The term jihad [ dʒiˈhaːd ] ( Arabic جهاد Jihād , DMG Jihād 'effort, struggle, effort, commitment'; also Jihad, Cihad / Cihat or occasionally in the English spelling Jihad ) denotes in the religious sense an important concept of the Islamic religion , the effort / the fight on the way of God ( al-jihādu fī sabīli Llāh /الجهاد في سبيل الله / al-ǧihādu fī sabīli Llāh ).
Etymologically , it stands for an effort aimed at a specific goal. In the Koran and the Sunnah , this term primarily describes military combat. It is not clear from the Qur'an whether this is a universal struggle against those of different faiths or whether this struggle only pursues defensive goals: “ The existing written material requires interpretation, whereby the attitude of the interpreters is of decisive importance, which is largely determined by the different ones political and social framework has been and is shaped. "
According to classical Islamic legal doctrine ( Fiqh ), the development of which can be dated to the first centuries after the death of Muhammad , this struggle serves to expand and defend Islamic territory until Islam is the dominant religion. In its later development, and particularly in the course of modernity , Muslim scholars have begun to emphasize non-military aspects of this struggle (see paragraph below: Non-military interpretations of the term jihad ). Muslim authors of the modern age only consider wars legitimate that serve to defend Islamic states, the freedom of Muslims to proclaim Islam outside of them, and to protect Muslims under non-Islamic rule. Their interpretation of corresponding Quranic verses corresponds to this.
Jihad, as one of the basic precepts of the Islamic faith and a duty imposed on all Muslims, is an important principle of Islam. Some Sunni scholars rank jihad as the sixth one of the " five pillars of Islam ".
The Kharijites counted jihad among the five cornerstones of Islam.
The Twelver knows until the appearance of so-called hidden imam , Muhammad ibn Hasan , no jihad to expand the Islamic dominion, since only the latter is entitled to this. The defense of their own territory is still mandatory for the Twelve Shiites, although this is not understood as jihad .
The relevant legal doctrine has understood how to find ways around this regulation in view of military necessity, so that even wars in the absence of the hidden imam could receive legal legitimacy .
In the European language area, the term is often translated as holy war . Muslim authors counter this by stating that jihad semantically not only denotes warfare, there are non-military meanings of the term jihad and therefore regard such a translation as wrong and reject it.
In Islamic studies a description of jihad as holy war in the sense of a war prescribed by God, waged on his account and rewarded by him is common. However, equating both terms as such is often rejected in research.
Jihad is also an Arabic given name , which is also legally allowed to be given in other spellings in the German-speaking world.
Jihad in the Koran
The doctrine of jihad has its origin in the Koran and the Sunna of Muhammad . In these sources the term is understood in a military sense, as a fight against an enemy. The corresponding verses of the Koran were revealed against the background of the dispute between the Prophet and his followers and their polytheistic - Arab as well as Jewish and Christian opponents. These verses, as well as the sayings and deeds ascribed to Mohammed, his Sunna , formed the primary basis for the later development of the doctrine of jihad in Islamic law .
The noun jihad occurs four times in the Koran . Together with its various verb forms, it is found thirty-five times in the Koran. This is usually followed by the addition "on the path of God", "with property and blood" or a combination of both:
“Those who believed and emigrated and who worked with their own fortune and with their own person on the path of God are friends of one another. (...) "
When using one of these or both additions, an armed struggle is always meant. At the beginning of his prophetic career, Muhammad's supporters were made up of a few, mostly uninfluential people. When Mohammed began to criticize the idol worship of the Quraish , the pagan Meccans made mockery of the prophet's message of salvation and even open rioting against the followers of the new religious community. Before Muhammad's emigration to Medina , the hijra , there was no command to fight these . Due to their complete inferiority, the community of Mohammed at that time had no choice but to endure the oppression of the Quraish without resistance and to ignore it as far as possible:
“And proclaim aloud what you are commanded to do, and turn away from the polytheists. We protect you from the scoffers who put another god on the side of God. You will get to know it later. "
Even in the time immediately after the arrival of the Muhādschirūn , the Muslim "emigrants" from Mecca , in Yathrib , the supporters of Muhammad were withheld from a military confrontation with the Meccans. This is confirmed, among other things, by the following verse from the Koran, in which it is referred to in retrospect:
"Have you not seen those to whom (initially) were said, 'Hold back your hands (from the fight) and establish the prayer and give the alms-tax?' When they were then (later) prescribed to fight, some of them suddenly feared people, as one feared God or (even) more. (...) "
Only in the following months was the verse revealed, which the Islamic Koranic exegesis sees as the first call to fight:
“Permission (to fight) is given to those who are fought because they have been wronged - and God certainly has the power to support them - (them) who have been wrongly driven from their homes just because they say: Our Lord is God. (...) "
The war of the Muslims on the Arabian Peninsula went through several phases and finally ended in a general fight against the Arab idolaters on the one hand ...:
“And when the holy months are up, kill the polytheists wherever you find them, seize them, lay siege to them and lie in wait for them every way. When they repent, pray and pay the tax, let them go their way: God is forgiving and merciful. "
... and the writers , the Jews and Christians, on the peninsula on the other hand:
"Fight against those who do not believe in God and Judgment Day and do not forbid (or: declare it forbidden) what God and his Messenger have forbidden and do not belong to the true religion - from those who received the scriptures - ( fights against them) until they meekly pay tribute out of hand (?)! "
These Koranic verses, also known as the sword verses, were mostly understood in the classical Koranic exegesis as a call for a general fight against the non-Muslim world. Individual Koran exegetes of this period, however, only related the latter verse of the Koran to those who owned the script on the Arabian Peninsula.
