|República da Guiné-Bissau|
|Republic of Guinea-Bissau|
Motto : Unidade, Luta, Progresso
( por. , "Unity, Struggle, Progress")
|Form of government||republic|
|Government system||Presidential system|
|Head of state||
Umaro Sissoco Embaló (controversial)
|Head of government||
Nuno Gomes Nabiam (controversial)
|population||1,861,283 (Source: UN 2017)|
|Population density||52 inhabitants per km²|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.424 ( 178th ) (2016)|
|currency||CFA Franc BCEAO (XOF)|
|independence||September 24, 1973 (declaration)
September 10, 1974 ( recognized by Portugal )
|National anthem||Esta é a Nossa Pátria Bem Amada|
|National holiday||September 24th (proclamation of independence)|
|Time zone||UTC ± 0|
|License Plate||GUB (not officially also: GNB)|
|ISO 3166||GW , GNB, 624|
Guinea-Bissau [ ɡiˈneːa bɪˈsaʊ̯ ] ( Portuguese Guiné-Bissau [ ɡiˈnɛ biˈsau ]) is a state in Africa . It lies on the west coast of Africa to the Atlantic and borders on Senegal and Guinea . According to the Human Development Index, Guinea-Bissau is one of the least developed countries in the world.
Guinea-Bissau is located in the west of West Africa and Upper Guinea between 13 ° and 17 ° west longitude and 11 ° and 12 ° north latitude. In the north the republic borders on Senegal (common border around 338 km), in the east on Guinea (common border around 386 km), the total length of the border is 724 kilometers plus 350 kilometers of coastline. With a total area of 36,125 km² (28,120 km² land area and 8005 km² water area), the country is around ten percent smaller than Switzerland . The geographic coordinates of the capital Bissau are 11 ° 50 'north latitude and 15 ° 36' west longitude.
The largely flat interior is followed by a coastal strip with a swamp area, which has been severely fissured due to marine erosion . The highest mountain is the Madina do Boé at 262 meters above sea level. The main rivers are Río Gêba , Río Cacheu and Río Corubal .
In front of the mainland lies the Bissagos Archipelago (Arquipélago dos Bijagós) in the Atlantic with the most important islands in the country: Ilha de Orango, Caravela, Bubaque, Roxa, Bolama, Uno and Formosa .
The climate is tropical , mostly humid and hot. The average temperature is 24 ° C. December to April is the dry season with Harmattan desert winds. The rainy season lasts from May to the end of October. The rainiest months are July and August.
The country had 1,449,230 inhabitants in the 2009 census, of whom 746,404 women (51.5%) and 702,826 men (48.5%). These included 1,442,227 nationals (99.52%) and 1,933 nationals from other countries. The majority of immigrants come from the region (27.7% from Guinea, 18.7% from Mauritania and 18.3% from Senegal). Of this small group of foreigners, 5.6% were Portuguese. 5070 people did not provide any information about their nationality. Many residents have emigrated. In 2017 there were around 30,000 citizens living in Portugal and Senegal. According to the 2015 UN report, 22,333 lived in Germany .
Over 25 ethnic groups live in the country, which more or less differ in language, culture and social structure. The results of the last census give the following picture of the native peoples:
The largest part of the population (approx. 83%) consists of the following five ethnic groups:
- Fulbe 410,560 people (28.33%) (regions: Gabú 79.6%, Bafatá 60.0%, Tombali 20.9%, Bissau 18.0%)
- Balanta 323,948 people (22.35%) (regions: Tombali 46.9%, Oio 43.6%, Quinara 35.2%, Cacheu 28.8% and Bissau 20.5%)
- Mandinka 212,269 people (14.65%) (regions: Oio 32.9%, Bafatá 22.9% and Gabú 14.2%)
- Pepel 130,651 people (9.02%) (regions: Biombo 64.7% and Bissau 15.7%)
- Manjaco 119,808 people (8.27%) (Cacheu region 36.8%)
Other important ethnic groups are:
- Biafada 50,543 people (3.49%) (Quinara region 36.7%)
- Mancanha 44,829 people (3.09%) (Cacheu region 36.8%)
- Bidjogo 30,294 people (2.09%) (Bolama / Bissagos Archipelago region 64.3%)
- Felupe 24,892 people (1.72%) (Cacheu region 9.1%)
- Mansoanca Balante 20,456 people (1.41%)
32,098 citizens declared that they did not belong to any of these African ethnic groups. And 1274 people gave no information about their ethnicity.
