Islamic State (organization)

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Islamic State
الدولة الإسلامية
ad-daula al-islāmīya

AQMI flag asymmetric.svg
IS flag
Lineup 2003
Country SyriaSyria Syria 2014–2019 Iraq 2014–2017 Libya 2014–2016 Lebanon Yemen Egypt ( Wilayat Sinai ) Philippines 2017 ( Marawi ) Nigeria ( Boko Haram ) Afghanistan Russia ( Caucasus Emirate )
IraqIraq 
LibyaLibya 
LebanonLebanon 
YemenYemen 
EgyptEgypt 
PhilippinesPhilippines 
NigeriaNigeria 
AfghanistanAfghanistan 
RussiaRussia 
Type Terrorist militia
Strength in Syria and Iraq: 6,500 (U.S. Forces estimate, October 2017) Largely dismantled in March 2019
Colours Black-and-white
Anniversaries June 29, 2014 (proclamation of the Caliphate)
commander
Supreme Commander Abi Ibrahim al-Haschimi al-Kuraschi (from November 2019)
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
(until October 27, 2019)
Head of the Military Council Abu Ali al-Anbari
Commander
in Chief in Syria
Commander
in Chief in Afghanistan
Omar Schischani Hafiz Said Khan
0

The so-called Islamic State ( IS , Arabic الدولة الإسلامية, DMG ad-daula al-islāmīya ) is a terrorist Salafist militia with thousands of members that has been operating since 2003 and was a jihadist “state-building project” declared as a “ caliphate ” . Due to a lack of recognition, the IS was at no time a state within the meaning of international law .

The organization controlled parts of Iraq until December 2017 and parts of Syria until March 2019 and recruits members for civil wars and terrorist attacks . She is accused of genocide , the destruction of human cultural heritage and other war crimes .

Organizational beginnings go back to the Iraqi resistance . In 2004 the group was under al-Qaeda in Iraq (AQI) and from 2011 to June 2014 under Islamic States in Iraq and Syria ( ISIS ), Arabic الدولة الإسلامية في العراق و الشام, DMG ad-daula al-islāmiyya fī l-ʿIrāq wa-š-Šām , or the transcribed Arabic acronym Daesch or Daesh (داعش, DMG Dāʿiš ), as well as known under the name Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant ( ISIL ).

After the military conquest of a contiguous area in northwest Iraq and east Syria, the militia announced on June 29, 2014 the establishment of a caliphate with Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as "Caliph Ibrahim - Commander of the Faithful". This is linked to the claim to the successor to the Prophet Mohammed as the political and religious head of all Muslims .

Initially, IS committed itself to al-Qaeda , from whose leadership it broke away around mid-2013 and was expelled by Aiman ​​az-Zawahiri in January 2014 . The leadership of the IS is made up of a group of former intelligence officers from the Iraqi armed forces from the Saddam Hussein era, which was led by Hajji Bakr until his death in January 2014 .

In the Syrian civil war, IS fought against the government of President Bashar al-Assad , but also against the Free Syrian Army and the Kurdish minority in the north. Since August 2014, IS positions have been the target of air strikes by an international alliance in which several Western and Arab states have been participating since September. The IS continued to fight against the political camps of western and eastern Libya in the second Libyan civil war from 2014 onwards, but was expelled from its local stronghold of Sirte and pushed underground in August 2016 .

The Security Council of the United Nations and by the Government of Germany , the IS is officially considered a terrorist organization classified. The Grand Mufti of Saudi Arabia, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl al-Sheikh , called IS together with al-Qaida “the number one enemy of Islam”.

The last village under IS control within Syria was al-Baghuz Fawqani , which was captured by SDF fighters on March 23, 2019 . Since then, reporting on IS activities has shifted to Afghanistan and the continent of Africa .

Names

The Iraq and the countries of the Levant (in current borders)

Since the end of June 2014, the organization has only been called the Islamic State. In the opinion of political scientist Volker Perthes , the organization, which he describes as a “jihadist state-building project”, wants to emphasize that it wants to expand beyond Iraq and the Levant by dispensing with earlier name components.

Until the end of 2014 the organization was called "Islamic State in Iraq and Syria" ( Arabic الدولة الإسلامية في العراق والشام, DMG ad-daula al-islāmiyya fī l-ʿIrāq wa-š-Šām ; also translatable as "... in the Levant " or "... in Greater Syria "), from which the common abbreviations ISIS, ISIL and ISIG are derived. A foreign name is the abbreviation Daesch, coined in 2013 by the Syrian activist Khaled al-Haj Salih, derived from the Arabic initials and widespread in the Arabic-speaking area, with a rather negative connotation (داعش, DMG dāʿiš , also in the spellings Daesh , Da'ish or Daaish ), which is now also used in other languages.

The abbreviation داعش, DMG dā'iš , ISIS '("Islamic State in Iraq and Syria") looks similar to the term in Arabic scriptداعس, DMG dāʿis 'one who tramples something with his feet'. Therefore, this abbreviation is forbidden within the areas occupied by IS and there is a risk of punishment if used. In numerous Near and Middle Eastern countries, however, this abbreviation has been adopted in the local vocabulary. This is intended to deliberately counteract the organization's own designation, which is positively connoted in the Islamic sense, and avoid a direct association with Islam.

IS does not speak of borders, but of "fronts" and thus fulfills an important characteristic of an openly aspired empire . Further, former names of the organization or its predecessors (JTJ, Az-Zarqawi-Netzwerk, TQJBR, AQI) are given in the history section .

financing

The IS was considered the richest terrorist organization in the world with an estimated fortune of two billion US dollars (as of January 2015). With the capture of Mosul and the looting of the central bank in June 2014 alone, 429 million US dollars fell into the hands of IS. The "business model" IS was based on several pillars:

  • Petroleum : IS was largely financed by the income from the sale of crude oil from conquered oil fields. Up until the first air strikes on oil fields in October 2014, oil was extracted and sold for 3 million US dollars a day. In late 2014, the numbers dropped to around $ 360,000 a day.
  • Robbery : An additional source of income was the sale of ancient finds from robbery excavations at archaeological sites and the looting of museums. By the end of 2014, archaeological finds worth 30 million US dollars are said to have been smuggled into the West from Syria alone and brought into the art trade here with forged papers.
  • Ransom and slavery : Claims from kidnappings and the “auctioning” of children and women (especially captured Yazidis and Christians ) on slave markets represent a further source of income. Girls and women between 10 and 20 years of age were auctioned for the equivalent of 68 euros; Children up to 9 years of age achieved prices up to the equivalent of 135 euros. Kidnapped Western hostages have been released for $ 3 to 5 million.
  • Donations : IS is financed through donations from wealthy private individuals, religious foundations and mosque associations, primarily from Saudi Arabia and Qatar .
  • Taxes : IS collects taxes from traders, which are 10% each for sales tax and property tax , as well as customs duties (between $ 200 and $ 500 per shipment). In addition, IS received monthly rental income for over 20,000 apartments and businesses in Mosul amounting to 3 million US dollars. The IS kept precise records of all transactions.

The Islamic State proclaims the introduction of a gold dinar on its website and in social networks , which will be gradually put into circulation.

Management structure

In addition to the self-proclaimed "Caliph" Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi , who is not recognized in the rest of the Islamic world , Adnan al-Sweidawi (" Abu Ali al-Anbari "; † December 12, 2015 in al-Ash, Syria) stood as a representative for Syria the head of the organization IS. Fadel al-Hayali (" Abu Muslim al-Turkmani "), who was killed by a drone attack in the city of Mosul on August 18, 2015, was al-Baghdadi's deputy in Iraq up to this point. Five “governors” rule in Syria, and seven more in Iraq. The leadership of the IS consists of nine councils: the Leadership Council, the Shūrā Council, the Legal Council, the Security Council, the Assistance Council for Fighters, the Military Council, the Secret Service Council, the Media Council and the Finance Council.

Documents that, according to the Spiegel, come from the killed IS chief strategist Hajji Bakr , suggest that there is a parallel secret service structure in addition to the management structure described above. At its head is the clandestine body Ahl al-Hall wa-l-ʿAqd , which supposedly makes the actually relevant decisions. In the historical caliphate , a body of this name had the task of electing or removing the caliph. According to the Spiegel source, Hajji Bakr and his Iraqi intelligence clique actually brought al-Baghdadi to the top of ISIS as a religious frontman in 2010. It is therefore unclear how much power the caliph actually has.

From 2004, 17 of the 25 people in the top management of the IS were incarcerated in the American prison Camp Bucca in southern Iraq. By amalgamating radical jihadists, the military and intelligence officers into common cell blocks, Western commentators believe that a "fatal error" has been committed. Experienced soldiers from the Iraqi army were recruited there for the Islamic State. Iraqi observers refer to this as the “Akademie Bucca”.

"The US occupiers in Iraq had a tragic talent for [...] creating and uniting their most intelligent enemies themselves."

- Christoph Reuter.
leader
Known members

Troop strength of the armed forces

Estimates by the US State Department from May 2013 put the troop strength of IS in Iraq at 1,000 to 2,000 men. Estimates by an Iraq expert from the Friedrich Naumann Foundation in June 2014, however, assume a strength of 10,000 to 15,000 men. In Syria, the number of IS fighters was estimated at 3,000 to 8,000, depending on the source. In August 2014, the head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abdel Rahman, reported on 50,000 men who are now fighting in Syria - 20,000 of them are from abroad, according to estimates by the EU Commission, 2,000 of them were from Europe. The spokesman for the US foreign intelligence service CIA , Ryan Trapani, said in September 2014 that 20,000 to 31,500 fighters are expected. The number of foreign fighters at IS was given (September 2014) as around 1,000 Turks, 2,000 Europeans and 100 Americans. In October 2014, the Tunisian government assumed there were 2,400 to 3,000 Tunisians at IS. A UN report from September 29, 2014 reported 15,000 fighters from 80 countries. At the end of December 2014, 550 Germans were counted at IS. By mid-2015, at least 20,000 foreigners from more than 100 countries were suspected, among the foreign jihadists 3,000 Tunisians, 2,500 Saudis, 1,400 French, 700 Germans and British, 400 Belgians and 220 Austrians. Although more than 10,000 IS fighters were killed in air strikes by the anti-IS alliance up to June 2015, the combat strength of IS has remained intact, as 1000 new fighters arrived every month.

In December 2015, the Soufan Group think tank published a report that most foreign fighters are from Tunisia (6,000), Saudi Arabia (2,500), Russia (2,400), Turkey (2,100) and Jordan (2,000). 5,000 fighters come from Western Europe, 1,700 of them from France, 760 from Great Britain, 760 from Germany and 470 from Belgium. There are also 300 people each from Austria and Sweden. A total of around 280 come from the USA and Canada.

In November 2017, German security authorities assumed that 950 German Islamists had emigrated to the IS area. Of these 950 people, 150 were no longer alive at the time. According to an EU study, 42,000 people from 120 countries moved to the IS area around the world.

According to a report by the NZZ in April 2017, Russian was the second most important language at IS due to the large number of fighters from the Caucasus and Central Asia .

From the now almost completely occupied core area of ​​IS in Syria, thousands of fighters were able to escape through the lines of the Syrian army into western Syria in the spring of 2018.

Equipment of war

At times, the IS armed forces had extensive war equipment, some of which was bought on the black market and some of which was captured during raids or failed arms deliveries. The Handelsblatt reported in October 2014 that every fourth weapon comes from China and every fifth from the USA. Overall, according to estimates, IS used weapons from more than 25 different countries.

According to the German daily Die Welt, these included heavy artillery pieces and anti-tank missiles of the HOT type produced by the Franco-German manufacturer Euromissile and MILAN missiles. There are also American attack helicopters and M198 howitzers . The IS arsenal includes Austrian and Russian sniper rifles as well as machine guns from Russia, China and Belgium.

An article in the FAZ shows that IS had poison gas and had already used this chemical weapon. According to this, the poison either came from a secret warehouse and IS captured it or he could produce it himself.

Type and origin of weapons and ammunition

After IS was largely defeated at the end of 2017, researchers from the Conflict Armament Research group published a study in December 2017 that examined the origin of IS weapons and ammunition.

The majority of IS weapons were prototypes that had been developed by the Soviet Union and its satellite states during the Cold War before 1989. Assault rifles and machine guns from Soviet, Chinese, Polish, Yugoslav, Hungarian and East German production were seized.

The researchers also found that ISIS had captured a significant part of the armament in the 2014 coup d'état on Iraq's Mosul. Seized IS ammunition for rifles and machine guns of caliber 7.62 × 39 and 7.62 × 54 from Russian and Serbian production, PG-7T bazookas for the RPG-7 made in Bulgaria, the researchers assigned ammunition deliveries to the these states had legally transferred to Iraq on behalf of the Americans before 2014.

The investigation also found that 9M111-MB-1 guided missiles and PG-7T missiles, which came from supplies that the USA bought in Bulgaria from 2015, were used in Iraq by IS. Batches of Romanian PG-9 rockets and Romanian 12.7 × 108 ammunition, which the US Department of Defense had purchased in 2015, were also used. The researchers assume that the weapons of a group assigned to the Free Syrian Army were previously supplied by the USA and then fell to IS. Furthermore, rockets that Bulgaria exported to Saudi Arabia in 2014, subject to a declaration of end -use, were deployed by IS in February 2016 in Ramadi . Further missiles from the batch were captured by IS Iraqi soldiers in September 2017 near Mosul, still in their original packaging. Weapons and ammunition were also found in IS fighters that Qatar had previously delivered to groups in Libya, and those that Belgium had delivered to the Pakistani army decades ago. More modern rifles from the Chinese Norinco CQ series in NATO caliber 5.56 × 45 mm were found among IS fighters in Kobane, but it was not possible to explain how the weapons with unrecognizable serial numbers got to IS.

It has been proven that Turkish stocks contained small amounts of IS bazookas, machine guns, mortar shells and 5.56 × 45 mm ammunition. The latter was delivered from Bosnia to Turkey. Chemicals used by IS to make explosives have been seized from several locations in Syria and Iraq. The aluminum powder used came exclusively from sales outlets in Turkey, as did the bags with seized ammonium nitrate and those with potassium nitrate . Originally, all of these chemicals were produced for sale within Turkey. Detonators from Indian production were found in Kobane at IS in 2015, which were part of a delivery of three million detonators for which a Lebanese authority issued an import license in 2014.

Improvised poison gas bombs based on aluminum phosphide were seized in IS workshops in Iraq.

media

With the scope, professionalism and strategic use of media at various levels - from a fighter's cell phone video to glossy magazines - IS is the first terrorist organization that is also waging its real battle in the media to this extent. It is thus trying to proclaimed caliphate state in addition to virtually constitute. This often succeeds with the target group of IS, the Muslims living in Western countries. People who are directly affected in the countries bordering Syria and Iraq are usually not very receptive to IS propaganda due to other media and their personal connection. It is noticeable that the IS is fanatical for a radical-archaic interpretation of Islam, but also does so with the aesthetics of Hollywood and the technology of the western world, which is rejected as kuffar . IS does not see any contradiction in this, but uses it consciously. It ties in with the preferences of young Muslims socialized in Western societies.

The Islamic State advertises its caliphate state primarily using social networks. In a few cases ISIS appears openly, mostly associated sides that propagate a warlike Sunni Islam. After the social networks Twitter, Instagram and Facebook tried to limit the activities of IS and other Islamist organizations, the operators of corresponding sites switched to other or their own servers. A number of social media offered themselves as an alternative. Messages are now being distributed on numerous note services such as justpaste.it . The official accounts are repeatedly deleted from the respective platforms, but new accounts from IS sympathizers are created every day. Twitter deleted the account of the IS's own al-I'tisam Media Center and the Al-Hayat Media Center, but two new accounts opened on the same day that quickly had 20,000 followers . Most videos are commented or subtitled. In response to the blocking of accounts in social networks, “alternative” networks such as diaspora * are increasingly being used.

In 2014, IS had Medyan Dairieh, a reporter who worked for the New York media company Vice , report as an embedded journalist from the heart of the new state structure and from its front. His documentation The Advance of the Caliphate received a lot of attention.

Islamic State Media

Since July 2014, IS has been publishing the multilingual online magazine Dabiq ( Arabic دابق) out. It is elaborately produced and, according to some observers, is reminiscent of magazines from sects and free churches. It appears monthly and is used for propaganda and recruitment. Harleen K. Gambhir from the Institute for the Study of War has also examined the comparable magazine from al-Qaida on the Arabian Peninsula, Inspire , and sees this as a source of motivation for so-called lone-wolf attacks on Western targets. Dabiq, on the other hand, aims more at legitimizing the so-called caliphate and tries to persuade Muslims to emigrate to the same.

One of the central production facilities for all kinds of propaganda is the Al Hayat Media Center . It is the media organization of the Islamic State. The ex-rapper and IS fighter Denis Cuspert played an active role in the center , according to the daily newspaper .

The al-Hayat is considered the foreign medium of the Islamic State. The Al-Furqan Institute for Media Production is the official media office of the political leadership of the IS and also receives its material from the leadership.

In August 2014, launched Amaq News Agency as a news agency of IS. Instead of Twitter, the agency uses the encrypted Telegram service and developed its own app for Android.

The main media facilities of the IS are:

  • Al-Furqan Institute for Media Production (al-furqan for 'standard', 'criterion between lies and truth') is the oldest institution for the production of IS propaganda, especially videos. The Al-Furqan Institute was founded in 2006 together with the Islamic State in Iraq (ISI). A video of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi attending a ceremony in a mosque in Mosul was uploaded to YouTube by al-Furqan.
  • Al Hayat Media Center is known for lavishly produced videos and targets a western audience. In addition to videos with subtitles in different languages, the center also distributes reports, photos and audio material. This is specifically designed to recruit Muslims in Western countries for IS. The logo is based on that of the Al Jazeera channel.
  • Al-I'tisam Media Foundation has existed since 2013 and produces and sells propaganda videos for IS.
  • Ajnad Media Foundation was established in January 2014 and specializes in the production and distribution of jihad pop and Islamist vocal music.
  • Al Ghuraba Media , founded by Mohamed Mahmoud .

Counteractivity

The authorities of different states are trying to counter the spread of IS propaganda material with varying degrees of success.

Several media reported extensively on Abu Azrael , an Iraqi Shiite militiaman who is celebrated by his supporters as a "Shiite rambo " and hero and who resolutely fights the IS terrorists. As an identification figure, he supports the recruitment of new fighters against the IS militias.

The Sawab Center was opened in Abu Dhabi on July 8, 2015 and supports the Alliance against the Islamic State (IS) in social networks, e.g. B. as part of a multinational online messaging and counter-terrorism engagement program.

Ideology and founding manifesto

In mid-October 2006, an anonymous representative of the ISI Ministry of Information read a founding declaration of the Islamic State in a video. The political justification for declaring an Islamic state was that the Sunnis , unlike the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south, still did not have their own state, but had to continue to live under foreign rule. For religious reasons, reference was made to a saying by the Prophet Mohammed in the Hadith that Muslims must be ruled by a Muslim. Even then, the most important political goals were the expulsion of all "invaders and aggressors " from Iraq and, subsequently, the creation of peace and security, the implementation of Sharia law to the letter and with it the fair distribution of the country's resources to all believers.

In early 2007, ISIS published a ninety-page pamphlet entitled Notifying Believers of the Birth of Islamic State . With reference to verses from the Koran and statements of famous medieval Sunni state scholars, an attempt was made to prove the legality of the founding of the state in the sense of the Sunni legal understanding. The determination of the state leader should take place through "usurpation by submission with the sword" (right of the strongest candidate to the leadership position in the event of a crisis or dispute). Since Sunni sources cannot determine the size of the territory on which an Islamic State can be proclaimed, the ISI believes that this is wherever its fighters appear publicly with weapons. Soon after its publication, the text was posted by the Palestinian-Jordanian scholar Abū Muhammad al-Maqdisī on his highly regarded website tawhed.ws , and it was still read there after al-Maqdisī tried to criticize the Represent Islamic State.

Sharia and Laws

In its territory, IS introduced a 16-point catalog based on Sharia and Wahhabism , which massively normalizes public and private life. Accordingly, the consumption and sale of alcohol, tobacco products and other drugs are also prohibited, as is holding meetings, "idol images" and shrines. Shaving and trimming the beard is prohibited. Women have to wear "chaste covering clothes", statements in mosques are subject to censorship. In June 2015, pigeon breeding , popular in the Middle East, was banned because it discourages Muslims from praying and the sight of pigeon genitals violates their morality. Even before the ban, three men were executed for breeding pigeons. This also prevents them from being used as a means of communication. The use of cell phones that can be located via GPS is precisely regulated. Apple products are generally prohibited, the GPS function must be disabled from other manufacturers.

Dealing with Muslim dissenters

Contrary to the message from Amman , it is observed that IS is applying a rigorous version of the Islamic practice of takfīr against Muslims of other faiths : All deviants (e.g. the Shiites ) are and become "infidels" or "God-deniers" ( kāfir ) classified as worthy of death and killed if they are within the control of the IS.

Az-Zarqawi harbored a particular hatred of Shiites, which shaped the entire anti-Shiite orientation of IS. He was convinced that these could not be converted, but had to be erased. This view was diametrically opposed to the opinion of al-Qaeda, who see Shiites only as misguided Muslims who can be led back to the truth with the right guidance. This was one of the reasons why al-Zarqawi never wanted to seriously cooperate with al-Qaeda. He classified al-Qaeda as a weak institution, followed the wrong ideas and only used its popularity in the early stages of IS to generate attention and financial resources for its organization.

