from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
República de Moçambique
Republic of Mozambique
Flag of Mozambique
Mozambique coat of arms
flag emblem
Official language Portuguese
Capital Maputo
State and form of government presidential republic
Head of state President Filipe Nyusi
Head of government Prime Minister Carlos Agostinho do Rosário
surface 801,590 km²
population 28,861,863 (2017 census)
Population density 31 inhabitants per km²
Population development + 2.45% (2016 estimate)
gross domestic product
  • Nominal
  • Total ( PPP )
  • GDP / inh. (nominal)
  • GDP / inh. (KKP)
  • $ 14.40 billion ( 127. )
  • $ 39.18 billion ( 120th )
  • 475 USD ( 185. )
  • 1,292 USD ( 186. )
Human Development Index 0.456 ( 181. ) (2019)
currency New Metical (MZN)
independence June 25, 1975 (from Portugal )
National anthem Patria Amada
Time zone UTC + 2
License Plate MOC
ISO 3166 MZ , MOZ, 508
Internet TLD .mz
Phone code +258
Ägypten Tunesien Libyen Algerien Marokko Mauretanien Senegal Gambia Guinea-Bissau Guinea Sierra Leone Liberia Elfenbeinküste Ghana Togo Benin Nigeria Äquatorialguinea Kamerun Gabun Republik Kongo Angola Demokratische Republik Kongo Namibia Südafrika Lesotho Eswatini Mosambik Tansania Kenia Somalia Dschibuti Eritrea Sudan Ruanda Uganda Burundi Sambia Malawi Simbabwe Botswana Äthiopien Südsudan Zentralafrikanische Republik Tschad Niger Mali Burkina Faso Jemen Oman Vereinigte Arabische Emirate Saudi-Arabien Irak Iran Kuwait Katar Bahrain Israel Syrien Libanon Jordanien Zypern Türkei Afghanistan Turkmenistan Pakistan Griechenland Italien Malta Frankreich Portugal Madeira Spanien Kanaren Kap Verde Mauritius Réunion Mayotte Komoren Seychellen Îles Éparses Madagaskar São Tomé und Príncipe Sri Lanka Indien Indonesien Bangladesch Volksrepublik China Nepal Bhutan Myanmar Antarktika Südgeorgien (Vereinigtes Königreich) Paraguay Uruguay Argentinien Bolivien Brasilien Frankreich (Französisch-Guayana) Suriname Guyana Kolumbien Kanada Dänemark (Grönland) Island Mongolei Norwegen Schweden Finnland Irland Vereinigtes Königreich Niederlande Barbados Belgien Dänemark Schweiz Österreich Deutschland Slowenien Kroatien Tschechische Republik Slowakei Ungarn Polen Russland Litauen Lettland Estland Weißrussland Moldau Ukraine Nordmazedonien Albanien Montenegro Bosnien und Herzegowina Serbien Bulgarien Rumänien Georgien Aserbaidschan Armenien Kasachstan Usbekistan Tadschikistan Kirgisistan RusslandMozambique on the globe (Africa centered) .svg
About this picture
Template: Infobox State / Maintenance / NAME-GERMAN

Mozambique [ mozamˈbiːk, mozamˈbɪk ] ( Portuguese Moçambique [ mʊsɐ̃ˈbik ]) is a state in Southeast Africa . The capital is Maputo , other important cities are Matola , Beira and Nampula . Mozambique has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations since November 12, 1995 . The national holiday is June 25, Independence Day (1975).

Mozambique is located on the Indian Ocean between the 10th and 27th southern latitude . The state borders Tanzania , Malawi , Zambia , Zimbabwe , South Africa, and Eswatini . The Mozambique Strait separates the island nation of Madagascar from mainland Africa.

After years of civil war, it is one of the poorest countries in the world. The country has seen an upswing in recent years.


Location and description

Along the 2800 km long coast is a broad coastal lowlands. It covers most of the south, but it narrows from the mouth of the Zambezi to the north. Behind the coast the land rises in stages up to the approximately 1000 m high plateau of the high field. The highest mountain is Monte Binga in the province of Manica (on the border with Zimbabwe) with 2436 m.

With a land area of ​​801,590 km² , Mozambique ranks 34th in the world. 18% of the country's area is forest and scrubland, 4% arable land, 55% meadows and pastures.

The extension of the country is 2000 km in the north-south direction and 50 to 600 km in the west-east direction. The coast on the Indian Ocean is 2800 km long.

Mozambique has 4,571 km of national borders, of which 756 km with Tanzania, 1569 km with Malawi, 419 km with Zambia, 1231 km with Zimbabwe, 491 km with South Africa and 105 km with Eswatini.


A savannah climate with a wet and a dry season prevails. In the rainy season, which runs from November to April, around 80% of the annual precipitation falls. Depending on the region, these fluctuate between 700 and 1500 mm per year. While the temperatures during the rainy season are humid and hot (tropical), the dry season is mainly characterized by significantly cooler nights. All year round the daytime temperatures are between 25 and 30 ° C, inland up to 35 ° C. The nights are sometimes very humid at around 15 to 25 ° C, especially on the coast.

In a few years, around 2007/2008, there was unusually high rainfall, which caused deaths and threatened harvests. Overall, the country experiences high climate variability and frequent extreme weather events (especially droughts, floods, tropical cyclones). Droughts are the most common catastrophes, occur around every three to four years and make the country's development extremely difficult. Regarding the consequences of global warming , it is assumed that, although cyclones may occur less frequently, their intensity and thus the precipitation is likely to increase. In 2019, cyclones Idai and Kenneth were unusually intense and caused severe damage. These weather events can also lead to increased erosion in the coastal area. Since a large part of the population and especially many poor people in rural areas live from rain-fed farming, they are particularly susceptible to changes in precipitation patterns.


