Twelve Schia

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The Dschamkarān Mosque in Qom , one of the holy sites of the Twelver. The twelfth imam is said to have appeared here in the 10th century.

The Twelve Shia ( Arabic الشيعة الإثنا عشرية asch-Shīʿa al-Ithnā ʿAscharīya , DMG aš-Šīʿa al-Iṯnā ʿAšarīya ) is the branch within the Shia , according to whose teaching there are a total of twelve imams . The first of them is ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib , the last Muhammad al-Mahdī , wholivesin secrecy and is only supposed to return at the end of time. The 12 Shiites make up the overwhelming majority of Shiites with 80% share, which is why they are often only referred to in general as the Shiites . Their total number is estimated at 175 million and their share of the Muslim population worldwide at 11 percent. In Iran , Azerbaijan , Iraq and Bahrain , the twelve Shiites make up the majority of the population. In addition, there are significant twelve Shiite minorities in Pakistan , India , Afghanistan , Lebanon , Nigeria , Indonesia , Tanzania and Turkey . Smaller minorities exist in other countries in Africa, Europe, America and Asia.

The Twelve Shia has its own school of law , which is called Jafaritic after the sixth Imam Jafar as-Sādiq . In the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran (Article 12), Islam of the Twelve Shiite, Jafaritic tendencies is enshrined as the state's never-changing religion.

The term “twelve” (Iṯnā ʿAšarīya) for those Shiites who believe in the rapture and return of the twelfth Imam did not spread until the end of the 10th century. The Twelve Shiites are also referred to as Imamites , but the two terms do not completely coincide in meaning, because in the Middle Ages there were various other imamite groups in addition to the Twelve Shia, which did not limit the number of Imams to twelve. Authors with a Sunni and Zaidite orientation also referred to this direction of the Shia as Qatʿīya until the early 13th century . The name is explained by the fact that the Twelve Shiites, in contrast to other Shiites, assumed with certainty ( qaṭʿan ) that the seventh Imam Mūsā al-Kāzim had died and his son ʿAlī ar-Ridā had been designated as his successor. Another polemical term used for the Shiite twelve is Rāfida .

Distribution and number of followers

Overview of the geographical distribution of the various Islamic directions. The twelve Shiite areas are tinted in orange ("JAFARI").

The following table, which is based on estimates by Moojan Momen for 2014, provides an overview of the total number and proportion of Shiites twelve in the population of various countries and their main settlement areas. Only countries with more than 500,000 followers are included.

country Total
in millions
Percentage Most important settlement areas
Iran 69 90
Pakistan 28 15th Karachi , Lahore , Gilgit-Baltistan
India 25th 2 Uttar Pradesh , Bihar , West Bengal , Andhra Pradesh , Kashmir
Iraq 21st 63 Rural regions of the southern provinces of Karbala , Hilla , Diwaniyya , Wasit , Maisan and Sadr City
Azerbaijan 7.5 80
Afghanistan 4th 12 Settlement areas of the Hazara
Turkey 3 4th Kars provinces , Iğdır
Saudi Arabia 2 7th Ash-Sharqiyyah province , especially al-Qatīf
Lebanon 2 40 Jebel Amil , northern Bekaa plain
Nigeria 2 1
Indonesia 2 <1
Tanzania 1 2 Arusha , Dar-es-Salam , Zanzibar , Bukoba , Lindi
Egypt 0.8 1
United Arab Emirates 0.6 7th
Bahrain 0.6 45
Kuwait 0.5 30th Failaka

Doctrine of faith

The twelve imams and the 14 infallible

The twelve imams of the Twelve Shia
1. ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib (d. 661)
2. al-Hasan ibn ʿAlī (d. 670)
3. al-Hussain ibn ʿAlī (d. 680)
4th ʿAlī ibn Husain Zain al-ʿĀbidīn (d. 713)
5. Muhammad al-Bāqir (d. 732 or 736)
6th Jafar as-Sādiq (d. 765)
7th Mūsā al-Kāzim (died 799)
8th. ʿAlī ar-Ridā (d. 818)
9. Muhammad al-Jawad (died 835)
10. ʿAlī al-Hādī (d. 868)
11. Hasan al-ʿAskarī (d. 874)
12. Muhammad al-Mahdī (raptured)

The core idea of ​​the doctrine of the twelve Shiites is the belief in the twelve imams: They are considered infallible and should have been determined by the designation ( naṣṣ ) of their predecessor. The first Imam ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib was appointed directly by Mohammed according to the Twelve Shiite beliefs , namely in the spring of 632 after his return from the farewell pilgrimage on Ghadīr Chumm . The Twelve Shiites commemorate this event with the Ghadīr festival on the 18th of Dhū l-Hiddscha . According to Twelve Shiite teachings, ʿAlīs Imamat did not begin until 656 when he was made caliph, but immediately after the death of Muhammad, without interruption ( bilā fāṣila ). Confessing to this teaching is considered a religious duty ( farḍ min ad-dīn ).

The Shiite believer has a duty to the Imams to do Walāya and Barā'a , i.e. H. he should support the Imams and all those who are loyal to them and, conversely, renounce those who hate them. As a community that is loyal to their imams, the Shiites Twelve see themselves as following the chosen people of the Israelites , who also practiced walaya with their prophets . If the manifestation of one's own faith poses a danger to the believer, he is entitled to concealment in the form of Taqīya according to the classical doctrine of the Twelve Shiites. The Twelve Shia took over numerous traditions of Taqīya from the earlier Imamitic tradition. Today's Twelve Shiites, however, for the most part no longer attach any particular importance to this principle.

Like the prophets, the imams should be able to intercede ( šafāʿa ) for the Shiite believers on the Last Day so that they are spared from otherworldly punishment. According to Twelve Shiite doctrine, the imams are also considered to be muhaddathūn , i.e. H. as people who are "addressed" by angels who impart divine knowledge to them through inspiration. Conversely, some twelve Shiite scholars present themselves to this day as interlocutors with the imams, who have given them charisma through dreams and visions . Visions and dreams of the Imams play an important role in the Twelve Shiite mysticism to this day.