There are also small minorities of foreigners including:
Although the official language of the country is Portuguese and school instruction takes place exclusively in it, only a few residents have a good command of it; According to the last census from 2009, Portuguese is spoken by a total of 27.1% of the country's population (46.3% in urban areas and 14.7% in rural areas). The literacy rate is around 45 percent. Each ethnic group has its own language, which is also the mother tongue of its members. The lingua franca is Guinea-Pissau Creole , a Creole language based on Portuguese , which is influenced by the languages of the various ethnic groups and is spoken by around 60 percent of the population.
Schools are taught in Portuguese across the country, although the vast majority of children do not speak this language at home. Up until now it has been very difficult to make Creole the language of instruction, as the written form was only recently developed and there are hardly any teaching materials available in this language.
According to the last census in 2009, 45.1% are Muslims , 22.1% Christians (mostly Catholics ) and 14.9% profess African religions . However, 15.9% of the population gave no information on their religious affiliation. These are likely to include several other members of traditional religions. Another 2% declared themselves non-denominational .
There are Muslim majorities in the regions of Gabú (86.5%) and Bafatá (77.1%). Christians are strongly represented in the regions of Bissau (40.2%), Cacheu and Bolama (each over 30%). Followers of African religions are represented above average in the regions Biombo (40.6%) and Cacheu (34.0%).
Immediately after independence, Guinea-Bissau set about building an educational system with great vigor, which - in contrast to the colonial era - was supposed to capture the entire population in a new spirit conveyed by Paulo Freire . However, this impetus was already flagged in the 1980s. Today Guinea-Bissau offers only limited educational opportunities and facilities, and around 40 percent are illiterate . The government is aiming for compulsory schooling for a period of six years. However, only a few children attend school as many are assigned to other tasks by their families, such as: B. in agriculture. In addition, there is not always the possibility of going to school in rural areas. School fees also have to be paid, which makes access to basic education difficult for large parts of the population. The average duration of school attendance is therefore only 2.8 years.
While secondary schools exist in many of the country's larger cities, almost all training centers are concentrated in the capital Bissau. In addition, tuition fees increase with higher grades, making these schools unaffordable for many potential graduates.
Guinea-Bissau has a number of vocational schools and teacher training facilities. The national research institute INEP ( Instituto Nacional de Estudos e Pesquisa ) was founded in 1984. As a pure research institute, however, it does not offer any courses of study itself. The National Historical Archives (Arquivos Históricos Nacionais) and a public library are also attached to the INEP. Since 1990 there has been a faculty for law, the “Faculdade de Direito Bissau”. In the course of the cooperation with Cuba in the medical sector, a faculty for medicine (“Faculdade de Medicina”) was established. Lessons are held here not only in Bissau, but also at other locations in the country. In 2003 two further universities, the private "Universidade Colinas de Boé" and the state "Universidade Amilcar Cabral", were founded. The latter was taken over in 2008 by the Portuguese Grupo Lusófona for three years and currently operates under the name “Universidade Lusófona Guiné”. At the end of 2009, a third university was opened with an offshoot of the Portuguese Instituto Jean Piaget. All of the facilities mentioned are chargeable for students - however, they differ considerably in the amount of the fees.
France, Portugal and Brazil have major cultural centers in Bissau.
The three most important museums in the country are located in the capital Bissau. There is a museum for ethnography or ethnology (Museu ethnografico national da Guinea-Bissau) opened in 1988 in a former building built in the Portuguese colonial style in 1948 with a library of around 14,000 volumes. It is the largest and most famous museum in the country with an extensive collection of ethnological and ethnographic exhibits. Other museums include the Memorial da Escravatura e do Tráfico Negreiro (Memorial Site for Slavery and the Transport of Africans Overseas), a museum dedicated to the history of slavery, and the Museu Militar da Luta de Libertação Nacional (Museum for the Fight for National Freedom), a museum that shows the history of the resistance against the colonial power of Portugal.
There are about 7 doctors per 100,000 population. The HIV - prevalence in adults was approximately 2.5% in the year of 2009. The infant mortality rate is 115 per 1,000 live births, the mortality rate of children under 5 years at 193 per 1,000 live births (2009). In 2015, 28.3% of the population were malnourished. The average life expectancy at birth is given as 57.7 years (as of 2017).