The country's numerous rivers flow eastward from the highlands into the Mozambique Strait. The largest river is the Zambezi (2,574 km), which is dammed in western Mozambique by the Cahora Bassa Dam . Other large rivers are the Rovuma , the border river to Tanzania , as well as the Save and the Limpopo . Lake Malawi forms part of the border with Malawi ; its outflow is the Shire , which flows into the Zambezi. Together with the Lurio , the catchment areas of these rivers make up over half of the country. However, due to its geography, Mozambique only has a comparatively small proportion of the catchment areas of the international rivers.


The predominant vegetation is the dry savannah with dry grassland and some dry forests. Some of the trees in the savannah shed their leaves in the dry season and turn green in the course of the rainy season. Typical trees of the dry savannah are umbrella acacias and baobabs . The grass is brown and withered in the dry season, but gets up to 2 meters high during the rainy season .



Population pyramid of Mozambique (2016)
Population development in millions of inhabitants

The average life expectancy at birth was 60.9 years in 2019. 44.4% of the population were under 15 years old in 2019 and just under 3% over 65. The total fertility rate was 4.8 children per woman. The rate was around 6.5 children per woman in 1970 and has been falling continuously since then. One of the reasons for this is that more and more married women are using modern contraceptive methods. From 2008 to 2019 the rate increased from 12% to 50%. The country has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world (12.3%), which is slowing down population growth. This was 2.9% in 2019.

According to the UN's average population forecast, a population of over 65 million is expected for the year 2050.

year population
1950 06,152,000
1960 07,389,000
1970 09,162,000
1980 11,848,000
1990 13,248,000
2000 18,068,000
2010 24,221,000
2020 31,255,000
2030 41,185,000

Ethnic groups

Woman harvesting corn

The majority of the total population belongs to Bantu peoples . The Makua make up the largest population with around 40% of the population , while the Tsonga are also an influential group with 21% . The Yao , who also live in Malawi , make up 12% of the population, with 11% the Makonde in the northeast are also a strong minority. The East African Swahili ethnic group lives in the coastal area and makes up 7% of the population. In addition, the Chewa still live in the country with a share of 4% of the population - their main settlement area is Malawi. The smaller minority of the 3% Shona in the west in turn forms the majority of the population in Zimbabwe .

In 2017, 0.8% of the population was born abroad. Furthermore, many people with a migration background (Indians, Pakistani , Chinese ), Europeans (especially Portuguese ) and South Africans live in Mozambique . The return of almost five million internally displaced persons to their hometowns and the return of 1.7 million refugees from neighboring countries after the end of the Mozambican civil war as well as around 15,000 Mozambicans from the former German Democratic Republic , so-called Madgermanes , pose great challenges for the country.

Mozambique has a significant diaspora in South Africa. In 2017, around 680,000 people from Mozambique lived there. Other countries with many Mozambicans abroad are Zimbabwe (90,000) and Portugal (70,000).


Knowledge of Portuguese (2007)
available 50.37%
unavailable 48.72%
k. A. 00.90%
Most spoken language at home (2007 and 1998)
Portuguese 2,088,798 12.78% 489.915 3.0%
Makua 4,153,811 25.42% 4.007.010 24.8%
Changana 1,710,801 10.47% 1,799,614 11.2%
Chilomwe 1,132,755 6.93% 1,269,527 7.9%
Sena 1,171,673 7.17% 1,807,319 11.2%
Chuwabo 733.926 4.49%
Other Mozambican language 4,718,907 28.87%  
Other foreign language 30,969 0.19%  
KA 5.118 0.03%
Unknown 596.735 3.65%
Total 16,343,493 100.00% 16.135.403 100.00%

In total, over 40 languages ​​are spoken in the country. The native languages ​​are part of the Bantu language group . According to the 2007 census, Portuguese , the only official language, is now spoken by around 12% of the total population (mainly in cities) as their mother tongue, but around 25% in Maputo. A good 50% speak Portuguese as a second language alongside their native language. Most Mozambicans speak more than one native language. In addition to the official Portuguese language, the most important languages ​​include (sorted according to the number of speakers):

  • Makua , also eMakhuwa - the most important language in northern Mozambique, is spoken by 25.3% of the population according to a 2007 census. 40% of the population are considered to be ethnic Makua. These speak different variants within an eMakua dialect continuum or also "Makhuwa languages" - according to Ethnologue nine in Mozambique - of which "Central Makhuwa" - in 2006 with 3.09 million speakers - also simply as "eMakhuwa" or "eMakua" " referred to as.
  • Changana - spoken by 10.7% of the population in the southwest of Maputo Province and Gaza Province, also called Ronga in Maputo city; the ethnic Tsonga population is 21%
  • Sena - in the Sofala province of 7.5% of the population
  • Chilomwe - 7% of the population (closely related to eMakhua)
  • Chuwabo - 5.1% of the population
  • Swahili - in the north (border with Tanzania)
  • ChiMakonde - in the northeast ( Cabo Delgado province )
  • Chichewa - also called Nyanja; in the west ( province of Tete ), the area borders on Zambia and Malawi , where this language is also spoken.
  • Shona - spoken by the Shona people
  • Ndau - spoken in Sofala Province, related to the Shona language
  • Tswa - in the southeast ( Inhambane Province )

Among the foreign languages, highlight those spoken by the Chinese, Indian, and Pakistani immigrants.


According to a 2007 survey, a total of 28.4% of the population are Roman Catholic (mainly in the south and southwest) and 17.9% Muslim (mainly Sunnis , mainly in the north and in the coastal regions). 15.5% are Zionist Christians . Protestants make up 12.2% of the population, of which 10.9% are Pentecostals and 1.3% are Anglicans . 6.7% belong to other religions, mostly traditional religions . 18.7% do not belong to any religion and 0.7% are not recorded.

Social situation


According to UNICEF, there are 1.5 million orphans in Mozambique (including 470,000 AIDS orphans). Child labor is a major problem due to poverty, as many families depend on the money that children make. Only 6% of those under five have a birth certificate. Millions of children who do not have a document are exposed to abuse, child labor, forced marriage and weapon service. Without a birth certificate there is no state protection. About 32% of the children work in fields, markets, as shoe cleaners or as beggars. The situation of older people is precarious. The state pension is the equivalent of only five US dollars. The unemployment rate was 24.5% in 2017.