According to Twelve Shiite doctrine, the number of twelve imams was fixed long before the rapture of the twelfth imam. This is justified, among other things, with the fact that they are already mentioned in the Kitāb Sulaim ibn Qais , which ʿAlī's followers Sulaym supposed to have put together. Together with Mohammed and his daughter Fatima , the twelve imams make up the fourteen infallible , who in many traditions are represented as pure and sinless figures of light. The Twelve Shiites refer to sura 33:33 : "God would like to remove the impurity from you, you 'people of the house' ( ahl al-bait ), and purify yourselves completely". The special position of the fourteen infallibles is also justified with the event of the Mubāhala , in which Mohammed took his daughter Fātima, her husband ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib and their two sons Hasan and Husain under his cloak. These five persons are also referred to in the Shia as the Ahl al-kisā ' ("people of the cloak").

The twelfth Imam: small and large secrecy

A central belief in the Twelve Shia is the teaching of the Ghaiba , i.e. H. the concealment of the twelfth Imam. According to the Twelve Shiites, he did not die, but was raptured by God as a child and has lived in secrecy ever since. The Twelve Shiites believe that the twelfth Imam will one day return as a Mahdi to complete the mission of the Prophet and to establish a kingdom of justice on earth. Hence his name Muhammad al-Mahdī comes from . The Mahdi's disappearance and its obscurity are portrayed in Shiite traditions as a severe test ( imtiḥān ) for Shiite believers.

According to the Twelve Shiite doctrine, the secrecy is divided into two periods: the first period of small secrecy ( al-ġaiba al-ṣuġra ), during which the twelfth imam maintained contact with his followers through four ambassadors ( sufarāʾ ), and the second period the great secrecy ( al-ġaiba al-kubrā ) that continues to this day and of which only God knows when it ends. The four ambassadors through whom the twelfth Imam was in contact with his followers during the little obscurity were:

  1. Abū ʿAmr ʿUthmān ibn Saʿīd al-ʿAmrī (d. Before 880)
  2. Abū Jafar Muhammad ibn ʿUthmān al-ʿAmrī (d. 916 or 917)
  3. Abū l-Qāsim al-Husain ibn Rauh an-Naubachtī (d. June 938)
  4. Abū l-Hasan ʿAlī ibn Muhammad as-Simmarī (d. May 941)

These four ambassadors are said to have conveyed questions to the twelfth Imam and secretly delivered his answers. Shortly before his death in the year 329 of the Hijra (= 940/41 AD) the fourth ambassador is said to have received a last letter signed by the hidden Imam, in which the latter declared that from now on and “until the end of times “Nobody could see him or be his representative anymore, and whoever said otherwise was a fraud. According to the official doctrine of the Twelve Shiite, the time of great secrecy begins. It is essentially this doctrine of the minor and major Ghaiba that distinguishes the Twelve Shia from other imamitic groups. Twelve Shiite theologians justify the doctrine of the two Ghaibas not only with Shiite traditions, but also with precedents from Islamic salvation history : Abraham and Mohammed are said to have entered secrecy twice.

The Sahla Mosque in Kufa , one of the places where the descent of the twelfth Imam is expected.

The twelfth Imam has a large number of nicknames among the Twelve Shiites, including al-Qā'im ("the rising one"), Sāhib az-zamān ("master of the time") and al-Mahdī ("the rightly guided one") ). When it is mentioned, it is customary to use the formula ʿAǧǧala Llāhu faraǧahū ("May God bring about his emergence"). The twelfth Imam is also the only legitimate head of the Muslims in the belief of the Twelve Shiites . In the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, he is therefore also the theoretical head of state. The Shiite legal scholar, who, as Rahbar, takes over the administration and management of the community, only rules on behalf of the twelfth imam until his return from secrecy.

There are different traditions in the Twelve Shia about the place where the Imam-Mahdī should appear. According to tradition, the sixth Imam, Jafar as-Sādiq, foresaw that the descent of "the rising one" ( al-Qā'im ) would take place with his followers and family members in the Sahla Mosque in Kufa and he continued there should stop. According to another tradition, however, which al-Sheikh al-Mufid narrates , the Mahdi will descend at the Kaaba in Mecca and only then, accompanied by angels, will go to Kufa. According to various Twelve Shiite traditions that arose in the milieu of the Ghulāt , the eschatological reappearance of the Mahdī was followed by the return ( raǧʿa ) of the Prophet Mohammed, the other eleven imams and an undisclosed number of Shiite believers who took this opportunity to address their former opponents Take vengeance.

Special features in theology

The doctrine of the Twelve Shiites has some peculiarities, such as the concept of Badā 'and the rejection of the “vision of God” ( ruʾyat Allāh ). The concept of Badā 'that comes from the Imamite tradition concerns the question of predestination . Unlike the Sunnis and most other Shiites, the Imamites assume that God can change His decisions depending on the circumstances. Badā 'is above all an instrument for coming to terms with the past. Whenever things have turned out differently than predicted, this can be explained by the fact that God thought it so good ( badā la-hū ). To substantiate the Badā'-doctrine, the Imamites refer to sura 13:39 : “God extinguishes what he wants or lets it stand. With him is the original. ”The eighth Imam ʿAlī ar-Ridā is quoted with the statement:“ God never sent a prophet without the commission to forbid the wine and to teach the Badā 'of God. ”

The “vision of God” ( ruʾyat Allaah ) is about the question of whether people in this world and in the hereafter can see God with their eyes or not. While the Sunni theologians answered this question in the affirmative, the Twelve Shiite theologians, adopting the Muʿtazilite position, taught the impossibility of the “vision of God”.

Basic religious texts

As with the Sunnis , the Qur'an and the Hadith are the most important basic religious texts among the Twelve Shiites . Since its inception, the Twelve Shia has been confronted with the accusation that it considers the Koran text to be incomplete. In fact, there are Shiite hadiths that report that the Koran text was falsified in individual places by the opponents of the Shia. For example, in Sura 3:33 : “God chose Adam and Noah and the family of Abraham and the family of Imrāns before the people in all the world” originally followed the phrase “and the family of Mohammed” after “the SImrāns family”. A small minority of twelve Shiites even tried to show that entire suras were deleted from the Koran. The majority of the Twelve Shiites, however, assume that the text of the Koran is correct and complete. Among the most famous Twelver Shiite Koran commentaries which includes Tafseer of'Alī ibn Ibrahim al-Qummi (d. 919), at-Tibyān fī Tafsir al-Qur'an by Abu Ja'far at-Tusi (d. 1067), Maǧma' al-Bayān of at- Tabrisī (d. 1154) and the two modern works al-Mīzān by the Iranian Allameh Tabatabai (d. 1981) and Min waḥy al-Qurʾān by the Lebanese Muhammad Husain Fadlallāh (d. 2010).