The emigrants from Mecca, which in Yathrib majority lacked any financial foundation, followed the ancient Arab custom of the raid and started caravans of the Quraysh to raid and plunder. The adoption of this concept of caravan raids , which was already common in pre-Islamic times and was now referred to as jihad , was not limited to a name change: while such raids previously meant an attack by one tribe against another regardless of their relationship at the time, jihad was the struggle of a religious community against people of different faiths. This community expanded as a result, as a tribe was no longer affected by these campaigns as soon as it accepted Islam. “ It was this 'religious' [sic] essence of jihad that directed the energies of the Arabs in such a way that in less than a century they established an empire stretching from the Atlantic and the Pyrenees in the west to the Oxus and the Punjab stretched to the east. It seems almost certain that this expansion would not have happened without the concept of jihad. "
The fact that in individual verses of the Koran the verb jahada ( eng : “to exert oneself”, “to fight”) is used without one of the additions mentioned above shows that these caravan raids initially had no religious character. For example it says in sura 16 , verse 110:
"Then your Lord will those who emigrated after trials and then fought and were steadfast - behold, afterwards your Lord will truly be forgiving and merciful."
This religious character, usually characterized by such an addition, was - according to Watt - added to the raids later, when Mohammed began to demand that the Medinan Muslims, the so-called helpers , participate in the raids and corresponding verses from the Koran were revealed:
"O you who believe, fear God and look for a means to get to him, and work on his way so that you may be well."
Until then, the helpers had only undertaken to provide military support to the Muslims from Mecca in the event of an attack by the Quraysh and the respective sources , including several verses from the Koran, make it clear that until the Battle of Badr in 624 AD it was mainly to exclusively Emigrants had participated in the respective caravan raids.
In the course of these raids there were military confrontations on a large scale between the Quraish and the followers of Muhammad, which were only temporarily ended in 628 AD by a peace treaty, the so-called " Treaty of al-Hudaibiya ". The breach of this treaty on the part of the Meccans was followed by the conquest of Mecca in 630 AD. When Mohammed died on June 8th 632 AD, Islamic rule extended over the entire Arabian Peninsula .
“And you mustn't think that those who were killed for God's sake are (really) dead. No, (they are) alive (in the hereafter), and they are given (heavenly food) from their Lord. "
Muslim commentators disagree on whether the martyrs of struggle should only regain life at the end of time (according to the Mu'tazilites ) or should be considered alive now. For the proponents of the second opinion it is true that the souls of the martyrs live on and praise and worship God. The Koran threatens the “ hypocrites ” who do not take part in the fight with punishment from hell:
“Those who have been left behind (instead of being taken into the field) are happy that they stayed behind the Messenger of God (or: in contrast to the Messenger of God) (who in turn went out). They hate to wage war with their wealth and in their own person for God's sake (w. To struggle), and they say: 'Don't go out in the heat!' Say: The fire of hell is hotter (than the summer heat in which this campaign takes place). If only they would accept understanding! You will only laugh briefly (slightly) but cry for a long time (one day) (a lot). (This happens to them) as a reward for what they have committed. "
Further verses deal with questions of war law, such as the treatment of prisoners of war, exclusion from military service or armistices. Two passages in the Koran speak of “striving for God's sake”: Sura 29 , verse 69:
“But those who toil for our sake (...), we will lead our way. God is with those who are pious. "
... as well as sura 22 , verse 77-78:
“You believers! Bow down (in worship), prostrate (in adoration), serve your Lord and do good! Perhaps you will fare well (then). And for God's sake strive as it should! (...) "
These verses can be interpreted as an invitation to make an effort to " resist evil desires and temptations ". The classic Koran exegesis , however, related it to warfare.
It is unclear whether the Koran sanctions war for the purpose of defense or whether it provides for a general fight against those of different faiths and is a matter of exegesis , since the intentions and goals of jihad are not clearly evident from the Koran. The war ordinances contained therein have the character of recruiting fighters and do not deal with questions of war ethics.
Jihad in Hadith Literature
In addition to the Koran, the relevant collections of hadiths also deal with jihad, each of which contains an entire chapter on this topic. It contains traditions traced back to Mohammed, among other things, dealing with the merits of fighting in the way of God, the otherworldly reward for those who take part in this fight and, above all, those who perish in it.
"A man came to the Messenger of God (...) and said: 'Name a work that equates to working for the cause of God in terms of the reward we have to expect from God for it!' The Prophet (...) replied: 'I know of no such work! Or are you able to stay in prayer in the mosque without getting tired and at the same time fast without breaking it during the time when the religious fighter is fighting for the cause of God? ' The man said, 'No. Who would be able to do that! '"
In the statement similar to this hadith, the following saying is attributed to the prophet:
“Nobody in Paradise wants to return, except for the martyr who fell fighting for the cause of God. He would like to return to earth to be killed ten more times after all the honors that were bestowed upon him in Paradise. "
Here the doctrine of jihad, the armed struggle, is combined with the idea of martyrdom. The Islamic literature, in and outside of the canonical collections of hadiths of the 9th century, is rich in works on jihad and its virtues as a religious duty.
In addition to this topic, relevant traditions also deal with questions of martial law, such as the treatment of prisoners or the prohibition on killing women and children.
Jihad in classical Islamic law
As Islamic law developed in the first centuries after the Prophet's death, Muslim legal scholars worked out the doctrine of jihad. Almost all classic Islamic law books therefore also contain a separate chapter on jihad. Medieval legal authors whose jihad chapters are already available in European translations include Ibn Abī Zaid al-Qairawānī (d. 996), Ibn Tūmart (d. 1130), Averroes (d. 1198) and Ibn Taimīya (d. 1328 ). The chapter on jihad in the legal handbook al-Muqaddimāt al-mumahhadāt by the Andalusian scholar Ibn Rushd al-Jadd (d. 1126) has been evaluated by Janina Safran.
Definitions and goals of jihad
The current technical definition of the term jihad in the respective legal works is " to try as hard as you can ", while the legal sense of the obligation to jihad has been understood as a fight against the infidels . The vast majority of classical Muslim theologians , lawyers and traditionarians understood the term jihad in a military sense. Exceptions were individual theologians of Shiite affiliation, who differentiated between a larger jihad as a struggle within the soul and a smaller jihad in the sense just described. (See the section on Non-Military Interpretations of the Concept of Jihad )
In Islamic jurisprudence , jihad is the only admissible form of war against non-Muslims. In addition to the fight against infidels, war against apostates , rebels, deserters and muggers is legitimate. Only war against non-Muslims and apostates is considered jihad in the sense of a religious duty. An independent branch of Islamic jurisprudence, the Siyar literature, Islamic international law, deals with the legal questions of warfare .
