Guerrilla (pronunciation: [ ɡeˈrɪlja ], older form: guerrilla ; as a diminutive of the Spanish word guerra , "war", it means something like " guerrilla war") on the one hand denotes a special form of war , which is clearly referred to as guerrilla war or guerrilla war . The term (the) guerrilla today mostly stands for insurgent units that wage a guerrilla war against occupying powers or against their own government.
In addition, there is (the) guerrilla as an outdated term for a single insurgent fighter (in the plural the guerrillas ), although other terms are mostly used today, such as guerrilla fighters , resistance fighters or partisan . The Spanish name for a guerrilla fighter is guerrillero or guerrillera (for a fighter). In German, the terms guerillero or guerillera usually refer to underground fighters in Latin America . The urban guerrilla is a special form of guerrilla .
Various tactics are characteristic of guerrilla warfare , which are collectively referred to as guerrilla tactics . The choice of certain tactics depends, among other things, on the balance of power and the phase of the uprising. The counterinsurgency requires special measures ( "anti-guerrilla warfare"). Even a regular army can use guerrilla tactics, especially when covertly deploying smaller military units behind enemy lines (see hunting combat ). The fight of regular troops against irregular, but also regular troops, mostly in Africa, but also in other areas with little infrastructure, is also known as the bush war .
The word guerrilla was the 19th century on the French early guérilla from the Spanish guerrilla , a diminutive (diminutive) of the Spanish guerra borrowed ( "war"). The Spanish guerra is, as the French guerre , the Germanic * werra ( "Dispute") returns with which even the Old High German Werra ( "confusion", "dispute"), the Middle Dutch warre and New England was related.
The historical background was the Spanish War of Independence from 1807 to 1814 against French rule under Napoleon. The starting point for the later use of the word is the Spanish partida de guerrilla , which roughly means " scouting party ". In Germany, Friedrich Ludwig Jahn , the gymnastics father , wanted to lead his gymnasts as a guerrilla against Napoleon.
In Spain, the word guerrilla has a consistently positive connotation of liberation due to its connection with the struggle against the French occupying power , similar to the wars of liberation in Germany or the term “people's war” as described in Gneisenau's early memoranda .
The terms guerrilla and guerrilla war became particularly important in the 20th century as a term for socially or nationally based wars of liberation and independence in less developed countries, especially for liberation from the colonial powers of the time in the course of decolonization .
The meaning of the word guerrilla also depends on the grammatical gender :
- the guerrilla: guerrilla warfare or guerrilla warfare, a special type of war. This original meaning is now a secondary meaning, that is, the word guerrilla is rarely used with this meaning.
- the guerrillas: insurgent combat groups waging a guerrilla war. This is the main meaning in German today.
- the guerrillas: individual guerrilla fighters, resistance fighters, underground fighters. In Europe, irregular units are usually referred to as partisans , and in the context of anti-colonial movements after World War II , usually as guerrillas . The term guerrilla is especially common with reference to Latin America.
Guerrilla war refers to a form of struggle between irregular local troops against an enemy army or occupying power or - in connection with a civil war - against their own government. Military disputes between parties that are politically, strategically and weapons-technically very different are also referred to as asymmetrical wars or conflicts.
The guerrilla fight is a "weapon of the weak" against a militarily , especially militarily technologically superior opponent. A prerequisite for a guerrilla struggle is the population's lack of hope of being able to achieve their political and social demands by political and legal means, as is the case in a dictatorship or a country occupied or dominated by a foreign power. The decisive factor for the success of the guerrilla is the simultaneous political struggle that is equivalent to military struggle. In an open field battle, the guerrilla force would necessarily have to be defeated because it lacks the equipment of a conventional army and its fighters usually do not have sufficient military training.
A decisive characteristic of the guerrillas is their high mobility and flexibility, often combined with the lack of identifiability as a “legitimate combatant ”. Guerrilla units are constantly on the move to avoid the militarily superior enemy. Their success depends on whether they manage to keep the decision about where, at what time and under what conditions the military confrontation with the enemy takes place. The classic land guerrilla troops mostly operate out of the mountains or out of the jungle areas , both of which form an ideal retreat.