Since the imams are considered infallible according to the Twelve Shiite doctrine , messages (aḫbār) about their sayings and actions have the same status as hadiths. Reports about the Prophet Muhammad are usually only accepted as authentic if they have been passed down by one of the imams. Most of the other companions of the Prophet , on the other hand, are considered unreliable because they supported the caliphate of Abu Bakr , ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb and ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān .

There are a total of four books that have canonical rank among the Twelve Shiites. They have been compiled by three authors who are referred to as the "three Muhammads":

  1. al-Kāfī fī ʿilm ad-dīn ("The Sufficiency in Religious Studies") by Muhammad al-Kulainī (d. 940), a collection of 16,200 imamite traditions, which are systematically arranged according to themes,
  2. Man lā yaḥḍuruhu al-faqīh ("Whoever has no legal scholar nearby", i.e. he can get instruction from the book) by Muhammad Ibn Bābawaih (918-991),
  3. Tahḏīb al-aḥkām ("Refinement of Judgments") by Muhammad at-Tūsī (995-1067),
  4. al-Istibṣār fī-mā uḫtulifa min al-aḫbār ("Contemplation on the Deviations in the News") by the same author.

While the first book is purely a collection of traditions, the three later works show the influence of Fiqh : some of them contain detailed explanations of norms. The fourth book deals specifically with the question of how to deal with questions of norms on which there are traditions that seem to contradict one another.

In addition to the four books, there are a few other works that are highly regarded by the Twelve Shiites, such as the 110-volume monumental work Bihār al-Anwār by Muhammad Bāqir al-Majlisī , which claims to contain all Shiite traditions, and the Kitāb Sulaim ibn Qais , which is considered to be the oldest work of the Shia. It must be noted here that the traditional collections of the Twelve Shia contain a large number of traditions, opinions and conceptions of other Shiite sects, most of which no longer exist. The most important collections of Duʿā ' prayers among the Twelve Shiites are the Ṣaḥīfa-yi Saǧǧādīya and the Mafātīḥ al-ǧinān .

Holy places

The burial mausoleum of Imam Husain in Karbala

The Twelve Shiites worship a large number of sacred places, most of which are related to the 14 infallible. Many of these places are considered haram by them . Medina is particularly important because it is where the graves of Muhammad and his daughter Fātima and four imams are located. The grave mausoleum of the four imams in the Baqīʿ cemetery in Medina was destroyed by the Wahhabis on Shawwāl 8th 1344h (= April 21, 1926) , which is still celebrated by Shiites in some Islamic countries with a special day of mourning .

The most important holy places of the Twelve Shia are in Iraq. They are:

Taken together, these places form the so-called “sacred thresholds” ( ʿAtabāt muqaddasa ) of the Shia. They are visited by thousands of Shiite pilgrims from all over the world every year and are one of the most important centers of Shiite scholarship. A large part of the mullās and Āyatollahs living at the ʿAtabāt do not come from Iraq, but from Iran and other Islamic countries.

There are also significant holy sites in Iran, to which the Shiites Twelve go on visiting pilgrimages. These include the Imam Reza Shrine in Mashhad and the Jamkaran Mosque near Qom , which was built on the site where the twelfth Imam is said to have appeared in the 10th century. Visiting pilgrimages to the graves of Imamzades are also undertaken in Iran . The Imamzades are children and descendants of one of the Imams. The best known and most important imamzadeh Shrine is the shrine of Fatima Ma'sūma in Qom . A place that has only gained greater importance as a holy place for the Shiites in the last few decades is the shrine of Saiyida Zainab in the south of Damascus .

One of the most important Twelve Shiite holy places in India is the Dargāh-i Hazrat-i ʿAbbās in Lucknow . The silver tip of the banner of al-Husain, which his brother al-ʿAbbās ibn ʿAlī is said to have carried in the battle of Karbala until he fell on the 5th of Muharram, has been located here as a relic since the late 18th century . A Shiite pilgrim from Lucknow is said to have excavated it on the former battlefield and then brought it to his hometown after al-ʿAbbās appeared to him in a dream. Replicas of this standard point, which are consecrated in a ceremony during the 5th Muharram in physical contact with the original relic, are used in the great Muharram processions in Lucknow and are distributed among the various Shiite places of worship in the city.

Celebrations and funeral ceremonies

Ghadīr festival at the shrine of the Fātima Maʿsūma in Qom

The most important feast days of the Twelve Shiites, besides the Islamic Festival of Sacrifice and the Feast of the Breaking of the Fast, are the ūshūrā day on the 10th Muharram , the Ghadīr festival on the 18th Dhūl-Hijah and the Mubāhala festival on the 24th Dhūl-Hiddscha. With the Ghadīr festival, the Twelve Shiites commemorate the installation of their first imam ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib on Ghadīr Chumm by Mohammed. The Mubāhala festival commemorates the event of the Mubāhala , in which, according to the Twelve Shiite view, the special status of the family of the Prophet and the fourteen infallible was established. The shūrā day is a mourning day. It commemorates the battle of Karbala , in which the third Imam al-Husain and his companions were killed by the troops of the Umayyad caliph Yazīd . This battle is said to have taken place on the tenth day of the month of Muharram.

Taʿziya performance in Bushehr on ʿĀshūrā day 2017

To commemorate the Battle of Karbala, elaborate mourning ceremonies are held at the beginning of the Muharram by the Twelve Shiites. During this time the Taʿziye (" Testimony of condolences, consolation") known as the Passion Play take place. You reach the climax and conclusion on ʿĀschūrā day. Many Shiite believers scourge themselves and complain about the lack of help that cost al-Husain his life. The notion of penitence is characteristic here . The collective shedding of tears is still an indispensable part of the annual funeral celebrations to commemorate the martyrdom of al-Husain. Sometimes these passion celebrations lead to bloody self-mortification, in which the believers injure their heads with swords. However, in the last few decades several Shiite scholars have banned these rites, called Tatbīr , because they believe that they bring the Twelve Shia into disrepute.