Dealing with Christian minorities

Although Christians are by no means the only victims of religious violence by the Islamic State , the fact that they are still the largest non-Muslim religious community in Syria makes their situation even more precarious. Shortly after the Islamic State proclaimed a caliphate in large parts of Syrian-Iraqi territory in 2014 , threats against Christians either to convert to Islam, to leave Syria and Iraq, or to be killed if these orders were refused increased. It is true that the leader of the IS, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi , offered - or imposed - a so-called dhimma status in ar-Raqqa on February 26, 2014 in accordance with the prophetic model in Islamic law . Linked to this, however, was that the Christians had to refrain from any hostile act against the Islamic State . This deliberately vague statement resulted in the Islamic State practicing completely arbitrary dealings with Christians because it can always claim that the Christian population is hostile towards them. For example, after IS conquered the city of Mosul in the summer of 2014, many of the Christians living there were forced to convert to Islam against the “protection treaty” (dhimma). Often times, if they refused to convert, they were robbed, driven away, or punished with death by the sword. Parts of the Sunni population in Mosul even helped the Islamists identify Christian houses by marking Christian buildings with the Arabic letter Nun . In the Koran, Christians are often called Nasara ( Nazareth , according to Jesus of Nazareth , called), the Arabic letter (ن) "Well," accordingly denotes the letter "N". In Mosul, the "nun" was abusively used to brand the Christian minority. While many Sunnis in Syria had forgotten their previously relatively unencumbered relations with their Christian neighbors when the Islamists attacked, parts of them began to hunt down Christians themselves as a result. The incursion of IS into Mosul with the subsequent expulsion of the Christians who had resided there for two millennia represented the sharpest turning point in the war for Christendom in the Levant. Other incidents such as the kidnapping of Orthodox bishops and nuns and ultimately the widespread anti-Christian attacks by Islamists confirmed Christians' worst fears.

Slavery and sexual abuse

During its advance in the summer of 2014, IS drove the Yazidi population out of northern Iraq; a large part of them who could not escape in time were taken prisoner. In October 2014, the IS declared in its propaganda magazine Dabiq that its “goal is the cultural and religious erasure of the identity of the Yazidis ”. Sharia students of the IS would not have classified the Yazidis as a former Islamic sect, but as a pagan religion from pre-Islamic times, thus as Muschrik (idolater, i.e. a derogatory term for polytheists ). "According to Islamic law one is also entitled to enslave Yazidi women and children."

The article, titled The Premature Rebirth of Slavery , goes on to say that women and children were divided among the Islamic State militants "after a fifth of them were given to the Islamic State government as taxes." According to reports from escaped girls It is a practice in all IS-occupied territories to enslave young women and girls from the age of nine as concubines . Foreign supporters of the militia are provided with women.

In 2015 it became known from young people who had fled that IS was training child soldiers. In the attacked Yazidi villages in Iraq, IS is trying to re-educate boys and train them as fighters. Observers see the training as part of ISIS efforts to breed a new generation of fighters. In addition to violent recruitment, the youth and children are made compliant with the help of gifts, threats and brainwashing. IS used a video in which a boy under the supervision of an adult jihadist beheaded a Syrian soldier. Another propaganda video shows 25 children shooting 15 captured Syrian soldiers in the head. According to IS sources, boys are being trained to become fighters in the Faruk camp .

Various human rights organizations assume that between 2,500 and 7,000 people have been displaced. "The self-accusation of IS is now an important indicator that the terrorist militia is attempting a cultural genocide against the Yazidis."

In April 2016, IS murdered 250 women because they did not want to allow themselves to be abused as sex slaves; similar murders had taken place earlier on a smaller scale.

Destruction of cultural property

IS pursues a sharp iconoclasm and systematically destroys cultural assets from the pre-Islamic past. In September 2014, the Armenian Memorial Church at the former Deir ez-Zor concentration camp from the times of the Ottoman genocide of the Armenians was blown up. In February 2015, statues, particularly from the Assyrian era, were deliberately smashed in the Museum of Mosul . There are also reports that the destructiveness is generally directed against archaeological monuments. In Iraq, the remains of the ancient cities of Nimrud , Hatra and Dur Šarrukin as well as the citadel of Assur were allegedly destroyed with explosives and bulldozers between late February and early March 2015 . The extent of the iconoclasm reminded observers of the demolition of the Buddha statues in Bamiyan by the Afghan Taliban in March 2001. It is assumed that IS is pursuing various goals with this and that propaganda motifs also played a role in the iconoclasm. In places it has also been reported that cultural goods may have been transported away by truck in order to monetize them in the western antique trade .

Islamic scholars and institutions such as the Cairo- based supreme Islamic legal institute Dar al-Ifta condemned the destruction of cultural property by IS and pointed out that even former caliphs or scholars such as Abū Hanīfa lived in Iraq and preserved these sites and did not destroy them.

Historic houses of worship of the Christian minority in Iraq and Syria were deliberately destroyed. The Chaldean St. Elias Monastery from the 5th century was completely demolished in 2014, as was the Syrian Orthodox Green Church in Tikrit, one of the oldest in Iraq. The tomb of the Mar Behnam Monastery in Baghdida was blown up in 2015, the old manuscripts were burned and the Mor Mattai Monastery was threatened. In 2016, the 19th century Catholic Church of Our Lady of the Hour in Mosul was demolished with explosives. Shiite buildings like the Oweis el-Karni mosque in Raqqa, which was demolished in 2014, were not spared either.

On May 20, 2015, IS conquered the ancient metropolis of Palmyra and the UNESCO World Heritage Site there with the predominantly Roman ruins that had been preserved until then. In August and September 2015, IS began the systematic destruction of several important structures in the ruined city, including the tomb towers on the outskirts as well as the Baal temple and also the Baalschamin temple , which were completely destroyed by blowing up.

Genocide and war crimes

On March 19, 2015, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights published a report in which it was assessed that the violence perpetrated by IS had reached the level of genocide . In particular, the crackdown on the Yazidis aims to destroy them as a group, according to the report. Other crimes such as murder, torture, rape and sexual slavery, as well as forced religious conversion and recruitment of children were also listed. The investigators appealed to the UN Human Rights Council, which was meeting in Geneva, to advocate the prosecution of all such crimes by the UN Security Council. The UN Security Council must commission the International Criminal Court in The Hague with this.

The journalistic YouTube magazine Vice reports on the basis of an interview that the IS militias, and especially young men without military training, are stopped before military actions or acts of terrorism to take the stimulant Captagon , which is supposed to dull and brutalize them mentally. Captagon is produced in Lebanon and Syria, among others, and from there reaches all warring parties via the black market.

Terrorism as a Strategy

The terrorist strategy of the Islamic State comes from the manifesto Idarat at Tawahusch (German: Management of bestialischer Cruelkeit ), which was written by the Iraqi section of al-Qaida in 2004. Because young people are rebellious by nature, the Islamists believe that terrorist attacks against Shiites, Kurds, Christians and atheists would fill Sunni youth with “energy and idealism” and that the youth would commit themselves to fight or terror for the purpose of self-sacrifice. In addition, the enemy states should overstretch their forces to protect targets that cannot be effectively protected, and the West should be encouraged to intervene directly with its own ground forces.

After the Syrian army recaptured the last larger city held by IS, Albu Kamal, in November 2017, IS has now lost 96% of the "territory" it originally claimed.

prehistory

A first terrorist group was formed in 2000 around Abu Musab al- Zarqawi in Herat (Afghanistan) with the support of al-Qaida. Due to the invasion of the USA, the small troop had to leave Afghanistan and found temporary accommodation in Pakistan and Iran. After Iranian security forces arrested several followers of az-Zarqawi, he fled to northern Iraq and found shelter with a group of Kurdish jihadists who called themselves Ansar al-Islam . In 2002 az-Zarqawi began preparing his organization for the fight in Iraq. The group committed their first successful attack in October 2002, in which they killed the American Laurence Foley . The rise of the group began with the Iraq war in 2003, which ultimately ended in the establishment of the so-called Islamic State. With Colin Powell's allegation before the United Nations Security Council on February 5, 2003 that Iraq's dictator Saddam Hussein supported al-Qaida and that the governor of Iraq was Abu Musab az-Zarqawi , this previously almost unknown Jordanian received an unintentional "accolade" from the American archenemy. The group around Zarqawi has since had the greatest attraction for jihadists in Iraq, with great advantages in terms of human and financial resource acquisition.

at-Tawhīd wa-l-Jihād (2003 to 2004)

The Baghdad Canal Hotel was destroyed after the bomb attack on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq in 2003

Abu Musab al-Zarqawi and his group participated in the resistance of Sunni groups against the occupation of Iraq from June 2003 . He was placed on the consolidated list of the Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee of the UN Security Council on September 23, 2003 . Az-Zarqawi's organization was blamed for the bomb attack on the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq in the Baghdad Canal Hotel on August 19, 2003, in which 22 people (including Sérgio Vieira de Mello ) were killed and over 100 injured. The organization appeared in April 2004 as Jamāʿat al-Tawheed wa al-Jihād (JTJ, Community for Tawheed and Jihad ); it was also called the Zarqawi Group or the Az-Zarqawi Network.

Qāʿidat al-Jihād fi Bilād ar-Rāfidain (2004 to 2006)

In October 2004 the organization al-Qaeda joined and changed its name to "Organization of the base of jihad in Mesopotamia " (literally from Tanzīm Qāʿidat al-Jihād fī Bilād ar-Rāfidain , mostly referred to as al-Qaeda in Iraq , for short: AQI): Osama bin Laden recognized the oath of allegiance ( baiʿa ) pronounced by Zarqawi and declared him his deputy in Iraq in a message published at the end of December. The organization, which is mainly active in Baghdad and west of Fallujah, intended from the outset to carry out attacks (bomb attacks, murder of hostages) on civilians (civil servants, foreign laborers - dozens of dead in 2004); later she also counted political parties and everyone involved in the democratic process among the legitimate targets for attacks. She confessed to the assassination attempt on Ezzedine Salim . In 2004, through videos distributed on jihadist websites, the organization identified itself as responsible for the kidnappings and video-recorded murders of the following foreign civilians: Nicholas Berg , Eugene Armstrong and Jack Hensley (USA), Kenneth Bigley (Great Britain), Murat Yüce (Turkey), Kim Sun-Il (South Korea), Shosei Koda (Japan), Georgi Lazov and Ivailo Kepov (Bulgaria).

On October 15, 2004, the United States Department of State announced that JTJ had been placed on the list of foreign organizations designated as Terrorist by the United States Department of State . On October 18, 2004, AQI was listed as associated with al-Qaida, bin Laden and the Taliban on the basis of UN Security Council resolution 1526 . On December 17, 2004, AQI was placed on the United States Department of State's designated foreign terrorist organizations. On March 2, 2005, the Australian government listed AQI as a terrorist organization.

In a letter from Aiman al -Zawahiri to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, dated July 9, 2005 , Zawahiri et al. a. the importance of the Iraq war for global jihad, that the war will not end with the withdrawal of American troops, the at least temporary need for popular support, the demand for political action, the understanding that more than half of the conflict is in the media will be carried out.

AQI changed its strategy away from kidnappings and individual killings at the beginning of 2005 to spectacular attacks (especially bomb attacks in Baghdad and western and northern Iraq with over 700 deaths in 2005). In September 2005, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi declared rafida because of attacks by Shiites to Sunnis to war; in the same year AQI was also active in Jordan (especially with the bombings in Amman on November 9th on the hotels Grand Hyatt , Radisson SAS and Days Inn ).

Shura Council of the Mujahideen in Iraq (2006)

Various jihadist groups joined TQJBR, and in January 2006 the umbrella organization “Shura Council of the Mujahedin in Iraq” (MSC, Majlis Shura al-Mujahidin fi 'l-Iraq ) was proclaimed under their leadership ; the leader was Abu Omar al-Baghdadi (also Abu Omar al-Baghdadi ) explains to but controlled to Zarqawi's death in June 2006 of the organization. After Zarqawi's death, Abu Ayyub al-Masri took over the management of TQJBR.

Islamic State in Iraq (2006 to 2013)

In October 2006, the organization was renamed "Islamic State in Iraq" (ISI, ad-daula al-islāmīya fī l-ʿirāq ); since then, ISI has been headed by a cabinet in which Masri became Minister of War. For the proclamation of the Islamic State , which was supposed to include Baghdad and the governors of al-Anbar , Diyala , Salah ad-Din , Kirkuk , Ninawa and parts of al-Wasit and Babil , the Kurdish Autonomous Region was the primary concern for the proclamation of the Islamic State Iraq and the passage of the Iraqi Federalism Act for Iraqi Shiites. The activities of TQJBR / ISI in 2006 concentrated on Baghdad, Kerbela , Tuz Churmatu and Kufa with around 440 deaths. In the second half of 2006, with funding, training and arming by the United States in Iraq (initially in al-Anbar), the so-called Sahwa or awakening movement was raised: militias recruited from Sunni Arab tribes and organized in local councils to fight against insurgents. and above all AQI - were used. In its heyday it had over 100,000 members (since the withdrawal of American troops in 2010, no more than 38,000); among their leaders was Abdul Sattar Abu Risha .

In 2007, ISI carried out attacks across Iraq, often car bombing in suicide bombings, killing approximately 1900 people. At the beginning of October 2013, the insurgent organizations in Iraq Asaeb al-Iraq al-Jihadiya and Hamas in Iraq issued statements in which they distanced themselves from ISI and condemned its tactics.

In 2008, ISI carried out attacks mainly in Mosul , but also in Baghdad, Baquba and Tal Afar with a total of around 520 dead. In 2009 ISI killed a total of around 630 people. With the same strategy, Mosul was often targeted by ISI in 2008; next to z. B. also carried out an attack in Kirkuk at a Shia mosque with over 70 dead. In 2010, most of the attacks by ISI were carried out in Mosul, Baghdad and the Diyala and Karbala Governments (including on Shiite pilgrims and on busy markets), killing around 700 people. In April 2010, al-Baghdadi and al-Masri were killed near Tikrit in an operation carried out by Iraqi and American troops.

In mid-May 2010, ISI declared Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi to be their new leader. On October 31, 2010, ISI carried out attacks on the Iraqi stock exchange and the Sayidat al-Nejat Cathedral in Baghdad.

In the course of the Arab Spring , which was also welcomed by Western countries, there were armed clashes against demonstrators from the beginning of 2011. In mid-2011, the riots culminated in the Syrian civil war . According to media reports, ISI was supported by Turkey for years. In 2011, the ISI carried out attacks mainly in Baghdad and in the Kerbela and Salah ad-Din governorates (for example on Shiite pilgrims near Samarra ), killing around 320 people. In 2012, ISI carried out attacks mainly in Baghdad and the Basra , Salah ad-Din and Babil governorates (for example on Shiite pilgrims in Basra ), killing around 770 people; this included the series of attacks on July 23, 2012 in 19 Iraqi cities, in which 113 people were killed and 250 injured and which was part of the "Destruction of the Walls" offensive announced by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi on July 21. a. aimed to free prisoners.

On January 26, 2012, ISI was aliased to AQI by the United States Department of State on the instructions of Secretary of State Hillary Clinton on January 11. On February 11, 2012, al-Qaeda leader Aiman ​​az-Zawahiri called on Muslims in Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey to fight the Assad government. Since about this time, ISI has been openly participating in the Syrian civil war. There she belonged to the al-Qaida group, along with the al-Nusra front , with which she partly collaborated and which she partly fought. On December 11, 2012, on instructions dated November 20, the US State Department also registered the Nusra Front as an alias of AQI.

On March 4, 2013, ISI attacked Syrian troops who had fled to Iraq's al-Anbar governorate; at least 42 Syrian soldiers and officials and up to 14 Iraqis were killed.

Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (April 2013 to May 2014)

In April 2013, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi declared the Nusra Front a mere part of ISI and announced the merger of the Nusra Front and ISI under the new name Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The leader of the Nusra Front, Abu Mohammed al-Jawlani ( Arabic أبو محمد الجولاني), then one day later contradicted the association with ISI, but swore allegiance to al-Qaida leader Aiman ​​az-Zawahiri. On May 30, 2013, both ISIS and al-Nusra were identified by the UN as aliases of AQI. On June 9, 2013, Al Jazeera published a letter from Aiman ​​al-Zawahiri to the leaders of ISIS and al-Nusra, in which he annulled the association and called for the settlement of disputes between the two al-Qaida groups (for which he did Abu Musab al-Suri named as mediator) as well as assigned different areas of influence to both (ISIS Iraq, Nusra Syria). Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi and ISIS spokesman Abu Mohammed al-Adnani refused to mediate in their own embassies; this would canonize the illegitimate colonial border of the Sykes-Picot Agreement ; the Nusra Front continues to be viewed as part of ISIS and Abu Mohammed al-Jawlani is viewed as a renegade.

The reason for ISIL's split from al-Qaeda is that al-Baghdadi, who is described as very ambitious, did not want to limit ISIL's operations to Iraq, but is also active in Syria and in the near future throughout the Levant wants to get active. Al-Zawahiri, on the other hand, advocates the motto: “If you practice jihad everywhere, you do not practice it anywhere”, according to which the individual organizations should concentrate on precisely defined areas of operation in order to achieve the greatest possible effectiveness. In the opinion of observers, the theological positions of ISIL, which deviate from al-Qaeda, only developed after this break, also in order to legitimize this break.

On July 23, 2013, ISIS confessed to the attacks on the Iraqi prisons in Abu-Ghuraib and Taji on the night of July 21-22 . ISIS killed dozens of people with handguns, grenades and suicide bomber-controlled car bombs, helping hundreds of prisoners, including senior al-Qaida members, to escape from Abu-Ghuraib.

The Iraqi government under Nuri al-Maliki decided in the second half of 2013 to reinstate and strengthen the Sahwa movement in response to the strengthening of ISIS in Iraq.

On September 29, 2013, suicide bombers killed six people with car bombs in Erbil ( seat of government of the Kurdistan Autonomous Region in Iraq) near the Asayesh headquarters and wounded 36. On October 6, ISIS confessed to the attack, which was a reaction to Masud Barzanis The alleged intention was to support the government in Baghdad and Kurdish forces fighting against jihadists in Syria.

In addition to Assad's troops, the Syrian Free Army and Kurdish People's Defense Units (YPG) in particular are opponents of ISIS in the Syrian civil war . The Syrian cities captured by ISIS include al-Bab , Jarābulus , A'zāz and ar-Raqqa . ISIS is strongest in ar-Raqqa Governorate . There and u. a. There were also protests against ISIS in Manbij in 2013.

In the second half of 2013, ISIS expanded its presence in the Iraqi city ​​of Mosul , where the organization reportedly raised $ 8 million in protection money a month. At the end of September 2013, ISIS began suicide and mortar attacks in Damascus ; with it she killed about 100 people in a month.

On October 11, 2013, Human Rights Watch released a report that ISIS, along with at least 19 other armed opposition groups, participated in organized massacres in rural areas of Latakia governorate from August 4 to 18, in which at least 190 civilians were killed and over 200 were killed were taken hostage. At least 67 people were executed or illegally killed in the operation in Alawites loyal to the government . The five groups that mainly financed, organized and carried out this operation were Ahrar al-Sham , ISIS, Jabhat al-Nusra , Jaish al-Muhajirin wal-Ansar and Suquor al-Izz . ISIS and Jaish al-Muhadschirin wal-Ansar still have power over the hostages, most of whom are women and children. The Wall Street Journal reported on December 17, 2013 that the hostages were still in the hands of ISIS and that the organization had stepped up attacks on Alawis and Christians .

On October 15, 2013, the Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) announced that they had fired four grenades at ISIS positions with two T-155 Fırtına after a mortar projectile from the Aʿzāz region on Turkish territory hit the army on October 14. Demirisik border post near Kilis was struck . This was the first attack by the Turkish armed forces on groups belonging to al-Qaeda.

In November 2013, ISIS announced that it was running a training camp in Syria for underage fighters , the youngest of them ten years old. In the same month, in response to a request from Maliki during a state visit the previous month, the United States began to send Hellfire missiles and surveillance drones to combat ISIS in Iraq. Also in November there was a confrontation between ISIS and the Ahrar al-Sham when ISIS beheaded an Ahrar al-Sham commander whom they mistakenly believed to be an Iraqi Shiite. In early January 2014 there was another incident in which ISIS killed and mutilated an Ahrar al-Sham commander.

On December 19, 2013, Amnesty International published a report that ISIS operates secret prisons in Syria where torture, flogging and spontaneous killings are systematically carried out.

Because of the mass arrests and killings by ISIS among Syrian activists and rebels, the extreme interpretation of Islam and the lack of participation in the fighting against the Assad government, ISIS was accused by numerous rebel groups of being infiltrated by government forces and working against the revolution. Another part of the ISIS leadership comes from Iraq, the fighters previously served as officers under Saddam Hussein and were released from Iraqi prisons at short notice. The head of al-Qaeda Zawahiri distanced himself from ISIS in February 2014.

Islamic State (June 2014 to date)

Development of territorial control of IS between October 2014 and May 2016
  • IS-controlled areas in Syria and Iraq
  • Controlled by Syrian rebels
  • Controlled by the Syrian government
  • Controlled by al-Nusra Front ( Haiʾat Tahrir al-Sham )
  • Controlled by Iraqi government
  • Controlled by Syrian Kurds
  • Controlled by Iraqi Kurds
  • With the proclamation of a caliphate on June 29, 2014, the organization is only called Islamic State. In mid-November 2014, IS announced in a statement that it would introduce its own currency based on gold and silver coins. The aim is to evade the “tyranny of the financial system ” and “to dismiss Muslims from a global economic system based on satanic usury ”.

