Herat


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هرات
Herat
Herat (Afghanistan)
Red pog.svg
Coordinates 34 ° 21 ′  N , 62 ° 11 ′  E Coordinates: 34 ° 21 ′  N , 62 ° 11 ′  E
Basic data
Country Afghanistan

province

Herat
District Herat
height 925 m
Residents 555.205 (2020 [1] )
Website www.herat.gov.af
View of the city from the citadel, 2004
View of the city from the citadel, 2004

Herat ( Persian هرات, DMG Herāt , in ancient times Haraiva [ta] ) is a city in western Afghanistan in the valley of the Hari Rud .

It is the capital of Herat Province and the country's second largest city after Kabul . The majority of the 556,205 inhabitants are Tajiks (own name Farsi ).

geography

Central Asia with the Silk Road

climate

Temperatures fluctuate between 5 and 10 ° C in winter and around 30 ° C in summer.

Herat
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
 
 
52
 
9
-3
 
 
45
 
12
-1
 
 
55
 
18th
4th
 
 
29
 
24
9
 
 
10
 
30th
13
 
 
0
 
35
18th
 
 
0
 
37
21st
 
 
0
 
35
19th
 
 
0
 
31
13
 
 
2
 
25th
7th
 
 
11
 
18th
1
 
 
36
 
12
-1
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Herat
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 9.1 11.9 17.9 24.0 29.6 35.0 36.7 35.1 31.4 25.0 17.8 12.0 O 23.8
Min. Temperature (° C) -2.9 -0.6 3.8 9.1 13.3 18.2 21.2 19.2 13.2 7.4 1.0 -1.4 O 8.5
Precipitation ( mm ) 52 45 55 29 10 0 0 0 0 2 11 36 Σ 240
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 4.8 5.4 6.5 7.9 10.6 12.1 12.2 11.1 10.8 8.8 7.8 4.6 O 8.6
Rainy days ( d ) 6th 8th 7th 4th 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 6th Σ 34
Humidity ( % ) 72 69 62 56 45 34 30th 30th 34 42 55 67 O 49.6
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
9.1
-2.9
11.9
-0.6
17.9
3.8
24.0
9.1
29.6
13.3
35.0
18.2
36.7
21.2
35.1
19.2
31.4
13.2
25.0
7.4
17.8
1.0
12.0
-1.4
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
N
i
e
d
e
r
s
c
h
l
a
g
52
45
55
29
10
0
0
0
0
2
11
36
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: wetterkontor.de

history

View of Herat, 1969

The Iranian tribe Aria , ancient Persian Haraiva [ta] , ancient Greek Artakoana , settled around 800 BC. In the oasis of Hera. Artakoana was the capital of the Aria region and the Persian satrapy of the same name .

The citadel in Herat, built under Alexander

Alexander the Great conquered the city in 330 BC. And built it under the name Alexandria in Aria to a military base. During this time, the city's famous citadel was built . The region around Herat was conquered by the native Parthians after the fall of the Seleucids - from here the founding of the powerful Parthian Empire began.

With the fall of the Persian Sassanids , Herat became part of the Muslim caliphate . The Samanids later elevated Herat to a residential city and developed it into a center of Persian art, culture and literature.

Around 1000 AD the Turkish Ghaznavids conquered the city and around 1040 the Seljuks . From 1150 the local Ghurids ruled here before the city fell to the Khorezm Shahs in 1215 .

Ruins of the Musalla complex

During this time Herat was an important center for the production of metal goods, especially bronze, which were often decorated with ornate inlays made of valuable metals. In 1220/21 the Mongols came under Genghis Khan and destroyed Herat several times. In 1245 the city was given to the Kartids , a vassal dynasty of the Mongols, under which Herat was able to recover.

Timur Lang destroyed Herat around 1381. Under his son Shāh Ruch it was rebuilt and declared the capital of Khorasan and the Timurid Empire . Shah Ruch's wife Gauhar-Schad built a. a. the Musallā complex with its minarets, some of which are still standing today . 1452–75 Abu l-Qasim Babur took over the rule, followed in 1459 by Abu Sa'id and 1469–1506 by Husain Baiqara. Under Husain Baiqara, the city flourished again - he promoted agriculture and consolidated Timurid rule.

The Uzbeks conquered Herat in 1507; In 1510 the city was taken by Ismail Safawi . Herat became part of Persia again and remained one of the most important Safavid cities in Khorasan until the Afghan conquest .

An advertising poster from 1910

The city belonged to the Sawafid Persia at the beginning of the 18th century, which however lost power. In 1717, the Abdali regional Pashtun group gained power. There were many battles for Herat between 1718 and 1880. In 1731, Nader Shah gained control of the city. In 1749 the Pashtun (“Afghan”) Ahmad Shah Durrani conquered Herat from the Persians and united the cities of Kandahar and Kabul to form his new Afghan empire. Power struggles began around 1800 between the two ruling clans of the Durranis , which in 1819 actually resulted in an autonomous emirate under one dynasty line. In the course of the 19th century, claims by the Persians led to several battles for the city, which was occupied by Persians in 1852 and 1856 and largely destroyed.

The Great Game , the political chess game of the two European colonial powers Russia and Great Britain around Central Asia, began in the first half of the 19th century . The conflict ended in 1887, and Afghanistan created a buffer zone between Russia and British India , which at the same time ensured the independence of Persia and Afghanistan.