The immediate goal of jihad was the strengthening of the Islamic religion, the protection of Muslims and the elimination of unbelief in the world with the aim of achieving Islamic supremacy across the globe. Qur'anic verses such as the following served as the basis for this:
“It is he who sent his messenger with guidance and true religion to help her to victory over everything that there is (otherwise) in religion - even if it is the heathen (ie those who (the one God other gods) is disgusting. "
A forced conversion or extermination of the non-Muslims, however, was not planned.
Among the non-Muslims, the polytheists are to be fought until they accept Islam; In addition to the possibility of conversion, the owners of the script also have the right to conclude a Dhimma contract with the Muslim ruler . The latter was originally intended only for Jews, Christians and Sabeans . In the course of the Islamic expansion , however, the offer of the dhimma has also been extended to other religious communities, such as the Zoroastrians or the Hindus , so that ultimately all non-Muslims were able to conclude a dhimma contract with the Muslim conquerors.
The Shiite doctrine of jihad differed from the current Sunni doctrine mainly in that, according to the Shiite understanding, only the hidden imam is capable of conducting a jihad to expand the Islamic sphere of power; Defense against enemy attacks was permitted, but is not jihad in this sense. Otherwise there were no major discrepancies in this regard.
Due to the diversity of opinion among scholars, it is not possible to speak of a uniform, classical doctrine of jihad. The relevant information in this article is merely a baseline of warfare that was generally recognized as such by law schools .
Dar al-Islam and Dar al-Harb
The division of the world into a house of Islam ( Dār al-Islām ) and a house of war ( Dār al-Harb ) is of fundamental importance for the classical Islamic understanding of international law . While the former designates all areas under Islamic rule, every country outside of Islamic rule is considered to belong to the House of War . It is the duty of the Islamic community to incorporate as large parts of Dar al-Harb as possible into Dar al-Islam by military means .
The Shafiite school of law mentions another category: The House of Contract ( Dar al-Ahd ). This includes areas whose non-Muslim residents have signed a ceasefire agreement with Muslims on the condition that they keep their areas and instead pay a certain amount of money or a certain number of goods annually.
The Hanafi is the only one of the four Sunni schools of law to determine under which circumstances an area belonging to the House of War becomes part of the House of Islam and vice versa. According to generally accepted regulations, an area becomes the House of Islam if it is under Islamic rule and Islamic law, the Sharia , is applied there. With regard to when an area previously belonging to the House of Islam is to be considered part of the House of War , the Muslim legal scholar Abu Hanifa , to whom the Hanafi school can be traced back and whose opinion on this matter dominates the Hanafi school of law, set the following conditions :
- The law of the unbelievers is applied, Islamic laws lose their validity;
- The respective area borders on the House of War;
- The original guarantee of protection for the life and property of Muslims and dhimmis will be revoked, regardless of whether the new ruler gives them protection or not.
These conditions can be met if part of the House of Islam is conquered or a group of dhimmis cancels their contract with the Muslims.
Jihad as a religious duty
The military expansion of Dar al-Islam is a collective duty of the Islamic community, i. that is, provided that a sufficient number of troops are available, the rest of all Muslims are exempt from this duty. Unless no one participates in jihad, the entire Islamic community sins. The respective Muslim ruler has the duty to attack the Dar al-Harb at least once a year. If for some reason this is not possible for the time being, he is allowed to postpone this annual company. (See paragraph below: Hudna )
Jihad becomes an individual duty in the event of a defense, whereby every person capable of military service has to fight in the attacked area. If their military strength is not sufficient, this duty also applies to the respective neighboring areas. Furthermore, the fight becomes an individual duty of the respective persons if the caliph designates them for military service or if they swear an oath to take part in jihad.
Excluded from military service are women, children, slaves, the physically or mentally handicapped, as well as people who cannot participate for material reasons. As a justification for these exceptional conditions, the respective legal scholars cite corresponding Koran verses or traditions of sayings that are ascribed to the prophet.
Legal Provisions in Warfare
Islamic international law provided that the fight against non-Muslim enemies was preceded by an invitation to them to accept Islam or - in the case of script owners - to remain in their religion in return for payment of the jizya (see Dhimma ). A basis for this is formed Sura 17 , verse 15, which reads:
"... And we would never have imposed a penalty (on a people) without first having sent an ambassador (to them)."
This pre-combat call was also the Sunnah of the Prophet and his immediate successors.
Classical Islamic international law also forbade certain acts during combat operations, including the killing of non-combatants such as women, children or monks (provided they did not take part in the fight), and the mutilation of both human and animal corpses - also based on verses of the Koran or prophetic sayings , Breach of contract, the unnecessary destruction of someone else's property and the killing of hostages.
In addition to these, other war-related questions are also dealt with in the relevant legal works, such as the treatment of prisoners of war or the distribution of booty.
Conclusion of peace treaties
The historical treaties between the Muslim conquerors and the populations of the respective areas have been handed down in the historical works of at-Tabari and al-Baladhuri - to name just the earliest compilations - and have been discussed several times in research . In general, these treaties record the guarantee of security for life and property, the granting of free retreat for those who do not want to live under Islamic rule, but also the obligation not to destroy churches and fortifications. (See also: Dhimma )
Classical Islamic law saw the state of war as the usual state of relations between Dār al-Islam and Dār al-Harb . It did not provide for an indefinite peace agreement with the latter. For a certain period of time, the state of war could be stopped by a truce, a so-called hudna . The duration of such contracts is not determined unanimously in law schools. Apart from the Hanafites , such a contract may only be temporarily valid after each legal school .