Since the 13th century, the eastern part of today's Guinea-Bissau belonged to the Kingdom of Kaabu . In 1446 the first Portuguese sailors and traders reached the upper Guinea coast. In 1879 the province of Portuguese Guinea was founded. Previously, the Guinea district had been administered from the Cape Verde Islands . Amilcar Lopes Cabral founded the PAIGC on September 19, 1956 and led the war of independence against the Portuguese from 1963 until his assassination in January 1973. In 1972, when the PAIGC controlled most of the country, it held state elections. Guinea-Bissau's independence was proclaimed on September 24, 1973 and recognized by Portugal on September 10 of the following year. To this day, September 24th is Guinea-Bissau's national holiday.
Until 1961, local residents were excluded from voting. In 1961 all received Portuguese citizenship and were able to vote in local elections. Before independence in 1974, women had the right to vote in areas controlled by the PAIGC liberation movement. Women took an active part in the liberation struggles. In 1977 the general active and passive right to vote for women was introduced.
The President of Guinea-Bissau, João Bernardo Vieira , who held this post again from 2005 after a previous presidency from 1980 to 1999, was killed by the military on March 2, 2009 while leaving his home. The murder of Vieira followed almost immediately after the death of Chief of Staff Tagme Na Wai in a bomb attack the previous evening.
A few days later, the President of Parliament Raimundo Pereira was sworn in as the new President and temporarily took over the affairs of state.
On June 5, 2009, Baciro Dabo , who was to run for the upcoming presidential election, and Hélder Proença , the country's former defense minister, were shot dead by soldiers. Former Prime Minister Faustino Imbali was arrested by soldiers. The three supporters of President Vieira, who was assassinated in March, are said to have planned a coup against the incumbent government.
In the early presidential elections on June 28, 2009, Malam Bacai Sanhá , the PAIGC candidate, and Kumba Ialá , the PRS candidate, received the most votes. Malam Bacai Sanhá won the runoff election held on July 26, 2009.
During an attempted coup on April 1, 2010, the head of government Carlos Gomes Junior and the head of the armed forces, Zamora Induta, were arrested by the military. Induta's former deputy, António Indjai, took command. This was followed by clashes between soldiers and angry Gomes supporters. After a few hours, Gomes Junior was released and tried to relativize what had happened as an "incident". Then the situation calmed down again. Tensions within the military leadership are believed to be the background.
On June 25, 2010, António Indjai, the leader of the April 1 mutiny, was appointed Guinea-Bissau's new army chief. Zamora Induta and other officers were detained without trial. On August 2, the President announced that the country would agree to the deployment of an international stabilization force. On December 21, 2010, Zamora Induta and the other officers were released but placed under constant surveillance following an ultimatum from the EU, which threatened to suspend development cooperation with Guinea-Bissau for violating human rights.
President Malam Bacai Sanha died in January 2012 after a long illness.
On April 12, 2012, there was a military coup in the capital Bissau by units led by Mamadu Turé Kuruma . They captured President Raimundo Pereira and Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Júnior and took control of the city. Given that the coup took place between the first round of the presidential election , won by former Prime Minister Carlos Gomes Júnior and his PAIGC party , and the runoff election scheduled for April 29 between him and the second strongest candidate Kumba Ialá , many believe that the motivation of the coup was the prevention of the election of Carlos Gomes Júnior as president. An agreement was reached between the coup plotters and some opposition parties, in particular the PRS of the former President Kumba Ialá, but to the exclusion of the PAIGC, to suspend the constitution in parts for a transitional period of one to two years and not to hold new elections (parliament, president) to let. As part of this agreement, the previous President of Parliament, Manuel Serifo Nhamadjo, was appointed transitional president. Gomes Júnior's PAIGC does not recognize this transitional government, nor does the EU, which also imposed travel sanctions on members of the military command that led the coup. On April 12, 2012, Carlos Domingos Gomes Junior, the favorite in the upcoming presidential election on April 29, was arrested by soldiers at his home. The military took control.
Former finance minister José Mário Vaz won the presidential election on May 18, 2014 with 61% of the vote. He ruled until 2019, making him the country's first president for a full term.
According to the constitution of 1984 Guinea-Bissau is a presidential republic , since 1991 with a multi-party system. The directly elected regional councils send 100 members from among their number to the National People's Assembly, which in turn elects the 15-member State Council, which acts as the executive branch. Since 1991 the office of prime minister (head of government) has been independent again.