Elementary schools

In Mozambique, almost 40% of adults cannot read or write. 55% of women are illiterate. Since the end of the war in 1992, Mozambique has made great efforts to provide elementary education. 80% of the children now go to school for 5 years, while 30% continue to attend school until the 6th or 7th grade. The average class size is 74 children, and even more in rural areas. Despite progress, Mozambique has too few classrooms, school furniture and school books. Many teachers take part in the nationwide campaign to improve the quality of teaching in primary schools.

Colleges and universities


Development of child mortality (deaths per 1000 births)

AIDS is a major problem in Mozambique: 12.3% of adults (15 to 49 years of age) are HIV- positive (as of 2016). That's about 1.5 million people. AIDS poses a great danger for anyone who is at risk of infection: unprotected sexual contacts , unclean syringes or cannulas and blood transfusions can pose a considerable risk.

Flood disasters, especially along the Zambezi, encourage the spread of cholera . From the end of 2003 a severe cholera epidemic spread in Mozambique, especially in the Maputo province . A valid yellow fever vaccination is required when entering from a yellow fever area. Occasionally, it is required at the border when entering from non-endemic areas.

Medical care in the country is often problematic in terms of technology, equipment and / or hygiene. There is also often a lack of well-trained doctors.

Only 48% of births can receive medical care. In 2019, infant mortality was 51 out of 1,000 live births, child mortality was 69 out of 1,000 live births, and maternal mortality was 489 out of 100,000 live births (as of 2015).

The drinking water supply in the country is very poor. According to WHO and UNICEF, not even every second person in Mozambique has access to clean drinking water, a UN human right since 2010 .

The malnutrition rate decreased from 40.3% in 2000 to 26.6% in 2015.

Development of life expectancy
Period Life expectancy Period Life expectancy
1950-1955 35.0 1985-1990 44.4
1955-1960 1990-1995
1960-1965 1995-2000 48.0
1965-1970 40.9 2000-2005 49.9
1970-1975 2005-2010 51.1
1975-1980 2010-2015 54.2
1980-1985 2015-2020 60.1


Before the great explorations of the Europeans, Arabs had ruled the coast off Africa for centuries. They traded between Africa, the Orient and India in gold, ivory and African slaves. The first Portuguese to land in Sofala in 1497 was Pedro da Covilhã , who was commissioned by the Portuguese king to explore the sea route from Arabia to East Africa . In 1498 Vasco da Gama reached Mozambique on the way to India: On the island of Mozambique he met the Sheikh Moussa Ben Mbiki , from whom the name Mozambique is derived. The Portuguese then seized these trading centers and penetrated inland along the Zambezi in search of gold . For centuries the Portuguese were content with trading slaves and cared little about the population. Their rule lasted into the 20th century, and living conditions in the colonies deteriorated considerably as a result of forced labor, exploitative employment contracts and ruthless treatment. Until 1898, the city of Ilha de Moçambique was the country's capital. She also gave the country its name.

Flag of Lourenço Marques around 1900

In 1890 Portugal had to give in to British pressure and renounce the connection between Angola and Mozambique to form a closed South African colonial empire. Instead, the influence of British capital increased considerably in the Portuguese colonies. Negotiations about a British-German alliance led to the Angola Treaty as early as 1898 : In the event that Portugal should need money, Germany and Great Britain agreed on a joint loan, for which the Portuguese colonies were intended as pledge. In the event of the expected insolvency of Portugal, Angola and northern Mozambique should go to Germany, and southern Mozambique to Great Britain. In return, Germany refrained from supporting the Boers in their fight against Great Britain. The agreement was concluded on August 30, 1898, but never implemented and was undermined in 1899 by the extension of the British guarantee of protection ( Windsor Treaty ) for Portugal and all of its possessions. In 1913, a new treaty between Great Britain and the German Empire was concluded in which Mozambique was divided. The area north of the Zambezi was assigned to Germany and the area south of it to England. On July 27, 1914, Chancellor Theodor von Bethmann Hollweg London approved the publication of the contract, which had been kept secret until then. Then the outbreak of the First World War in August 1914 made its implementation impossible. So Angola and Mozambique initially remained in the possession of Portugal. During the war, however, South Africa declared 1915 throughout Mozambique conquest goal, and from 1917 the attracted German colonial troops in German East Africa struggling to Mozambique back and occupied until 1918 in fact much of the northern half. As compensation, Portuguese East Africa received the Kionga Triangle at the Peace of Versailles in 1919 .

Before 1961, the right to vote in elections for the Portuguese Parliament and the various colonial legislative assemblies was restricted: local residents were barely allowed to vote. In 1961, all citizens of the colonies received Portuguese citizenship and were able to vote in local and city council elections. Nevertheless, Europeans still had more civil rights than the black African population.

In 1962 the freedom movement FRELIMO was founded. The more the Portuguese clung to their colonial possessions, the more radical FRELIMO's will to resist became. In 1964 the resistance fighters went into armed struggle, which ended very successfully in the north. But only after the Carnation Revolution and the overthrow of the dictatorial regime in Portugal did Mozambique gain independence as the People's Republic of Mozambique on June 25, 1975, after almost 500 years as a colony . Samora Machel became the first president in 1975, but not through general elections. With independence on June 25, 1975, universal active and passive suffrage was introduced. This also achieved general women's suffrage .

In 1986 the FRELIMO president died in a plane crash . In the FRELIMO the Marxist forces prevailed. Since they had the state under control, all important posts were occupied by their men. They nationalized industry and founded agricultural production cooperatives. But the emigration of European skilled workers severely weakened the country's economy. In the mid-seventies a new resistance movement arose, which was supported by South Africa and Rhodesia - the RENAMO . In contrast to z. B. for the Angolan UNITA , the RENAMO, which only emerged after independence, never fought against the Portuguese colonial power and therefore had little moral support in the Mozambican opposition.