Tatbīr in Bahrain

Mourning ceremonies are also carried out in memory of the other imams and members of the prophetic family who, according to Shiite beliefs, died as martyrs . According to the Twelve Shiite tradition, almost all imams were murdered on the orders of a caliph . Most are said to have been killed by poison, others by the sword. Some of them were previously abducted and imprisoned. The prophet's daughter Fātima is also considered a martyr. Shortly after her father's death, she is said to have died in deep mourning for him. Before her death she got into a conflict with the caliph Abū Bakr and ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb . This suffering moves the minds of the Shiites to this day.

Rouze-Chāni in Yazd (2017)

Special mourning poems are usually recited during the funeral ceremonies. In Iran these recitation events are called Rouze-Chāni ("Rauḍa reading"). The name is derived from the title of the book Rauḍat aš-šuhadāʾ ("Garden of the Martyrs") by Husain Wāʿiz Kāschifī (d. 1502), a martyrology that was originally the focus of these commemorations, but today hardly plays a role . The length of Rouze Chāni events varies from two hours to a full night. Sometimes such events take place outside of the month of Muharram on Fridays or on the days of death of other Shiite personalities.

Funeral ceremonies and Taʿziye performances are often held in special meeting houses. In Iran and Central Asia, such buildings are called Takye-Chāne , Taʿziye-Chāne or Husainīya . In southern India, especially in Andhra Pradesh, they are called ʿĀschūrā-Chāna , in northern India they are called Majlis-Chāna , ʿAzā-Chāna , Imāmbārā or Imāmbārhā . In Pakistan, in particular, these buildings are called Imāmbārgā . Today's Twelve Shiite migrant communities in Africa, Europe, North America, Australia and the Caribbean continue to build buildings in this tradition.

Special features in standards theory

Earth prayer seal from the tomb of al-Hussain, as used by the Twelve Shiites in prayer, in the Great Mosque of Nishapur

The Twelve Shiites have their own discipline in norms, which is called Jafaritic after the sixth Imam . Differences compared to the Sunni teaching directions are mainly evident in the ritual area. A special feature of ritual prayer is the use of earth prayer seals from the grave of al-Husain in Karbala, which is considered particularly sacred in the Twelve Shia. These prayer seals , which are called Turba Husainīya in Arabic or muhr-i namāz in Persian , are touched with the forehead of the Shiite believers in prayer during the Prosternation . The sixth Imam Jʿfar as-Sādiq is said to have confirmed the legality of this practice in the 8th century. The Twelve Shiites seek to absorb the blessing power supposedly inherent in such earth through the prayer seals and prayer chains made of earth from the grave of al-Husain . For the production of these ritual objects not only earth from Karbala is used, but sometimes also earth from other places associated with the Imams or Imamzades, such as Najaf, Medina, Mashhad and Qom; However, soil from Karbala is preferred in any case. A peculiarity that the Twelve Shiites share with other Shiites is the double insertion of the formula Ḥaiya ʿala ḫairi l-ʿamal (“hurry to the best action”) in the Adhān and in the Iqāma .

Special features are also evident in the purity determinations . In contrast to the Sunnis and also the Zaidis , they do not allow the ritual washing of shoes to be simply put on , but insist that the feet be washed. Another peculiarity is that, unlike most other Islamic groups, they do not regard the exit of pre-ejaculate (maḏy) as an event that destroys ritual purity. This view is justified, among other things, with a hadith, according to which ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib, who was “a man who uttered a lot of pre-ejaculate” (kāna raǧulan maḏḏāʾan) , asked the Prophet about this and the Prophet replied that it did not matter (laisa bi-š-šaiʾ) . The Twelve Shiites also emphasize the impurity of unbelievers more than the Sunnis . They are considered najis .

Although the Hajj to Mecca is a religious duty among the Twelve Shiites, it does not have the same status in religious life as it does among the Sunnis, because visiting pilgrimages to the graves of the imams and other important members of the prophetic family play an equally important role. Shiites making a pilgrimage to Mecca, for example, are instructed to take the opportunity to visit the graves of Muhammad, the family of prophets and the imams in Medina .

In addition to the Zakāt , the so-called Chums ("fifth") are also collected from the twelve Shiites, a tax of 20 percent on all income and profits. However, all expenses related to family support, including upbringing, marriage, etc. are deducted from the calculation. The basis for the Chums-Institution is the Koranic statement in Sura Sura 8:41 : "If you make any booty, the fifth part of it belongs to God and the Messenger and the relatives, the orphans, the poor and those who are on the move." According to the prevailing doctrine, this verse is to be interpreted in such a way that the chums must be divided equally between the six receiving groups mentioned. The part of God, that of the Prophet and that of the “relatives” - that is, three sixths of the Chums - together form the so-called “part of the Imam” ( sahm-i imām ), while the other three sixths are for the orphans, needy and travelers to be given out to the descendants of the Prophet and therefore called "portion of the Sayyids " ( sahm-i sādāt ). There are different views among the Twelve Shiite scholars about the use of the “Imam's share” in the period after his rapture (see below).

With regard to family law, a well-known peculiarity of the Twelve Shiites is that they consider the temporary Mutetea marriage to be permissible. In inheritance law, they differ from the Sunni disciplines in that they also consider descendants of female relatives to be entitled to inherit. There is a special feature of the hadd punishments that, according to Shiite doctrine, the amputation (qaṭʿ) of the right hand does not involve severing the entire hand, but only the four fingers. Correspondingly, only four fingers and the forefoot are severed during the cross amputation. An offensive jihad (unlike defensive jihad), according to most of the Twelve Shiite legal scholars, may only be conducted with the consent of the hidden imam.

The socio-religious organizational structure


Within the Twelve Shia there are two subgroups to this day, the rationalistic Usūlīya and the traditionalist Achbārīya, the former making up the overwhelming majority. The Usūlīya is named after the Usūl al-fiqh , the "sources of law finding", because they play a central role in it. The Koran , the traditions of the Prophet and the Imams, the Idschmāʿ and the evidence of reason (dalīl al-ʿaql) are considered to be the “sources of finding the law” . The qiyās , on the other hand, is rejected. Some modern usūlīs like Yusof Sanei go so far as to accept hadiths only if they believe they are in accordance with the central values ​​of the Koran and reason (unftaql) . In contrast to the Usūlīs, the Achbārīs insist on the written tradition (naql) of religion and do not allow reason to be conclusive . The word aḫbār , after which the Achbārīs are named, is the plural of the Arabic word ḫabar ("message") and is used synonymously for the hadiths.