The guerrilla movement typically depends on the support of the rural population for food and information. If the reason for the guerrilla fight is political or social grievances that affect a large part or the majority of the population, their support is usually voluntary. Mao Zedong summarized this with the sentence "The revolutionary swims among the people like a fish in water". In the more well-known guerrilla wars of the 20th century, this was mostly the case - where there was no popular support, even an attempt at guerrilla warfare was usually doomed to failure. Che Guevara found little support from the indigenous population when he tried to bring the 1966 revolution to Bolivia . The project ended with the guerrillas being almost completely destroyed and finally his capture and execution by government troops. Exceptions guerrilla armies, experience the strong support from another country, such as the Viet Cong ( "Viet Cong") by North Vietnam during the Vietnam War or the US-backed Contra rebels in the Contra war against the leftist government of Nicaragua from around 1980.
Typical characteristics in political science are:
- The unity of guerrillas and parts of the civilian population. The population approves, supports or actively participates in guerrilla warfare.
- A close connection between political and military objectives.
- The procurement of weapons mainly from the stocks of the military opponent.
- The base and main bases are mostly rural areas. Cities are only involved in fighting at an advanced stage of the guerrilla war.
- Traditional forms of combat by regular armed forces remain largely ineffective. Therefore, guerrillas can also be a match for a numerically and technically superior enemy.
Typical escalation stages
Guerrilla wars usually go through the following phases:
- The guerrilla struggle begins as an insurrectionary movement , i.e. with no or only weak armament. Typically in this phase the guerrillas only have handguns such as pistols , carbines or assault rifles , hand grenades and light grenade launchers , i.e. infantry weapons that can be carried by foot troops . Weapons are usually obtained through raids on opposing military units or facilities, buying weapons from corrupt functionaries of the opposing government troops, or in some cases also through deliveries from abroad - the latter especially when the guerrillas are supported by another state, such as the Contra- Rebels in Nicaragua by the USA, or since 2011 the rebels in the Syrian Civil War . The fighters are not soldiers and often do not even have military training. They are part of the civilian population and are supported by them because of their political goals. In this phase, guerrilla units cannot achieve any strategic successes, i.e. permanently occupy strategically important areas, but must always withdraw.
- The offensive phase of guerrilla warfare is characterized by the fact that the opponent's mobility is limited. The government or occupation troops only have strategically important fortified bases and can only move outside of them to a limited extent. In this phase, the guerrilla movement takes the initiative and is typically organized in larger combat units with a fixed structure.
- To achieve strategic goals, the guerrilla units must take the form of a centrally controlled army. You step out of the tactical, defensive phase into a strategically offensive phase. A revolutionary army emerges .
Successful guerrilla wars
The guerrilla war is seen as a form of struggle for liberation movements . Successful examples in political science are:
- China (1927–1949, see Chinese Civil War )
- Indonesia (1945–1949, see Indonesian War of Independence )
- Algeria (1954–1962, see Algerian War )
- Cuba (1956–1959, see Cuban Revolution )
- Vietnam (1946–1975, see Indochina War and Vietnam War )
- Nicaragua (1961–1979, see Nicaraguan Revolution )
- Afghanistan (1979–1988, see Soviet intervention in Afghanistan )
- Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (1994–1996, see First Chechen War )
More examples of guerrilla fighting
- For a very long time, the successful struggle of the Geusen as Dutch freedom fighters against Spanish rule in the Eighty Years War (1568–1648) was a guerrilla.
- The Swedish Snapphanar (Danish: Snaphaner) fought in the 17th century in the originally Danish areas of what is now southern Sweden with a guerrilla tactic against the royal Swedish army. They were particularly successful in the Northern War (1674–1679) (also known as the Scandinavian War). On 26./27. In July 1676, insurgent farmers and irregulars in the so-called “ Loshult Coup” at the place of the same name lost the entire war chest of Charles XI. worth 50,000 Reichstalers in their hands. This consisted of about 250 wagons with valuable metal coins, the so-called copper slips .
- Battle of the Spaniards during the Napoleonic Wars in the Iberian Peninsula from 1809 to 1812
- Southern Italy in the 19th century: The brigands initially supported the irregulars under Giuseppe Garibaldi in the fight against the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (in addition to their raids against large landowners and landlords). Then, disappointed in the new Italian monarchy , they also turned against the Italian army. The legendary leader Carmine Crocco was known for his guerrilla tactics . At times he controlled up to 40 gangs of impoverished and mostly landless former small farmers and farm workers.