Nevertheless, the country fell into a 16-year civil war between FRELIMO and RENAMO in 1976 , which led to a complete economic collapse. Mozambique received support e.g. B. after 1980 from Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia), which sent 10,000 soldiers to secure the Beira corridor. In 1983 there were 750 military advisers and trainers from Cuba , 600 from the Soviet Union and 100 from the GDR in the country . But only after the signing of the peace treaty, the General Peace Agreement of Rome , and with the help of UN peacekeepers, the country was stabilized and the first opposition party was founded. Mozambique has been a member of the Commonwealth of Nations since 1995 . Along with Cameroon , Rwanda and Namibia , Mozambique is one of the Commonwealth countries that were not previously a British colony. Large-scale white emigration, economic dependency on South Africa, a persistent drought and protracted civil war hampered the country's economic development. Since turning away from Marxism-Leninism and the one-party rule of FRELIMO, the Renamo has established itself as a political party and has been the parliamentary opposition in the country since 1994. The first democratic elections were held under the supervision of ONUMOZ in October 1994. From it emerged the consolidation of the old government, and after pressure from neighboring countries RENAMO accepted the seats in parliament, thus forming the opposition.

The democratization of the country was thanks to President Joaquim Alberto Chissanó, who came to power after Samora Machel . Chissano's services to democracy, the drafting of a constitution with a multi-party system, the normalization of relations with neighboring South Africa and, in particular, the fact that after two terms in office he renounced another candidacy for president and paved the way for a successor brought him in October 2007 after the end of his presidency the Mo Ibrahim Foundation Prize for Good Governance.

In February 2000, heavy rains caused a catastrophic flood that claimed numerous lives.

In October 2013, reports of increasing fighting between the former civil war parties fueled fears of the termination of the 1992 peace agreement - at least a spokesman for RENAMO announced this as a possible consequence of the capture of the RENAMO headquarters near Gorongosa by government troops. On August 6, 2019, FRELIMO and RENAMO signed a peace agreement.


Political indices
Name of the index Index value Worldwide rank Interpretation aid year
Fragile States Index 91.7 out of 120 27 of 178 Stability of the country: Alarm
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
Democracy index 3.85 out of 10 116 of 167 Authoritarian regime
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
Freedom in the World 45 of 100 --- Freedom status: partially free
0 = not free / 100 = free
Freedom of the press ranking 33.79 out of 100 104 of 180 Recognizable problems for the freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 26 of 100 146 of 180 0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean 2019

In the Fragile States Index, Mozambique is one of the ten countries that have deteriorated the most in the last decade of 2010–20. In 2006, the country was 45th in the ranking of press freedom.

Political system

Filipe Nyusi , President of Mozambique since 2014

The then ruling FRELIMO government officially renounced Marxism in 1989. The constitution, drawn up the following year, guarantees free elections in a multi-party system and a free market economy . According to this constitution, Mozambique is a presidential republic. The president is the head of state and commander in chief of the armed forces. In the latter function, he is advised by the Council for National Defense and Security, which is elected by parliament on the basis of party proportional representation. The President also has the task of appointing the Prime Minister.

The president is directly elected for five years and can be re-elected once. In the presidential election in 2014 , the former defense minister was Filipe Nyusi (FRELIMO) was elected president. In January 2015 he appointed Carlos Agostinho do Rosário as Prime Minister of Mozambique. Presidential elections were held again in 2019 , in which, according to the Election Commission, Nyusi won with around 73% of the vote.

The legislature consists of a unicameral parliament . The Assembly of the Republic ( Assembleia da República in Portuguese ) has 250 members who are elected for a five-year term using proportional representation. In the last parliamentary elections in 2019, which take place at the same time as the presidential elections, FRELIMO won 184 (2014: 144) of the 250 seats and thus has a constitution-changing majority. The RENAMO received 60 (2014: 89) mandates that MDM 6 (2014: 17). The elections were overshadowed by violence, targeted killings, irregularities and allegations of fraud. The opposition criticizes the elections as neither free nor fair. The elections were the most undemocratic since the introduction of the multi-party system.

Judicial system

The conditions of detention are extremely harsh and have already resulted in several deaths. The courts are understaffed and the under-trained judges work inefficiently and are influenced by the ruling party. Police used excessive force during demonstrations and arrests of criminal suspects , according to Amnesty International . 13 inmates suffocated in police custody in an overcrowded prison cell. Two police officers had to answer in this context in court. A high-ranking police officer was convicted of murder for an extrajudicial execution in 2007.

Human rights

Serious human rights violations were also reported in 2009: freedom of the press is severely restricted and independent media are hindered. Social problems such as domestic violence, discrimination against women, abuse, exploitation, child labor, and discrimination against sexual minorities and people living with HIV / AIDS remain widespread, according to annual human rights reports from the U.S. Department of State. There are also repeated attacks, discrimination and acts of violence due to the sexual orientation of people. Homosexuality has not been considered a criminal offense since 2015.

In 2016, according to reports, renewed fighting between government forces and RENAMO resulted in human rights violations. An offshoot of the terrorist group “ Islamic State ” has been spreading since 2015 .

Foreign policy

Relations with India (Mozambique has an economically significant Indian diaspora ), Brazil (due to linguistic and cultural similarities) and the People's Republic of China , which invests heavily in the country's infrastructure and the development of raw materials, are of growing importance for Mozambique . Due to its location on the Indian Ocean, the growing economy and its raw material deposits, it is increasingly becoming the destination of large international companies. Relations with the states of the European Union and the United States are good and are being intensified on both sides. The relationship with the former colonial power Portugal is close and friendly, but not always without tension.

Important multilateral organizations of which Mozambique is a member include: the African Union and the Development Community in Southern Africa (SADC), the Commonwealth of Nations , the United Nations , the Organization for Islamic Cooperation , the Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries . Mozambique is actively involved in these organizations. Mozambique could z. B. successfully mediate in a border dispute between Tanzania and Malawi within the framework of SADC.