The contrast between traditionalists and rationalists within the Twelve Shia is very old. He is already mentioned in ash-Shahrastānī (d. 1153), but he does not designate the twelve Shiite rationalists as Usūlīya, but according to the Kalām , the rationalistic theology, as Kalāmīya. Between the two groups, he explains, "rule the sword and the charge of disbelief ". Today the Achbārīs form only a small minority within the Twelve Shia. They play a bigger role in Bahrain alone. They can also be found in the Basra area in southern Iraq and in India (Hyderabad).

Although the early Twelve Shiite theologians were strongly opposed to Sufism , and even today there are scholars who hold on to this position, after the Mongol storm a second current emerged within the Twelve Shia, which tried to try Shiite and to harmonize Sufi teachings with one another. With the Niʿmatullāhīya , there has also been a separate twelfth Shiite Sufi order since the 14th century . Another Mystic undercurrent within the Twelver is of Ahmad al-Ahsā'ī (d. 1826), substantiated Shaykhism . Within this trend, Babism developed in the 19th century , a forerunner of the Baha'i religion . A twelve Shiite organization that is explicitly directed against the Baha'i is the Hodschatieh , which was founded in the early 1950s .

A separate sub-group within the Twelve Shiites with ethnic orientation are the Twelve Shiite Khojas. Like the Ismaili Khojas, they originally emerged from a Hindu merchant caste, the Lohanas. Today twelve Shiite Khojas live mainly in India (40,000), Pakistan (20,000), East Africa (approx. 20,000) and in the western diaspora (USA 20,000, Canada, Europe). They cultivate their cultural identity very strongly, which is based on the Gujarati language, trade activities and charity for their own community, and thus set themselves apart from other Shia Twelve. However, there are also close ties to the Twelve Shiite scholarship in Iraq. The various twelve Shiite Khoja communities united in 1976 to form the World Federation of Khoja Shia Ithna-Asheri Muslim Communities based in London. Another organization of this group is the World Islamic Network (WIN), founded in 1991 with headquarters in Mumbai (Bombay), which endeavors to disseminate twelve Shiite literature in English and maintains its own television program that broadcasts around the clock. The group also has its own Gujarati-language magazine called Isna 'Ashari . It has been published in Bombay since 1947.

The Marjaīya

ʿAlī as-Sīstānī , currently one of the most respected Marjas in the world

According to the prevailing doctrine of the Usūlīs, the responsibility for the interpretation of the Sharia after the rapture of the twelfth Imam rests with the Shiite legal scholars. In this respect, they also represent the representatives of the Hidden Imam. A legal scholar ( faqīh ) is only someone who has undergone training at a traditional Shiite religious college ( Hauza ) and has studied the principles of legal finding there. After completing this training, he is authorized to do ijtihād, i.e. to find his own law. A scholar who has such authorization is called a mujtahid . According to the Usūlī doctrine, the gate to Idschtihād is always open.

According to the teaching of the Usūlīs, Shiite believers who are not qualified to do ijtihād have the duty to look for a living mujtahid and follow him in the form of taqlīd (“imitation, empowerment”). This Mujtahid then functions for them Marschaʿ at-taqlīd (“authority of authorization or imitation”). The mardschaʿ then takes on the role of the “imitated” (muqallad) and the follower the role of the “imitator” (muqallid) . However, this choice is not binding. According to the Usūlī doctrine, which was developed in the 19th century, there should actually only be one mardscha,, namely the most knowledgeable (aʿlam) , but it is still controversial today how the qualification of the “most knowledgeable” ( aʿlamīyat ) can be determined. That is why there are a greater number of marjahs today.

The Marjah gives its followers information and advice on religious questions in the form of fatwas . If the muqallid disapproves of the fatwa, it is legitimate for him to look for another. When a marjah dies, all of its fatwas become ineffective. As a rule, the contact between the muqallid and his mardschaʿ takes place via an office or a local representative, the wakīl , of the mardschaʿ , in more rare cases through a personal audience with the mardschaʿ itself. Telephone, Internet and e-mail play an important role in the communication Marjah and his followers played an increasingly important role. Since the late 1990s, many Mardschaʿs have had their own websites on which they offer fatwas on various life issues. ʿAlī as-Sīstānī , currently one of the most respected Marjahs in the world, operates its website in seven languages, namely Arabic, Persian, Urdu , English, Azerbaijani , Turkish and French.

Since the Shiite legal scholars, according to the doctrine of the Usūlīs, are considered to be collective representatives of the twelfth Imam, they are also entitled to the so-called “Imam's share” ( sahm-i imām ) from their followers, which they regularly collect from their followers. This tax gives them a relatively high degree of financial independence. They use this income to expand their influence over the Shiite community by maintaining religious institutions such as mosques and schools and their own proxy to the various Shiite communities who represent their positions in them. However, there can also be conflicts of interest between scholars and their followers. Since they are dependent on the religious funds of their followers, they are not completely free in their decisions.

Education and authority levels of the clergy

The ascent to a marjah is a long and arduous journey. The training usually begins in childhood. Many Marjahs themselves come from learned families or trace their descent back to the Prophet ( sayyid ) . As a rule, it is emphasized in the later biography of a mardschaʿ if it has such a traditional background, as it is also emphasized when a mardschaʿ comes from particularly simple circumstances from which it has worked its way up. The constant diligence is a topos that appears in all Mardschaʿ biographies: A mardschaʿ is ascribed by a child in the nimbus of the best in class.