In the country report Freedom in the World 2017 by the US non-governmental organization Freedom House , the country's political system is rated as “partially free”. In the “political rights” category, Guinea-Bissau received a grade of 5, while the country also received a grade of 5 for respecting civil rights (grade 1 was the best and 7 the worst). The situation in the country has improved since the 2014 elections, but it remains fragile. In the course of 2016 alone, the country had five different heads of government. In the 2019 democracy index of the British magazine The Economist, Guinea-Bissau ranks 148th out of 167 countries and is considered an "authoritarian regime".
Distribution of seats in the election of March 28, 2004:
- Partido Africano da Independência da Guinea e Cabo Verde ( PAIGC ): 45 of 102 seats.
- Partido para a Renovação Social ( PRS ): 35 out of 102 seats.
- Partido Unido Social Democratico (PUSD): 17 out of 102 seats.
- Other: 3 out of 102 seats.
- 2 seats belonging to the diaspora were not allocated.
The turnout was 75%.
Distribution of seats in the election of November 16, 2008:
- Partido Africano da Independência da Guinea e Cabo Verde ( PAIGC ): 67 seats.
- Partido para a Renovação Social ( PRS ): 28 seats.
- Partido Republicano para a Independência eo Desenvolvimento (PRID): 3 seats.
- Aliança Democrática (AD): 1 seat.
- Partido para a Nova Democracia (PND): 1 seat.
Total: 100 seats. The turnout was 82%.
Distribution of seats in the April 13, 2014 election:
- Partido Africano da Independência da Guinea e Cabo Verde ( PAIGC ): 57 seats
- Partido para a Renovação Social ( PRS ): 41 seats
- Partido da Convergência Democrática ( PCD ): 2 seats
- Partido para a Nova Democracia (PND): 1 seat
- União para a Mudança ( UM ): 1 seat
Total: 102 seats. The turnout was 88.57%.
A general election took place on March 10, 2019, see article in English Wikipedia . The second round of the presidential election took place on December 29, 2019, see Presidential election in Guinea-Bissau 2019 . Former Prime Minister Umaro Sissoco Embaló won the vote. He belongs to the Madem G15 party , a spin-off from the PAIGC. On February 27, 2020, he swore himself in as President. However, the parliament appointed Cipriano Cassama as interim president.
The Republic of Guinea-Bissau has embassies and consulates general in the following countries: Embassies in the Federal Republic of Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Portugal, Russia, China, Iran, Brazil, Cuba, Venezuela, Algeria, Gambia, Guinea-Conakry, Nigeria, Senegal , Morocco, Indonesia. Consulates general in Angola, Argentina, Benin, Cape Verde, Iceland, South Korea, Lebanon, Mauritania, Netherlands, Romania, Slovenia, Sri Lanka.
The following countries are represented with embassies or consulates general in Guinea-Bissau: Embassies of Angola, Brazil, China, Cuba, France, Gambia, Federal Republic of Germany, Guinea-Conakry, Libya, Nigeria, Portugal, Russia, Senegal, South Africa, Spain. Consulates General of Belgium, Cape Verde, India, Italy, Lebanon, Mauritania, Netherlands, Romania, Switzerland, Turkey, Great Britain.
The country has permanent representatives to the African Union, the European Union, the Commission of the Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), the United Nations and UNESCO .
The Vatican City State maintains an Apostolic Nunciature in Bissau.
The armed forces of Guinea-Bissau, consisting of the three branches of the air force, navy and army, have a strength of around 9,250 men. The country has also abolished the death penalty in military criminal law.
The female genital mutilation in Guinea-Bissau continues to be a serious problem. According to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and Terre des Femmes , up to 50% of girls and women between the ages of 15 and 49 are affected. In June 2011, the Guinea-Bissau Parliament passed a law that criminalized female genital mutilation. The Weltfriedensdienst supports the DJINOPI network, which is resolutely opposed to this practice in the country.
Guinea-Bissau is divided into eight regions and an autonomous sector around the capital Bissau . The regions are in turn divided into 37 sectors . For the regions, the respective name of the capital was given in brackets, the sectors are named after their respective capitals. Only for the three sectors of the Bissagos Archipelago are the main places given in brackets.
The largest cities in Guinea-Bissau are (as of March 3, 2009 census): Bissau 387,909 inhabitants, Gabú 43,556 inhabitants, Bafatá 29,556 inhabitants, Canchungo 12,044, Bissorã 9898 inhabitants and Bula 9010 inhabitants.
Guinea-Bissau is one of the poorest countries in the world. For 2016, GDP is estimated at US $ 694 per inhabitant, so that nominal economic growth has been recorded in recent years . Nevertheless, the country still has a very high trade deficit ; practically all industrially processed goods are imported - for the most part from Europe - and their price level is usually high compared to neighboring countries. At the same time, the income of the absolute majority of the population is very low and the income distribution is relatively uneven; for many people it is extremely difficult to meet their basic family needs on a daily basis.