In 2017, Mozambique spent just under 3.1 percent of its national budget economic output or 103 million US dollars on its armed forces.

Administrative structure

Territorial division

Provinz Maputo Provinz Maputo Provinz Inhambane Provinz Gaza Provinz Manica Provinz Sofala Provinz Niassa Provinz Cabo Delgado Provinz Nampula Provinz Zambezia Provinz Tete Tansania Sambia Malawi Eswatini Simbabwe Südafrika
Map of the provinces of Mozambique

Mozambique is divided into ten provinces and the capital province , including 141 districts, which in turn are divided into 415 postos administrativos (administrative districts) with 1024 localidades (places), each of which usually still includes several localities (Povoações) and villages (Aldeias) .

The eleven provinces of Mozambique:

province Capital Population 2017 Human
Development Index 2017
Cabo Delgado Pemba 2,333,278 0.374
Gaza Xai-Xai 1,446,654 0.430
Inhambane Inhambane 1,496,824 0.462
Manica Chimoio 1,911,237 0.472
Maputo (capital) - 1,101,170 0.606
Maputo (province) Maputo 2,507,098 0.523
Nampula Nampula 6,102,867 0.430
Niassa Lichinga 1,865,976 0.408
Sofala Beira 2,221,803 0.463
Tete Tete 2,764,169 0.388
Zambézia Quelimane 5,110,787 0.407


The largest cities are the capital Maputo with 1,101,170 inhabitants, Matola with 1,616,267 inhabitants, Nampula with 743,125 and Beira with 533,825 inhabitants (2017). The Maputo metropolitan area had 2,717,437 million inhabitants in the same year.


Development and location

The gross domestic product (GDP) for 2017 is estimated at 12.7 billion US dollars. In purchasing power parity, GDP is US $ 36.7 billion or US $ 1200 per inhabitant. Real growth was 3.0%. At the beginning of the 1990s Mozambique was still the poorest country in the world. Since then, GDP per capita has increased almost tenfold thanks to economic growth driven by the extraction of raw materials. However, the majority of the population continues to live in modest circumstances.

Mozambique's economy is largely based on agriculture . In the 1980s, the economy was weakened by the civil war, the brain drain and several periods of drought. At that time, most of the plantations and industries were owned by the state. It was not until 1990 that the government introduced the free market economy .

The currency of Mozambique is the metical . 1 metical = 100 centavos. Until 2006, 1 euro was equivalent to approximately 34,500 meticals, 1 Swiss franc to 22,300 meticals. On July 1, 2006, all monetary amounts were divided by 1,000. New conversion: 1 euro corresponds to approximately 42.5 meticals, 1 Swiss franc corresponds to 35 meticals.

In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Mozambique was ranked 136th out of 137 countries (2017–18). In 2017, the country was ranked 158th out of 180 countries in the Index for Economic Freedom .


Traditional fishing boat


Although over 80% of the workforce is employed in agriculture, they only produce 24% of the gross domestic product (GDP). The main agricultural products are cashew nuts , sugar cane , cotton and tea . Bananas, tobacco, citrus fruits, sisal and oil palms are also grown. The attempt to cultivate the jatropha plant , which originates from Central America and is considered to be ecologically undemanding, for the production of vegetable oil on a large scale in Mozambique failed. A project plantation of the German company Elaion AG was abandoned after five years in 2011 because the expected economic gains did not materialize.

Most of the annual logging is used as fuel . The coastal fishing has evolved in recent years become an important economic factor. Mainly tuna and shrimp are fished .

There is an institute for research and development in Mozambican cotton cultivation, the Instituto do Algodão de Moçambique (IAM). Its seat is in Maputo. It has branches in Montepuez, Nampula, Beira and Maxixe.

ProSavana project

From 2008 a major project for the fundamental restructuring of the agricultural sector was pursued in northern Mozambique under the leadership of a Brazilian-Japanese consortium, which was dealt with at the 2009 G8 summit in L'Aquila between Tarō Asō and Luiz Ignácio da Silva . The project, called ProSavana, was part of an agricultural project in the so-called Nacala Development Corridor, an area of ​​around 14 million hectares . The area planned for the ProSavana project comprised around six million hectares. This affected the three provinces of Niassa, Nampula and Zambezia, as well as adjacent areas in the neighboring provinces of Manica and Cabo Delgado. Instead of the predominant smallholder agriculture there on communal land, large agro-industrial companies are to ensure that this sector makes a significant contribution to the country's economic growth through the production of food and other agricultural raw materials for the domestic market, but above all for export. This point of view was represented in particular by the most important project partner, the Brazilian management consultant GV Agro , who belongs to the think tank Fundação Getúlio Vargas and was headed by the former Brazilian Minister of Agriculture Roberto Rodrigues.

Increasing productivity through technology transfer and foreign investment was essential for ProSavana . Similar to the tropical savannah regions of Brazil , the Cerrado , where in the 1970s Japanese engineers set up extensive soy monocultures with Brazilian capital , soy, sunflowers and cotton as well as other raw materials for the global and especially the Chinese market were to be found in Mozambique on a large scale be cultivated. The trilateral project was only partially implemented with mostly Japanese start-up financing of 38 million US dollars as well as Brazilian technology and know-how . According to the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), it was "one of the world's largest three-way cooperation projects". No environmental impact assessments or social impact assessments have come to light. At the beginning of April 2013, representatives of the three participating countries Japan, Brazil and Mozambique signed an agreement to implement the joint agricultural project. The ProSavana master plan, dated March 2013, was made public at the end of April .