    In mid-November 2014, evaluations of internal IS documents were published, which show that IS is trying to establish state-like structures. According to the Iraqi government, the documents were stored on USB sticks and hard drives and were found in a raid on Adnan Ismail Najim's hiding place in Mosul on June 5, 2014. Adnan Ismail Najm (fighting name: Abdel Rahman al-Bilawy), who was shot in the raid on June 4, 2014, was considered the second man within the IS. He served as Minister of War and was also considered a close confidante of Caliph Baghdadi; after the fall of Saddam Hussein in 2003 they were imprisoned together in the US military prison Camp Bucca (near Umm Qasr ) in southern Iraq, which they called "the academy". The Iraqi government had made some of the documents available to the investigative team of the NDR , the WDR and the Süddeutsche Zeitung . The British Guardian had already reported on the discovery of documents in June . The evaluated material dates from 2013 and extends until spring 2014. The documents relate almost exclusively to Iraq. As a result, social benefits (health insurance, marriage grants and support payments) have been initiated for the families of killed or imprisoned fighters. The costs for the welfare system listed there sometimes exceeded the cost of buying weapons. The documents also show that all nine IS provinces have their own budget; the district of Baghdad-North alone spent exactly 493,200 dollars in November 2013. The material also shows that there is a financial equalization between the IS provinces in favor of the poorer regions.

    According to the political scientist Peter R. Neumann , professor at King's College London , the IS, presumably more than any other terrorist organization before it, is systematically using terror as a means of waging war: “These documents basically confirm that this entire organization is actually a lot is more rational and much more well thought-out than we previously imagined. ”The Federal Intelligence Service analyzed for the federal government : Unlike al-Qaida, IS offers life in a caliphate. This makes him highly attractive to Muslims all over the world and is one of the reasons why IS is "a greater challenge for the Western community of states" than al-Qaeda.

    According to Röhmel / Wolf, IS (as well as other Islamists such as members of al-Qaeda or the Muslim Brotherhood ) see the SARS-CoV-2 virus as a “soldier of Allah” who is supposed to fight all enemies and should be used as a weapon.

    Causes for the strengthening of the IS

    Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair believes the US-led invasion of Iraq is partly to blame for the emergence of the terrorist militia Islamic State. There are "elements of truth" in the claim that the Iraq war caused the rise of IS.

    The Qatari legal scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi , who is close to the Muslim Brotherhood , criticized the discrimination and oppression of the Sunnis in Iraq. There have been reports of discrimination, imprisonment and torture under the Maliki government.

    In particular, the Sunni units of the Iraqi army were not adequately armed, so that ISIS, for example, was able to take Ramadi in 2015 without resistance.

    The Rhein-Zeitung assumes in a comment that the civil wars of many groups in Iraq and Syria made the rise of IS possible in the first place; Chaos and vacuum are made for tightly organized terrorist militias like the Islamic State. According to political scientist David Siddhartha Patel , the complete withdrawal of US troops in 2011, demanded by the Iraqi government, was a security policy mistake . Iraq also lacks an air force .

    The Green politician Claudia Roth accused Turkey of having supported the IS militias with weapons and training camps; she spoke of Turkey's "dirty politics". The Greens politician Katja Keul also criticizes a possible role Qatar as a supporter of IS: "Whether Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Islamists in Libya, Mali, Syria or Iraq - everywhere there are reports of funding from Qatari sources."

    The Islamic scholar Ulrike Freitag points out that although the Saudi Arabian government now sees IS as an opponent, there are still Saudi supporters of the terrorist organization who support its policies financially. Friday emphasizes the importance of the denominational conflict between Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shiite Iran as the cause of the war.

    US General John R. Allen is of the opinion that in Daesh one is not fighting against a force, but against an idea. The IS has managed to give itself the image of an Islamic state that is invincible and protects the Islamic faith. Similarly, US General Michael K. Nagata is quoted as saying: "We do not understand the movement, and until we do, we are not going to defeat it." According to a comment by former Israeli Major General Giora Eiland on the news portal ynetnews , however, ISIS would be militarily much easier to defeat than other terrorist organizations because it operates with large concentrations of troops that are easy to identify, and it is more due to the unwillingness of the West.

    The Syrian journalist Hassan Hassan stated that the IS is adopting existing structures and thus consolidating its power in the Sunni regions. The organization built a security apparatus consisting of competing intelligence services modeled on the regime in Syria and the earlier dictatorship of Iraq. Similar to these Ba'ath regimes, the IS is also expanding its influence by playing off different groups and tribes against each other. This system, which was largely built on the basis of local allies, also ensures that IS has no influence outside of the Sunni areas in Iraq and Syria.

    Situation in Iraq

    After the Second Iraq War , which was internationally controversial (see Iraq Crisis 2003 ), an interim administration , then a government council and then an Iraqi government was installed. United States troops were withdrawn in December 2011 (see Occupation of Iraq 2003–2011 ). There is tension between social and religious groups in the country. The Sunni minority felt oppressed by Shiite Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki (resigned in August 2014). Parts of the Iraqi army deserted. In the first half of 2014, the IS militias succeeded in bringing large parts of northern Iraq under their own control. In June 2014, Baghdad was even threatened with the fall.

    January 2014

    In early January 2014, ISIS fighters managed to storm the cities of Fallujah and Ramadi , the capital of the western Iraqi province of Al-Anbar , and bring them under their control; however, they were soon expelled from Ramadi by tribal fighters and local police forces (see uprising in Anbar January 2014 ). After a few days, the regular authorities in Fallujah had reopened as normal. Sunni tribal leaders had previously assumed responsibility for security in the area together with the local police.

    US Secretary of State John Kerry with Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki at a meeting in Baghdad

    The United States and the European Union held another military invasion to prevent Iraq from disintegrating. The Turkey and Israel were as affected by the crisis to be seen. The spiritual leader of the Iraqi Shiites , Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani , called on the Iraqis to resist the Sunni jihadists . Iranian President Hassan Rohani did not rule out cooperation with the USA to combat the ISIS militias.

    June 2014

    At the beginning of June 2014, the organization launched a lightning offensive on the second largest Iraqi city of Mosul - the group was led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi . Within a few days, she conquered the city and then the predominantly Sunnis-inhabited provinces of Nineveh , Salahaddin and Anbar in the north of the country. When they captured Mosul, they also kidnapped 49 people from the Turkish consulate. In prison Badusch it should have come to a massacre of some 670 non-Sunni prisoners. The Iraqi army mostly left the field to the attackers without a fight. The British newspaper The Guardian reported that around 30,000 government soldiers deserted during the offensive on Mosul; the number of ISIS attackers was estimated to be 800. In addition to the weapons stores of the local garrison, the ISIS fighters also brought under their control a still unknown number of US Black Hawk helicopters , other aircraft and heavy weapon systems. According to an Iraqi security officer citing interrogation of a captured ISIS courier, during the capture of Mosul she got hold of up to $ 1.5 billion worth of money and military equipment, believed to be her total assets (money and weapons) were previously at $ 875 million. IS captured 2,400 armored vehicles, most of them American-made.

    On June 10, ISIS fighters advanced from Mosul to Baiji , where Iraq's largest oil refinery is located, but withdrew again in the face of increased army and police forces.

    On June 11, 2014, ISIS fighters reached Tikrit , where Sunnis from the previous dictatorship of Saddam Hussein worked with ISIS fighters, and Baiji. More than 100 people were killed in fighting between the Hawza of Najaf and IS in Salah ad-Din province on June 12 in the villages of Udhaim and Mukdadija .

    On June 12, 3,000 Iraqi army soldiers dressed in civilian clothes left Camp Speicher to surrender after their officers had fled. The ISIS militias divided the soldiers into Sunnis and Shiites and, according to their own statements, executed around 1,700 Shiite soldiers. The Human Rights Watch organization estimated the number of victims at up to 770, using satellite images to identify five locations where murders had taken place. These mass murders came to be known as the Tikrit Massacre . During the same period, around 700 Turkmen are said to have been executed by IS around the village of Beshir .

    The people of Baghdad were preparing to attack, and on June 13, the Shiite religious leader in Iraq, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani , lifted his reluctance and called for a fight against Sunni extremists. Anyone who can carry a weapon should join the Iraqi security forces. The appeal was read by Sistani's representative, Sheikh Abdul Mehdi Kerbalaie, during the Friday sermon in the Imam Hussein Mosque in Karbala . The radical Shiite preacher Muktada al-Sadr also called on his followers to resist.

    An attack by ISIS supporters on a police station and a prison where Sunnis are incarcerated in Baquba , capital of Diyala province , killed 44 people.

    Around a million Iraqis were on the run. Many tried to reach the Kurdish autonomous area in northern Iraq, which is considered stable. A little later, the Al-Kaim border post, an official border crossing between Iraq and Syria, was captured.

    Despite the open dispute between Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki in Baghdad and Kurdish President Masud Barzani in Erbil , the leadership of the Kurdish areas in Iraq officially sided with the Iraqi government and sent their Peshmerga units from the capital Erbil to the combat area. On June 12, Peshmerga fighters took complete control of the city of Kirkuk .

    After the capture of Mosul, the government of Nuri al-Maliki asked the US government for air support against the ISIS fighters. US President Barack Obama considered a military strike, but the use of US troops on the ground was ruled out. The United States has already invested a lot of money in building the Iraqi security force; if they are not ready to fight, there are "problems with morality and commitment to Iraq". It is up to the Iraqis, as a sovereign state, to solve their problems, said Obama, referring to the difficult history of Iraq . First, the US Secretary of Defense Chuck Hagel relocated the aircraft carrier USS George HW Bush in the Persian Gulf . This was accompanied by three destroyers , which with its Tomahawk - cruise missiles have been used in the Iraq invasion in 2003, the USS Arleigh Burke (DDG-51) , the USS Truxtun (DDG-103) , the USS O'Kane (DDG 77) and a missile-armed cruiser , the USS Philippine Sea (CG-58) . In addition, another warship was dispatched to the region, the USS Mesa Verde , which is designed for amphibious missions, with a vertical take-off tilt rotor convertible aircraft Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey and with 550 marines on board.

    Iranian President Hassan Rouhani on June 14th offered Iraq assistance within the framework of international law and did not fundamentally rule out cooperation with the United States in Iraq: “When we see the United States intervening against terrorist groups in Iraq, then you can think about it. So far, however, we have seen no action on their part. ”In addition, Rouhani denied a report in the Wall Street Journal that at least three elite units of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Al-Quds Brigades (Al-Kuds Brigades) had already been dispatched to Iraq.

    On June 17, Barack Obama decided to send a 275-strong special unit to Iraq to take personnel from the US Embassy in Baghdad to the US consulates in Erbil ( Kurdistan Autonomous Region in northern Iraq) and Basra (southern Iraq) and the US - Relocate embassy to Amman , Jordan . How many of the 5,000 US embassy staff in Baghdad will be relocated has not been disclosed.

    A possible military cooperation with Iran was denied by the spokeswoman for the US State Department after Secretary of State John Kerry had not previously excluded her.

    According to an official of the Kurdish DPK , most of the rebels who have joined the ISIS offensive are not Islamists, but rather non-radical Sunni Iraqis who disagree with the Shiite Maliki government. They are supported by dismissed or defected soldiers from the Iraqi army, whose number is said to be many times that of the jihadists. They cite a variety of discrimination by the Shiite-dominated Iraqi government as the reason.

    On June 29, 2014, the first day of the fasting month of Ramadan , the organization issued a comprehensive declaration proclaiming the caliphate and its leader Baghdadi as caliph . In Arabic, English, Russian, French and German, the organization announced its renaming from “Islamic State in Iraq and Syria” to “Islamic State”. She also stated that all emirates, groups, states and organizations lose their legality with the arrival of the caliphate and the arrival of its troops.

    July 2014

    On July 3, Saudi Arabia announced the relocation of 30,000 soldiers towards the Iraqi border, following the withdrawal of Iraqi soldiers stationed there and against the background of the ongoing fighting between government forces and ISIS.

    In July 2014, IS fighters destroyed Shiite and Sufi mosques and shrines, including the mausoleum of Ahmed Rifai , a descendant of Mohammed, in the Iraqi cities of Mosul and Tal Afar . The Christian population of Mosul were invited on July 18 via loudspeakers of mosques, to leave the city; otherwise they threaten "the sword". A week earlier, they had been told to convert to Islam or pay a special tax to avoid deportation. The houses of Christians were marked with an N for Nazrani ; they should go to the Islamic State. The bishopric of the Syrian Catholic Church in Mosul was set on fire. The group also took control of several oil fields and Iraq's largest dam, the Mosul Dam .

    At the end of July, the Peshmerga units stationed north and west of Mosul withdrew after fierce fighting with at least 77 dead. Most of the residents of the area belong to the Yazidis religious minority , who are disbelievers in the eyes of IS. In the course of the conquest, IS murdered ten Shiite Kurds and destroyed Shiite and Yazidi shrines. The advance of IS triggered a mass exodus, up to 200,000 people fled to nearby Jabal Sinjar . The UN special envoy for Iraq, Nikolay Mladenov , spoke of a humanitarian tragedy and warned that IS had enclosed the Sinjar Mountains. After the destruction of important mosques and tombs, Sunni resistance against IS also formed in Mosul; a group called the "Mosul Revolutionary Brigades" killed several IS fighters.

    Around 11,000 Kurds , Alevis and Yazidis demonstrated on August 16, 2014 in Hanover for help against IS terrorism

    August 2014

    On August 7th, IS fighters conquered Baghdida ( Qaraqosh ) southeast of Mosul . Over 200,000 Christians, especially those of the Chaldean Catholic Church and the Assyrian Church of the East , were expelled from the Mosul plain. In addition, IS fighters advanced in the direction of Erbil , the seat of the autonomous region of Kurdistan .

    On August 8, 2014, the US government bombed IS artillery positions with fighter jets. Further US Navy air strikes took place from the aircraft carrier USS George HW Bush (CVN 77) in the following days . According to the US military, tanks that the IS had captured were also switched off.

    The Iraqi minister for human rights, Shia al Sudani, reported 500 Yazidis killed by ISIS supporters, some of whom were buried alive. In addition, hundreds of women have been kidnapped, all under 35 years of age and imprisoned in schools in the city of Mosul, according to a spokesman for the minister. The Yezidi MP Wian Dachil stated that 20,000 to 30,000 Yazidis were rescued from the Sinjar Mountains by Kurdish Peshmerga fighters . According to the evicted Yazidis, the rescue was not carried out by the Peshmerga, but by fighters from the Democratic Union Party (PYD) and the People's Defense Units (YPG), both of which are close to the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). The UN reported that several thousand more Yazidis were stuck in the mountains and trapped by IS. Qasim Şeşo founded a Yazidi vigilante group ( YBŞ ) on July 30th to be prepared for the extreme case. This vigilante took up positions in the Sinjar Mountains to protect the Scherfedin pilgrimage site and to fight against IS. In Tel Kudscho least 80 men died, according to the Kurdish news agency Basnews because they do not to Islam transgressed wanted.

    A leading member of the IS, Abu Turab Al Mugaddasi, announced that he wanted to move to Saudi Arabia in order to take Mecca . King Abdullah ibn Abd al-Aziz then announced that 30,000 soldiers would be permanently stationed in the north of the country. A month later it was announced that a fence would be built on the border with Jordan with a length of 900 kilometers.

    On August 11, it became known that Kurdish forces had recaptured the cities of Machmur and Gwer - with US air support. Gwer had previously been abandoned by the Kurdish forces on the night of August 6th.

    Nuri al-Maliki resigned from his post as Prime Minister of Iraq on August 14, 2014 in favor of the designated successor and political rival Haidar al Abadi . On August 15, 25 Sunni tribes began their resistance to ISIS and expelled it from the areas west of the provincial capital of Ramadi . On August 18, the strategically important Mosul Dam was recaptured by Kurdish and Iraqi units with US air support.

    The Iraqi army launched a counteroffensive on August 19, 2014 to recapture the Sunni- dominated city of Tikrit . However, the offensive came to a standstill on the same day because the resistance was too strong.

    On August 22, 2014, Kurdish forces launched an offensive on the strategically important site of Jalawla in the Diyala governorate , while the Iraqi army marched on the nearby site of Saadiya . On September 17th it became known that the place was still in the hands of the IS, one main reason being the support of the IS by the Krui tribe, which according to the Peshmerga has around 1500 former army soldiers in its ranks.

    At the end of August 2014, ISIS members posted a video on the Internet allegedly showing the murder of US journalist James Foley . At the end of the video, a second prisoner was shown, known as Steven Sotloff . Addressed to the American President, the video stated: "The life of this American citizen, Obama , depends on your next decision." Shortly afterwards, the ABC News reported on another hostage-taking by IS. It is a 26-year-old woman who was abducted in Syria in 2013. The kidnappers demanded, among other things, $ 6.6 million and the release of Aafia Siddiqui . The US continues its air strikes and no longer ruled out an expansion of the attacks on IS positions in Syria .

    The Iraqi Air Force began attacks on IS positions on August 27 around the city ​​of Amerli in the Tuz Churmatu district of Salah ad-Din , which had been trapped for two months . At the same time, aid and ammunition were flown into the city by helicopter. Forces of the Iraqi army as well as Shiite and Kurdish fighters started a joint offensive on August 30th to relieve the city, which had been enclosed for more than two months. These ground troops, several thousand strong, advanced from four directions, supported by air strikes with US participation, against the enclosure . The Iraqi army managed to break through the siege ring on August 31, 2014. The smaller towns around Amerli city were recaptured on the same day. The air force of Shiite-dominated Iran is likely to have participated for the first time. According to a statement by Michael Knights, an Iraq expert from the Washington Institute for Near East Policy , the city became a symbol of Shiite resistance and was also the last non-Sunni community to be exposed to the terrorist organization. In the course of this offensive, the allied forces were able to recapture the town of Sulaiman Bak, which was lost eleven weeks ago, and 36 IS fighters were captured. Shortly afterwards, mass graves were discovered there.

    On August 28, a video was posted on YouTube that is said to show the beheading of a Peshmerga fighter. The beheading is meant to be a warning for the Kurdish leaders to end their alliance with the US. In the early morning, Kurdish forces in the Zumar district of Tal Afar in the Ninawa governorate - 10 to 20 km west of the Mosul dam - were able to win back some localities, including the oil town of Ain Zalah , which was lost on August 3, and the strategically important Mount Batma - it makes one possible very good view of the cities of Ain Zalah and Zumar. In the course of its retreat, IS set fire to three oil wells. The first Kurdish associations were able to penetrate the city of Zumar on August 30 , which had been under IS control since the beginning of the month. Zumar could be taken shortly afterwards.

    September 2014

    Map of the airstrike targets against IS in Syria on September 23, 2014
    Map of the Allied air strikes on IS-controlled refineries on September 24, 2014

    On September 2, the IS published a video in which a black hooded fighter apparently murdered the journalist Steven Joel Sotloff . In the video, the assassination was justified with the continuation of the USA's attacks on IS positions. The killing of British man David Cawthorne Haines has also been threatened if US air strikes continue.

    On September 4, it became known that the right hand of IS leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, Abu Hajjir al-Suri , was allegedly killed in an air strike on Mosul; 50 IS fighters are said to have died in this air strike. During the same period, Tel Ali , west of Kirkuk, was stormed by ISIS militias and at least 50 men were kidnapped.

    Kurdish forces advanced east of Mosul and were able to fight their way up to 25 kilometers from the city by September 5, while further villages were recaptured by IS. On September 6th, the Peshmerga , about 20 km east of Mosul, was able to conquer the strategically important mountain Zartak . The US Air Force supported the advance.

    On September 7th, the US Air Force bombed IS positions near the Haditha Dam , about 250 km southwest of Mosul, thereby opening up an additional front. The attacks were aimed at assisting Iraqi security forces and Sunni tribes defending the dam, and the air strikes were carried out at the request of the Iraqi government. Due to the air strikes, the fighters were able to take the town of Barwana about 10 km south of the dam.

    On September 12, it was announced that Saudi Arabia , Iraq , Bahrain , Egypt , Jordan , Kuwait , Lebanon , Oman , Qatar and the United Arab Emirates want to participate in the international alliance. In a joint statement after an anti-terror conference in the Saudi port city of Jeddah , the ten Arab countries said they had agreed to do their part in the fight against the extremists and to support the military action. Among other things, they promised to stop the financial flows of extremists and the influx of foreign fighters.

    Australia announced in mid-September 2014 the relocation of 600 soldiers and eight FA18 Super Hornets to the United Arab Emirates. Two hundred of these soldiers were members of the Australian Special Air Service Regiment . On September 15, 2014, the French Air Force started reconnaissance flights in Iraq for the first time.

    A video was released on September 13th showing the beheading of British development aid worker David Haines . The act was justified as follows: "This Briton has to pay the price for your promise, Cameron, to arm the Peshmerga in order to take action against the 'Islamic State'." British aid worker Alan Henning was announced as the next victim .