The religious training of the Shiite clergy usually takes place in a hauza . Shiite schools of this kind exist today not only in various places in Iran and Iraq, in Lebanon and Syria, but also among the newly converted Shiites in West Africa and in some major western cities such as London. The best known and most respected Hauzas, however, are those in the Iraqi Najaf and the Iranian Qom . You also have international significance: your students come not only from Iraq or Iran, but from the entire Shiite world. To this day, it is customary for students who want to obtain authorization for ijschtihād to visit one of these two academic institutions for the highest level of their studies. In total, the Hauza training comprises three multi-year learning cycles that are linked to the award of certain titles:

step Duration Content Remarks
Muqaddimāt 6-8 years Arabic grammar, linguistics Shortly before the end of this cycle, students can wear turban and jubba and call themselves Fādil ("scholar").
Sutūh or Sath 4-6 years Fiqh , dogmatics , hadith After completing this level, the student may refer to himself as ʿAllāma (“highly learned”).
Charij 6-10 years Fiqh, dogmatics, Usul al-fiqh Students who have already completed parts of the Chāridj training and teach at Sutūh level are allowed to call themselves Huddschat al-Islam ("Proof of Islam").
Hossein Borudscherdi , the last Grand Ayatollah to be recognized as
Marjah taqlīd mutlaq .

Graduates of the Chāridj training are considered mujtahid and take the title of hudjat al-islām wa-l-muslimīn ("proof of Islam and the Muslims"). In order to become Marschaʿ at-taqlīd, i.e. imitation authority, the Mujtahid has to attain a higher rank of Hauza, namely that of Ayatollah (Arabic āyat Allāh "sign of God"). He only receives this via a non-codified system of recognition by students and colleagues. As a prerequisite, it is generally assumed that the scholar in question must have distinguished himself by writing his own treatises and fatwas as well as by teaching at the Chāridj level. He is also expected to have some muqallids already gathered around him. The highest title that is bestowed from the Hauza is that of the Grand Ayatollah (Arabic āyat Allāh al-ʿuẓmā , "greatest sign of God"). Here the requirements are more formalized, because since the 1950s there has been a consensus among Shiite scholars that a Grand Ayatollah must have published a Risāla ʿamalīya , a practical treatise in which he summarized the fatwas intended for his imitators.

Grand Ayatollah is usually the highest rank a Twelve Shiite scholar can attain. The higher rank of Marjaʿ taqlīd mutlaq (“Absolute Instance of Imitation”) is not institutionalized, but occurs at most spontaneously through general recognition. Phases of dominance by a Marjah taqlīd mutlaq (“Absolute Instance of Imitation”) have repeatedly been followed in the past by phases of rivalry between different Marjas. The last Shiite scholar who the rank of Mardscha' taqlid mutlaq held, was Grand Ayatollah Boroujerdi . He was recognized as such from 1949 to 1961.


The Imamate Crisis and the Beginnings of the Twelve Shiite Doctrine

Historical photo of the mausoleum of al-Hasan al-ʿAskarī in Samarra . The death of al-ʿAskarī in 874 was the starting point for the development of the Twelve Shiite teachings.

The doctrine of the Twelve Shiites developed in Imamite circles at the end of the 9th century . The new teaching was a response to the general uncertainty (ḥaira) that had arisen among the Imamites after the eleventh Imam Hasan al-ʿAskarī died in 874 at the young age of 29 without leaving children. During this time, a large number of different doctrines about the succession in the Imamate emerged. Ash-Shahrastani lists a total of eleven different groups who had their own doctrinal opinions on this. Some prominent Imamite Shiites also converted to Ismāʿīlīya at this time . It was ʿUthmān ibn Saʿīd al-ʿAmrī, one of the closest followers of Hasan, who appeared at this time with the claim that al-Hasan al-ʿAskari had left a son and appointed him as his successor, but that he had been hidden to prevent that the government will capture and kill him. Jafar, al-Hasan al-ʿAskarī's brother, who himself claimed the imamate, viewed this claim as an invention aimed at excluding him from inheritance and initiated a lawsuit against Al-Hasan's mother, Hudaith to fight for his inheritance. The trial lasted seven years and ultimately showed that Hudaith's claim that al-Hasan's slave was pregnant was unfounded, i.e. that he had left no son. Jafar received part of al-Hasan's legacy, but he was unable to assert his claim to the imamate because his cooperation with the Abbasid state authorities had discredited him among the imamites.

In the meantime, ʿUthmān ibn Saʿīd al-ʿAmrī was able to get a large part of the agents of the late Imam and the Imamite elite on his side and convince them of the existence of a hidden son of al-Hasan al-ʿAskari. After ʿUthmān's death, which probably took place in 893, his son Abū Jafar Muhammad took over the position at the head of the clandestine network of agents and used it to collect alms from the Shiite believers. He himself made claims that he saw the Imam as an adult, but refused to reveal the Imam's real name. He justified this secrecy with the necessary caution in relation to the state authorities. Abu Ja'far Muhammad stood with his teaching in competition with other Shiite groups, in particular to the nusairischen ghulat , the awards for the imams divine attributes and the support of Wesirsfamilie enjoyed the Banu l-Furat. Unlike the Imamites of Abu Jafar, the Ghulāt had no qualms about giving the twelfth Imam a name; they called him Muhammad. In 914/15 a man appeared at the court of the caliphs in Baghdad who claimed to be the returned Muhammad ibn al-Hasan. The man, who came from the environment of the Banū l-Furāt, was quickly exposed as a swindler and thrown into dungeon.

After the death of Abu Jafar in 917, the leadership of the Imamite agent network went to Ibn Rauh an-Naubachtī (d. 938). He developed the teaching of the office of ambassador ( sifāra ), i.e. H. He appeared with the claim to be "ambassador" ( safīr ) of the Imam and as this to be able to establish the connection between him and the community of his followers. He also posthumously proclaimed the two geleitetAmrīs, who had led the imamite network of agents before him, to be such “ambassadors” in order to be able to prove in this way a continuity of the office since the imam's hiding. After the overthrow of his patron and protector, the vizier Ibn al-Furāt (924), Ibn Rauh an-Naubachtī was imprisoned for five years. While in custody, his confidante Muhammad ibn ʿAlī asch-Schalmaghānī tried to usurp the leadership of the Imamite community. He came forward with idiosyncratic extreme Shiite teachings and was worshiped as a divine incarnation by his followers. When Ibn Rauh an-Naubachtī found out about it, he excommunicated him from the community. It is also believed that ash-Shalmaghānī was executed on his initiative in 934.