Within Mozambican smallholder associations and in circles of advisers from international development cooperation, there were fears that Brazil, with its agricultural model, could also export the country's social contradictions to Africa. Earlier experiences with the expropriation and eviction of small farmers in favor of the Portuguese-Mozambican joint venture Agromoz (consisting of Corticeira Amorim and Intelec ) led to the local mobilization against ProSavana . In November 2012 Mozambique's smallholder association UNAC (União Nacional de Camponeses / National Peasants' Union), together with Via Campesina and GRAIN , for sustainable and people-centered rural development, went public with a declaration on ProSavana . Among other things, Transparency and access to the planning documents. Up to that point in time, hardly any information on this project was available within Mozambique. The movement soon gained national and international attention, as 23 Mozambican and later around 40 international organizations, including scientists and farmers' associations, showed solidarity with it and was able to win over members of the Japanese parliament for their cause, who brought down the project. In mid-2018, the project was temporarily buried.

Mineral raw materials and raw materials management

Moatize coal mine , northeast of the town of Tete

Mozambique has some mineral raw material deposits. There are deposits of diamonds and other precious stones as well as gold and copper , useful stones such as gabbros , granite and marbles , industrial minerals such as bauxite , beryl , corundum , mica , graphite , and also deposits with economically interesting contents of tin , rare earth metals ( davidite ), niobium and tantalum as well as heavy mineral sands . There are also deposits of energy resources such as natural gas and hard coal .

Probably the largest coal deposits in the world are thought to be in the northwest of the country. 23 billion tons are said to be stored in the province of Tete near the border with Malawi . Due to logistical problems, these deposits could not be used so far. A 525-kilometer rail link is planned with which the coal will be transported to the coast of the Zambezia province of the south-east African country. New port facilities are planned there, which will have a capacity to load 20 million tons of coal per year.

The aluminum smelter Mozal , built in 1998, processes imported bauxite into aluminum, which is now Mozambique's most important export. The operation of the smelter makes a significant contribution of 7% to Mozambique's gross domestic product and has halved Mozambique's foreign trade deficit.

Other raw materials in the country are little used. Mozambique's industry is mainly limited to the processing of agricultural products.

Key figures

All GDP values ​​are given in US dollars ( purchasing power parity ).

year 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
(purchasing power parity)
2.09 billion 2.10 billion 3.19 billion 4.29 billion 8.04 billion 13.83 billion 15.66 billion 17.27 billion 18.82 billion 20.17 billion 21.78 billion 23.81 billion 26.00 billion 28.30 billion 30.96 billion 33.35 billion 35.05 billion 36.73 billion
GDP per capita
(purchasing power parity)
0172 0157 0235 0268 0440 0658 0720 0772 0818 0853 0896 0952 1.010 1,069 1,136 1,192 1,219 1,244
GDP growth
4.2% 1.0% 1.0% 2.2% 1.7% 8.7% 9.9% 7.4% 6.9% 6.4% 6.7% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 7.4% 6.6% 3.8% 3.0%
(in percent)
02.0 30.8 43.7 47.7 12.7 06.4 13.2 08.2 10.3 03.3 12.7 10.4 02.1 04.2 02.3 02.4 19.2 15.3
Public debt (
as a percentage of GDP)
... ... ... ... 118 070 047 036 036 042 043 038 040 053 062 088 119 102

Foreign trade

The trade balance Mozambique is still very negative. The main exports are cashew nuts, crustaceans , cotton and sugar. Aluminum has been the most important export product for several years . Machines , electronic devices , crude oil , food and consumer goods are imported . China is the main trading partner.

State budget

The state budget in 2016 comprised expenditure of the equivalent of 3.6 billion US dollars , which was offset by income of the equivalent of 2.5 billion US dollars. This results in a budget deficit of 9.3% of GDP .
The national debt in 2016 was 88.6% of GDP.

In 2006 and 2009, the share of government expenditure (in% of GDP) was in the following areas:

From 2004 to 2016, Switzerland provided budget support in Mozambique totaling 93.7 million Swiss francs . According to the Swiss Federal Council , these measures contributed to poverty reduction. After it became known that the Mozambican government had authorized secret loans to three semi-public companies amounting to around US $ 2 billion without parliamentary approval, Switzerland and the International Monetary Fund discontinued budget support to the Mozambique government in April 2016. As a result, the US Securities and Exchange Commission ( SEC) initiated an investigation against the Swiss Credit Suisse , the French BNP Paribas and the Russian VTB . As a result, in early 2019, federal court in Brooklyn brought charges of suspected corruption , money laundering and securities fraud . This affects three former employees of Credit Suisse and the then finance minister of Mozambique Manuel Chang (from the Guebuza II cabinet ) and a Lebanese entrepreneur.

The already financially unstable country fell into a debt crisis due to the hidden loans. Mozambique has been insolvent since 2017.


In 2015, the road network had a length of 31,083 km, of which 7,365 km were paved. For comparison: Austria had 138,696 km of paved roads. The transport infrastructure is therefore insufficient for a country of this size. In recent years, however, it has been expanded significantly.

Mozambique is one of the countries with the highest rate of road deaths. In 2013 there were a total of 31.6 road deaths for every 100,000 inhabitants. For comparison: In Germany there were 4.3 deaths in the same year. A total of around 8,000 people were killed in traffic. The road death rate is much higher when compared to the country's low motorization rate. In 2009 there were 12 motor vehicles for every 1000 inhabitants in Mozambique (in Germany there were over 500 vehicles).

Important seaports are located in all major coastal cities, such as Maputo in the south, Beira , Quelimane , Lumbo and Nacala to Pemba in the north.

International airports are located among others. in Maputo (MPM) , in Beira (BEW) and in Nampula (APL).



Tourism is underdeveloped. Accommodation is rare, and an expansion of the tourist infrastructure is planned.

The oldest Portuguese trading post was founded in 1507 on the Ilha de Moçambique . From the late 16th century until the completion of the Transvaal - Delagoa Bay rail link in 1898, this was the capital of Portuguese East Africa. Since 1991 the small island with its well-preserved colonial architecture has been the only UNESCO World Heritage Site on Mozambican territory.