The decisive factor for the concept of hudna is sura 9 , verse 1, in which "a binding agreement" with the Gentiles is mentioned ...:
"A denunciation (...) on the part of God and his Messenger (addressed) to those of the Gentiles (...) with whom you have entered into a binding agreement (...)"
... as well as sura 8 , verse 61:
“And if they (i.e. the enemy) lean towards peace, then (you too) lean towards it (and stop fighting)! And trust in God! He is the one who hears (everything) and knows. "
In addition, Muhammad's treaty concluded in 628 with the Meccans at al-Hudaibiya, in which a two-year and, according to other sources, a ten-year ceasefire agreement was concluded, was of corresponding importance.
A non-Muslim living outside the Islamic sphere of rule is able to stay as a Musta'min on Islamic territory without any tax obligations through a so-called aman , a declaration of protection by a Muslim, as long as he does not establish a permanent residence there. Sura 9, verse 6 serves as the legal basis for this:
“And if one of the heathen comes to you for protection, give him protection so that he can hear the word of God! Then let him get (unmolested) to where he is safe! This (be allowed to them) because they are people who do not know. "
Jihad and freedom of belief
The attack against the non-Muslim enemy was preceded by an offer to convert to Islam or to conclude a Dhimma treaty. The doctrine of jihad does not see a forced conversion to Islam as the aim of the struggle. The norm " In religion there is no compulsion " formulated in sura 2, verse 256 , which according to some classical Koran commentaries has been abrogated by later Koran verses such as the sword verse , and the jihad theory of armed struggle against infidels are not necessarily mutually exclusive because non-Muslims could be granted religious freedom after their defeat. Classical Koran commentators, who did not view the verse as abrogated, tended to argue that the verse only applied to those scripture owners who were given the option of living as dhimmis under Muslim authority without converting to Islam.
The jihad for the purpose of conversion was limited to the early Islamic period, to the subjugation of the Arab tribes at the time of Muhammad and shortly after his death. Although this view was not undisputed in classical Islamic law, it is generally accepted as a valid norm in modern times.
The Tunisian scholar and Koran exegete Tahir ibn Āschūr (1879–1970) harmonizes the content of Sura 2: 256 and the religious duty of jihad as follows: The verse was revealed at the time after the conquest of Mecca in 630 AD and abrogates all verses and sayings of the prophets , according to which the aim of war is the conversion of the fought. Since the revelation of this verse, the aim of the war has changed to the point that it is no longer conversion, but the submission of those who are opposed and their acceptance of Islamic dominance. The Syrian scholar al-Qāsimī (1866–1914) took a similar point of view.
Non-military interpretations of the term jihad
While both the Koran and the Sunna, as well as the majority of classical scholars, understood by jihad primarily or exclusively a military activity, non-military interpretations of the doctrine of jihad arose in the course of their development. This happened particularly in the course of far-reaching political changes such as the colonization of large parts of the Islamic world, the abolition of the caliphate and the developments of modernity.
Individual Shiite theologians of the classical period distinguished between the so-called major jihad in the sense of a spiritual struggle against internal desires and the lesser jihad in the sense of a military confrontation against an external enemy. This corresponds to the emphasis on non-military aspects of the obligation to jihad by many contemporary Muslim authors, as well as Muslim ascetics and mystics .
Post-classical lawyers have divided the term into four types:
- The jihad of the heart ( jihad bi l-qalb ) as an inner, spiritual struggle against vice, seduction to morally reprehensible deeds and ignorance .
- Verbal jihad ( jihad bi l-lisan ) by constantly speaking the truth and spreading Islam in a peaceful way. This includes the public speaking of the truth ( haqq ) under an unjust ruler.
- Jihad through action, i. i. through correct moral behavior ( jihad bi l-yad ): command what is right and prohibit what is reprehensible .
- The jihad of the sword, as a military struggle in God's way.
With this understanding, the jihad directed against one's own self, against the "drive the soul" ( Toggle nafs al-Ammara bi 'l-sū' ). The enforcement of the instruction to command what is right and forbid what is reprehensible happens "with the tongue, with the hand and with the sword, depending on what one is capable of". The ascetics see the struggle against themselves ( mujahadat an-nafs ) as the highest ideal.
A well-known example of such interpretations from modern times was President Habib Bourguiba's announcement that the fight against the economic decadence of Tunisia was to be viewed as jihad. Since a Mujahid , one on the jihad Involve Staff, from the obligation in Ramadan was free to fast argued Bourguiba that fasting in Ramadan therefore for the end of work - were thus also to be regarded as religious fighters - is not mandatory. In this way he tried to eliminate the annual economic stagnation this month. His view in this regard was subsequently adopted by parts of Islamic scholarship.
Legitimation of terror with the concept of jihad
In all of the Islamistically motivated terrorist attacks in the past, the attackers justified their actions by referring to the concept of jihad. Several Islamist organizations have the word jihad in their name, such as Islamic Jihad and Al-Jihad . The ideological basis for participating in Islamic terrorism is provided by the writings of the medieval scholar Ibn Taimīya , but above all of the theorist of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood Sayyid Qutb , whose books " Signs on the Way " and " In the Shadow of the Koran " after his execution in 1966 in the Arab world.
Suicide bombers are referred to as Shahīd ( martyrdom in Islam ), who are guaranteed a place in paradise. In itself, suicide is regarded as a sin in Islam , which is punished in the hereafter with the endless repetition of the moment of death.
The International Islamic Scholars' Council, which took a position on Islamist-extremist violence after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 , condemned " extremism, violence and terrorism " in the Mecca manifesto , asserted that these " do not belong in the slightest to Islam " and stated: “ Jihad is not terrorism. "
- Just war
- Holy war
- ʿAbdallāh ibn al-Hurr al-Qaisī
- Cihat (Turkish first name with almost identical pronunciation)
- El Jihad (propaganda newspaper during World War I)
- to the concept of jihad itself
- Rüdiger Lohlker : Jihadism: Materials, Stuttgart 2009
- Mathias von Bredow: The Holy War (ǧihād) from the perspective of the Malikite school of law. Steiner, Stuttgart 1994, ISBN 3-515-06557-1 .