- In the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921): the fight of the IRA against British supremacy in Ireland .
- In the Irish Civil War (1922/23): the fight of the anti-treaty IRA against the Anglo-Irish treaty and the troops of the new Southern Irish Free State of Ireland .
- In the Northern Ireland Conflict (1969–1998): the struggle of the Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) and other Irish Republican groups for the separation of Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom and the reunification of Ireland into an independent republic.
- Yugoslavia (1996–1999): Fighting by the UÇK (Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës) against units of the Yugoslav People's Army and Serbian police units.
- The Huks fought in the Philippines first against the Japanese occupation and after the Second World War they fought for radical agrarian reforms until 1954.
- The Việt Minh war against Japanese occupation, French colonial power and later against US occupation troops 1941-1975 ended with the establishment of a socialist state
- The LTTE group's guerrilla struggle over Tamil Eelam lasted from 1986 to 2009.
- The guerrilla war of the Nepalese Maoists began in 1996 and has been suspended since 2006.
- In India there have been guerrilla actions by the Maoist-oriented Naxalites since the 1960s . They mostly operate in rural areas, now only with sporadic attacks. The separatist organization United Liberation Front of Asom , which advocates an independent Assam , is pursuing similar guerrilla tactics .
- The Lebanese organization Hezbollah led, e.g. B. in the Lebanon war 2006 , the guerrilla war related, paramilitary fighting.
- The Kurdish guerrilla movement, also known as the PKK , is fighting the Turkish army.
- During the final phase of the Indian Wars in the United States (early 1860s to mid-1880s): In particular, groups of the Chiricahua - Apaches in the Arizona Territory and in northern Mexico ( Chihuahua , Sonora ) delivered first under Cochise and finally under Geronimo to the superior US Army a grueling but ultimately hopeless guerrilla war.
- The 30-year struggle for independence of the Cuban mambises against Spanish colonial rule 1868–1898 was guerrilla warfare in its military phases and ended with the occupation of Cuba by the USA .
- The oldest guerrilla movement still active today is the FARC in Colombia .
- The EZLN's struggle for the rights of indigenous people in Mexico , since 1994.
- The guerrilla struggle of the group around Che Guevara in Bolivia failed in 1967 due to the lack of popular support.
- From 1967 to 1973 the communist guerrilla of Araguaia existed in northeastern Brazil , which was completely crushed by the Brazilian armed forces.
- The struggle of the Maoist Sendero Luminoso killed almost 70,000 people in Peru .
- The struggle of the FMLN ( El Salvador ) and the guerrilla groups in Guatemala ended with peace agreements.
- From 1895 to 1905, Hendrik Witboi waged guerrilla warfare against German colonial rule several times in German South West Africa , most recently in the uprising of the Herero and Nama , in which Jakobus Morenga also took part.
- Second Boer War (1899–1902) in South Africa : The Boers of Dutch descent lost against the British , but they were able to inflict three times their own losses on them and thus force a peace that was favorable to them.
- Portuguese Colonial War (1961-1974): Liberation struggle for Angola , Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau .
- The liberation struggle of SWAPO against the foreign rule of South Africa in Namibia led to independence in 1989/90. Since then, Namibia has been ruled by SWAPO.
- The liberation struggle of the FRENTE POLISARIO against the Spanish colonial power and then against the Moroccan occupation troops (since 1991 armistice under UN brokerage).
History of the "little war"
Carl von Clausewitz , but also others before him, defined the "small war" as the use of light troops on the flanks and in the rear of the enemy - so the hussars were not only used for reconnaissance, but also to disrupt enemy supplies. In the infantry, the Croats and the hunters were used for scattered combat. This familiar guerrilla warfare, which they were familiar with, was particularly helpful to the groups formed from the fringes of the European empires, such as the Croats or Bosniaks. They had gained experience especially in the fight against the Turks. The Akıncı were used by the Turkish army as a light force behind the enemy line.