While the third ambassador Ibn Rauh an-Naubachtī was still alive , the scholar al-Kulainī (d. 940) , who came from a village between Rey and Qom , put together his traditional collection of al-Kāfī fī ʿilm ad-dīn . Just as Sunni scholars in the 9th century had collected the countless words of the prophet in circulation and classified them according to subject areas, it compiled the news ( aḫbār ) about the imams. The collection also contains some extreme Shiite material, which shows that the doctrine of the Twelve Shiite had not yet completely broken away from such tendencies at that time. Another member of the Naubachtī family, Abū Sahl an-Naubacht (d. 924), wrote the treatise Kitāb at-Tanbīh at this time , in which he defended the doctrine of the concealment of the twelfth Imam against other Imamitic teachings, such as those of the Wāqifites who believed in the secrecy and return of the eighth Imam Mūsā al-Kāzim.

During the time of the third ambassador Ibn Rauh an-Naubachtī, the Imamites gave up their reluctance to name the twelfth Imam. This is confirmed, among other things, by the statement of a non-Shiite contemporary, Abū l-Hasan al-Ash ( arī (d. 935). He writes in his work Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn that the vast majority of Shiites ( ǧumhūr aš-Šīʿa ) in his day regarded Muhammad, the son of al-Hasan al-ʿAskarīs, as the expected hidden Imam and claimed of him “that he will come forward and fill the world with righteousness after it has been filled with injustice and tyranny. ”As a name for the group that advocates this doctrine, al-Ashʿarī does not use Twelve Shia but Qatʿīya.

Under the protection of the Buyids (945-1055)

The Middle East with the Buyid Empire around 970

In the 930s, the Buyids , a military family from Dailam , conquered large areas of western Iran. In 946 they occupied Baghdad and took over military and administrative power in the Abbasid Empire. The Buyids were Zaidite Shiites, but they also took the Twelve Shiites under their special protection. Anti-Shiite ringleaders were sent into exile during this period. In addition, the Twelve Shiites were allowed to celebrate their own festivals (the ʿĀschūrā festival and the Ghadīr festival) publicly for the first time in the 960s. The Buyids also tried to protect and equip the graves of the Shiite imams in Najaf , Karbala and in the north of Baghdad.

Elaboration of the teaching, "School of Baghdad"

The time of the Buyids represents the actual formative period of the Twelve Shia. During this time the real elaboration of the Twelve Shiite teaching took place. The concept of the “ambassadorial office” (sifāra) was abandoned and the doctrine of the “great concealment” (al-ġayba al-kubrā) was developed. Traditions from older books about the Ghaiba by authors of earlier Shiite currents were taken up and made usable for the doctrine of the Twelve Shiites.

During that time, two traditions with different worldviews faced each other within the Twelve Shia: The older "esoteric, non-rational tradition", which was characterized by a magical worldview and occultism , was developed by scholars such as Ibn Abī Zainab an-Nuʿmānī (d . approx. 956) and Ibn Bābawaih (d. 991) updated and distributed; the other tradition, which only emerged at that time, was the "rational, theological-juridical tradition". It was worked out by the thinkers of the so-called "School of Baghdad", to which in particular al-Sheikh al-Mufid (d. 1022), al-Sharif al-Murtadā (d. 1044) and Abū Dschaʿfar at-Tūsī (d. 1067 ) and leaned on the rationalism of the Muʿtazila . Ash-Sheikh al-Mufīd was actually a student of Ibn Bābawaih, but he wrote a critical commentary on his confession Kitāb Iʿtiqādāt al-Imāmīya , in which he distanced himself from its traditionalism. This book, entitled Taṣḥīḥ ("Correction") Iʿtiqādāt al-Imāmīya established the new rationalist type of theological thought in the Twelve Shia. Almost all Twelve Shiite scholars of the early 11th century studied with al-Sheikh al-Mufid and / or his disciple al-Sharif al-Murtadā. The scholars of this rationalist current also had a lot of contact with the Shafiite school of law and adopted some of its concepts.

Displacement of other imamitic groups

In the time of al-Sheikh al-Mufid, the Twelve Shia seems to have already ousted all other Imamite groups. Ash-Sharīf al-Murtadā quotes him with a statement that is dated to the year 373 of the Hijra (= 983 AD), according to which all other Imamite groups had already disappeared at that time and only the “Twelve Imāmīya “( Al-Imāmīya al-iṯnāʿašarīya ) was left. This teaches the imamate of the son of al-Hasan al-ʿAskarī, who bears the same name as the Messenger of God, and claims that he is alive and will continue to live until the day he will emerge with the sword. The Twelve Imāmīya are numerically the largest Shiite group and also represent the majority of Shiite lamUlamā ' , Kalām scholars, theorists, pious, Fiqh and hadith scholars, men of letters and poets. The twelve have now become the "face" ( waǧh ) of the Imāmīya and the leaders of their community. The term "twelve" ( Iṯnāʿašarīya ) for those Shiites who await the return of the twelfth Imam became so common at the beginning of the 11th century that it also found its way into Sunni heresiography . For example, ʿAbd al-Qāhir al-Baghdādī (d. 1037) explains in his book al-Farq baina al-Firaq that the name Ithnāʿascharīya is another name for the Qatʿīya.

Seljuk and early Ilkhanid period, "Hilla School"

The capture of Baghdad by the Sunni- leaning Seljuks in 1055/56 brought the end of the "School of Baghdad". Abū Jaʿfar at-Tūsī, the school's most prominent scholar, fled to the Najaf shrine after his house and library were set on fire during anti-Shiite pogroms. Twelve Shiites were initially persecuted in the state of the Seljuks (1042-1203), but then increasingly integrated into the state from the second half of the 11th century. Shiite officials and courtiers from then on appeared as patrons and patrons of the Twelve Shiite minority. They not only supported Sayyid families and sponsored Shiite scholars of twelve, but also endowed the shrines of the imams with rich foundations. A particularly zealous sponsor of the Shiite pilgrimage sites was the Shiite finance minister, Majd al-Mulk al-Balasānī (d. 1099). Among other things, he had a dome built over the graves of the four Imams al-Hasan, ʿAlī Zain al-ʿĀbidīn, Muhammad al-Bāqir and Jafar as-Sādiq at the Baqīʿ cemetery in Medina.