The economy, which was geared to the needs of the colonial power Portugal , was no longer viable after its withdrawal. Your productivity is at the level of a self-sufficient economy . After independence, the company began to build its own national industrial production , but today there is hardly any such thing, partly because many of the industrial facilities were destroyed in the civil war in 1998/99. Today there is a lack of sustainable investments in this sector, investments are only made - if at all - in the exploitation of raw materials from the international side, and for the most part this is only at the planning stage.
After the Corruption Perception Index ( Corruption Perceptions Index ) of Transparency International , Guinea-Bissau in 2017 was of 176 countries, along with Libya , Equatorial Guinea and North Korea on the 171st place, with 17 out of a maximum 100 points. This makes the country one of the most corrupt in the world. In 2018, the country was ranked 176 out of 190 countries in the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index .
Before the CFA franc was introduced, which was from 1975 to 1997 Guinea- peso ( PG ) 100 centavos the currency of Guinea-Bissau.
All GDP values are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).
(purchasing power parity)
|0.44 billion||0.62 billion||0.84 billion||1.14 billion||1.37 billion||1.65 billion||1.73 billion||1.84 billion||1.94 billion||2.02 billion||2.14 billion||2.36 billion||2.36 billion||2.47 billion||2.54 billion||2.73 billion||2.92 billion||3.14 billion|
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
(as a percentage of GDP)
More than 90% of the population work in agriculture. Rice , corn , millet , cassava , yams , potatoes and sugar cane can be grown . 38.1% of the area of Guinea-Bissau is forested, 12.0% is used for agriculture, 38.4% for pasture and 11.5% for other purposes (1994).
The country has phosphates , bauxite , petroleum , gas and gold in terms of mineral resources . Large deposits of bauxite were found on the south-western border with Guinea in the Boé region and in the north of the country near Farim. An Angolan mining company plans to begin exploration in the Boé region soon. A deep-sea port is also to be built in Buba for this purpose. In the oil sector, 14 blocks are available for production, most of which have already been awarded.
There is no export of industrial goods. Products from agriculture, forestry and fishing such as peanuts , palm kernels and palm oil , shrimp and wood are exported . In recent years, cashew nuts have been grown and exported more and more, so that Guinea-Bissau is now the sixth largest producer of cashew nuts in the world. They make up 85% of export earnings.
According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime , Guinea-Bissau and the Republic of Guinea were an important hub for cocaine smuggling from South America via West Africa to Europe from 2004 to 2007. Both the domestic political events in the two countries and international efforts to combat cocaine smuggling in the region led to a significant decline in transports in 2008 and 2009. The events of April 1, 2010 in Bissau heralded the revival of the transport route via Guinea -Bissau a. The former head of the navy Rear Admiral Bubo na Tchuto , who was involved in the events, and the acting air force chief Ibraima Papa Camara were accused of drug smuggling by US authorities in April and their accounts in the US were frozen. In 2012, 800 to 1,000 kilograms of cocaine reached the country every night.
The state budget in 2016 comprised expenditure of the equivalent of US $ 213 million , which was offset by income of the equivalent of US $ 171 million. This results in a budget deficit of 3.5% of GDP .
The national debt in 2016 was 46.7% of GDP.
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
The only commercial airport is in Bissau ( Aeroporto Internacional Osvaldo Vieira de Bissau ). Today it is served by five airlines with routes to Portugal , Morocco , Cape Verde and Senegal . The only national airline was Air Bissau , which was discontinued in 1998 .
There has been no rail traffic in Guinea-Bissau until now, apart from a small port railway in Bissau at the end of the 19th century until the 1940s. Aided by a positive economic development up to 1997, the first rough plans arose in cooperation with Portugal, which, from 1998, considered the construction of the first railway with a connection to rail traffic in Guinea . However, they did not reach a concrete stage, especially after the country's ongoing crisis following the 1998 coup.
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- After the death of his first lover, 30 years of memories of Couto pass by: pictures of her, triumphant concerts by their band around the world, tragedies of the liberation struggle. The city is under high tension. Everyone is expecting the impending coup by the generals. Then the musicians decide to give a concert for the deceased singer. As the evening settles in the city, nobody seems to remember the hits of the former famous band at first. You can already hear the first shots. The coup begins, but so does the concert in the Chiringuitó.