Mozambique's first national park, the Gorongosa National Park , was founded in 1960 and is located in the Sofala province. It is 150 km from the city of Beira. To the east of it, off the coast of Mozambique, on the Bazaruto Archipelago is the Bazaruto National Park, founded in 1971 . The Limpopo National Park , founded in 2001, is located on the border with the South African Kruger National Park . In the southeast near the capital Maputo on the Machangulo Peninsula is the Machangulo Private Nature Reserve and the Maputo Reserve.


In the traditional light music approximately be äquiheptatonisch tuned xylophone ( valimba , manguilo, timbila ) and board Zithern ( Bangwe ) played. Zithers, lamellophones (shitata) and single-stringed tubular violins (mugole, tagare, chikwèsa) are used to accompany the song. Group dances are accompanied by choral singing and single-headed tubular drums struck with the hands or with thin mallets . Marrabenta is a dance music from the Portuguese colonial times. Mabulu , Eyuphuro , Mc Roger , Ghorwane and Kapa Dech are among the country's most internationally known music groups who play popular dance music with electric guitar, bass and drums .

Publications from and about Mozambique



In the 2017 press freedom ranking published by Reporters Without Borders , Mozambique was ranked 93rd out of 180 countries. Although freedom of the press enjoys constitutional status in Mozambique, there are "recognizable problems" with the situation of press freedom in the country, according to the non-governmental organization.


Rádio Moçambique (state radio) broadcasts in Portuguese and various local languages.

watch TV

Televisão de Moçambique (state television, one channel, broadcasts from the afternoon), Soico TV (private), TV Miramar (private)

Daily and weekly newspapers

News agency

Agência de Informação de Moçambique (AIM)

In 2016, 6.4% of the population had access to the Internet.


  • Rolf Steinbach: Mozambique: Black and poor and quite a distance away. 2nd Edition. Butterfly publishing house, Stuttgart 2010, ISBN 978-3-89657-013-0 .
  • João Mosca: Economia de Moçambique, século XX. Instituto Piaget, Lisbon 2005.
  • Malyn Newitt: A History of Mozambique. Hurst, London 1995.
  • Merle L. Bowen: The State against the Peasantry: Rural struggles in colonial and postcolonial Mozambique. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville / London 2000.
  • Landolf Scherzer : The Matundo Camp. 132 Days of Africa , Berlin 1986.
  • José Fialho Feliciano: Antropologia económica dos Thonga do sul de Moçambique. Arquivo Histórico de Moçambique, Maputo 1998.
  • Anne Pitcher: Transforming Mozambique: The Politics of Privatization, 1975-2000. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2002.
  • Rainer Grajek: Religion in Mozambique. In: Markus Porsche-Ludwig, Jürgen Bellers (Hrsg.): Handbook of the religions of the world. Bautz Verlag, 2012.
  • Rainer Grajek: Mozambique. In: Markus Porsche-Ludwig, Wolfgang Gieler , Jürgen Bellers (eds.): Handbook of social policies in the world. LIT Verlag, 2013, pp. 413-419.
  • Katharina Hofmann: When two best enemies ruin a country. Article in ipg-journal, January 2014.

Web links

Wiktionary: Mozambique  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Mozambique  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
 Wikinews: Mozambique  - on the news
Wikivoyage: Mozambique  Travel Guide
Wikimedia Atlas: Mozambique  - geographical and historical maps