In the American War of Independence (1776–1783), the "small war" method of fighting developed for the first time not only as resistance operations by small armed militias against superior conventional armies, but as a comprehensive strategic response by a belligerent party. Tactically fighting in open formation, the British troops were embroiled in a grueling war of attrition, which they eventually lost. Since then, small-scale warfare has established itself as an asymmetrical response to the strength of conventional armed forces.
The first armed conflict with a guerrilla character and with this name is the Spanish War of Independence against the French occupation forces from 1807 to 1814, which expanded into the People's War. Although the regular Spanish-British troops decided the war, irregular irregulars or guerrillas , however, contributed significantly to the defeat of the French. This was mainly due to the good organization of the resistance and the favorable topography of the mountain landscapes for a guerrilla war, which offered good hiding places. In the open country, however, the guerrilla force could not hold its own against conventional troops.
At that time, conventional troops were primarily aimed at intense skirmishes and battles in the “great war” ( line tactics ). However, they later adopted the guerrilla fighting style, which was characterized by raids, ambushes and attacks on the supply lines behind the actual war. The guerrilla fight became a tactical variant, for which units with specially trained soldiers (mostly so-called hunters ) were used, because they were more flexible and mobile than the conventional line troops. Characteristic of the small war were military confrontations in which numerically small divisions undertook operations to weaken the enemy, but without being able to bring about a decision. It could be conducted alongside major operations by the main army. Typical examples are the deployment of the Freikorps of the coalition troops in 1813 and the Franc-tireurs in 1870. The support of the population for the resistance war of irregular troops and gangs also played an important role, as was shown, for example, in the Tyrolean uprising under Andreas Hofer .
The fighting style of the guerrillas is described as unconventional warfare with a view to the Geneva Conventions and the Hague Land Warfare Order . These international treaties regulate the legal basis of international armed conflicts. In its development phase, the guerrilla corresponds more to the term levée en masse , as it is defined in the Hague Land Warfare Regulations (hence also “People's War”). Only when the guerrillas have taken the last step towards becoming a liberation army are their fighters considered part of a military command structure, as combatants under the Hague Land Warfare Regulations. As long as it lacks orientation towards a state government, guerrilla fighters are considered non-combatants and are mostly treated as insurgents and / or criminalized (e.g. by attributing theft, robbery or other criminal offenses to them).
This includes the establishment of actual or apparent political-democratic structures ( Asamblea de Guaímaro in the Cuban War of Independence or the Parliament of the Palestinian PLO ) as well as political missions abroad in supporting states or in international organizations such as the UN . The introduction of clear command structures, a hierarchical-military order with the associated ranks is intended to emphasize the equality of the guerrillas compared to the conventional opposing army, especially in the last phase, in the development of the revolutionary army. Only when the opponent feels compelled to officially negotiate with the guerrilla is recognition as a warring party established, the so-called "Belligerenz". Political recognition by states of international importance or recognition as a negotiating partner by the enemy forms the basis for achieving political goals of the guerrillas ( see the discussion about the recognition of the Palestinian PLO). Only as a warring party can guerrilla fighters assert prisoner-of-war status after being captured .
The “typical” guerrilla tactic consists in the fact that small, independent combat units wear down the superior enemy in his hinterland with “pinprick-like” military actions and then withdraw immediately after each deployment. This procedure is also referred to as hit and run (English hit and run actually means " accident escape "). Outside of their combat missions, the guerrilla fighters are usually not recognizable as soldiers.
No trained troops are necessary for guerrilla warfare. Any person in the population can potentially cause harm to the enemy. During World War II, for example, members of the Resistance in occupied France often opened the fuel valves on trains so that they could not run due to a lack of fuel. For such actions neither experience nor armament are necessary. At the same time, the opposing army must wage a war of conquest, i.e. track down and eliminate the guerrillas. In the most favorable case for the goals of the guerrillas, it incurs the anger of the population through actions such as house searches and ID checks. Meanwhile, the guerrillas hiding among the civilian population can strike where the enemy is weakest. Attacks on the guerrillas are very difficult without hitting the civilian population.
Untrained and poorly armed guerrillas can, at best, pinprick the enemy army, but they cannot beat them decisively. As a result, a guerrilla war can drag on for years and decades. If the enemy reacts with terror against the civilian population, this can lead to the guerrillas losing support. If the guerrilla wants to be successful, it has to organize itself at a certain point. If the guerrilla is organized too early, it can be "rolled up" by arresting a member if the latter reveals more. However, if the guerrillas are disorganized for too long, they cannot win the fight because they can never conquer and hold ground.