    By September 16, US air strikes on IS positions had reached 162 and were the first to attack positions near the Iraqi capital. On the same day, the Peshmerga were able to free another five villages northeast of Mosul. The liberation of these villages was seen as a strategically important success. After the Peshmerga had established itself ten days earlier, 20 km east of Mosul, on Mount Zartak, a northern encircling movement emerged here. According to statements by a local commander, the IS troops had been in retreat for days. It was also known that the Kurdish fighters were preparing an offensive to recapture the Mosul plain. On September 18, the US Air Force attacked several training camps in the Hammam al-Alil area, around 25 km south of Mosul, and destroyed them completely. On September 20, it became known that the US Air Force had first attacked targets in downtown Mosul.

    On September 19, Rafale jets of the French air force bombed an IS arms depot in the Zumar area and completely destroyed it. The Frenchman Hervé Gourdel was born in Algeria by Jund al-Chilāfa  /جُنْد الخِلافة / Ǧand al-ḫilāfa  / 'Army of the Caliphate / Caliphate Army' (formerly affiliated with al-Qaeda in the Maghreb , IS since September 14th) kidnapped on September 21st, the terrorists demanded an end to the French air strikes. The French hostage was beheaded on September 24th. The French government had previously announced that they would not give in to blackmail.

    On September 25, further air strikes followed by ten fighter jets from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates as well as six from the USA on 12 modular oil refineries controlled by IS near the Syrian-Iraqi border near Al Mayadin, Al Hasakah and Abu Kamal .

    On September 26, Great Britain participated in the air strikes against IS positions in Iraq with two armed Tornado fighter jets . Also, Belgium , the Netherlands and Denmark pledged their support. Belgium sent six F-16 fighter jets and 120 soldiers to Jordan, the Netherlands also sent six F-16s and a maximum of 250 soldiers, including 130 for training Iraqi and Kurdish soldiers.

    According to representatives of the Peshmerga, Kurdish fighters advanced on three fronts on September 30 with air support and artillery fire. Two villages in the border area with Syria were able to be recaptured, and the Kurdish fighters moved into the border town of Rabia (located on Autobahn 1 ) and encountered resistance. Another offensive was carried out in the Zumar area . Around the Darkuk in the Kirkuk governorate , some villages could also be recaptured.

    On September 30, 2014, the Royal Air Force launched attacks against IS positions. Canada announced that it would take part in the air strikes against ISIS. The Turkish Vice Prime Minister Bülent Arınç said the Turkish parliament would approve resolutions on the combat use against ISIS on October 1st.

    After five days of torture, the Iraqi lawyer and human rights activist Samira Salih Ali al-Nuaimi was executed in Mosul alongside ten former parliamentary candidates for criticizing the destruction of religious sites by IS.

    The first Christian vigilante group arose in the Alqosh area . The reason for this is the escape of the Peshmerga in August 2014.

    October 2014

    A video appeared on the Internet on October 3, allegedly showing the beheading of British development aid worker Alan Henning , who was kidnapped by IS fighters in December 2013. His murder was justified in the video with Britain's involvement in the attacks on IS in Iraq.

    Executions of politically active women and academics, including two doctors, were also announced in early October. The cameraman Raad Mohammed al-Asawi and the journalist Muhannad al-Akidi were also killed by IS. It was also reported that IS had captured the Muthanna complex northwest of Baghdad on June 11, 2014 and presumably also captured the remains of warfare agents or production remains , including sarin .

    At the beginning of October 2014, IS units advanced against the Yazidis in the Sinjar Mountains . There were about 10,000 people in the region who were in short supply. These included around 3,000 members of the vigilante group ( Hêza Parastina Şingal ) under the leadership of Qasim Şeşo and 7,000 civilians. They try, among other things, to protect the pilgrimage site Sharaf ad-Din . The towns of Borik and Dhola fell to IS. Kurdish units managed to keep the once again highly contested city of Zumar and thus access to the Sinjar Mountains. According to estimates by the UN , up to 5,000 Yazidis have been executed by IS since the summer of 2014 and around 7,000 women have been enslaved.

    At a conference of the Indian Women's Press Corps (IWPC) on October 15, 2014, the Syrian ambassador to New Delhi , Riad Kamel Abbas, described the IS as an “American myth”, an invention that received direct support from Turkey and from Saudi Arabia and Qatar are being financed: “Al-Qaida appeared in Syria after the US occupied Iraq. Before that there was no al-Qaeda in Syria. It is clear that al-Qaeda was created by the US and that IS is supported by the US. "

    November 2014

    The Iraqi army reported the expulsion of IS militias from the city of Baiji . In the western Iraqi province of Al-Anbar , which has been largely controlled by ISIS at strategically important points since the city of Hīt was captured , heavy fighting over Ramadi broke out again . In addition, more than 630 members of the Sunni Albu Nimr tribe are said to have been executed in the province for fighting IS.

    December 2014

    Sinjar Mountains : Kurdish troops began a successful offensive to recapture the Sinjar Mountains. Many Yazidis are said to continue to be hidden there after their escape from IS and threatened by winter. Access to the strategically important city of Sinjar was opened from the mountains .

    Sinjar (also: Sinjar ): Kurdish troops were largely able to recapture the former majority of Yezidis inhabited city Sinjar. There were reports of snipers in the city. The city lies on a road connecting ar-Raqqa and Mosul. The interruption of the connection is said to have led to supply problems for IS in Mosul. Jihadists who fled Sinjar are believed to have been executed in Mosul. The hard-to-check numbers ranged from 45 to 70 people. The Kurdish successes led to discussions in the media about the strategy of the Kurds in non-Kurdish areas and the danger of a Kurdish-Sunni war. Mass graves were discovered in Hardan , a Yezidi village near Sinjar.

    Tal Afar ( map ): The next larger town towards Mosul is Tal Afar. Sunni Turkmen living there are said to have fled to Mosul for fear of air strikes and acts of revenge. A special unit of the Iraqi troops recaptured a military base near Tal Afar in the wake of the Kurdish successes.

    Mosul : IS blew up a Catholic Church of St. Mary in the north of the city.

    Samarra : An Iranian officer was killed by a sniper.

    Baiji : The city of Baiji, which was recently recaptured by Iraqi government troops, has been retaken by IS. This now again besieged the neighboring largest refinery in Iraq.

    Shiite militias: There are now said to be 35 Shiite militias in Iraq, including 6 Hezbollah militias fighting against Daesh. They were accused of indiscriminately targeting Sunni men and violating human rights.

    January 2015

    In mid-January 2015, the Kurdish fighters were able to gain further ground in northern Iraq. At the end of the month, in thick fog, IS launched a surprising offensive on the city of Kirkuk , which the Kurds were able to repel. Middle East experts saw this as an attempt to distract the people from the advance of the Peshmerga on Mosul .

    February 2015

    At the beginning of February 2015, the anti-IS coalition flew more air strikes on Mosul. The IS then took the city of Chan al-Baghdadi and carried out unsuccessful offensives against the nearby Al Asad military airfield and the Kurdish capital Erbil . A major military offensive by the Iraqi army has been announced for the spring, in which up to 25,000 soldiers are to advance on Mosul. The army is trained under the leadership of the anti-IS coalition. New Zealand announced that it would send 140 soldiers to Iraq for this purpose. Also, Australia took the opportunity, the existing contingent of 170 soldiers by another 300 to 470 to increase. France moved the aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle to the Persian Gulf . IS is said to have started building a defensive trench in Mosul.

    On February 17, it was announced that ISIS burned 30 to 45 civilians alive in a public execution in al-Anbar province for allegedly collaborating with state security forces.

    A serious case of cultural vandalism broke out in Mosul at the end of the month . First, IS supporters stormed the city's historic library and burned at least 8,000 books. It is possible that more than 100,000 books and manuscripts were destroyed, including copies that are on the UNESCO list of rarities . On February 26th, IS released a video that showed the destruction of numerous works of art in the Mosul Museum . In addition to ancient finds from Hatra , two Lamassu doorkeeper figures from Nineveh , which were more than 2,600 years old, were smashed; one was in the museum, the other at the Nergal Gate on the city wall.

    March 2015

    On March 1, 2015, the armed forces of Iraq started the battle for Tikrit from Samarra . Iraqi soldiers, Shiite militias and fighters from Sunni tribes (around 30,000 men in total) advanced on the city from three directions. They were assisted by fighter jets and attack helicopters. IS defended itself with booby traps, suicide bombers and snipers, so that the attack initially only progressed slowly.

    On March 6, the capture of the strategically important town of Al-Dur by the Iraqi army was reported near Tikrit. In addition, Chan al-Baghdadi and other villages in the area were conquered in western Iraq , and the IS fighters withdrew in the direction of Haditha . Kurdish soldiers from the city they held also took action against IS positions in the surrounding area near Kirkuk . During the same period, four members of the Sahwa militia were executed in Tikrit and 20 Iraqis in al-Hawijah who wanted to use paramilitary units to fight IS.

    On March 6, it was reported that IS in northern Iraq had destroyed the remains of the ancient oriental city of Nimrud , once a capital of the Assyrian Empire , with bulldozers. Shortly afterwards , numerous buildings in the ancient city of Hatra , which is on the UNESCO World Heritage List , are said to have been torn down with explosives and bulldozers. Subsequently, IS is said to have destroyed the old Assyrian fortress of Dur Sharrukin and the Mar Gorgis monastery near Nineveh .

    After Iraqi units had captured the town of Al-Alam on March 9, Tikrit was encircled. On March 11th, the army entered Tikrit for the first time; it was able to bring the district of Kadissija partially under its control and penetrate into the city center on the same day. The next day it was reported that the Iraqi forces were able to retake a large part of Tikrits.

    On March 31, the Iraqi government was able to announce a victory against IS in Tikrit.

    May 2015

    After heavy fighting between government troops and IS fighters, the western Iraqi provincial capital Ramadi fell completely to IS on May 17th. Authorities speak of around 500 dead fighters and civilians in the city, which, despite increased air strikes by the US, could not be held by the government troops. It was the terrorist militia's first major victory since the defeats of Tikrit in early April and Kobane in January. The case of Ramadi is therefore seen as a severe setback for Iraq in the fight against IS.

    June 2015

    The US decided to set up a training camp in Taqaddum near the town of Habbania. The recapture of Mosul is to be postponed.

    July 2015

    The recapture of Ramadi by the government-loyal troops was initiated and the city was cut off from supplies. In particular, 3,000 trained soldiers were brought in as reinforcements.

    August 2015

    On August 1, 2015, Masud Barzani asked the PKK to leave its bases in northern Iraq.

    At the end of August, the big cities besieged or contested by the coalition included: Baiji , Ramadi and Fallujah .

    October 2015

    On October 20, 2015, Iraqi troops and Shiite militias recaptured the city of Baiji , which is home to Iraq's largest oil refinery.

    November 2015

    On November 13, 2015, Sinjar was completely retaken by Kurdish units.

    On November 23, 2015, 14 of Ramadi's 39 boroughs were reportedly retaken by units loyal to the government; On November 28, 2015, units loyal to the government occupied the bridge over the Euphrates .

    December 2015

    At the end of December 2015, Ramadi was in the hands of the Iraqi government forces.

    May 2016

    On May 13, 2016, at least 19 people died in an IS attack with machine guns and a suicide attack on visitors to a café in Balad .

    Suicide bomber IS access on 17 May 2016, the 2012 by URUK Engineering & Contracting Co. newly built gas power plant in Taji on. At least 11 people are killed and 22 others injured.

    June 2016

    At least 27 people were killed and more than 60 injured in two IS suicide attacks on June 9, 2016 in Baghdad . In Taji , around 25 kilometers north of Baghdad, an assassin drives his car loaded with explosives into a checkpoint of the Iraqi army . Seven civilians and five soldiers die.

    The Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared the liberation of the city of Fallujah from the Islamic State (IS) on June 17, 2016 . The Iraqi armed forces began their offensive in May 2016 with the support of US air strikes as part of Operation Inherent Resolve .

    The US Department of Defense announced on July 1, 2016 that the International Alliance against the Islamic State had already announced that the Islamic State (IS), Basim Muhammad Ahmad Sultan al-Badschari, and the Deputy War Minister of the Islamic State (IS) near the Iraqi city of Mosul , and the IS commander and chief of the military police, Hatim Talib al-Hamduni, killed by precision attacks.

    July 2016

    At least 75 people are killed and 130 others injured in an IS car bomb attack in a shopping area in the Karrada district of Baghdad . Another explosive device kills two people in the Al-Shaab neighborhood of al-Aʿzamiyya district.

    October 2016

    After extensive preparations by the Iraqi armed forces, the Peshmerga and local militias, the battle for Mosul began in mid-October . IS has dominated Mosul since the beginning of June 2014. "The time of victory has come and the operations to liberate Mosul have begun," said Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi in a speech on state television on October 17, 2016. Before the operation Refugee camps set up, but their capacities were criticized as insufficient.

    In the first days of the offensive, troops advanced on Mosul and captured some surrounding villages by October 20, 2016. Turkey is involved in the offensive, which has led to internal coalition conflicts and protests.

    The human rights organizations Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International, as well as diplomatic observers, accuse the Peshmerga of deliberately and systematically destroying Arab settlements under the guise of fighting ISIS. and to expel the residents with the aim of creating a Kurdish settlement area that is as ethnically homogeneous as possible.

    January 2017

    By January 2017, the Iraqi armed forces had succeeded in taking the districts of Mosul east of the Tigris in the battle for Mosul and, among other things , liberated the site of the ruins of Nineveh and the University of Mosul .

    March 2017

    Front line as of March 30, 2017
  • Held by Iraqi forces and Shiite militias
  • Held by the Islamic State
  • Held by Kurdish Peshmerga
  • At the beginning of March 2017, the IS leader, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, announced the defeat of IS in northwestern Iraq in a farewell speech. In this speech he called on his fighters to withdraw into the Syrian and Iraqi mountains and to entrench themselves. Al-Baghdadi also spoke of the defeats of IS in the province of Nineveh and other Iraqi areas. He himself described his message as a farewell speech.

    May 2017

    According to their own statements, the armed forces are in what is literally a “final phase” of retaking Mosul. A week earlier, government troops opened a new front in the western part of the city. The task force announced that units from the north-west and the south advance to the established by the IS fixtures except fight to set. Iraqi elite units reached a position within sight of the mosque in which Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi proclaimed his caliphate on June 29, 2014 in his only and last public appearance . Therefore, the mosque is of particular importance to the IS, which is why its fighters put up bitter resistance. The UN refugee aid reported that a refugee camp opened in April 2017 with a capacity for 30,000 people was full. The refugees also reported heavy fighting and massive air strikes. They also reported that there was a lack of water, food and gasoline in the city. The United Nations Emergency Aid Office announced that the total number of people who fled Mosul has increased from over 430,000 to 615,000. In addition, a large number of civilians are said to be in the western part of the city. In the already liberated eastern part there is a lack of drinking water. Aid organizations distribute 2.5 million liters of drinking water in bottles made of plastic to those in need every day, but this does not meet the actual need for clean water. The United Nations supported the reopening of a drinking water treatment plant in Salamiyya . As a spokesman for the Iraqi armed forces announced, 90 percent of the western part of Mosul has been recaptured. This means that IS still holds 6 percent of Iraqi national territory. He previously held 40 percent in 2014.

    June 2017

    The offensive on the old town of Mosul began on June 18, 2017. A division had previously taken the al-Shifaa district and surrounded ISIS. As part of this offensive, the Great Mosque of an-Nuri with its crooked minaret was almost completely destroyed on June 21, 2017 . In July 2017, the last quarters in the old town of Mosul were liberated by the Iraqi armed forces.

    September 2017

    Tal Afar was liberated by the Iraqi armed forces in early September 2017 .

    October 2017

    According to government troops, the city center of al-Hawijah was recaptured on October 4, 2017 . The city center had been completely liberated by the army, police and paramilitary units. The advance will continue in order to recapture the entire city and the surrounding area from IS.

    November 2017

    On November 17, 2017, the Iraqi border town of Rawa on the Euphrates was liberated by Iraqi government forces. The terrorist organization IS was expelled from all Iraqi towns and cities on the Euphrates.

    December 2017

    On December 9, 2017, the Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi declared ISIS in Iraq to be defeated.

    July 2018

    On July 4, 2018, the Iraqi armed forces and special police units, with the support of the Kurdish Peshmerga and the Shiite militia al-Hashd asch-Shabī , begin a major offensive against the Islamic State (IS) terrorist militia between Dijala and Kirkuk after the IS killed eight hostages at the end of June 2018 . The attacks are also supported by the air forces of the International Alliance against the Islamic State .

    Situation in Syria

    The civil war in Syria has been going on since March 2011 . President Bashar al-Assad commands government forces and is supported by Hezbollah . The Free Syrian Army sees itself as the militia of the Syrian opposition. Furthermore, the al-Qaeda-affiliated al-Nusra Front established itself as an opponent of Assad; In 2014, IS acquired a dominant role under the leadership of Omar al-Shishani . There are also smaller insurgent organizations. In 2012 there was a Syrian-Turkish conflict ; Turkey has since seen itself as an opponent of Assad.

    January 2014

    Since January 3, 2014, massive attacks by rebels, including the Free Syrian Army (FSA) and the Islamic Front , have been taking place against ISIS in northern Syria. After ISIS murdered a number of important Syrian activists in their prisons in early January 2014, open fighting between ISIS and the rebels increased, and more and more rebel groups joined. Several attempts to mediate between ISIS and the rebels had previously failed.

    February 2014

    At the beginning of February 2014, ISIS no longer had any allies among the Syrian rebel groups, especially among the al-Nusra Front and the Islamic army. The Kurdish People's Defense Units , YPG and YPJ (women's battalions), have been defending the Kurdish areas against ISIS incursions for a long time.

    March 2014

    Tomb of Sulayman Shah (Turkish exclave)

    At the end of March 2014, ISIS launched another attack on the Kurdish region around Ain al-Arab (Kurdish: Kobanê). At the same time, ISIS demanded that Turkey withdraw its troops from the only Turkish exclave , Sulayman Shah's tomb in the Syrian village of Qara Qusaq. Turkey threatened a military response.

    June 2014

    In June 2014, murders and crucifixions were reported in Deir Hafir in the east of Aleppo and al-Bab province.

    July 2014

    Heavy fighting broke out in July 2014 over the Scha'ar gas field near Homs . After IS temporarily captured the field and killed 270 Syrian soldiers, government troops recaptured it at the end of the month.

    According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) , IS also attacked a military base of the 17th Division of the Syrian Army in ar-Raqqa around 35 km east of the Tabqa dam . At least 50 government soldiers and 28 IS fighters died.

    August 2014

    In mid-August 2014, activists reported that IS fighters had captured and killed 700 members of the Shuʿaitat regional tribe , including 600 civilians, in Deir ez-Zor governorate . Deir ez-Zor is an enclave occupied by the Free Syrian Army in an area controlled by IS.

    On August 24, 2014, IS captured the Syrian military airfield at-Tabqa in al-Tabka . 500 people died in the process. During a fight with the Al-Qaeda allied Al-Nusra Front, IS also conquered other areas on the Turkish border in August 2014.

    On August 28, 2014, IS fighters killed more than 160 soldiers in ar-Raqqa governorate .

    September 2014

    In September 2014 IS supporters attacked the city of Kobanê on the border with Turkey. The fighting culminated in the internationally acclaimed battle for Kobanê . At times, up to half a million people were surrounded by IS fighters. The US Air Force, together with Jordanian and Saudi Arabian fighter planes, bombed ISIS targets in Syria. The action was also supported by the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain. In mid-September 2014, IS took over a total of 16 predominantly Kurdish villages near the city of Kobanê . The villages near the Turkish border were defended by local vigilante groups; civilians had fled before being captured. The Kurdish enclave around Kobanê had been attacked by IS for months, the enclave was surrounded . After violent protests, Turkey opened the border to the refugees. With the exception of Kobanê, the terrorist organization IS controlled the entire border with Turkey between Ras al-Ain and Aleppo . The capture of Kobanê would also have facilitated the advance on Aleppo. The success of the IS militia in this offensive has been linked to the heavy weapons captured by the Syrian army. Supplying the enclave from outside proved to be difficult, as Turkey was hostile to the Syrian Kurds. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, on the night of September 20, at least 300 Turkish Kurdish fighters advanced across the border into Syria to support the Syrian Kurds' fight against IS. Salih Muslim Mohamed, a representative of the Syrian Kurdish movement, called for help from the US and Europe. Kobanê was threatened with “ethnic cleansing even worse than that in Sinjar.” On September 23, 2014, it became known that the US, together with its Arab allies, had carried out air strikes in Syria. The allied states, according to the Washington Post, were : Saudi Arabia , Jordan , the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain . The attacks took place in the ar-Raqqa area of the northern Syrian IS stronghold and along the Syrian-Iraqi border. These targets were attacked with fighter jets , bombers and cruise missiles . The Washington Post reported that drones were also used in the attack .

    October 2014

    In mid-October 2014, the jihadists were able to take large parts of the besieged northern Syrian border town of Kobanê . Several Kurdish fighters were beheaded by IS. There were also reports of the urban war against Syrian government units in Aleppo and the blowing up of a control post in Hama .

    The IS militias were subsequently pushed back from Kobanê. The USA supported the Kurds there with a total of 135 air strikes against IS units. On October 20, 2014, it was announced that the USA had for the first time dropped multiple loads of weapons, ammunition and medical supplies for the Kurdish fighters using Lockheed C-130 aircraft . The material was provided by the Kurdistan Autonomous Region in Iraq. At the same time, according to a report by the Anadolu news agency, Erdoğan declared that the Syrian-Kurdish party PYD was as much a terrorist organization as the Kurdish Workers' Party PKK; he rejects any weapons aid from Turkey in principle.