Individual evidence

  1. [1] (PDF) clubofmosambique
  2. ^ CIA Factbook Mozambique , accessed July 31, 2017
  3. ^ World Economic Outlook of the International Monetary Fund
  4. Table: Human Development Index and its components . In: United Nations Development Program (ed.): Human Development Report 2020 . United Nations Development Program, New York 2020, ISBN 978-92-1126442-5 , pp. 345 (English, [PDF]).
  5. In Mozambique itself the pronunciation is mosamˈbɪk, in Portuguese as in African languages
  6. ^ Zambia declares floods 'disaster'. In: January 18, 2008, accessed February 28, 2015 .
  7. ^ World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal
  8. World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved November 11, 2017 .
  9. a b c d e f g h World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, accessed January 24, 2021 .
  10. Country database 2020. In: DSW. Retrieved January 30, 2021 (German).
  11. a b CIA - The World Factbook. Retrieved November 11, 2017 .
  12. Migration Report 2017. UN, accessed on September 30, 2018 (English).
  13. Origins and Destinations of the World's Migrants, 1990-2017 . In: Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project . February 28, 2018 ( [accessed September 30, 2018]).
  14. The Brockhaus in five volumes . FAB, Mannheim 2004.
  15. Quadro 25. opulação de 5 anos e mais por condição de conhecimento da língua portuguesa e sexo segundo area de residência e idade.
  16. Quadro 23. População de 5 anos e mais por idade, segundo area de residência, sexo e língua que fala com mais frequência em casa.
  17. Inquérito Nacional aos Agregados Familiares sobre Condições de Vida, Resultados Gerais . Instituto Nacional de Estatística, Maputo, 1998.
  18. a b c d CIA World Fact Book Mozambique. Retrieved August 21, 2011 .
  19. ^ Makhuwa-P31 , Ethnologue.
  20. Makhuwa (vmw): A language of Mozambique , Ethnologue. eMakhuwa or eMakua is the correct name for the language. Makuwa or Makuwa is the name for the person. Source: Gino Centis, Método Macua, Centro Catequético Paulo VI, Anchilo, Mozambique, 5th edition, 2000, p. 302.
  22., October 2, 2012
  23. ^ The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Accessed August 6, 2018 .
  24. ^ The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 31, 2017 .
  25. World Bank. Retrieved October 31, 2017 .
  26. ^ HIV Mozambique. Retrieved November 21, 2017 .
  27. ^ WHO - Global Health Observatory country views. Retrieved November 11, 2017 .
  28. Drinking water supply ( Memento from August 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  29. Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population) | Data. Retrieved March 10, 2018 (American English).
  30. ^ Rolf Peter Tschapek: Building blocks of a future German Central Africa: German Imperialism and the Portuguese Colonies, German Interest in the South African Colonies of Portugal from the end of the 19th century to the First World War. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2000.
  31. a b c d June Hannam, Mitzi Auchterlonie, Katherine Holden: International Encyclopedia of Women's Suffrage. ABC-Clio, Santa Barbara, Denver, Oxford 2000, ISBN 1-57607-064-6 , p. 9.
  32. ^ Mart Martin: The Almanac of Women and Minorities in World Politics. Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, 2000, p. 266.
  33. ^ Mo Ibrahim Foundation. Retrieved October 16, 2017 (UK English).
  34. ( Memento from October 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  35. ^ African leaders in Mozambique to witness signing of peace deal. from August 6, 2019, accessed August 6, 2019
  36. ^ Fragile States Index: Global Data. Fund for Peace , 2020, accessed January 15, 2021 .
  37. ^ Democracy Index. The Economist Intelligence Unit, accessed January 15, 2021 .
  38. Global Freedom Score. Freedom House , 2020, accessed January 15, 2021 .
  39. 2020 World Press Freedom Index. Reporters Without Borders , 2020, accessed January 15, 2021 .
  40. ^ Transparency International (ed.): Corruption Perceptions Index . Transparency International, Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-96076-134-1 (English, [PDF]).
  41. ^ Mozambique. Retrieved January 16, 2021 .
  42. AMNESTY REPORT 2010 Mozambique (accessed June 26, 2010).
  44. Mozambique scraps anti-gay law (accessed July 30, 2015)
  46. Foreign Office: Foreign Office - Foreign Policy . In: Foreign Office DE . ( [accessed on May 20, 2018]).
  47. Military expenditure by country as percentage of gross domestic product 2001-2017. (PDF) SIPRI, accessed on July 17, 2018 .
  48. ^ Military expenditure by country in US $ 2001-2017. (PDF) SIPRI, accessed on July 17, 2018 .
  49. 2016 projection at, accessed on October 23, 2017
  50. ^ Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab. Retrieved December 8, 2018 .
  51. ^ Mozambique: Provinces, Cities, Urban Localities & Agglomeration - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved April 2, 2018 .
  52. At a Glance: Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 Rankings . In: Global Competitiveness Index 2017-2018 . ( [accessed December 22, 2017]).
  53. [2]
  55. Instituto do Algodão de Moçambique. on (Portuguese)
  56. a b c d e f g h i j Stefano Liberti: Soy? No thanks - the largest agribusiness project in Africa was planned in the north of Mozambique. But then the farmers began to fight back . In: Barbara Bauer, Dorothee d'Aprile (ed.): Le Monde diplomatique . No. 07/24 . TAZ / WOZ , July 2018, ISSN  1434-2561 , p. 12 f .
  57. ProSavana: Uma Oportunidade para o Desenvolvimento de Agronegocios no Corredor de Nacala . 2012. on ( Memento from January 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), download here ( Memento from April 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (Portuguese)
  58. a b ISSA (Ed.): Afrika Süd. Terras baratas issue 1, Bonn 2013, ISSN  0947-8353 . on (German)
  59. Anelise Macedo: ProSavanas contará com tecnologias da Embrapa Hortaliças . Announcement from the Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária of January 15, 2010 on (Portuguese)
  60. ^ JICA: Joint Cooperation Project Agricultural Development Cooperation in the Tropical Savannah in Mozambique-ProSAVANA-JBM . In: JICA Annual Report 2010. on, PDF document p. 4–5 (English)
  61. thezimbabwean: Prosavana agreement signed in Tokyo . Articles of 5 April 2013 (English)
  62. Justiça Ambiental et al .: Leaked ProSAVANA Master Plan confirms worst fears . Article of April 30, 2013 on (English)
  63. ↑ Collection of articles on ProSavana at DW África (Portuguese). Retrieved July 22, 2014
  64. UNAC, Via Campesina Africa, GRAIN: Brazilian megaproject in Mozambique set to displace millions of peasants . (from Brasil de Fato ) English version of November 29, 2012 at (English)
  65. UNAC. on (Portuguese)
  66. ^ RA Pelletier: Mineral Resources of South-Central Africa . Cape Town (Oxford University Press), 1964, p. 245
  67. Mining in Mozambique-Overview . at (English)
  68. Mozambique wants to expand coal exports significantly . Communication dated November 21, 2012 at (accessed December 10, 2012)
  69. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved August 27, 2018 (American English).
  70. ^ Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved July 13, 2017 (American English).
  71. ^ The Fischer World Almanac 2010: Figures Data Facts, Fischer, Frankfurt, September 8, 2009, ISBN 978-3-596-72910-4
  72. World Bank file , accessed April 23, 2014
  73. Press release of the Swiss Confederation
  74. Interpellation 16.3718. The Federal Assembly - The Swiss Parliament, accessed on November 10, 2018 .
  75. Budget support for Mozambique suspended due to secret transactions . November 10, 2016 ( [accessed November 10, 2018]).
  76. US regulatory agency investigates CS loans to Mozambique. In: January 3, 2019, accessed January 4, 2019 .
  77. Former Credit Suisse employees charged with Mozambique affair. In: . January 4, 2019, accessed January 4, 2019 .
  78. ^ Deutsche Welle ( Debt crisis in Mozambique: Who pays the bill? | DW | 08/16/2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018 .
  79. Global status report on road safety 2015. Retrieved March 30, 2018 (British English).
  80. ^ Mary Fitzpatrick: Mozambique . Lonely Planet Publications, pp. 151-160. 2000 ISBN 1-86450-108-1 .
  81. List of World Heritage
  82. Ranking list of press freedom. Reporters Without Borders, accessed August 13, 2017 .
  83. Reporters Without Borders e. V .: Mozambique. Retrieved December 26, 2017 .
  84. Internet Users by Country (2016) - Internet Live Stats. Retrieved July 13, 2017 .

Coordinates: 18 °  S , 35 °  E