When developing their theories, theorists of guerrilla war mostly started from experiences during the guerrilla war in their home countries. The following are considered to be important theorists of guerrilla tactics:
- Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831). Clausewitz analyzed the Spanish war of liberation against the French occupiers .
- TE Lawrence (1888-1935). Lawrence was involved in the Arab uprising during the First World War .
- Carl Schmitt (1888–1985)
- Hồ Chí Minh (1890–1969)
- Mao Zedong (1893-1976). Mao gave the image of the people as water in which the guerrillas swim like a fish while the enemy is supposed to drown.
- Georgios Grivas (1898–1974)
- Charles W. Thayer (1910-1969)
- Võ Nguyên Giáp (1911-2013). Mao and Giap developed the idea of people's war .
- Carlos Marighella (1911-1969)
- Amílcar Cabral (1924–1973)
- Che Guevara (1928-1967). The focus theory comes from Che Guevara , according to which armed guerrillas should form a “source of fire” from which the revolution is carried into the population.
- Régis Debray (* 1940)
- Ibn al-Chattab (1969-2002)
- Frank Kitson (* 1926), published on counterinsurgency
The guerrilla war poses problems for a conventional army that do not exist in interstate wars:
- The opponent cannot be clearly identified. Anyone, for example in an occupied country, can belong permanently or temporarily to the guerrilla and support it militarily, logistically or politically. This applies to both men and women, as well as children, young people and old people.
- There is no front that separates the supporters and opponents of the ruling regime from one another. Most of the time people speak of regions that are "controlled" by the government or the guerrilla movement. An area can also be controlled by the guerrilla movement at night and by the government during the day. The concept of control is very vague. It can happen that the same businessman pays taxes to both the government and the guerrilla movement.
By deploying counter-guerrilla units, the regular army tries to adapt to the guerrilla's flexible warfare - such attempts were made by the US army in the Vietnam War . This is not to be confused with the counterrevolutionary guerrillas, which are used by a foreign power to attack an existing revolutionary government using guerrilla tactics - see for example Contra and Contra war .
On the pretext that one had to fight the guerrillas according to guerrilla style, the response of attacked conventional armed forces consisted time and again in reacting with their own combat behavior that no longer corresponded to the norms of regular warfare. Not only the Wehrmacht in World War II is an example of this, in recent history even democratic states, in the face of massive guerrilla attacks on their own troops, have started to harm the civilian population in the respective countries. In the Algerian war , the French government resorted to routine torture of prisoners and summary executions (so-called French doctrine ), in the Vietnam war the defoliation of large forests with chemicals (" Agent Orange "), the destruction of crops (see also scorched earth ), political cleansing and isolated massacres related to the actions of the US armed forces and the South Vietnamese army. In addition, the CIA initiated the so-called Phoenix program , the targeted killing of Communist cadres of the Viet Cong .
The conventional army is obliged by martial law to observe minimum humanitarian standards and must therefore always try to separate the civilian population from the guerrilla movement. This can be done, for example, by calling on the population to leave an area by a certain point in time. All persons in this area after this point in time are then referred to as guerrillas. The population who leaves this area must be accommodated and cared for, which the military is usually unable to do in terms of personnel, logistics or material. The resulting campos de reconcentración ( Cuban War of Independence ) or concentration camps ( Boer War ) were intended to separate the fighters from the rest of the population and thus define a clearly delimited enemy territory for the conventional army to attack. However, the hardship prevailing in the camps (hunger, diseases) usually leads to the political strengthening of the guerrilla movement. Voluntary evacuation of civilians from the guerrilla controlled areas is therefore unlikely.