    In response to the growing resistance, IS published a propaganda video on October 27 with the hostage John Cantlie , in which the British journalist downplayed the military successes of the Kurds and anti-IS coalition - presumably under duress.

    November 2014

    Air strike by the anti-IS coalition on an IS position in Kobane on November 19, 2014

    On November 16, a video was released showing that US aid worker Peter Kassig had been beheaded. The same video showed the murder of several Syrian soldiers.

    In Homs again fighting took place around the Sha'ar gas field that could defend the Syrian army after an interim loss against the IS. In Kobanê, the Kurdish fighters were able to recapture large parts of the city.

    December 2014

    Deir ez-Zor : Although IS controls large parts of the region that has been contested for months, the Syrian army was able to repel an offensive on the city's military airport and continue to use it as a base for air strikes against IS.

    ar-Raqqa : A Jordanian F16 fighter jet crashed over Syria. The pilot Muʿādh al-Kasāsba survived and was captured by IS. IS fighters claimed to have shot down the jet with a defensive missile with heat sensors. The US Army stated that the machine had crashed for technical reasons. The intensity of the air strikes by the US and its allies was not diminished despite the crash.

    Kobane : It was reported that the Kurdish YPG should now control 60% of the city. At that time, IS was mainly present in the east of the city. Some of the streets abandoned by IS were avoided by the YPG because they feared mine traps.

    al-Bab : Assad troops bombed the IS-held cities of al-Bab and Qabaseen, and others. a. with barrel bombs . 45 civilians were reported dead and 175 wounded. The attacks were highlighted because Assad troops were using them to increasingly air strikes in areas where they no longer have control.

    Afrin (city or district with a Kurdish majority north of Aleppo ): Turkey keeps the border with Afrin closed. In the south, the Kurdish enclave is threatened by the Nusra Front. In the east, the Islamic Front is a buffer against IS. The Islamic Front has taken the border town of Aʿzāz (Azaz) from IS . The Islamic Front allows Kurds and others to cross the border into Turkey via Aʿzāz. According to Sulaiman Jaafar, head of foreign relations in Afrin, Turkey is keeping the border closed to weaken the Kurds and supporting the Nusra Front to fight Assad.

    January 2015

    The Japanese hostages Haruna Yukawa and Kenji Gotō were executed by IS. If the terrorist Sajida al-Rishawi, who was sentenced to death in 2006, were not released, the IS threatened the murder of the Jordanian pilot Muʿādh al-Kasāsba . Kobanê was about to be liberated, but large parts of the city have been destroyed.

    February 2015

    Kobanê is considered liberated, and the surrounding villages were also recaptured by the Kurds. They announced that they would now advance to the IS-held border town of Tall Abyad . In the middle of the month, the Kurds were able to capture villages in the ar-Raqqa governorate for the first time . At the end of the month they announced the recapture of the city of Tall Hamis and the place of the same name today near the ancient settlement of Tell Brak in the north-east of the country.

    On February 3, it became known about pilot Muʿādh al-Kasāsba that he was probably burned alive with petrol by IS militias at the beginning of January. In direct response, the Jordanian government executed the terrorists Sadjida al-Rishawi and Ziyad Karboli and also stepped up air strikes on IS positions. According to IS reports , US development worker Kayla Mueller , who has been held hostage since August 2013, was killed in a bombing of ar-Raqqa . Her death was confirmed by the US government on February 10th, without verification of the circumstances.

    In mid-February 2015, the Burkān al-Furāt alliance was formed from various Syrian groups against IS. One of the strategic goals is to gain control of the roads from Aleppo via Manbidsch and Sarrin to ar-Raqqa in order to lengthen IS's supply routes.

    On the night of February 21-22, Turkey launched a military campaign to permanently evacuate the IS-encircled exclave Qalʿat Jaʿbar with the grave of Sulayman Shah . 38 guards, the bones of Sulaiman Shah and other moving parts were evacuated and the rest of the mausoleum was blown up. One soldier died in an accident, there was no fighting.

    At the end of the month, up to 350 Assyrian Christians were abducted by IS in an attack on several villages in al-Hasakah Governorate . On February 27, it was reported that 15 of them had been executed.

    March 2015

    After 19 of the kidnapped Christians had been released at the beginning of the month for a ransom, the majority of the other hostages were soon released. According to Mario Zenari , the Vatican ambassador to Syria, no further payments were made.

    On March 9, it was reported that 30 people were killed in an anti-terrorist coalition air strike on an IS-operated oil refinery near Tall Abyad . On March 11, IS attacked the city of Raʾs al-ʿAin on the Turkish border, resulting in heavy fighting with Kurdish units.

    May 2015

    Around the same time as the IS offensive on the western Iraqi provincial capital Ramadi , IS militia units began the advance on the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Palmyra in mid-May . These could initially be repulsed by Syrian government troops, but by May 20, ISIS still had complete control of Palmyra, and the Syrian army was forced to withdraw. In northern Syria, too, the Islamists gained, in some cases considerable, territorial gains through a series of offensives. On May 19, the last major military base of the Assad government was captured, which means that more than 50% of the Syrian land area is under the control of the terrorist militia, including most of the country's oil fields. On May 27, IS had to withdraw from the town of Mabrukeh , which was occupied by Kurdish soldiers.

    June 2015

    Over 150 people were killed in attacks by IS in Kobanê.

    In the battle for the border town of Tel Abjad , the Kurds in the Burkān al-Furāt alliance achieved success on June 30, 2015.

    July 2015

    Turkish air forces have been attacking IS positions in northern Syria and PKK positions in northern Iraq since July 26, 2015 .

    August 2015

    The archeologist Chaled al-Assaad , who works in Palmyra , was executed by IS.

    The military airfield Abu al-Duhur , the last bastion of the Syrian government in the province of Idlib , is under siege by IS.

    Russia began a military intervention to take action against the ISIS jihadist militia and rebels from Syria. The Iranian Major General Qasem Soleimani previously visited Moscow, as a result the Russians and the Iranians reached a strategic decision: Syria should act as a barrier to prevent the spread of IS and Islamist militias in the Islamic republics of the former Soviet Union.

    September 2015

    Britain and France announced plans to participate in the US military operation in Syria. The background to the involvement in the air strikes is therefore the lack of success in the fight against IS, the increasing presence of Russia in the region and the high number of Syrian refugees. British Treasury Secretary George Osborne said the problem had to be tackled at its roots - he named the leadership around Syria's President Bashar al-Assad and IS. British Prime Minister David Cameron wants to ask parliament to approve air strikes on IS in early October. It would be the second attempt: In 2013, the MPs had refused a mission. French President François Hollande has discussed a possible deployment with his defense staff. France is already involved in the US-led operation in Iraq, but the country has so far refused to extend it to Syria.

    On September 7, 2015, Prime Minister David Cameron confirmed in front of the House of Commons in London that the RAF had already killed IS fighters on August 21 - without a parliamentary resolution - in drone operations near Raqqa, including two British, Reyaad Khan, a 21 -Year-olds from Cardiff , and Ruhul Amin of about the same age from Aberdeen . A third Brit was killed by a US Reaper drone on December 24th and 25th. Killed in August: 21-year-old Junaid Hussain from Birmingham , who was considered the chief hacker of IS and who wore the nom de guerre Abu Hussain Al Britani. His death had been announced weeks ago by the US military.

    Cameron justified the action that they had planned terrorist attacks in their homeland. In Syria, it was Britain's first attack of its kind.

    At the same time, since the beginning of September 2015, Putin arranged for more aid deliveries to be made to Syria, referring to old treaties, and sent military to Syria, in particular aircraft and material, to expand his own bases near Damascus and Jabla and to support Assad in defending against IS. The US was irritated by this.

    November 2015

    In mid-November the Syrian army was able to break through the siege ring around the Kuweyres military airfield .

    December 2015

    At the end of December 2015, Syrian Kurdish militants succeeded in wresting control of the Tischrin Dam from the IS and taking some villages west of the Euphrates. As a result, IS lost a supply route across the Euphrates. In an unconfirmed audio message, al-Baghdadi tried to strengthen the morale of his troops. He also made threats against Europe, the United States, Israel, Russia and Saudi Arabia.

    On December 27, 2015, the Syrian journalist and filmmaker Naji al-Jscherf (* 1977) was shot in the head in Gaziantep in southeastern Turkey . He had made a number of documentaries reporting on IS atrocities in Aleppo , Syria , and collaborated closely with the group Raqqa is being slaughtered silently (RIBSS), a group of activists and citizen journalists who Secretly document human rights violations in the Syrian IS stronghold of Raqqa and are prosecuted by IS for this. Two Syrian opposition activists who had publicly opposed IS were murdered in Turkey in October. Ibrahim Abdul Kader and Fares Hamadi were found beheaded in a house in the border town of Şanlıurfa . The IS confessed to the act at the time. Turkey expert Gareth Jenkins from the Institute for Security and Development Policy in Istanbul said that the AKP government suppressed any reporting that could make it appear in a negative light, including that it is possible for IS sympathizers to see people in Turkey to murder.

    August 2016

    At the beginning of August, Manbij was captured by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) after a long siege . As a result, ISIS lost its influence in northern Syria. The only remaining route from the ISIS capital, Raqqa, to Turkey is through Manbij. The region is considered important by the US-led anti-IS coalition because it is assumed that fighters will get into IS from Turkey through it.

    December 2016

    After IS was driven out of the historic desert city of Palmyra by Syrian government troops in March 2016 , it was able to invade again in December 2016. Before that, the IS launched an offensive on Palmyra in which it attacked the Syrian army from different directions. Dozens of soldiers are said to have died in this attack. In addition, IS is said to have taken some gas fields .

    May 2017

    On May 19, US Secretary of Defense James Mattis announced that US President Donald Trump had ordered a (so literally) "extermination campaign" against members of the IS. The mission of this campaign is to prevent IS fighters from returning from Syria to their home countries, because they pose a strategic threat there. For this, the US President ordered a "tactical change" to the previous approach. IS fighters should no longer be expelled from their places of retreat, but rather encircled and "crushingly" beaten.

    Ar-Raqqa in August 2017

    September 2017

    At the beginning of September 2017, the Kurdish army succeeded in liberating the old town of ar-Raqqa in the battle for ar-Raqqa .

    October 2017

    On October 17, 2017, the battle for ar-Raqqa ended with the victory of the anti-IS coalition.

    November 2017

    At the beginning of November 2017, the Syrian armed forces announced the capture of the governorate capital Deir ez-Zor . On November 9, 2017, the Syrian armed forces reported the capture of the border town of Abu Kamal on the Euphrates. With this, the IS was driven out of the last major city on the Euphrates . With the reconquest, the Syrian army proclaimed victory over IS. However, on November 11, 2017, IS struck back the Syrian army from Abu Kamal. On November 19, 2017, the Syrian army announced the final capture of Abu Kamal. As a result, IS no longer holds any larger settlements in Syria.

    December 2017

    On December 7, 2017, the Russian Defense Ministry declared IS in Syria to be defeated.

    February 2018

    In February 2018, ISIS was still occupying individual villages on the Euphrates in Syria . The Kurdish advance against IS came to a standstill because the Kurds withdrew their fighters from the SDF to fight against the invading Turkish troops in Afrin .

    March 2018

    IS fighters attacked the Syrian army in the Deir ez-Zor governorate in mid-March 2018 and, according to SOHR, brought the "Pumping Station 2" conveyor system in the south-eastern part of the province under their control. Several militia loyal to the government were killed. Government forces launched a counterattack on March 20.

    On March 20, 2018, fighters from the terrorist organization Islamic State occupied the southern district of Qadam (Al-Kadam) of Damascus, where the Yarmuk refugee camp is located, within one day . According to SOHR, 36 militiamen loyal to the government were killed.

    May 2018

    On May 21, 2018, the Syrian Army had Damascus completely under its control again.

    January 2019

    After President Trump announced the withdrawal of US troops, IS fighters from the few remaining areas on the Euphrates near Deir ez-Zor carried out more offensives against the US-backed SDF. Western experts saw Trump's announcement as a motivational boost for IS and estimated that the attacks are now trying to stylize themselves as the force that drove the USA out. Towards the end of January, SDF associations with US support had squeezed the rest of the IS to 10 km². Only the villages of al-Maraschida ( 34 ° 30'13 "N 40 ° 55'47" E ) and al-Baghuz Fawqani ( 34 ° 27'31 "N 40 ° 57'20" E ) were reported on January 27th still held by IS. Experts assumed that the remaining IS fighters in the area were made up of foreigners who, due to their appearance, had not been able to mingle with local refugees in order to escape.

    According to a report by the UN Security Council from February 2019, ISIS controlled 14,000-18,000 armed men in Iraq and Syria at that time.

    March 2019

    The battle of Baghuz developed into a lengthy siege. On March 23, 2019, the SDF liberated Al-Baghuz Fawqani as the last IS-controlled area in Syria.

    Situation in Turkey

    Relationship with the Kurds in Turkey and Syria

    In Turkey, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan , Prime Minister and today President , sought a compromise with the Kurds in Turkey until 2014 and, as a historical agreement, proposed the cultural autonomy and more political rights of the Kurds while simultaneously disarming those in Turkey and other NATO countries Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) and similar groups classified as a terrorist organization .

    The People's Defense Units (YPG) and the PKK had rescued the Yazidis from the Sinjar Mountains from IS, defended Kobane and most recently expelled IS from Tall Abyad . However, their territorial gains in Syria and Northern Iraq worried the Turkish government.

    Indirect support for jihadist groups until 2015

    During the Syrian crisis, the NATO member state Turkey allowed jihadist groups to act for a long time. In mid-September 2014, Turkey was the most important transit country for members of the IS. The Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu described the IS as “reactionary”, but like the previous Prime Minister, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, avoided direct condemnation of its acts as terrorism.

    In Turkish hospitals such as the municipal hospital in the Turkish-Syrian border town of Kilis , radical Islamic Syria fighters, including an IS commander and the German Salafist Denis Cuspert , are said to have received medical treatment until they returned to the war zone without being arrested. Claudia Roth ( Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen ) accused Turkey in October 2014 of treating IS fighters in Turkish hospitals and delivering weapons through Turkey. She called on NATO to put pressure on Turkey. According to the media, the Turkish government has not been able to refute evidence of arms and ammunition deliveries via Turkey to the IS-controlled area.

    According to James Clapper , National Director of Intelligence (DNI) of the United States, 60% of IS fighters took the route into the crisis area via Turkey, which has a border of almost 1,000 km with Syria and Iraq.

    Admission of refugees

    Turkey had already taken in a large number of refugees by 2014. Since the civil war in Syria in 2011, around 1.8 million people have fled to Turkey. Between September 20 and 22, up to 130,000 people are said to have fled to Turkey from an IS offensive on the Syrian city of Kobanê.

    According to a report by Michael Martens in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Sonntagszeitung (FASZ), referring to the mayor of Suruç , Zühal Ekmez from the DBP , the Turkish government is said to have greatly exaggerated the number of refugees from Kobanê: instead of the 144,000 reported by the UNHCR Syrian refugees from Kobanê only 15,000 to 20,000 people have fled. Ekmez accused Turkey of wanting to declare the de facto autonomous Kurdish areas in Syria to be deserted buffer zones by exaggerating the number of refugees . Frank Nordhausen, correspondent for Frankfurter Rundschau and Berliner Zeitung , accused the FAZ correspondent Martens on Twitter of spreading a false report and PKK propaganda.

    The Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu named a number of 160,000 on September 26, 2014. Turkey announced tightened border controls and cut off the trade routes for diesel and oil from IS areas. By September 27, 2014, 830 Europeans are said to have been arrested as IS fighters who wanted to use Turkey as a transit country.

    In July 2015 Erdoğan announced that he would create a security zone in Syria by conquering IS territory in order to be able to accommodate Syrian refugees there.

    Hostage-taking and liberation of the Suleiman Shah tomb

    The hostages taken by IS in Mosul, northern Iraq in June 2014 were released on September 20, 2014. The government in Ankara then discussed military intervention in Iraq and Syria in parliament on September 30, 2014; Turkey remained passive in the battle for Kobanê .

    In September 2014, the grave of Suleiman Shah in Qalʿat Jaʿbar , an exclave of Turkey, was surrounded by IS units. On the night of February 22, 2015, the grave was evacuated from Turkey in Operation Şah Fırat. IS fighters occupied the facility, but were driven away by SDF units in early January 2017 .

    Combat IS from 2015

    In the attack in Suruç on July 20, 2015, 32 people died and more than 100 were injured in a suicide bombing in the Turkish city of Suruç, around 10 km from the Syrian border. The Turkish Interior Ministry blamed the Islamic State for the attack. A 20-year-old IS fighter was identified as an assassin.

    According to reports on July 22, 2015, Erdoğan allowed the Americans to use the Incirlik air base for manned flights. On July 23, 2015, a Turkish soldier was shot dead from the Syrian side; the Turkish military reacted and killed an IS fighter. On July 24, 2015, three Turkish fighter planes then flew attacks from the Diyarbakir base on the positions of the IS militia in the Syrian village of Havar .

    In the second half of 2015, IS fighters could be found in Turkish cities along the border with Syria. In addition, IS fighters traveled unmolested via Turkey to their combat areas in Syria and Iraq. In Istanbul and other places you could meet IS supporters, IS banners, stickers and other devotional items were sold in shops.

    In a suicide attack on January 12, 2016 in Istanbul's historic center, eleven people died and 15 others were injured - mainly German tourists. The assassin, according to Turkish information, a member of the IS, had blown himself up in a symbolic place, between the Hagia Sophia and the Blue Mosque , near a German tour group. After the attack, the Turkish government imposed a news blackout . Chancellor Angela Merkel condemned the attack as a “murderous act”, while UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon declared that it was a “contemptible crime”. The US stressed that it would remain firmly on the side of Turkey. Federal Interior Minister Thomas de Maizière visited the crime scene in Istanbul and also met with Interior Minister of Turkey Efkan Ala . Before the suicide bombing, the Turkish domestic intelligence service MIT warned against terrorist attacks, including on tourists. The Turkish daily Hürriyet reported that the warnings were sent to security authorities across the country on December 17, 2015 and January 4, 2016. It states that IS is planning suicide attacks “on non-Muslims living in Turkey, foreigners, tourist regions, places heavily frequented by foreign visitors or on embassies and consulates of the respective countries and on NATO facilities in the country”.

    On August 24, 2016, Turkey began the Euphrates shield military offensive , which was directed against ISIS among others. The IS was defeated by the Turkish military and allied rebels and driven out of the northern Syria region. The operation officially ended on March 29, 2017.

    Anti-terrorism police arrested over 420 terrorist suspects from the Islamic State in nationwide raids on February 5, 2017, including 150 people in the border province of Sanliurfa , 60 in the capital Ankara, 47 in Gaziantep , 18 in Istanbul and in Kocaeli province as well as in Adana , Bingöl , Bursa , Konya and Izmir .

    Situation in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

    Germany

    According to estimates by the Federal Ministry of the Interior in autumn 2019, around 1,050 Islamists from Germany had gone to the “holy war” abroad in previous years. Around a third had since returned, around 100 more would aim to return to Germany, and there were indications of 220 people in the group that they had meanwhile been killed.

    Activities of IS supporters

    Beginning of August 2014 attacked ethnic German and not German-born IS-trailers in Herford Yazidis with knives and threatened them. In September 2014 there were threats and attacks by IS sympathizers on Schnackenburgallee in Hamburg's Stellingen district . Abu Abdullah, who played a major role in the execution of suicide bombings by the Islamic State in Baghdad, reports that a German carried out an attack with his help. On January 7, 2016, the first anniversary of the attack on Charlie Hebdo magazine , French police shot and killed a man in Paris who was trying to storm a police station. He had previously lived in an asylum center in Recklinghausen. There the authorities later discovered devotional objects of the Islamic State.

    On June 2, 2016, on behalf of Federal Prosecutor General Peter Frank , the men Hamza C., Mahood B. and Abd Arahman AK who had entered from Syria were arrested in North Rhine-Westphalia , Baden-Württemberg and Brandenburg . They are accused of planning a terrorist attack in Düsseldorf with Saleh A. , who was previously arrested in France , in which two suicide bombers blew themselves up in the old town near Heinrich-Heine-Allee and, after the explosions, other people with guns and explosives should be killed. Abd Arahman AK is said to have been responsible for the construction of the explosive vests . According to information from the Federal Prosecutor's Office, Abd Arahman AK is said to have built explosive belts and grenades for the Al-Nusra front in Syria.

    On July 18, an IS sympathizer attacked four people with an ax on a train near Würzburg and was shot dead during a police operation. The Islamic State claimed the crime through its mouthpiece Amaq and published a video that confessed the perpetrator.

    On July 24th, another IS sympathizer blew himself up in front of the main entrance to a music festival in Ansbach . 15 people were injured.

    On the morning of September 13, 2016, three Syrian asylum seekers were arrested on behalf of the Federal Prosecutor's Office who were living in communal refugee shelters in Ahrensburg , Großhansdorf and Reinfeld . You are accused of having come to Germany on behalf of IS in November 2015 "either to carry out an order you have already received or to be ready for further instructions." Your forged papers are said to come from the same forger workshop as those of the terrorist attackers on 13. November 2015 in Paris . There is also evidence that they came to Europe with the same smugglers.