- Ella Landau-Tasseron: Is Jihād comparable to just war? A review article in Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam. Volume 34, 2008, pp. 535-550.
- Reuven Firestone: Jihād. In: Andrew Rippin (Ed.): The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an. Blackwell Publications, Malden MAS 2006, ISBN 978-1-4051-1752-4 , pp. 308-320.
- Reuven Firestone: Jihād: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. Oxford University Press, New York 1999, ISBN 978-0-19-512580-1 . ( Preview on GoogleBooks )
- Patrick Franke: Return of the Holy War? Jihad theories in modern Islam in André Stanisavljevic and Ralf Zwengel (eds.): Religion and violence. Islam after September 11th. Mostar Friedensprojekt eV, Potsdam 2002, ISBN 978-3-00-009936-6 , pp. 47-68.
- Paul L. Heck: Jihad Revisited. In: Journal of Religious Ethics. No. 32, 2004, pp. 95-128, doi : 10.1111 / j.0384-9694.2004.00156.x .
- Alfred Morabia: Le Gihad dans l'Islam médiéval. The "combat sacré" des origines au XIIe siècle. Éditions Albin Michel, Paris 1993. ( preview on Google Books )
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and colonialism: the doctrine of Jihad in modern history (= Religion and society. Vol. 20; Simultaneously dissertation, Amsterdam 1979). Mouton, 's-Gravenhage 1980, ISBN 978-90-279-3347-8 . ( Preview on GoogleBooks )
- Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam: a reader. Markus Wiener, Princeton 1996, ISBN 978-1-55876-109-4 .
- Oskar Rescher: Contributions to jihad literature. Book II: The Jihad Traditions from Kenz el-ummâl. Stuttgart 1920.
- Oskar Rescher: The chapter on jihad from Ibn Tûmert's Kitâb. Translated from the Arabic (= contributions to jihad literature. Issue 3). W. Heppeler, Stuttgart 1921.
- Emile Tyan: Art. " Dj ihād" In The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Vol. II, pp. 538a-540a.
- Ruth Wechsel, Muḥammad ibn'Abd Allaah Ibn Abī Zamanayn: The Book of Qidwat al-ġāzī. A contribution to the history of jihād literature. Inauguration dissertation, University of Bonn, Bonn 1970.
- related questions
- Rüdiger Lohlker: Theology of violence: The example of IS, Stuttgart 2016, ISBN 978-3-8252-4648-8 .
- Elhakam Sukhni: The targeted killing of civilians and non-combatants in the Salafi-Jihādist discourse , in: Rauf Ceylan , Benjamin Jokisch (Ed): Salafism in Germany. Emergence, radicalization and prevention, Frankfurt a. M. 2014
- Muhammad Hamidullah: The Muslim Conduct of State: being a treatise on siyar, that is Islamic notion of public international law, consisting of the laws of peace, war and neutrality, together with precedents from orthodox practice and preceded by a historical and general introduction. Ashraf Printing Press, Lahore 1987. pp. 159–280 ( preview on GoogleBooks )
- Majid Khadduri: War and Peace in the Law of Islam. Lawbook Exchange, Clark NJ 2007, ISBN 978-1-58477-695-6 , pp. 51-140 ( preview on GoogleBooks ).
- Albrecht Noth: Holy War and Holy Struggle in Islam and Christianity (= Bonn historical research. Vol. 28). Röhrscheid, Bonn 1966.
- Adel Théodore Khoury: What does the Koran say about holy war? (= Gütersloher Taschenbücher / Siebenstern. Bd. 789). Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 2007, ISBN 978-3-579-00789-2 .
- Albrecht Noth: Religious Wars of Islam in the Middle Ages. In: Herrmann (ed.): Faith wars in the past and present. Lectures given at the symposium of the Joachim-Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, Hamburg, on October 28 and 29, 1994 (= publication of the Joachim-Jungius-Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften Hamburg. No. 83). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1996, ISBN 978-3-525-86272-8 , pp. 109-122.
- Fred M. Donner: The Sources of Islamic Conceptions of War . In: John Kelsay and James Turner Johnson (Eds.): Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions. Greenwood Press, New York 1991, ISBN 978-0-313-27347-6 , pp. 31-70.
- John Kelsay: Arguing the Just War in Islam. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MAS 2007, ISBN 978-0-674-02639-1 . ( Preview on GoogleBooks )
- William Montgomery Watt: Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War. In: Thomas Patrick Murphy: The Holy War. Ohio State University Press, Columbus 1974, ISBN 978-0-8142-0245-6 , pp. 141-156. ( Available online )
- Primary literature
- Ali ibn Tahir al-Sulami († 1106): " Kitab al-Jihad " , excerpt, in English translation.
- Muhammad al-Arifi, excerpt from a public sermon in Egypt (with a fatwa on the question of whether struggle ( jihad ) is compulsory today) , presented on the portal islaminstitut.de , February 22, 2014
- Secondary literature
- Elhakam Sukhni : Struggle and Peace in Islam , in: W&F - Science and Peace, Edition 3/2016
- Patricia Crone : 'Jihad': idea and history , Open Democracy 2007. (Popular science essay)
Notes and individual references
- Patrick Franke : Return of the Holy War? Jihad theories in modern Islam . In: André Stanisavljevic and Ralf Zwengel (eds.): Religion and violence. Islam after September 11th . Mostar Friedensprojekt eV, 2002. p. 47; Cf. Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005. S. 1 as well as Bernard Lewis: The political language of Islam . Rotbuch Verlag, 1991. p. 124.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Volume 2, p. 538 ("Jihad"). In German, too, the word “ war ” initially only meant “effort”, “tenacity”. See Großer Duden Volume 4, 1978, p. 1583.
- Bernard Lewis : The Political Language of Islam . Rotbuch Verlag, 1991. P. 124 f. See Albrecht Noth : Jihad: strive for God . In: Gernot Rotter (ed.): The Worlds of Islam: Twenty-nine Proposals to Understand the Unfamiliar . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1993. P. 23 f.
- Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishing, 2005. p. 2; See Fred M. Donner: The Sources of Islamic Conceptions of War . In: John Kelsay and James Turner Johnson (Eds.): Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions . Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 47.
- Mathias Rohe: Islamic law. Past and present . Beck, 2011. p. 149
- Albrecht Noth: The jihad: strive for God . In: Gernot Rotter (ed.): The Worlds of Islam: Twenty-nine Proposals to Understand the Unfamiliar . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1993. p. 27.
- Klaus Kreiser, Werner Diem, Hans Georg Majer (Ed.): Lexicon of the Islamic World . Kohlhammer, 1974. Volume 2, pp. 27 f., Sv "Holy War."; See The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Volume 2, p. 538 ("Djihad"): "In law, according to general doctrine and in historical tradition, the djihād consists of military action with the object of the expansion of Islam and, if need be, of its defense."
- Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005. p. 125; See also: Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam . Brill, 1977. p. 5
- Fred M. Donner: The Sources of Islamic Conceptions of War . In: John Kelsay and James Turner Johnson (Eds.): Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions . Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 65, note 75.
- John Esposito: Islam: The Straight Path . Oxford University Press, 2005, p. 93.
- Raif Georges Khoury: Islam - Religion, Culture, History . BI-Taschenbuchverlag, Mannheim 1993, p. 29.
- E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 . Brill, 1993. Volume II, p. 1042, p. v. "Jihad."
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. p. 13.
- Etan Kohlberg : The Development of the Imāmī Shīʿī Doctrine of jihād . In: Journal of the German Oriental Society. Volume 126, 1976, pp. 78-86; Ann Lambton: A Nineteenth Century View of Jihād . In: Studia Islamica. Volume 32, 1970, pp. 186-192.
- See for example Stephan Rosiny: Der jihad. A typology of historical and contemporary forms of Islamically legitimized violence , in: Hildegard Piegeler, Inken Prohl and Stefan Rademacher (eds.): Lived Religions (FS Hartmut Zinser ), Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 2004, pp. 133–150, here 133, can be viewed at Google Books . Adel Theodor Khoury : What does the Koran say about holy war? Gütersloh 1991.
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. p. 118.
- After Patricia Crone: Medieval Islamic Political Thought . Edinburgh University Press, 2005. p. 363
- See for example: Francis E. Peters: The Monotheists: The peoples of God . Princeton University Press, 2003. p. 269 : "... the Muslim notion of holy war (jihad) ..."; W. Montgomery Watt : Islam and the Integration of Society . Routledge, 1998. p. 61 : “The idea of the jihad or holy war seems to have developed gradually during the Medinan period.” Cf. also the titles in the literature paragraph .
- Patricia Crone: Medieval Islamic Political Thought . Edinburgh University Press, 2005. p. 363 ; see e.g. B .: Albrecht Noth: Holy War and Holy Struggle in Islam and Christianity . Röhrscheid, 1966. pp. 22 f .; Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam . Brill, Leiden 1977, p. 3 f.
- See also Khalil Athamina: Badr . In: Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE . Ed .: Kate Fleet, Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Brill Online, 2017 and sources cited there. This idea is also mentioned in the Koran, including in Sura 3: 123 f.
- Hans-Otto Burschel: Your name is Djehad . On: blog.beck.de from July 17, 2009; last accessed on June 23, 2017.
- See Albrecht Noth: Religious Wars of Islam in the Middle Ages . In: Peter Herrmann: Wars of Faith in the Past and Present . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1996. pp. 113 f.
- See Muhammad Hamidullah: The Muslim Conduct of State . Ashraf Printing Press, 1987. pp. 18 ff.
- In 25:52, 22:78, 9:24 and 60: 1. See Reuven Firestone: Jihād . In: Andrew Rippin (Ed.): The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an . Wiley-Blackwell, 2006. p. 311
- Ursula Spuler-Stegemann : The 101 most important questions about Islam . Munich, 2007. p. 125
- See e.g. B. Sura 2 : 190 (translation after Khoury ): " And fight in the way of God ... "
- See e.g. B. Sura 9 : 20 (translation after Henning ): " Those who (...) zealous in Allah's way with good and blood ... "
- W. Montgomery Watt: Islam and the Integration of Society . Routledge, 1998. p. 66
- Or: " ... with good and blood ... ", according to Hennings' translation
- W. Montgomery Watt: Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War . In: Thomas P. Murphy: The Holy War . Ohio State University Press, 1974. p. 143 . See also Ursula Spuler-Stegemann: The 101 most important questions about Islam . Munich, 2007. p. 125
- Rudi Paret: Mohammed and the Koran. History and proclamation of the Arab prophet . Kohlhammer, 2001. pp. 106 f.
- Reuven Firestone: Jihād . In: Andrew Rippin (Ed.): The Blackwell Companion to the Qur'an . Wiley-Blackwell, 2006. p. 316
- Rudi Paret: Mohammed and the Koran. History and proclamation of the Arab prophet . Kohlhammer, 2001. p. 129
- See Reuven Firestone: Jihād. The Origin of Holy War in Islam . Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 53 f. and references there
- Adel Theodor Khoury: What does the Koran say about holy war? Gütersloher Verlagshaus, 2007. P. 31 ff.
- Albrecht Noth: The jihad: strive for God . In: Gernot Rotter (ed.): The Worlds of Islam: Twenty-nine Proposals to Understand the Unfamiliar . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1993. p. 24.
- Albrecht Noth: Holy War and Holy Struggle in Islam and Christianity . Röhrscheid, 1966. p. 15.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. sv Muḥammad: "The first problem to be tackled was how to procure the necessary means of subsistence for the emigrants, who for the most part were without resources of their own."