In some cases, the guerrilla movement, for its part, puts the civilian population under targeted pressure, unless they voluntarily cooperate, which was the case in many conflicts of the 20th century. The coercion of the civilian population can take place through targeted terrorism (shootings, torture and rape ), forced money, food and material donations and through forced recruitment . This can put the civilian population in a position of suspicion on both sides of supporting the other. The FNL in the Vietnam War operated as frequently in this way. As the separation and evacuation of the civilian population was often not possible for the reasons mentioned, this led to the inevitable and indiscriminate bombing of guerrilla areas by the regular army, to which everyone in the area fell victim. In such a situation, the civilian population often has no choice at all of remaining neutral, and out of necessity they then choose one side or the other. However, it is not uncommon for government officials to be corrupt themselves and for the commanders and soldiers of their official armed forces to pursue personal (criminal) goals. This usually leads to the fact that the civilian population takes the side of the guerrilla movement.
More successful anti-guerrilla strategies try to politically isolate the guerrilla movement. This can be done in different ways:
- The (economic) situation of the population is improved in order to prevent / reduce dissatisfaction.
- A counter- guerrilla-like counter- guerrilla is created, which commits acts in the name of the guerrillas that are accused of guerrillas and discredits them in the eyes of the population (Vietnam, Cuba).
- Since the guerrilla units, especially in their development phase, usually fight in a decentralized way, fighting units often emerge that do not share the political goals of the population, but want to gain personal enrichment or power ( caudillismo ). This can be used to discredit the guerrillas
An anti-guerrilla struggle is difficult to win with military means, because the guerrilla fighters cannot be differentiated from the rest of the population, and it is not possible to use the superior military power, at least in the early phases of a conflict, without hitting innocents at the same time. Furthermore, the guerrilla movement can again and again strengthen itself from the population as long as it enjoys their support or has sufficient means for forced recruitment.
Most guerrilla struggles were therefore only resolved politically, that is, either by giving in partially or completely to the goals of the guerrilla movement or by alienating the population from the guerrillas (as happened with the IRA ).
Differences Between Guerrilla and Terrorism
In contrast to guerrillas, terrorists do not aim to conquer or hold territories, but take care to avoid confrontation with enemy military troops and seldom exercise direct control over a territory or its population.
While terrorists mainly target uninvolved civilians, guerrillas primarily attack hostile military forces.
- Derived terms
- Fritz René Allemann : Power and impotence of the guerrillas. Piper, Munich 1974, ISBN 3-492-02006-2 .
- Alberto Bayo : Ciento cincuenta preguntas a un guerrillero . First English edition: 150 questions for a guerrilla , translated by Hugo Hartenstein and Dennis Harber, Boulder, COLO (Panther Publications) 1963. Spanish first edition, apparently Mexico 1955.
- Ian FW Beckett: Encyclopedia of Guerilla Warfare. Checkmark Books, New York 2001, ISBN 0-8160-4601-8 .
- Max Boot: Invisible armies. An epic history of guerrilla warfare from ancient times to the present , New York, NY u. a. (Norton) 2013. ISBN 978-0-87140-424-4 .
- Gérard Chaliand (Ed.): Guerrilla strategies. An historical anthology from the Long March to Afghanistan , Berkeley et al. a. (University of California Press) 1982. ISBN 0-520-04444-4 .
- Brigadier C. Aubrey Dixon / Otto Heilbrunn: Partisans. Frankfurt a. M. 1956 (original edition Communist Guerilla Warfare , London 1954).
- Richard Gott: Guerrilla Movements in Latin America. Seagull, Calcutta [et al. a.] 2008, ISBN 1-905422-59-8 .
- Thomas N. Greene (Ed.): The Guerrilla and how to fight him. Selections from the Marine Corps Gazette , New York u. a. (Praeger) 1965.
- Werner Hahlweg : Guerrilla, war without fronts . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [a. a.] 1968. (Swedish and Italian editions).
- Werner Hahlweg: Modern guerrilla warfare and terrorism. Problems and aspects of their theoretical foundations as a reflection of practice , in: Manfred Funke (Ed.): Terrorism. Studies on the structure and strategy of revolutionary violence , Düsseldorf (Droste) 1977. ISBN 3-7610-7205-8 .
- Emanuel Halicz: Partisan warfare in 19th century Poland. The development of a concept . Translated from Polish by Jane Fraser, Odense (Odense UP) 1975. ISBN 87-7492-135-5 .
- Otto Heilbrunn: The partisans in modern warfare , Frankfurt a. M. (Bernard & Graefe Verlag für Wehrwesen) 1963 (original edition Partisan Warfare , London 1962).