    On December 19, there was an attack on the Berlin Christmas market at the Memorial Church , in which IS sympathizer Anis Amri drove a tractor-trailer into a crowd and killed 12 people. 45 people were injured, 30 of them seriously.

    Assessment of the protection of the constitution

    In the 2012 report on the protection of the constitution by the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution , AQI was described as the “most active terrorist group in central and southern Iraq”. Structures of AQI in Germany are currently unknown. At the end of November 2013, ISIS published a video in which a German ISIS member campaigned for jihad in Syria for the first time. The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution identified the man as a 26-year-old convert from Dinslaken ; he is said to have traveled with four Salafists from the Dinslaken area via Turkey to Syria and joined ISIS there. Several men from Germany are now working for IS, as is the former rapper Denis Cuspert .

    In February 2014, German authorities said that at least 20 jihadists from Germany had been killed in Syria. When the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution was presented for 2013, President of the Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Hans-Georg Maaßen, warned of a “special security risk” from Syrian fighters returning to Germany. In November 2014, according to the Office for the Protection of the Constitution, 550 young men had already gone from Germany to Iraq or Syria to fight for IS - 60 of them had already been killed. Inspired by the latest reports on the protection of the constitution, a first comprehensive criminalistic (criminal etiological and crime preventive) study on the phenomenon of German IS jihadism was written.

    Prohibition and criminal liability

    In Germany , the organization has been prohibited since September 12, 2014 according to Section 3 (1) in conjunction with Section 15 (1) and Section 18 (2) of the Association Act. The collection of donations, the recruitment of fighters and any other support of the organization as well as the public use of symbols of the IS (according to § 9 ) is therefore punishable .

    The use of the IS flag was criticized as being punishable because its content ( “There is no God but God.”; “Mohammed is the prophet of God.” ) As a creed is covered by the protection of religious freedom . The Federal Ministry of the Interior announced in this regard that the ban on license plates was not directed against Islamic symbols in general, but against their specific use by IS for its unconstitutional purposes. The federal government justified the ban (according to § 9 VereinsG ) as follows:

    “The terrorist organization 'Islamic State' threatens people of different faiths with death. Volunteers from Germany and other European countries have joined the IS militias. In Germany, IS tries to attract followers primarily through social networks. The prohibition against the 'Islamic State' is based on Section 3 (1) in conjunction with Section 15 (1) and Section 18 (2) of the Law on Associations, as the organization is directed against the constitutional order and the idea of ​​international understanding. With the ruling issued, the Federal Minister of the Interior has forbidden the use of IS symbols in public, in a meeting or in writings, sound or image carriers, images or presentations. "

    The Minister of the Interior justified the ban as follows:

    “Today's ban makes it more difficult for extremists and terrorists who are associated with the terrorist organization 'Islamic State' to abuse religion and religious symbols. That is in the interests of the Muslims living here. That strengthens the cohesion of our society. That strengthens freedom and justice. "

    In March 2016, the city of Düsseldorf banned the use of the abbreviation IS in license plates.

    Law enforcement and rehabilitation

    As of mid-September 2014, around 140 preliminary investigations are ongoing against IS fighters and activists from Germany. The Federal Prosecutor's Office handles 33 cases with 60 suspects . However, the Federal Prosecutor's Office has already warned that it could soon be overwhelmed because more proceedings could tend to follow. Justice Minister Heiko Maas spoke out in favor of reintegration aid for IS fighters who want to renounce terrorism in order to bring them back into society.

    The trial against the German IS sympathizer Jennifer W. was opened in April 2019 at the Munich Higher Regional Court because, among other allegations, she and her husband Taha H. were accused of murdering a 5-year-old Yezidi girl in Iraq in 2015. W. was arrested in Turkey in 2016, her Iraqi husband was arrested in Greece in May 2019 and is to be extradited to Germany, where he is also to be brought to justice.

    Publication of records on IS fighters

    On March 7, 2016, it became known that various media outlets in Germany, Syria and the United Kingdom had come into possession of extensive data on IS volunteer fighters. The data should provide information about names, place of residence, previous jihad experience, etc. The Federal Criminal Police Office and Federal Minister of the Interior Thomas de Maizière assessed them as probably authentic. Attorney General Peter Frank stated that the papers would be used in the prosecution of returnees from ISIS. The data, presumably from 2013 and 2014, were published by a former IS fighter who stole them from a memory stick .

    Support for the Kurdistan Autonomous Region

    Germany started aid flights to Iraq on August 15, 2014. Four Bundeswehr aircraft brought 36 tons of medical supplies and food to Erbil . After a meeting of the European foreign ministers on August 20, 2014, the German government made a decision in principle that the fight of the Kurds in northern Iraq against the jihadist group Islamic State would be supported with weapons if necessary. At the end of August 2014, the German government decided to deliver anti-tank weapons ( MILAN system, Panzerfaust 3 , Heavy Panzerfaust ), assault rifles ( G3 , G36 ), machine guns ( MG3 ), pistols ( P1 ), hand grenades and ammunition to the Iraqi Kurds.

    Although approval was not formally required, the German Bundestag supported the arms deliveries by a majority on September 1, 2014, against the vote of the left and most of the Greens . Chancellor Angela Merkel justified the motion for a resolution by the CDU / CSU and SPD. The expansion of the cruel IS terror must be stopped. Arms deliveries correspond to the request of both the Kurdish autonomous government and the Iraqi central government. "Measures to combat" IS are covered by a resolution of the UN Security Council. The parliamentary group leader of the SPD parliamentary group Thomas Oppermann declared that the danger of "continued genocide and further crimes against humanity " should be rated higher than the "existing risk that our weapons will fall into the wrong hands".

    On the opposition side, on the other hand, Anton Hofreiter , one of the two chairmen of the green parliamentary group , referred to US weapons that the IS had captured. He stuck to the principle of not delivering weapons to crisis areas and called for pressure to be put on, particularly on Saudi Arabia and Qatar, to stop supporting ISIS. The UN should be more involved. Gregor Gysi made a similar statement and emphasized the goal of preventing all arms exports.

    Discussion about the UN mandate

    In view of the ongoing fighting in Kobanê, the chairman of the green parliamentary group, Katrin Göring-Eckardt , said on October 13, 2014 that IS “can only be fought militarily”, but that there must be a UN mandate. If necessary, the Bundeswehr should also participate with ground troops. Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier disagreed and referred to the existing refusal of the USA and all “important” European states to send land forces. In addition, there is no chance of a UN mandate in Syria.

    Jürgen Trittin said that Russia was also not interested in building a Muslim caliphate. An agreement is possible if the overthrow of Bashar al-Assad is not a priority and one talks to Iran and the allied Lebanese Hezbollah . European or US troops are not enforceable and would lead to solidarity with IS as the sole fighter against the infidels. Rather, ground troops should come from Iraq, the Free Syrian Army and the Kurds. Such a UN mandate could be a step towards an overall political solution.

    Demonstrations

    Around 11,000 people demonstrated on August 16, 2014 in Hanover for help against IS terrorism

    In mid-August 2014 it happened in several cities, such as B. Hanover , Bielefeld and Frankfurt am Main , for demonstrations against the terror of IS, each with thousands of participants. On October 6, 2014, demonstrations took place in several European cities against the IS siege of Kobanê. The European Parliament in Brussels, Belgium, and the Parliament in The Hague were briefly occupied. On October 7, buildings of West German Broadcasting and Deutsche Welle were briefly occupied in Düsseldorf and Bonn and a resolution was passed. On October 8, 1,300 people demonstrated in Hamburg, on October 11, 21,000 people demonstrated in Düsseldorf against the IS attack on Kobanê, and on October 12, over 3,000 people demonstrated in Berlin.

    Austria

    By August 2014 130 people from Austria went to war for IS. Most of them come from Chechnya . Ten people, mostly recognized Chechen asylum seekers, were arrested in August 2014 for membership in a terrorist association. The Symbols Act ( Federal Law Gazette I No. 103/2014 ) fundamentally prohibits the use of IS symbols with effect from January 1, 2015.

    Switzerland

    In Switzerland, the “Islamic State” group was banned by the Federal Council on October 8, 2014 , as was the case with al-Qaeda.

    Situation in other countries

    Asia

    Afghanistan

    Assassinations in Ghazni province in September 2014 indicated that ISIS was forming in Afghanistan . In the country, however, there is strong rivalry with the Taliban , which is close to al-Qaeda , so that armed conflicts between the two groups broke out in Helmand Province, among others . On February 9, 2015, it was announced that the leading ISIS recruiter in Afghanistan, Mullah Abdul Rauf, was allegedly killed in a US drone attack. In April 2015, ISIS members confessed to an attack in Jalalabad, in which 30 people were killed and more than 100 were injured.

    The mountainous Achin district of the Nangarhar Province on the border with Pakistan has been a core area of ​​ISIS in Afghanistan since 2014. The group is referred to as ISIS-K for distinction, with "K" denoting the historical Khorasan province from the seventh century.

    Iran

    Since August 2014, Iran has been providing the Kurds in Iraq with weapons. According to statements by an Iranian opposition side that have not been confirmed by third parties, Iran is said to have 1,000 military advisors and 7,000 Revolutionary Guards deployed in Iraq.

    Israel and Palestine

    According to Israeli major general Yoav Mordechai and other security circles, parts of Hamas support IS in Egypt. In July 2015, ISIS threatened Hamas that it would destroy them.

    Yemen

    Since March 2015, ISIS has declared itself responsible for a number of prominent - especially anti-Shiite - attacks or attacks. These attacks dwarfed al-Qaeda operations in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP), which benefited from the 2015 Saudi-led, US-logistically-supported military intervention in Yemen in 2015 and conquered vast areas. While the US government continued to classify the AQAP as the most dangerous branch of al-Qaeda, according to experts, the IS in Yemen began to oust the AQAP. The relative weakening of the AQAP compared to the IS-affiliated groups during the Saudi-led military intervention was also interpreted as a consequence of the US drone attacks on leading representatives of the AQAP. Some observers, such as Ibrahim Sharqieh Frehat of the Brookings Doha Center, suggested that US counter -extremist methods had created a climate conducive to IS building, and "a pattern as we have seen in Iraq and Syria" to be determined. A weakening of al-Qaida should therefore be seen as particularly beneficial for the rise of IS.

    On May 23, 2016, according to a hospital, at least 45 people were killed and 30 others were injured in two suicide attacks by the Islamic State (IS) in Aden in front of an army barracks in the Khormaksar district and in front of a commander's house.

    Jordan

    On June 20, 2014, ISIS captured the only border crossing to Iraq on Highway 10 to ar-Rutba , al-Anbar , in Jordan . Traffic came to a standstill. Jordan then reinforced its troops in the east of the country against the background of the advance of IS in the western Iraqi governorate of al-Anbar. US President Obama warned against an attack by IS on Jordan. After the capture and murder of the pilot Muʿādh al-Kasāsba , the Jordanian air forces launched increased attacks against IS positions.

    Qatar

    Qatar is accused of being one of the main financiers of the Islamic State. Qatar's distancing itself from this allegation is generally believed to be implausible. Germany's Development Minister Gerd Müller (CSU) mentioned the “keyword Qatar” in a ZDF interview in connection with IS financing, and Angela Merkel indirectly distanced herself from this accusation in a subsequent interview. The CDU vice chairman Thomas Strobl questioned the suitability of Qatar as a major investor in Germany. The Green MP Katja Keul pointed out that Qatar is promoting Islamist and terrorist organizations in Egypt, Mali, Syria, Iraq and Libya. In particular, Qatar refuses to criminalize the participation of its own nationals in fighting abroad and the call to participate in such fights, thereby complying with UN resolution 2170 . In contrast to Saudi Arabia, the promotion of IS, the recruitment of fighters and the support of donations for Qatar is still possible without any consequences. SPD Vice Ralf Stegner also called Qatar's influence on the conflicts in the region “not exactly defusing the crisis”.

    Kuwait

    On June 26, 2015, a suicide bomber blew himself up in a mosque in Kuwait while praying on Friday. The Islamic State later confessed to the act. According to initial information, at least 25 people died and more than 200 were injured.

    Lebanon

    In early January 2014, ISIS assumed responsibility for a Hezbollah car bomb attack on January 2 in Beirut , in which four people were killed and 77 injured.

    As a result of a gun conflict lasting several days , at least 27 Lebanese soldiers were kidnapped in August 2014 in the village of Arsal , which borders Syria. Two of them, Ali Sayyed and Abbas Medlej, were beheaded in August and September 2014.

    Pakistan

    In October 2014, the leadership of the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) pledged support for IS after IS started a recruitment campaign in the country. The TTP is at odds; some groups within the organization sympathize with al-Qaeda, others with IS.

    Philippines

    The Abu Sajaf group , which has been fighting for an Islamic state in the south of the Philippines since 1991, supports IS. In September 2014, she threatened the murder of two German hostages if Germany took part in the fight against IS and did not pay a ransom. The release of both people was announced on October 17.

    A group called Maute was formed around 2017 from a collection of various actors who had previously belonged to other Islamist groups and clan militias. The group is named after its leaders, brothers Omar and Abdullah Maute from Marawi City .

    In May 2017, the Maute group, which has sworn allegiance to IS, took parts of the city of Marawi City. According to government information, the IS fighters killed in the ensuing fighting also included foreigners apparently from Chechnya, Yemen, Malaysia and Indonesia.

    Saudi Arabia

    In June 2014, Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki accused Saudi Arabia of providing financial and moral support to ISIS.

    On July 3, 2014, Saudi Arabia announced that it would be sending 30,000 soldiers to the 800 km long border with Iraq. At the end of July 2014, Saudi Arabia distanced itself from IS.

    At the beginning of January 2015 there was an attack on a border patrol from Saudi Arabia in the Arar region , two Saudi soldiers were killed. In return, Saudi Arabia attacked IS positions.

    In May 2015, 22 people were killed in an attack on a mosque in Al Kudaich, which IS claimed to have committed.

    In August 2015, an attack was carried out in Abha , which a hitherto unknown IS group called the Hijas claimed to have committed.

    Africa

    Egypt

    In a video message circulated in the first half of November 2014, a spokesman for the Egyptian group Ansar Bait al-Maqdis , which is credited with a series of terrorist attacks, said they had decided to join IS and swear allegiance to al-Baghdadi. The group consists of 2,000 fighters, controls large areas in the north of the Sinai and has killed around 100 Egyptian security guards in the years up to 2014, and has repeatedly fired rockets at the seaside resort of Eilat .

    After a series of attacks on January 29, 2015 with more than 30 deaths, the Egyptian military used attack helicopters to attack the IS militia on the Sinai Peninsula . Two days later, the group released a video showing the beheading of eight men who allegedly collaborated with the Egyptian army.

    At the end of June 2015, Egypt was hit by a series of attacks on checkpoints. In total, more than 117 people died.

    Algeria

    The French mountain guide Hervé Gourdel was kidnapped in Algeria on September 21, 2014 and beheaded on September 24, 2014. One of the perpetrators was allegedly Bachir Kherza , leader of the jihadist group Jund al-Chilafa (soldiers of the caliphate), who asked France to stop its air strikes against the jihadist militia Islamic State in Iraq within 24 hours. The group has sworn allegiance to IS.

    Libya

    In Libya, the local branch of the Islamic State managed to achieve the greatest successes outside of Iraq and Syria in the course of the civil war since 2014 .

    On October 3, 2014, the "Shura of Islamic Youth" declared the city of Darna , which it has controlled since April 2014, to be part of the Islamic State. The group competes with other militias affiliated with the Libyan Ansar al-Sharia . In June 2014 she prevented polling stations from opening for the election of the new Libyan parliament and shot dead several anti-Islamist demonstrators. On August 18, 2014, she carried out several public executions in a football stadium.

    According to reports from a Libyan Internet newspaper, the Islamic State is planning to set up a propaganda station in Sirte called Tawhid (Unity). According to US General Rodriguez, IS has been running training camps in eastern Libya with several hundred participants from the beginning of December. The common opponent of the militias is General Khalifa Haftar , who commands the anti-Islamist "Operation Dignity" from Tobruk .

    The former human rights activist Ahmed Shebani, who describes himself as a "secular democrat", demanded in an interview with the NZZ to support from Qatar on funded opponents Haftars, including the jihadist spleens from Darna belong. He described the jihadists as "part of our society" that had to be "treated civilly".

    On February 15, 2015, supporters of IS in Libya published a video on the Internet entitled “A message written in blood to the nation of the cross” showing the killing of 21 Christian Copts abducted from Egypt. The guest workers from the neighboring country had been missing since the beginning of the year. Experts believe the video is real. In retaliation, the Libyan and Egyptian air forces jointly bombed the IS positions in Libya. Egyptian F-16C fighter planes reportedly destroyed weapons stores and training camps near Darna .

    After IS militias had already been able to bring the city of Nufalija under their control, the capture of Sirte was reported on February 19, 2015 . In early March 2015, during the IS attack on the Al-Ghani oil field, eleven Libyan security guards were killed and nine foreigners abducted, including an Austrian and a Czech.

    An uprising by residents of “District Number Three” of Sirte was put down by IS in August 2015 with mortars, tanks and combat units; the district's hospital was burned down.

    Aerial reconnaissance images from the US armed forces of IS fighters off Sirte in Libya in January 2017

    In September 2016, the Libyan troops from the western part of the country under Fayiz al-Sarradsch, with the help of the United States Air Force , succeeded in largely retaking Sirte. At the same time, the troops of the rulers of the East Haftars also took action against the IS militias, which so Since then the Islamic State has hardly any territories in Libya.

    On January 19, 2017, US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter announced an air strike with two B-2 long-range bombers south of Sirte that killed at least 80 IS fighters in an Islamic State camp. The US armed forces have carried out around 500 air strikes against IS in Libya from August to December 2016.

    Nigeria

    The Nigerian Sunni Islamist terrorist organization Boko Haram promised ISIS support in 2014. The east of Nigeria has been contested for several years; here Boko Haram proclaimed an Islamic state. With Gwoza , the government troops lost a large city to the Islamists. In early January 2015, when the group took Baga, they carried out one of numerous massacres of the civilian population, in the course of which the city was largely burned down and destroyed. At the end of February the Nigerian army was able to retake Baga.

    In March 2015, Boko Haram officially joined ISIS. Nigerian troops have meanwhile been able to push back the terrorist organization in the states of Yobe and Adamawa . A ground offensive was launched on March 8, supported by soldiers from neighboring countries Niger and Chad . Also, Cameroon and Benin told to participate with their own army units in the battle. One day after crossing the border, Nigerien and Chad associations were able to win back the city of Damasak in the state of Borno . On March 11th, the coalition reported that 36 towns had been retaken.

    Tunisia

    The stronghold of the Tunisian jihadist group Phalange Okba Ibn Nafaa, which offers IS support, is located in the Kasserine administrative district on the border with Algeria. In February 2015, four police officers were killed in an attack in Boulaaba .

    On March 19, 2015, IS committed itself to the terrorist attack on the National Museum in Bardo , in which 25 people, mainly foreign tourists, died the previous day. The Tunisian authorities assume that Okba Ibn Nafaa committed the attack himself.

    Australia

    In mid-September 2014, the Australian police arrested 15 IS supporters who are said to have planned to indiscriminately pick up passers-by on the street and behead them in front of the camera. On December 15, 2014, IS sympathizer Man Haron Monis took 17 people hostage in a café in Sydney . Two hostages died and Man Haron Monis was shot by the police.

    America

    United States

    On the occasion of the beheading of James Foley in August 2014, US President Barack Obama said that the IS ideology did not stand for any religion. You threaten Muslims and non-Muslims alike. “Their victims are predominantly Muslim, and no faith teaches people to massacre the innocent. [...] No just God would stand behind what they did yesterday and what they do every single day. "

    The US has been providing the Kurds with weapons since August 2014 and is also increasingly flying air strikes against the IS positions. At the same time they conducted relief for hard-pressed by the IS Yazidis one.

    In May 2015, ISIS claimed responsibility for a terrorist attack on an event in Texas at which Mohammed cartoons were presented. Two attackers were shot dead during the attack.

    Europe

    Great Britain

    After three British Islamist terrorists were deliberately killed in Syria in August 2015, Defense Minister Michael Fallon indirectly confirmed on September 8, 2015 that the British government had a death list. The then British Prime Minister David Cameron is said to have signed a so-called "kill list". Until then, a death list was always denied by the British government. Above: Mohammed Emwazi, who became known as Jihadi John . Fallon refused to publish the attorney general's legal opinion that was cited to legitimize the action. The UK government announced that it would keep the legal basis for this under lock and key.

    In 2017, several terrorist attacks committed by the Islamic State took place on the territory of Great Britain.

    With the ongoing disintegration of ISIS in October 2017, Development Minister Rory Stewart , when asked about British IS fighters, stated that they were highly motivated extremists who had subscribed to a hateful doctrine and who were using violence and brutality to build a state of the seventh century wanted to. So you have to admit that these people are a serious threat and the only way to deal with it is unfortunately, in most cases, to kill them.