- Translated from English by W. Montgomery Watt: Muhammad. Prophet and Statesman . Oxford University Press, 1961. pp. 108 f. Original English text: " It was this 'religious' character of the jihād which channeled the energies of the Arabs in such a way that in less than a century they had created an empire which stretched from the Atlantic and the Pyrenees in the West to the Oxus and the Punjab in the east. It seems certain that without the conception of the jihād that expansion would not have happened. “See W. Montgomery Watt: Islam and the Integration of Society . Routledge, 1998. S. 158 and Albrecht Noth: Early Islam. In: Ulrich Haarmann (Hrsg.): History of the Arab world. Beck, 1991. p. 69
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 7, p. 360 ("Muḥammad"): "The Helpers had pledged themselves to defend Muhammad only if he were attacked ..."
- For example sura 8 , verse 72 f. as well as verse 74 f., where between the emigrants as those " who believed and emigrated and worked with their property and their own person on the path of God " and the helpers, " who have housed and supported (those) " ( Translation according to Khoury).
- W. Montgomery Watt: Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War . In: Thomas P. Murphy: The Holy War . Ohio State University Press, 1974. p. 143
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 6, p. 147 ("Makka"): "A breach of the terms of this treaty by Meccan allies led to a great Muslim expedition against Mecca with some 10,000 men. The town was surrendered almost without a blow, and all the Meccans, except a handful who were guilty of specific offenses against Muhammad or some Muslim, were assured their lives and property would be safe if they behaved honorable. "
- For a summary see: W. Montgomery Watt: Muhammad at Medina . Oxford University Press, 1962. P. 78 - 150 ; Elias Shoufani: Al-Ridda and the Muslim Conquest of Arabia . University of Toronto Press, 1973. pp. 10-48
- Adel Theodor Khoury : The Koran. Translation and scientific commentary by Adel Theodor Khoury. Volume 4. Gütersloher Verlagshaus, Gütersloh 1993, p. 288. Cf. Etan Kohlberg: Sh ahīd . In: The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition . Volume 9. Brill, Leiden 1997, p. 204: “The Ḳurʾānic statement that the sh uhadāʾ are alive ( aḥyāʾ ) is often (but not always) interpreted literally […] According to some traditions, the spirits of the martyrs will ascend directly to Paradise […] During the Resurrection these spirits will be returned to the martyr's earthly bodies and the martyrs will then be given their abode in Paradise ( dār al- sh uhadāʾ ). "
- See sura 47 , verse 4 (translation after Paret): “When you meet (on a campaign) with the unbelievers, then hit (them with the sword) on the neck! When you have finally fought them down completely, then put (them) in shackles (to later release them) either on the path of grace or for a ransom! "
- See sura 9, verse 91 (translation after Paret): “The weak and the sick and those who have nothing to donate (for the war against the unbelievers) (they all) need each other (about) not to feel depressed (that they will not take part in the war) when they are (only) genuinely devoted to God and his Messenger. There is nothing to be said against those who are righteous (no action can be taken). God is merciful and ready to forgive. ”Cf. sura 48 , verse 17
- See sura 8, verse 61 (translation after Paret): “And if they (i.e. the enemy) incline towards peace, then incline (you too) towards it (and cease to fight)! And trust in God! He is the one who hears (everything) and knows. "
- According to: Ursula Spuler-Stegemann: The 101 most important questions about Islam . Munich, 2007. p. 125
- W. Montgomery Watt: Islam and the Integration of Society . Routledge, 1998. pp. 66 f.
- Fred M. Donner: The Sources of Islamic Conceptions of War . In: John Kelsay and James Turner Johnson (Eds.): Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions . Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 47: “ … deciding whether the Qur'an actually condones offensive war for the faith, or only defensive war, is really left to the judgment of the exegete. “Cf. Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishing Inc., 2005. p. 2
- Albrecht Noth: Holy War and Holy Struggle in Islam and Christianity . Röhrscheid, 1966. p. 13. Noth refers here by way of example to Sura 2, verse 216 and Sura 9, verse 82–86
- For an attempt to discuss Mohammed's intended war goals on the basis of Koranic statements, see Albrecht Noth: Holy War and Holy Struggle in Islam and Christianity . Röhrscheid, 1966. pp. 13-15 and William Montgomery Watt: Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War . In: Th. P. Murphy: The Holy War . Ohio State University Press, 1974. pp 144 - 146 .
- Examples of such hadiths from the muwatta of Mālik ibn Anas can be found in English translation in: Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishing Inc., 2005. pp. 18-25
- Ṣaḥīḥ al-Buḫārī. News of actions and sayings of Prophet Muhammad . Selected, translated from Arabic and edited by Dieter Ferchl. Reclam, 2006. Chap. XXVIII, p. 299; see. Sahih al-Bukhari : Volume 4, Book 52, No. 44 ( Memento of the original from October 16, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Ṣaḥīḥ al-Buḫārī. News of actions and sayings of Prophet Muhammad . Selected, translated from Arabic and edited by Dieter Ferchl. Reclam, 2006. Chap. XXVIII, p. 304; see. Sahih al-Bukhari : Volume 4, Book 52, No. 53 ( Memento of the original from October 16, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- On the exclusive mandatory character of jihad in Islam cf. Tilman Nagel's comment: “ Ibn Khaldun (died 1406), the most astute Muslim interpreter in Islamic history, laconically stated that jihad was incumbent only on Muslims. In contrast to them, 'the other religions did not have such a universal mission and the Holy War was (therefore) not a religious duty for them other than for self-defense' ”; in Tilman Nagel: "Jihad from the beginning" (book review), SZ from May 4, 2007 
- See Bernard Lewis: The Anger of the Arab World: Why the Centuries-Long Conflict Between Islam and the West Continues to Escalate . Campus Verlag, 2003. P. 54. For individual examples of such hadiths from the saheeh of Muslim ibn al-Hajjādsch in English translation, see: Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishers, 2005. pp. 9-17
- Cf. von Bredow: The Holy War (ǧihād) from the perspective of the Malikite school of law. 1994, pp. 63-132.
- Cf. Rescher: The chapter on jihad from Ibn Tûmert's Kitâb. 1921.
- See Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. 1996, pp. 27-42.
