in İstanbul (A contribution to the history of modern dentistry). 1985, p. 256 f.
- Halil Gülbeyaz: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. From state founder to myth. Parthas-Verlag, Berlin, 2004, p. 211.
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, p. 124.
- The time is still "documented" in the death room of the Dolmabahçe Palace and for a long time there was a minute of silence in Turkey at this time.
In his speech to the German Reichstag on May 4, 1941, Adolf Hitler said:
“Turkey was our ally during the World War . His unfortunate outcome weighed just as heavily on this country as it did on ourselves. The great, ingenious new creator of the young Turkey was the first to provide a wonderful example for the love of the allies who were then abandoned by luck and so terribly beaten by fate. While Turkey now, thanks to the realistic attitude of its government, maintained the independence of its own decision, Yugoslavia fell victim to British intrigues. "
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, p. 147.
- Remarks on the 25th Anniversary of the Death of Kemal Ataturk, November 4, 1963 . Audio files on: jfklibrary.org.
- Bernd Rill: Kemal Ataturk. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, p. 146.
- Halil Gülbeyaz: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. From state founder to myth. Parthas-Verlag, Berlin, 2004, p. 228.
- Girbeau, Sabine: Habib Bourguiba ou la modernité inachevée . In: Afrik.com , August 18, 2003.
- THE TWO KEMALS; The Polished Aristocrat of European Circles in Contrast With the Ruthless Commander of Fanatical Turks , New York Times October 1, 1922 .
- Umut Azak: Islam and Secularism in Turkey: Kemalism, Religion and the Nation State. IBTauris, 2010, p. 134.
- Robert A. Minder: Freemason Politicians Lexicon . Edition zum Rauhen Stein, ISBN 3-7065-1909-7 , pp. 229-231.
- Ataturk, Kemal. In: Eugen Lennhoff, Oskar Posner: Internationales Freemaurerlexikon. 2006, ISBN 3-7766-2161-3 , p. 92.
- Andrew Mango: Ataturk . John Murray, 1999, ISBN 0-7195-5612-0 , p. 93.
- Oliver Leaman Companion Encyclopedia of Middle Eastern and North African Film , 2001, p. 558 f., Section Muhsin Ertuğrul books.google.de .
- Ya Istiklal Ya Ölüm (TV Mini-Series 2020) - IMDb. Retrieved April 23, 2020 .
- See review of the 1st edition. In: Die Zeit , No. 43/2008.
- See Lutz Berger : Review of: Tröndle, Dirk: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. Myth and Man. Sudheim 2011 . In: H-Soz-u-Kult , June 8, 2012.
- with the amend. Subtitle: Enlightener, executioner and overfather: MK Ataturk catapulted a people of peasants and illiterates from the Middle Ages into Western modernity. In: The time. World and cultural history. Volume 13. ISBN 3-411-17603-2 , pp. 585–601 (with ill.)
|SURNAME||Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Ataturk; Kemal, Mustafa; Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Turkish politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1881|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Thessaloniki|
|DATE OF DEATH||November 10, 1938|
|Place of death||Istanbul|