    France

    France participates in the fight against IS. While the two main bombers claimed responsibility for the Al-Qaeda organization in Yemen in the attack on the satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo in January 2015 , their accomplice, Amedy Coulibaly , who was also killed, declared his solidarity with the Islamic State in a video message that was later published. IS also committed to the terrorist attacks on November 13, 2015 in Paris . In the terrorist attack in Magnanville on June 13, 2016, in the course of which two police officers were killed, the perpetrator confessed to IS. On July 14, 2016, the attack occurred in Nice , in which 86 people were killed. Two days after the crime, ISIS confessed to the crime through its mouthpiece Amaq . It reads: “The person who carried out the run over operation in Nice, France, was one of the soldiers of the Islamic State. He carried out the operation in response to calls to target the members of the international alliance fighting the Islamic State. ”The letter of confession did not contain any perpetrator knowledge or evidence that the IS was actually involved in the act or informed in advance. In the attack in Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray on July 26, 2016, two assassins murdered a priest and claimed responsibility for IS.

    Italy

    Italy is supporting the campaign against IS in Iraq with 280 military instructors , a Boeing KC-767 tanker , two Predator combat drones and four Tornado reconnaissance aircraft.

    Russia

    Parts of the Caucasus emirate operating in the North Caucasus swore allegiance to the Islamic State and proclaimed a province in the North Caucasus.

    Reactions

    Muslim world

    Political Associations

    In June 2014, the 56-member organization for Islamic Cooperation distanced itself from IS. The Secretary General stressed that "this forcible eviction is an intolerable crime and that the practices of ISIS have nothing to do with Islam and its principles, which demand justice, goodness, decency, freedom of belief and coexistence."

    The Gulf Cooperation Council condemned the end of August the atrocities of all those "who take Islam as an excuse to murder and distribute". At a meeting in Cairo on September 7, 2014, the Foreign Ministers of the Arab League agreed that they would take the necessary measures against terrorist groups such as ISIS.

    The Turkish cultural community in Austria accused ISIS of abuse of Islam.

    Voices from the religious communities

    In October 2014, 120 internationally respected scholars wrote a fatwa to Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi , the fighters and supporters of IS, in which they contradict the abbreviated understanding of the Koran by supporters of the Islamic State. The 18-page document, which is freely accessible to the public and written in Arabic, is entitled " Open Letter to al-Baghdadi " and deals in detail with ISIS 'interpretation of Islam and is based entirely on the statements and actions of IS supporters . The letter disapproves of the crimes of IS in the form of an Islamic legal opinion ( fatwā ). In addition, the scholars' Islamic legal conception clearly calls into question the fundamental legitimation of al-Baghdadi as a “self-appointed caliph ” and his established caliphate , since a consensus with “all Muslims” must exist for the assertion . Muslim scholars reject the IS caliphate because its ideology accepts the death of other Muslims and those not involved in the war, and pointed out that Islamic martial law does not permit the killing of women, children and clergy. In an open letter to the IS leader al-Baghdadi, they distanced themselves from his organization's approach.

    Apart from these official statements, Muslim intellectuals in Saudi and other Arab societies found not inconsiderable sympathy for the ideology and acts of terrorism of the IS. The Qatari legal scholar Yusuf al-Qaradawi expressed understanding for the uprising of the Sunnis against discrimination and oppression, but distanced himself from IS and called for a unity of Iraq across denominational differences.

    The Supreme Mufti of Saudi Arabia, ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz Āl al-Sheikh , stated that ISIS violated Islamic principles and teachings with its crimes in the Middle East and described it as “enemy number one” of Islam. The Egyptian Grand Mufti Shawki Ibrahim Allam characterized ISIS as a danger to Islam and Muslims because it destroys and corrupts the image of Islam, denied ISIS the right to call itself "Islamic State" and urged the media to do so to refer to ISIS as “al-Qaida separatists in Iraq and Syria”. In August 2014, the organization was declared “ harām ” (forbidden) by the Council of Islamic Scholars of Indonesia .

    The Central Council of Muslims in Germany declared that the expulsion of Christians was against Islam. In November 2015, its chairman Aiman ​​Mazyek described the welcoming culture as the terrorists' greatest enemy and appealed to society to take Muslims as partners in the fight against radicalism. The terrorist attacks on November 13, 2015 in Paris sharply condemned representatives of the eight largest Muslim associations in Germany.They expressed their sympathy and solidarity with France and campaigned for peace, dialogue and cohesion. At the same time, they appealed to the sense of responsibility of all Muslims against radicalization in their personal circle. They also declared that they would increase their efforts to defend against Islamism and for European values ​​such as freedom and pluralism .

    The Islamic Faith Community in Austria announced that ISIS did not have the right to represent the Muslim faith. In early September 2014, leading British imams issued a fatwa banning Muslims from supporting the “poisoned ideology” of ISIS: “ISIS is a heretical , extremist organization and it is religiously forbidden (haram) to support or affiliate with it . Furthermore, it is the duty of British Muslims, this poisonous ideology actively oppose, especially when it is used in the UK. "The Islamic Society of North America ( Islamic Society of North America ) condemned the attacks of IS as" un-Islamic ".

    Form of opinion in Great Britain, France, Germany and the Netherlands

    The British opinion research institute ICM Research conducted a telephone survey among 1,000 French, British and German people in 2014. This showed that 16% of the French, 7% of the British and 3–4% of the Germans had a positive opinion of the IS, while 26% of the group were negative and 43% strongly negative. Among French people aged 18 to 24, the proportion of positive opinions was 27%. The credibility of this study has been questioned in an article in the Washington Post , as it would have more sympathizers in France than the total number of Muslims in the country. According to previous studies, the number of Muslims with extremist views is far fewer.

    According to a survey in the Netherlands in 2014, 90% of young Dutch people of Turkish origin (18–35 years old) described those who went to Syria to join the jihad as heroes. 80% of the Dutch of Turkish origin perceive violence by jihad groups against non-believers or people of different faiths as “not wrong”. Young people of Moroccan origin have a much more negative image of IS; only 18% of them describe Syria fighters as “heroes”. They reject violence against non-believers or those of other faith by a large majority. 404 young people from Morocco and 300 from Turkey were interviewed.

    Condemnation by the UN Security Council

    On September 24, 2014, the United Nations Security Council unanimously passed resolution 2178 for the global fight against the Islamist terrorist organization IS. The resolution obliges all UN member states to prevent and combat the recruitment, transport, transit, organization and equipment of terrorists. On November 20, the Security Council called on all states with the appropriate capacities to combat the IS positions in Syria and Iraq. However, the reference to do this “in compliance with international law” did not create a separate international legal basis for the use of force. The Security Council renewed its warning on December 17, 2015 with resolution 2253 and called on Secretary General Ban Ki-moon to take further steps. As instructed, Ki-Moon had his Under-Secretary of State for Political Affairs Jeffrey Feltman formulate an official response on assessing and combating ISIS in early February 2016 . He wants to direct the attention of the world public to the ongoing funding of the organization as well as to the attempts of IS to expand into large parts of Africa and Asia, for example to Southeast Asia :

    “The future threat posed by the 'Islamic State' must not be underestimated. IS is an unprecedented threat to international peace and security ... 30,000 fighters from more than 100 countries are fighting in Syria and Iraq, and the influx continues. 34 terrorist groups around the world have joined IS ... There is no 'prognostic profile' of a future IS fighter ... (It is to be feared) that more and more IS fighters (to Syria and Iraq) are trying to enter the country to commit terrorist acts ... Such Travelers must punish the member states in accordance with the relevant UN resolutions ... The controls at border crossings must be improved ... In the last 18 months, the risk from ISIS has increased significantly. "

    - Ban Ki-moon by Feltman, First Response to Resolution 2235, Security Council Session 7618, February 9, 2016

    International alliance against the Islamic State

    On September 5, 2014, at the NATO summit in Newport, Wales, the United States launched an international alliance against IS . The founding members were: Germany , Great Britain , France , Italy , Poland , Denmark , Australia , Canada , Turkey and the United States of America .

    US President Barack Obama presented his future strategy against the terrorist organization IS in a speech to the nation on September 11, 2014. This essentially comprises four points:

    1. The US air offensive in Iraq is being systematically expanded. IS positions should continue to come under fire. There should also be US air strikes in Syria. "I will not shy away from taking action against IS there as well," the President underlined: "Whoever threatens America will not find shelter anywhere."
    2. The fight will not be limited to air strikes. The US also wanted to support local security forces in Iraq and opposition forces in Syria. US aid includes military training, weapons and other equipment. In the next few days, 475 military advisors from the United States are expected to leave for Baghdad. Obama made it clear that US soldiers would not be sent into battle. “Our efforts are fundamentally different from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. There will be no American combat troops on foreign soil. "
    3. The financial basis should be withdrawn from the terror network. In addition, one wants to freeze IS accounts worldwide with the help of secret services. It should also be prevented that foreign IS fighters can enter and leave Syria unmolested.
    4. The humanitarian aid for victims of IS terrorism and refugees should be increased.

    A few days later, Obama appointed former general and former commander of the International Security Assistance Force John Allen as special envoy for the alliance against IS. Allen's successor in this office has been Brett McGurk since October 2015 .

    On September 22, 2014 it was announced that Russia was also considering joining the alliance.

    On October 15, 2014, the United States Central Command (CENTCOM) officially named the air strikes against IS in Syria and Iraq, retroactively from August 8, 2014, the name Operation Inherent Resolve (in English: Inner Resolve).

    Science and media

    The start of American air strikes after many Yazidis had fled to the Sinjar Mountains was largely seen as necessary.

    A comment in the Rhein-Zeitung judged them and the war against an “Islamist state of the most brutal kind” to be without alternative, even if it expressed a lot of helplessness. The civil wars of many groups in Iraq and Syria, which made the rise of IS possible in the first place, are "a global political disaster". In the future, only prudent people should be supported. The Iraq war had shattered many old structures, but the mostly corrupt and selfish elites in Iraq had to work towards national reconciliation.

    The conflict researcher Musa al-Gharbi , on the other hand, criticizes in Al Jazeera America that the goals of military operations are poorly defined. Fundamentalism and terrorism are a fundamentally sociological problem that cannot be solved by military means. Rather, it will increase the legitimacy of IS as a fighting organization against the forces perceived as the main enemies of Muslim self-determination in large parts of the Arab world: the only superpower, the USA, autocratic states in the region and former European colonial powers. Instead, support should be withdrawn from non-state actors, foreign arms and money flows and the influx of fighters should be prevented, and cooperation with Israel and dictators and monarchs in the Middle East should be reduced. Then the states of the region and the local populations could meet the difficult but exaggerated challenge posed by the Islamic State.

    One of the goals of the international alliance against the Islamic State is to restore the territorial integrity and the authority of the central government of Iraq in the areas controlled by IS. In contrast, the political scientist Vicken Cheterian states that Iraq is falling apart as an artificially created nation- state at the end of the colonial era . The Sykes-Picot Agreement was enforced by Great Britain and France against the will of the local population. The state order in Iraq was then destroyed by the Second Iraq War (or Third Gulf War). Internal reasons for the state crisis are no less important, especially the enormous social and economic contrasts. This is superimposed by local, religious or tribal interests, particularly the confrontation between Shiites , Sunnis and Kurds . In addition to the historical and sociological causes, power-political interests are also at work - the hegemony efforts of the leading states Iran , Turkey , Saudi Arabia - and the greed for resources.

    The Israeli peace activist Uri Avnery sees the more general tendency that nation- states are outdated in view of global interdependencies, but often initially break up into smaller structures. This tendency is shown, for example, by the narrowly failed Scottish independence referendum in 2014. The European nation-state idea was never deeply rooted in the Arab world. In contrast, the myth of great Muslim empires such as the Arab is revived by the idea of ​​the Islamic State , which, like European unification, seeks to overcome national states. Leading politicians in the USA and Europe wrongly believed that they could eradicate a revolutionary new idea through bombing and in coalition with “Arab dictators and corrupt politicians”. You are “not facing 'terrorists' - the magic word that seems to solve all problems without straining the brain. You are facing a new phenomenon. ”There is no simple answer to this.

    In December 2014, the 74-year-old German journalist Jürgen Todenhöfer (* 1940) made a name for himself when he spoke to members of IS together with his son in Mosul and ar-Raqqa. In his view, the West underestimated IS. His followers are in a state of intoxication. It was generally criticized that - apart from the dangers - in the Internet age fewer and fewer media would be able to afford war reporters on site.

    Network culture

    The Islamic State makes extensive use of the Internet , especially social media, for online propaganda. The corresponding pages are professionally designed, mostly in Arabic, often with English subtitles . Many IS video files are stored on servers in California .

    consequences

    IS children and women

    After the destruction of the caliphate and the occupation of the remaining areas of IS in Syria, numerous children and women of IS fighters were arrested by Kurds and previously by Iraqi troops. Including those who are citizens of a third country. In spring 2019, the SDF had 13,000 IS supporters from abroad under its supervision, including 12,000 women and children. Another 1,400 were held in Iraq at the time. Women are now believed to have played a more active role in the caliphate than was initially assumed. The will to take these people back in their original home countries exists only in a few exceptions. The main reason for the rejection is the presumed radicalization and indoctrination of the people during their time in the IS area and the assumption by experts that they could function as the core of new terrorist cells in their home countries after their return. The inability of home states to have returnees tried in courts and detained once they have returned is another factor. It is the result of the failure to have passed appropriate laws in good time, so that each returnees would have to be individually proven to be responsible for participating in criminal acts during their time in IS. Great Britain and Australia attempted to get rid of the problem by revoking their citizenship from IS fighters detained in Iraq and Syria.

    Fatalities

    The death toll from IS is estimated at around 60,000 to 70,000.

    Movie

    See also

    literature

    • Hassan Abu Hanieh: IS and Al-Qaeda. The Sunni Crisis and the Rivalry in Global Jihad . German by Günther Orth. Dietz, Bonn 2016, ISBN 978-3-8012-0483-9 .
    • Wilfried Buchta: Terror at Europe's gates. Islamic State, Iraq's Decay and America's Impotence. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 2015, ISBN 978-3-593-50290-8 .
    • Patrick Cockburn: The Rise of Islamic State: ISIS and the New Sunni Revolution . Verso, London / Brooklyn 2015, ISBN 978-1-78478-040-1 .
    • Fawaz A. Gerges: Isis. A history . Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, USA 2016, ISBN 978-0-691-17000-8 .
    • Christoph Günther: A second state in Mesopotamia? Genesis and ideology of the “Islamic State of Iraq” . Ergon, Würzburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-95650-036-7 (in the series Culture, Law and Politics in Muslim Societies. Volume 28, also dissertation at the University of Leipzig 2013)
    • Rainer Hermann: Is the Islamic State terminated? State failure and religious war in the Arab world . Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-423-34861-4 .
    • Tristan Leoni : Caliphate and Barbarism - How does the Islamic State work? Translated from the French by Doc Sportello. bahoe books, Vienna 2016, ISBN 978-3-903022-37-9 .
    • Hamideh Mohagheghi (Ed.): Women for Jihad . The manifesto of the IS fighters; in Arabic and German. Herder, Freiburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-451-34832-7 .
    • Loretta Napoleoni: The Return of the Caliphate. The Islamic State and the New Order in the Middle East. Translated from the English by Peter Stäuber. Rotpunktverlag, Zurich 2015, ISBN 978-3-85869-640-3 . (Original: The Islamist Phoenix. The Islamic State and the Redrawing of the Middle East. 2014)
    • Petra Ramsauer : The Jihad Generation. How the apocalyptic cult of the Islamic state threatens Europe. Styria Verlag, Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-222-13516-3 .
    • Christoph Reuter : The black power. The "Islamic State" and the strategists of terror. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-421-04694-9 .
    • Christoph Reuter and Maryam A .: My life in the caliphate. A German ISIS dropout tells . Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-421-04819-6 .
    • Behnam T. Said : Islamic State. IS militia, al-Qaeda and the German brigades . CH Beck, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-406-67210-1 . (also published as a licensed edition of the BPB , Volume 1546, Bonn 2015)
    • Bruno Schirra: ISIS - The Global Jihad. How the “Islamic State” carries terror to Europe. Econ, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-430-20193-3 .
    • Thomas Schmidinger: "The world has forgotten us". The genocide of the “Islamic State” against the Yazidis and the consequences . Mandelbaum Verlag, Vienna 2019, ISBN 978-3-85476-590-5 .
    • Thomas Carl Schwoerer : Negotiating with IS? New solutions for Syria and terrorism . Redline Verlag, Munich 2016, ISBN 978-3-86881-652-5 .
    • Guido Steinberg : Caliphate of Terror. IS and the threat of Islamist terror . Knaur, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-426-78772-4 .
    • Jessica Stern, JM Berger: ISIS: The State of Terror . HarperCollins, New York City 2015, ISBN 978-0-06-239554-2 .
    • Jürgen Todenhöfer : Inside IS - 10 days in the 'Islamic State'. 17th edition. C. Bertelsmann, Munich 2015, ISBN 978-3-570-10276-3 .
    • Joby Warrick: Black Flags. The rise of IS and the US . German by Cornelius Hartz . Theiss, Darmstadt 2017, ISBN 978-3-8062-3477-0 .
    • Michael Weiss, Hassan Hassan: ISIS: Inside the Army of Terror. Regan Arts, New York 2015, ISBN 978-1-941393-57-4 .