In 1837 the Persian army besieged Mohammed Shah Herat. The British artillery officer Eldred Pottinger , who happened to be in Herat, offered his services to the Emir of Herat. The defense was entrusted to him and it was possible to hold the city. The Russian ambassador Count Simonitsch took command of the Persian army. British troops then landed in the Persian Gulf . As a result, the Persian troops withdrew and both Simonitsch and Witkewitsch were ordered back to Russia. This situation eventually led to the First Anglo-Afghan War .

In 1863 Herat was taken by Dost Mohammed , the founder of the Baraksai dynasty. In 1879, his grandson Mohammed Yakub Khan , an emir of Afghanistan from Herat, placed the country under British control. It was not until Abdur Rahman Khan , who ruled from 1880 to 1901, that a period of relative political stability and cultural revival came about. The distinct music scene in Herat at that time was Persian until the beginning of the 20th century, in contrast to the music of Kabul, which was influenced by India.

Even before the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979, there was an extensive presence of Soviet advisors with their families in Herat. From March 10-20, 1979, the army mutinied in the city, led by Ismail Khan, and 350 Soviet citizens were killed. The Soviets bombed the city, causing extensive destruction and thousands of deaths, and retook the city with tanks and paratroopers.

Ismail Khan became the mujahideen commander and after the departure of the Soviets governor of Herat. In 1995 the Taliban captured Herat. During this time the secret women's college " Golden Needle Sewing School " was established. On November 12, 2001, Herat fell to the Northern Alliance and Ismail Khan came back to power in the region.

In 2004, Hamid Karzai deposed Ismail Khan and appointed Said Mohammad Kheir-Khowa as the new governor. Shortly afterwards, the residents of Herat rebelled because they did not agree with Karzai's decision.

Population development of the agglomeration according to the UN

year population
1950 82,000
1960 89,000
1970 102,000
1980 144,000
1990 183,000
2000 234,000
2010 359,000
2017 519,000

Culture

Illustration to Jami's Haft Awrang

Herat has long been a center of the Persian-Muslim cultural world. The city is particularly known for its important art and literature tradition. One of the most famous poets of Persia, Jami , who is also considered the last important Sufi master of the Middle Ages, was from Herat. The Halveti and Cheschti Sufi orders were also founded in Herat. Another celebrity of the city was Ustad Kamal-ud Din Behzad , the most important exponent of Persian-Muslim miniature painting. Herat is also known for its hand-knotted Persian carpets. The Herat style (named after the city) is one of the most expensive and well-known of its kind.

Until the fall of the Safavid Empire , Herat, then also known as the Pearl of Persia , was the second largest city in the kingdom and the most important metropolis in eastern Persia.

Attractions

Herat is an old city with many historical buildings, although these have suffered from the military conflicts of the last decades. Most of the buildings are made of adobe bricks . The recently rebuilt Citadel of Herat , built under Alexander the Great , dominates the view of the city. In the 15th to 17th centuries, Herat was also known as the Florence of Asia.

Education and Research

In Herat, the university is currently being built in the northern part of the city. Despite the construction work, teaching takes place in the buildings that have already been built. There are currently 10 faculties:

  1. agricultural economics
  2. Natural sciences
  3. Educational and educational sciences
  4. Economics
  5. Engineering
  6. Fine arts
  7. Islamic Studies
  8. Literary studies
  9. Law and Political Science
  10. Computer science

Economy and Infrastructure

traffic

The city is conveniently located on the trade routes between Iran , India , the People's Republic of China and Europe . The roads to Turkmenistan and Iran are still of strategic importance.

The airport Herat located 10 km south-east on the road to Farah. Airlines such as Ariana Afghan Airlines , Kam Air , Pamir Airways fly to it.

A railway line from Mashhad , Iran has been under construction since July 2006 . While the work on the Iranian side is well advanced, construction is apparently still pending on Afghan territory in 2010.

sons and daughters of the town

literature

  • Dietrich Brandenburg: Herat. A Timurid capital. Academic Printing and Publishing Company, Graz 1977, ISBN 3-201-01031-6 .
  • Veronica Doubleday: Three Women of Herat. Jonathan Cape, London 1988, ISBN 0-224-02440-X . (New edition: Three Women of Herat: A Memoir of Life, Love and Friendship in Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire 2006) (Field research in the 1970s)
    • German: The smart, the depressed, the independent: three women in Afghanistan. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 1989, ISBN 3-499-12388-6 .
  • Heinz Gaube : Herat and its environs in the 15th century according to literary and archaeological sources. In: C. Rathjens (ed.): New research on Afghanistan. Opladen 1981, ISBN 3-8100-0326-3 , pp. 202-213.
  • Jürgen Paul : Central Asia. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2012 ( New Fischer World History , Volume 10).

Web links

Commons : Herat  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. NSIA. (PDF) Retrieved August 9, 2020 (Persian / Pashto / English).
  2. ^ Dietrich Brandenburg: Herat. A Timurid capital . Akademische Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Graz 1977, p. 1 .
  3. Gavin Hambly (ed.): Fischer world history. Volume 16, Frankfurt am Main 1966, p. 39.
  4. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. 2012, p. 187f.
  5. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. 2012, p. 187f.
  6. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. 2012, p. 268f.
  7. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. 2012, p. 275
  8. ^ Jürgen Paul: Central Asia. 2012, p. 355
  9. ^ John Baily : Music of Afghanistan: Professional Musicians in the City of Herat. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1988, pp. 12-19.
  10. World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .
  11. andrewgrantham.co.uk