- See Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. 1996, pp. 43-54.
- See Janina Safran: Defining Boundaries in al-Andalus: Muslims, Christians, and Jews in Islamic Iberia. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 2013. pp. 196-208.
- See Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. p. 10 and sources cited there
- Bernard Lewis: The Political Language of Islam . Rotbuch Verlag, 1991. p. 125
- Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam . Brill, 1977. p. 3
- Majid Khadduri: War and Peace in the Law of Islam . The Johns Hopkinns Press, 1955. pp. 74 ff.
- Bernard Lewis: The Anger of the Arab World: Why the Centuries-Long Conflict between Islam and the West continues to escalate . Campus Verlag, 2003. p. 52
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. p. 10
- Albrecht Noth: The jihad: strive for God . In: Gernot Rotter (ed.): The Worlds of Islam: Twenty-nine Proposals to Understand the Unfamiliar . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1993. p. 31
- Robert G. Hoyland (Ed.): Muslims and Others in Early Islamic Society . Aldershot 2004, p. Xiv.
- Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishing Inc., 2005. p. 4
- Albrecht Noth: The jihad: strive for God . In: Gernot Rotter (ed.): The Worlds of Islam: Twenty-nine Proposals to Understand the Unfamiliar . Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, 1993. P. 27 f.
- Both terms appear neither in the Koran nor in the hadith collections, but arose in the course of the development of Islamic international law in the centuries after the death of Muhammad.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 2, p. 116 ("Dār al-ʿAhd")
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. p. 12
- Adel Th. Khoury, Ludwig Hagemann, Peter Heine: Lexikon des Islam. History - ideas - design . Directmedia, 2001. pp. 665-667
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. pp. 12 f.
- EJ Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936. Brill, 1993. Vol. II, p. 1042, sv "Djihād". See John Kelsay: Islam and war: a study in comparative ethics . Westminster John Knox Press, 1993. p. 61: "If (...) the aim becomes the defense of Islamic territory against enemy attacks (...) It [sic] is no longer fard kifaya , but fard ayn , an" individual obligation ", in which each person must do all that he (or she) can for the sake of Islam. "
- Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam . Markus Wiener Publishing Inc., 2005. p. 3
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. p. 15 ff.
- Adel Th. Khoury, Ludwig Hagemann, Peter Heine: Lexikon des Islam. History - ideas - design . Directmedia, 2001. pp. 669 f.
- Adel Th. Khoury, Ludwig Hagemann, Peter Heine: Lexikon des Islam. History - ideas - design . Directmedia, 2001. pp. 669 f .; see. Rudolph Peters: Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam . Brill, 1977. p. 19 ff.
- See Muhammad Hamidullah: The Muslim Conduct of State . Ashraf Printing Press, 1987. pp. 205 ff. And sources cited there
- Arthur Stanley Tritton: Caliphs and their non-muslim subjects . Routledge, 2013; Frede Løkkegaard: Islamic taxation in the classical period . Branner & Korch, 1950; Daniel Clement Dennett: Conversion and poll tax in early Islam . (Harvard Historical Monographs XXII.) Harvard University Press, 1950; Antoine Fattal: Le statut légal des non-musulmans en pays d'Islam . Imprimerie Catholique, 1958
- Albrecht Noth: The treaties handed down in literature from the time of conquest as historical sources In: Tilman Nagel (Ed.): Studies on the minority problem in Islam . Bonn, 1973. Vol. 1, p. 282 ff., P. 285 and p. 287
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 3, p. 546 ("Hudna"). See Majid Khadduri, Herbert J. Liebesny, Robert H. Jackson: Origin and Development of Islamic Law . The Lawbook Exchange Ltd., 2008. p. 351
- For details, see: Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. pp. 33 f.
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 3, p. 546 ("Hudna")
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. p. 33
- The Encyclopaedia of Islam . New Edition. Brill, suffering. Vol. 1, p. 429 ("Amān")
- See Yohanan Friedmann: Tolerance and Coercion in Islam. Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition . Cambridge University Press, 2003. p. 102 and the literature cited there
- See Patricia Crone : Islam and Religious Freedom ( page can no longer be accessed , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 138 kB) , lecture by at the thirtieth German Orientalist Day 2007 on the interpretation of the Koranic norm No compulsion in religion in the Islamic Koran exegesis: “ They [meant the classical Koran comments] all had the merit of making the verse compatible with the use of force for the maintenance and expansion of the Muslim community. It did not clash (...) with the duty to wage jihad to bring all mankind under Muslim sovereignty, for it only granted freedom to infidels after they'd been subjected. “Also published online in slightly abbreviated form as" No pressure, then: freedom of religion in Islam. Open Democracy 2009. Cf. Yohanan Friedmann: Tolerance and Coercion in Islam. Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003, p. 102 f.
- Yohanan Friedmann: Tolerance and Coercion in Islam. Interfaith relations in the Muslim Tradition . Cambridge, 2003, p. 103
- Yohanan Friedmann: Tolerance and Coercion in Islam. Interfaith relations in the Muslim Tradition . Cambridge, 2003. pp. 102 f.
- Reuven Firestone: Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam . Oxford University Press, 1999. p. 17
- See Majid Khadduri: War and Peace in the Law of Islam . The Johns Hopkins Press, 1955. pp. 56 f. and references there
- Yohanan Friedmann: Tolerance and Coercion in Islam. Interfaith Relations in the Muslim Tradition . Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 150
- Josef van Ess: Theology and Society in the 2nd and 3rd Century Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam . Walter de Gruyter, 1997. Vol. 2, p. 92 and p. 390 according to al-Asch'ari
- Josef van Ess: Theology and Society in the 2nd and 3rd Century Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam . Walter de Gruyter, 1997. Vol. 1, p. 143 and p. 147
- Rudolph Peters: Islam and Colonialism. The doctrine of Jihad in Modern History . Mouton Publishers, 1979. pp. 118 f.
- Bernard Lewis, Buntzie Ellis Churchill: Islam: The Religion and the People . Wharton School Publishing, 2008. p. 152