    Web links

    Commons : Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Jamie McIntyre: ISIS down to 6,500 fighters, holds only 3 percent of Iraq. In: Washington Examiner (Online), October 17, 2017.
    2. ↑ Terrorist militia IS is also spreading in Afghanistan. In: Spiegel Online , September 30, 2015.
    3. Tyma Kraitt, Karin Leukefeld, Nikolaus Brauns, Werner Ruf, Hannes Hofbauer, Gerhard Mangott, Johannes Auer, Rüdiger Lohlker, Norman Paech, Murat Çakır The Middle East is on fire: Between the Syrian Civil War and World War I Promedia Verlag 2016 ISBN 978-3-85371- 410-2
    4. Volker Perthes : “This is a state education project”. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , August 31, 2014. The same: The end of the Middle East as we know it. Suhrkamp Verlag, 2015, pp. 91–120.
    5. Stefan Kühl : The "Verorganization" of Islamism. In: Sociopolis. November 26, 2015.
    6. ^ Wilfried Buchta: Terror before Europe's gates. (2015) p. 308. As early as 2007, the American terrorism researcher Brian Fishman spoke of the then Islamic State in Iraq as a “ governmental amoeba ”; Fishman: Fourth Generation Governance - Sheikh Tamimi defends the Islamic State of Iraq. ( Memento of August 14, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Combating Terrorism Center , March 23, 2007. On jihadist state concepts Sebastian Huhnholz: Jihadist spatial practice. Spatial planning challenges of militant Sunni fundamentalism , Berlin: LIT 2010.
    7. ^ A b Richard Hall: "Isis caliphate defeated: Victory declared as Islamic State loses last of its territory" The Independent of March 23, 2019
    8. Ralph Janik: How the “Islamic State” questions our state thinking. In: JuWiss.de. Retrieved August 13, 2019 .
    9. Felicia Schwartz: "Daesch" or "IS"? - The many names for "Islamic State". 3Sat, accessed December 23, 2014 .
    10. ^ Wilfried Buchta: Terror before Europe's gates. (2015), p. 19.
    11. Stephan Rosiny: "The Caliph's New Clothes": The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (PDF; 476 kB). In: GIGA Focus , No. 6/2014, accessed on October 2, 2014.
    12. IS leader Baghdadi sees himself as the Prophet's successor. In: Rheinische Post , June 29, 2015.
    13. Jump up ↑ Al Qaeda leader in Iraq. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , September 3, 2006.
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    527. Banu Güven , Claus Christian Malzahn : Turkey is the hub of global jihad In: Die Welt , September 15, 2014.
    528. Focus online, Turkey is making Islamists fit for jihad again. In: Focus , July 6, 2014.
    529. a b Hasnain Kazim : “The border area to Syria is IS country” In: Spiegel Online , July 21, 2015.
    530. Sueddeutsche Zeitung, Green politician Roth: Turkey pursues “dirty politics”. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , October 8, 2014.
    531. ^ Fighting ISIS 'Not a High Priority for Turkey' - Middle East - News - Arutz Sheva
    532. Turkey overwhelmed with influx from Syria ( memento from September 21, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) website tagesschau from September 21, 2014.
    533. File: ISIS in front of the NATO border , accessed on September 22, 2014.
    534. WZ: “FAS”: Turkey exaggerates the number of refugees from Syria ( memento of October 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on September 27, 2014.
    535. a b Michael Martens: Wrong game. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , September 27, 2014.
    536. IS fighters only ten kilometers from the Kurdish city of Kobane. In: The Standard . September 27, 2014, accessed March 25, 2016 .
    537. ^ Dispute among colleagues: "FR" correspondent accuses "FAZ" correspondents of "Propaganda" ( memento from October 3, 2014 on WebCite ) , www.newsroom.de, October 1, 2014, by Bülend Ürük.
    538. Michael Martens: " To accuse me of PKK propaganda is quite bold" ( Memento from October 3, 2014 on WebCite ) , www.newsroom.de, October 1, 2014, interview by Bülend Ürük with Michael Martens.
    539. Turkey's unclear position is dangerous , Deutschlandradio, by Reinhard Baumgarten, accessed on September 27, 2014.
    540. Stern: IS controls over 300 villages around Kobane ( memento of October 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on October 1, 2014.
    541. Who is the Suruc assassin?
    542. welt.de
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    544. Die Welt, January 13, 2016: This is the suicide bomber in Istanbul
    545. ISIL militant kills 10, injures 15 in Istanbul suicide attack. In: Hürriyet Daily News . January 12, 2016, accessed January 13, 2016 .
    546. A suspect arrested. In: The daily newspaper . January 13, 2016, accessed January 13, 2016 .
    547. Also three Saxons among the dead in Istanbul. In: mdr.de. January 13, 2016, archived from the original on June 2, 2016 ; accessed on June 2, 2016 .
    548. Presumably all ten victims are Germans. In: Berliner Zeitung . January 13, 2016, accessed January 13, 2016 .
    549. tagesschau.de:Turkey ends military operation
    550. More than 400 suspected ISIS members arrested in Turkey. In: Zeit Online . February 5, 2017. Retrieved February 5, 2017 .
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    553. ^ Frank Lehmkuhl: Salafists threaten the Yazidis with death. In: Focus Online . August 15, 2014, accessed August 29, 2015 .
    554. ^ Violence in the Asylum Home , jungewelt.de, September 16, 2014.
    555. Christoph Reuter: An Interview with Islamic State's Architect of Death. In: Spiegel Online . July 16, 2015, accessed August 29, 2015 .
    556. ↑ The attacker lived in an asylum home In: Deutschlandfunk , January 10, 2016.
    557. ^ The Federal Prosecutor General at the Federal Court of Justice: arrest of three alleged members of the foreign terrorist organization "Islamic State of Iraq and Greater Syria" (ISIG) , June 2, 2016.
    558. ^ Fidelius Schmid: Suspected IS terrorist cell in Germany excavated . Spiegel Online, June 2, 2016.
    559. ISIS shows video of the ax terrorist. July 19, 2016, accessed August 31, 2016 .
    560. Jörg Diehl, Christoph Sydow: The two legends of Mohammad Daleel. In: Spiegel Online . Retrieved July 27, 2016 .
    561. De Maizière: Terror suspects were related to the Paris attackers . Süddeutsche.de, September 13, 2016.
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    563. Florian Flade: Al-Qaida fanatics: "My name is Abu Osama, I'm from Germany". Die Welt, December 1, 2013, accessed December 3, 2013 .
    564. Florian Flade: Salafist: Philip B. - From Dinslaken to Jihad. In: The world . December 3, 2013, accessed December 3, 2013 .
    565. Christoph Sydow: Berlin ex-rapper joins terror group in Syria. In: Spiegel Online , April 12, 2014.
    566. ^ Marie Delhaes: German jihadists involved in the fight over gas field. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , July 19, 2014.
    567. The horror comes from Dinslaken August 21, 2014.
    568. BT-Drs. 18/2276 of July 30, 2014, PDF, accessed August 26, 2014.
    569. 60 IS fighters from Germany killed ( memento from November 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) November 23, 2014.
    570. ^ Roland Chr. Hoffmann-Plesch: German IS Jihadists. Criminal etiological and crime preventive analysis of the radicalization process. Part 1: Religious criminological and psychopolitical aspects. In: Kriminalistik 68, No. 12, 2014, pp. 699–704; Part 2: Aspects of criminal psychology. In: Kriminalistik 69, No. 1, 2015, pp. 10–16; Part 3: Criminalsociological aspects. In: Kriminalistik 69, No. 2, 2015, pp. 74–80; Part 4: Forensic biological aspects. In: Kriminalistik 69, No. 3, 2015, pp. 159–166; Part 5: Crime preventive aspects. In: Kriminalistik 69, No. 4, 2015, pp. 225–233.
    571. Announcement of a ban on associations against the Islamic State Association alias Islamic State in Iraq (ad-Dawla al-Islamiya fil-Iraq) alias Islamic State in Iraq and Greater Syria (ad-Dawla al-Islamiya fil-Iraq wasch-Scham) from September 12, 2014 ( BAnz AT September 12, 2014 B1 )
    572. Yassin Musharbash: Should the flag of the “Islamic State” be banned? , Blog Radical Views on Die Zeit , September 12, 2014.
    573. Anis Micijevic: A Creed in the Clutches of Terror. In: Handelsblatt , September 12, 2014.
    574. a b Statement by the Federal Government on the ban on Islamic State of September 14, 2014
    575. Düsseldorf no longer issues "IS" license plates. In: welt.de . April 14, 2016, accessed October 7, 2018 .
    576. Proceedings against IS fighters alert the judiciary. In: The time . September 14, 2014, accessed September 15, 2014 .
    577. "Alleged IS child murderer arrested in Greece" Der Standard from May 31, 2019
    578. Personal data of 22,000 ISIS jihadists exposed. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . March 10, 2016, accessed March 11, 2016 .
    579. ^ Georg Heil, Volkmar Kabisch, Georg Mascolo: Federal Criminal Police Office in possession of secret IS papers. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . March 10, 2016, accessed March 10, 2016 .
    580. Germany says stolen Islamic State files 'probably genuine'. In: BBC News . March 11, 2016, accessed March 11, 2016 .
    581. Press release of the European Union , August 15, 2014.
    582. Germany ready to deliver weapons ( Memento from July 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), tagesschau.de, August 20, 2014.
    583. Thousands of weapons for Iraqi Kurds ( memento from July 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), tagesschau.de, August 31, 2014.
    584. ^ Resolution of the Federal Government to support the Government of the Autonomous Region of Iraqi Kurdistan in caring for the refugees and in the fight against the Islamic State in Northern Iraq. (PDF; 30kB) Federal Ministry of Defense , August 31, 2014, accessed on September 14, 2014 .
    585. ^ Weapons for Kurdistan: The List . Thomas Wiegold , augengeradeaus.net, August 31, 2014.
    586. Bundestag supports arms deliveries , motion for a resolution by the parliamentary groups of the CDU / CSU and SPD (printed matter 18/2459)
    587. Plenary Minutes 18/48, page 4446
    588. Plenary minutes 18/48, page 4427 f.
    589. Plenary minutes 18/48, page 4421 f.
    590. USA and Turkey are struggling to use military bases. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , October 13, 2014.
    591. ^ Steinmeier against UN mission in Syria. In: Spiegel Online , October 13, 2014.
    592. Astrid Geisler : "Ground troops only from the region" In: Die Tageszeitung , October 15, 2014 (interview with Jürgen Trittin ).
    593. ^ NN : Thousands demonstrate against terror in Iraq on the site of NDR 1 Lower Saxony from August 16, 2014; ndr.de online last accessed on August 17, 2014 ( Memento from August 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    594. 7,000 Yazidis demonstrate in Bielefeld against IS terrorism , zeit.de, August 9, 2014.
    595. Stefan Behr: "Isis out of Kurdistan" In: Frankfurter Rundschau , August 10, 2014.
    596. Kurds invade the European Parliament and demand help. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , October 7, 2014.
    597. Massive Kurdish protests against IS ( memento from October 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), tagesschau.de, October 7, 2014.
    598. ^ New Kurdish protests in Hamburg , ndr.de, October 8, 2014.
    599. Over 21,000 demand solidarity with Kobane , 1.wdr.de, October 11, 2014.
    600. ^ Jörn Hasselmann: Thousands of Kurds demonstrate against IS terrorist militia. In: Der Tagesspiegel , October 12, 2014.
    601. IS jihadist in the Waldviertel captured diepresse.com from September 3, 2014.
    602. So recruiting for jihad in Vienna oe24.at of August 27, 2014.
    603. " Ordinance on the prohibition of the" Islamic State "group and related organizations adopted by the Federal Council ", media release by the Swiss federal authorities of October 8, 2014.
    604. ^ ISIS-Allied Militants Behead 15 During Afghanistan Offensive: Official - NBC News
    605. ^ Afghan authorities announce the death of IS recruiter
    606. First major IS attack in Afghanistan? ( Memento from April 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    607. Max Bearak: “Behind the front lines in the fight to 'annihilate' ISIS in Afghanistan” Washington Post, July 23, 2017
    608. a b Iran and USA deliver weapons to Kurdish fighters. In: Spiegel Online , August 11, 2014.
    609. Iran Focus, December 29, 2014
    610. Hamas supports the ISIS militia in Sinai
    611. IS threatens Hamas
    612. Human rights activists see evidence of cluster bombs in Yemen ( Memento from May 3, 2015 on WebCite ) , Reuters Germany, May 3, 2015.
    613. 28 dead in IS-claimed attack on Shiites in Yemen ( Memento from June 30, 2015 on WebCite ) (English). reliefweb.int (Agence France-Presse), June 30, 2015, by Jamal al-Jabiri.
    614. Islamic State competes with al-Qaeda in Yemen ( Memento from July 6, 2015 on WebCite ) , de.reuters.com, July 5, 2015. by Sami Aboudi.
    615. Dozens of dead in bomb attacks in Aden. Zeit Online, May 23, 2016, accessed May 23, 2016 .
    616. Jordan loses border posts to Isis
    617. Concern about ISIS attacks from Iraq: Jordan increases alertness - tagesschau.de ( Memento from June 24, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    618. Jordan mobilizes armed forces on the border with Iraq. In: Die Zeit , June 23, 2014.
    619. ISIS: Iraq today and Jordan tomorrow? - DW.DE - June 24, 2014
    620. Jordan attacks "capital" of IS ( Memento from February 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    621. THE DAILY STAR: ISIS claims responsibility for Beirut car bomb , January 4, 2014.
    622. New murders, new air strikes ( Memento from September 7, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    623. IS Beheads second Lebanese soldier
    624. dailymail.co.uk
    625. spiegel.de, October 5, 2014
    626. spiegel.de, September 4, 2014
    627. Concern about German hostages is growing ( memento from September 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) tagesschau.de, September 24, 2014.
    628. German hostages in the Philippines are free
    629. ^ "Battle for Marawi" Reuters June 2, 2017
    630. Philippines: Numerous dead in the battle for the city of Marawi. In: The time . May 28, 2017. Retrieved May 28, 2017 .
    631. "Philippine soldiers killed by their own air force" , Deutsche Welle dated June 1, 2017
    632. Who is funding ISIS? - DW.DE - June 20, 2014
    633. Saudi Arabia stations tens of thousands of soldiers on the Iraqi border. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , July 3, 2014.
    634. Sunni Saudi Arabia distances itself from Isis - merkur-online.de
    635. dw.de
    636. Saudi Arabia attacks positions of the terrorist militia
    637. ^ Attack on a mosque in Saudi Arabia
    638. 15 dead in suicide attack on mosque ( memento from August 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    639. Christoph Sydow: Egyptian jihadists join the IS. In: Spiegel Online , November 10, 2014.
    640. Christoph Sydow: The brothers of the caliph. In: Spiegel Online , November 13, 2014.
    641. Egypt's army kills many Islamists on the Sinai Peninsula. In: Spiegel Online , February 7, 2015.
    642. Jihadists behead eight Bedouins on Sinai. In: Die Welt , February 10, 2015.
    643. 70 people die in an attack. In: Focus , July 1, 2015.
    644. Attack on Egyptian army - more than 100 dead on Sinai. In: Spiegel Online , July 1, 2015.
    645. IS calls for attacks in Germany. In: Focus , October 12, 2014.
    646. ^ Christoph Sydow: France's nightmare. In: Spiegel Online , September 25, 2014.
    647. Christoph Sydow: 400,000 Libyans are on the run. In: Spiegel Online , November 14, 2014.
    648. a b Islamic State to launch satellite TV station in Libya - Herald, Malta Today, October 15, 2014
    649. a b Astrid Frefel: A mini-emirate is emerging in eastern Libya. In: Der Standard , October 29, 2014.
    650. ↑ Terrorist militia IS trains fighters in Libya. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , December 4, 2014.
    651. ^ Too many chiefs, The Economist, September 27, 2014
    652. Libya is threatened with split In: Die Tageszeitung , September 7, 2014.
    653. Beat Stauffer: “It's about power, not about ideology” In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , October 23, 2014 (interview).
    654. dw.de
    655. Dozens of IS fighters killed in Egypt's air strikes for revenge. In: Spiegel Online , February 16, 2015.
    656. Who should stop the horrors of IS in Libya?
    657. ↑ The Libyan IS offshoot is said to have conquered the port city of Sirte
    658. Austrians disappeared after IS attack
    659. ^ Libya violence: Foreign oil workers kidnapped
    660. IS put down rebellion in Sirte. In: Spiegel Online , August 17, 2015.
    661. UN: IS loses its territory in Libya In: n-tv
    662. US strikes in Libya kill more than 80 Islamic State fighters. Reuters , January 19, 2017, accessed January 22, 2017 .
    663. Boko Haram agrees to support IS. In: Der Standard , July 13, 2014.
    664. welt.de
    665. Boko Haram burns down city. In: Spiegel Online , January 9, 2015.
    666. Boko Haram expelled from Baga ( Memento from February 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    667. ^ Boko Haram swears allegiance to IS
    668. Nigerian Army pushes Boko Haram back
    669. Niger and Chad launch offensive against Boko Haram
    670. ↑ Ground offensive against Boko Haram
    671. Boko Haram expelled from Damasak ( Memento from April 2, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    672. Boko Haram expelled from 36 cities
    673. Le groupe terroriste tunisien "Okba Ibn Nafâa" prête allégeance à DAECH . In: tunisiefocus.com , September 20, 2014. Retrieved March 26, 2019 (French).
    674. ^ Al-Qaeda Tunisia offshoot offers backing to ISIS . In: alarabiya.net , September 20, 2014. Accessed March 26, 2019.
    675. tagesschau.de: IS commits itself to attack in Tunis , accessed on March 19, 2015.
    676. ^ Thousands of Tunisians, leaders march after Bardo attack , Reuters, March 29, 2015
    677. IS supporters in Australia are said to have planned beheading
    678. ↑ The hostage-taking in Sydney ended violently ( Memento from December 15, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    679. Obama promises a relentless fight against IS. In: Spiegel Online , August 20, 2014.
    680. zeit.de
    681. tagesschau.de ( Memento from May 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    682. theguardian.com
    683. telegraph.co.uk
    684. telegraph.co.uk
    685. aljazeera.com
    686. British execute British. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , September 8, 2015.
    687. Islamic State claims attack for itself. In: Zeit Online , March 23, 2017.
    688. ↑ The assassin traveled from Düsseldorf to Manchester , Focus online, May 25, 2017.
    689. Kate McCann: "'The only way' of dealing with British Islamic State fighters is to kill them in almost every case, minister says" telegraph.co.uk of October 22, 2017
    690. Jump up ↑ Amedy Coulibaly's IS video. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , January 11, 2015.
    691. Three dead in Magnanville near Paris: the French government calls the murder of a police officer "an act of terrorism" - Tagesspiegel
    692. Truck bomber: IS claims attack in Nice for itself , Spiegel Online, July 16, 2016, accessed on the same day.
    693. Islamists kill priests: attack in church was terrorist attack. tagesschau.de , July 26, 2016, accessed on July 26, 2016 .
    694. ^ RIA Novosti : Fight against IS: Italy sends fighter planes to Iraq , accessed on December 16, 2014.
    695. longwarjournal.org
    696. OIC condemns ISIS threats and forced displacement of Christians in Iraq ( Memento from August 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 21, 2014: The Secretary General added that this forced displacement is a crime that cannot be tolerated; and that the practices of ISIS have nothing to do with Islam and its principles that call for justice, kindness, fairness, freedom of faith and coexistence.
    697. Alliance breaks IS siege of Amerli in Iraq. Accessed August 31, 2014.
    698. Arab League wants to take action against IS. In: Kurier , September 8, 2014.
    699. According to the Turkish cultural community, Muslims should distance themselves from IS called on August 26, 2014.
    700. ^ "It is forbidden in Islam ..." In: Salzburger Nachrichten , October 29, 2014.
    701. Open letter to Dr. Ibrāhīm ʿAwwād al-Badrī alias "Abū Bakr al-Baġdādī" and to the fighters and supporters of the self-proclaimed "Islamic State" . In: Madrasah , September 27, 2014. Retrieved May 29, 2017. (German translation from Arabic)
    702. Open letter: 126 Muslim scholars condemn the Islamic State | movement Islamic newspaper
    703. Islamic scholars reject the Isis caliphate. In: Handelsblatt , June 30, 2014.
    704. Open letter from various Islamic scholars to ISIS leaders. Retrieved March 7, 2015 .
    705. Martin Gehlen: Muslim intellectuals rebel. In: Die Zeit , August 31, 2014.
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    707. Egypt mufti slams Takfiri ISIL militants for Iraq, Syria atrocities , accessed on August 21, 2014.
    708. Islamic State accessed under political pressure on August 26, 2014.
    709. Indonesia clerics forbid joining ISIL In: Press TV , August 7, 2014 (English).
    710. Muslims distance themselves from IS ( Memento from August 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) accessed on August 26, 2014.
    711. The welcoming culture is the terrorists' greatest enemy. In: Deutschlandfunk . November 15, 2015, accessed November 19, 2015 .
    712. "We're moving even closer together". In: tagesschau.de . November 16, 2015, accessed November 16, 2015 .
    713. Islamic Religious Community Austria condemns IS terror called on August 26, 2014.
    714. ^ Sonja Gillert: British imams condemn Islamists in Iraq. ( Memento from September 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: Hamburger Abendblatt , September 1, 2014.
    715. A fatwa against the “Islamic State” In: Deutsche Welle , September 3, 2014.
    716. ISNA ( Memento from August 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 26, 2014.
    717. 16% of French Citizens Support ISIS, Poll Finds Newsweek , August 26, 2014.
    718. ^ Adam Taylor: Do 1 in 6 French citizens really support Islamic State? In: The Washington Post , August 27, 2014.
    719. Nederlandse moslimjongeren en de Arabische Herfst, Forum Verkenning, Instituut voor Multiculturele Vraagstukken, November 2014, Dutch, PDF
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    721. ^ Resolution against terror tourists. In: Handelsblatt , September 24, 2014.
    722. ^ Text of Resolution 2178 on the website of the United Nations
    723. United Nations Security Council: Resolution 2249. (PDF) Retrieved November 28, 2016 .
    724. Ralph Janik: The fight against the "Islamic State" - The big problems do not lie in international law. Retrieved November 28, 2016 .
    725. ^ UN Security Council on the Financing of ISIS
    726. UN press office: ISIL Still Threatens International Peace, Under-Secretary-General Tells Security Council, Calling for 'Unity and Action' to Combat Extremist Group
    727. Peter Gruber: Bush 2.0 blows the new war on terrorism. In: Focus , September 11, 2014.
    728. ^ The WHITE HOUSE: Statement by the President on ISIL , accessed September 13, 2014.
    729. Jim Garamone: Hagel Says Anti-ISIL Coalition Continues to Grow. defense.gov , September 18, 2014 (English).
    730. Obama names Brett McGurk as envoy to coalition fighting Islamic State. In: Reuters , October 23, 2015 (English).
    731. Russia is considering joining the anti-IS alliance In: Die Zeit , September 22, 2014.
    732. US Central Command News Release: Centcom Designates Ops Against ISIL as 'Inherent Resolve'. defense.gov of October 15, 2014 (last accessed October 19, 2014).
    733. Musa al-Gharbi, By hyping ISIL threat, US is falling into group's trap. Al Jazeera America, September 30, 2014.
    734. ^ The White House: Statement by the President on ISIL , September 10, 2014, "Secretary Kerry was in Iraq today meeting with the new government and supporting their efforts to promote unity" and the following sentences.
    735. Vicken Cheterian, Draw Limits . Le Monde diplomatique , July 11, 2014.
    736. Ingrid Thurner: Learn history! . In: Wiener Zeitung November 12, 2014; Overview and discussion with Sebastian Huhnholz: The Levant is paved. Observations of the more recent German non-fiction literature on the so-called Islamic State , in: Yearbook Political Thinking 2015 , vol. 25, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot 2016, pp. 225–238.
    737. Uri Avnery, Scotland on the Euphrates , September 20, 2014.
    738. Munich publicist visits terrorist militia Islamic State. In: Abendzeitung , December 20, 2014.
    739. Interview with journalist Todenhöfer: IS in victory frenzy, daily topics 10:25 p.m., December 18, 2014 ( Memento from December 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    740. ^ So Kurt Pelda on Deutschlandfunk December 27, 2014 http://www.deutschlandfunk.de/kriegsberichticherung-in-der-medienkrise-vielleicht-waere.761.de.html?dram:article_id=306978
    741. The "Open University" of IS jihadists Deutschlandfunk November 24, 2014 (last checked on November 24, 2014)
    742. a b Vivian Yee: “Is a Child of ISIS Just a Child? Or a Time Bomb? ” New York Times, May 8, 2019
    743. More than 60,000 dead from Islamic terror . In: Junge Freiheit from October 16, 2019.
    744. ^ Losing Iraq . PBS, 2014.
    745. https://www.pbs.org/video/frontline-rise-isis-repack-003/ . PBS, 2014.
    746. Obama at War . PBS, 2015.
    747. Escaping ISIS . PBS, 2015;
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    749. ^ The Islamic State . Vice News, 2014.
    750. ^ The Powers Behind The Islamic State . filmsforaction.org, 2014.
    751. "The Bureaucracy of Terror" . tagesschau.de, 2014.
    752. "#beckmann: Our war? German fighters against IS terror " . daserste.ndr.de, 2015.
    753. Reviewed in The Guardian, February 9, 2015
    754. deutschlandfunk.de , Andruck , Susanne El Khafif, March 2, 2015: From the terror group to the terrorist army
    755. deutschlandfunk.de , Andruck - Das Magazin für Politische Literatur , June 19, 2017, Susanne El Khafif: The Obstetricians of the "Islamic State" (June 27, 2017)
    756. welt.de , February 7, 2017, Marc Reichwein: This is how IS terror came over us and that is why it remains (June 27, 2017)