- Beatrice Heuser : rebels, partisans, guerrillas. Asymmetrical wars from antiquity to today , Paderborn a. a. (Schöningh) 2013. ISBN 978-3-506-77605-1
- Friedrich August von der Heydte : The modern guerrilla war as a defense-political and military phenomenon. New edition, Böttinger, Wiesbaden 1986, ISBN 3-925725-03-2 .
- Robert F. Lamberg: The guerrillas in Latin America. Theory and Practice of a Revolutionary Model. Deutscher-Taschenbuch Verl., Munich 1972, ISBN 3-423-04116-1 .
- Werner Mackenbach: Guerilla , in: Historical-Critical Dictionary of Marxism , Vol. 5, Argument-Verlag, Hamburg 2001, Sp. 1077-1088.
- Herfried Münkler : The partisan. Theory, strategy, shape. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Opladen 1990, ISBN 3-531-12192-8 .
- Abdul Haris Nasution : The Guerrilla War. Basics of guerrilla warfare from the perspective of the Indonesian defense system in the past and future , Cologne (Brückenbauer-Verlag) 1961 (original edition Fundamentals of Guerilla warfare and the Indonesian defense system past and future , Jakarta , Information Service of the Indonesian Armed Forces, 1953).
- Joachim Schickel: Guerrillas, partisans. Theory and Practice , Munich (Carl Hanser Verlag) 1970.
- Carl Schmitt : Theory of the Partisan . Interim remark on the concept of the political . Berlin 1963. DNB (New edition Berlin 1995, ISBN 3-428-08439-X .)
- Richard Kiessler : Guerrilla and Revolution. Party communism and partisan strategy in Latin America , Bonn-Bad Godesberg (Verlag Neue Gesellschaft) 1975. ISBN 3-87831-192-3 .
- Percy Cross Standing: Guerilla Leaders of the World from Charette to De Wet , London (Stanley Paul & Co) 1912.
- Al J. Venter: Portugal's guerrilla wars in Africa. Lisbon's three wars in Angola, Mozambique and Portugese Guinea, 1961–1974 , Solihull (Helion) 2013. ISBN 978-1-909384-57-6 .
- Freudenberg, Dirk: Theory of the Irregular. Partisans, guerrillas and terrorists in modern guerrilla warfare. Wiesbaden 2008.
- English online version by Alberto Bayo: Ciento cincuenta preguntas a un guerrillero ( 150 questions for a guerrilla ), PDF
- Duden online: the guerrilla
- Kluge Etymological Dictionary of the German Language , 24th edition, 2002.
- Helga Jung-Paarmann: Guerilla War in Lexikon der Politik , Munich, 2003.
- See Duden online: Guerrilla warfare and guerrilla warfare , see each under “Synonyms”.
- See Duden online: die guerrilla , meaning 2 and guerrilla war
- Duden online: the guerrilla and guerrilla fighters , see there also other synonyms.
- Duden online: Guerillero and Guerillera . Here, too, Duden only lists the slightly Germanized spelling Gueri ... ; the spelling Guerrillero or Guerrillera (with double r as in Spanish) is used just as often in the specialist literature.
- Duden "Etymologie" - dictionary of origins of the German language , 2nd edition, Dudenverlag, 1989.
- Diccionario de la lengua española: guerra
- Arnd Krüger : Sport and Politics. From gymnastics father Jahn to state amateur. Hanover: Torchbearers 1975.
- Eric Hobsbawm, Bandits , Hachette, 2010.
- John Anthony Davis, Conflict and control: law and order in nineteenth-century Italy , Macmillan Education, 1988.
- See Thomas Sheehan: Friendly Fascism. Business as Usual in America's Backyard , in: Fascism's Return. Scandal, Revision, and Ideology since 1980 , ed. v. J. Richard Golson, Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 1998, pp. 260-300 ( PDF ( June 20, 2015 memento in the Internet Archive )).
- Federal Agency for Civic Education: The Definition of Terrorism | bpb. Retrieved December 21, 2017 .
- Dietl Wilhelm, Hirschmann Kai, Tophoven Rolf (ed.): The terrorism lexicon: perpetrators, victims, backgrounds. 2006, ISBN 3-8218-5642-4 , p. 20.