In the northwestern Iranian province of Djibal , under the rule of the Seljuks, a lively Twelve Shiite scholarly culture developed. This emerges from the Kitāb an-Naqḍ of the Shiite ʿAbd al-Jalīl al-Qazwīnī, written between 1160 and 1170 , which contains rich information about the contemporary religious life of the Shiites in this province. The author describes that in Raiy , where he taught himself, and in Qom there were nine imamite schools, in Kashan four and in Āveh and Varamin two each. In addition, from the early 12th century the countries of Greater Syria with the cities of Tripoli and Aleppo developed into centers of Twelve Shiite scholarship. In Aleppo, for example, the legal scholar Abū l-Makārim Hamza ibn ʿAlī Ibn Zuhra (d. 1189), the author of Ġunyat an-nuzūʿ ilā ʿilmai al-uṣūl wa-l-furūʿ , one of the most comprehensive compendiums of Imamitic legal theory of the 12th century , worked. Century.

However, the Twelve Shia was still in conflict with other directions of Islam. Al-Qazwīnī's book is actually the answer to the attacks of a Shiite brother-in-law who had recently fallen into Sunni Islam. In a polemical treatise with the title Baʿḍ faḍāʾiḥ ar-Rawāfi „(" Some Shamefulnesses of the Rāfidites "), he presented the Twelve Shiites in a particularly negative light. Al-Qazwīnī defended the Twelve Shiite teachings against these attacks. The Twelve Shia also experienced polemic attacks from the Zaidite Shiites during this period . The Zaidite imam of Yemen al-Mansūr bi-Llāh (r. 1197-1217) wrote a work with the title al-ʿIqd aṯ-ṯamīn fī aḥkām al-aʾimma al-hādīn (“The precious necklace on the provisions of the right Path leading imams ”), in which he rejected various twelve Shiite teachings (rapture of the twelfth imam, determination of imams by designation, infallibility, etc.).

Towards the end of the Seljuk period and during the Ilyhanid period, the Iraqi city of Hilla emerged as the new center of Twelve Shiite thought. The founder of the "School of Hilla", which was very positive towards the Kalām and brought the theological-juridical rationalism of the Usūlīya to a new height, was Sadīd al-Dīn al-Himmasī (d. After 1204). He wrote his work al-Munqiḏ min at-taqlīd ("The Savior from Taqlīd ") in Hilla in 1185 . Characteristic of the "School of Hilla", to which the thinkers Ibn Idrīs (died 1201), al-Muhaqqiq al-Hillī (died 1277) and al-ʿAllāma al-Hillī (died 1325) belonged, was their endorsement and elaboration of the Idschtihād concept. This represented a break with the past, for the Imamites of earlier times had still rejected the ijtihad. Two other important Twelve Shiite scholars of the early Mongolian period who stood outside the Hilla school were Radī ad-Dīn ʿAlī ibn Mūsā Ibn Tāwūs (d. 1266) and Nasīr ad-Dīn at-Tūsī (d. 1274). The latter was under the influence of the Ashʿarite theologian Fachr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī and "modernized" the Twelve Shiite theology by introducing the philosophical terminology of Avicennas into the Kalām discussions. His two Kalām tracts, Qawāʿid al-ʿaqāʾid and Taǧrīd al-iʿtiqād, were very popular among the later Twelve Shiites and received several comments.

In the 13th century, Bahrain emerged as a further intellectual center of the Twelve Shia, what was then the name for the Arabian Gulf coast. The population of this region, which included al-Qatīf and al-Hasa , had only switched from the Qarmatian teachings to the Twelve Shia in the 12th century . Jamāl ad-Dīn ʿAlī ibn Sulaimān al-Bahrānī (died approx. 1271) was one of the most important twelve Shiite scholars in Bahrain in the 13th century. He wrote a very comprehensive commentary on the Nahj al-Balāgha collection , in which he resorted to the mystical concepts of Muhyī d-Dīn Ibn ʿArabī . With that he had a great influence on the later Twelve Shiite thinking, especially as far as Ibn ʿArabī's teaching of the two seals of God's friendship is concerned. It was reinterpreted in such a way that friendship with God was identified with the Imamate.

State funding in the late Middle Ages and early modern times

Iran: Öldscheitü, Sarbadaren, Safavids

The Ilkhanid ruler Öldscheitü (1304-1316) himself converted from Sunni to Twelve Shiite Islam between 1307 and 1310. He also urged his emirs to convert to the Twelve Shia. Almost all the emirs complied with this request; only his two main emirs Saʿīd Tschubān and Aisan Qutlugh remained Sunni. Öldscheitü's transition to the Zwölfer-Schia is also confirmed by the numismatic findings. In theological literature it is attributed to the influence of al-ʿAllāma al-Hillī. According to the Persian historian Hāfiz-i Abrū (d. 1430), this scholar only came into play when Öldscheitü had already accepted this teaching and made it the state religion by decree; He was then called to the military camp and given the task of working out and disseminating the imamite teaching. Öldscheitü's successor Abū Saʿīd (1315-1335) returned to Sunni Islam. After his death, the Iranian Mongol Empire dissolved. In the 14th century, the Twelve Shia was also promoted by the local Sarbadar dynasty , which has its center in Sabzawār in western Chorasān. The Sarbadars stamped the names of the twelve imams on their coins and also drew imamite scholars to their court.

The declaration of the Twelve Shia as official teaching in Iran by Shah Ismāʿīl in 1501, illustration in an anonymous Persian work from 1680 in the British Library .

The fact that the Safavids (1501–1722) introduced the Twelve Shia as the official doctrine of the state at the beginning of their rule over Iran had a much more lasting effect . The Safavid Ismāʿīl , who was proclaimed shah in Tabriz in 1501 , had the Friday sermon read to the twelve imams against the resistance of the local population and the Shiite formula "I testify that ʿAlī is the friend of God" and the sentence "To do the best “After the call to prayer. This ritual has since been repeated regularly in the other provinces. In addition, the order was issued that the first three caliphs Abū Bakr, ʿUmar and ʿUthmān were to be cursed in the markets; those who refused should be killed. This gave the Safavid state, which from 1510 comprised all of Iran and parts of Iraq, a clear twelve-Shiite orientation. From then on, the Sadr was responsible for spreading the Twelve Shiite creed . He also had to guarantee that it was kept clean and to intervene against any deviation or innovation. The first Twelve Shiite book written during the Safavid reign was the commentary by Nadschm ad-Dīn Mahmūd an-Nairīzī (died after 1526) on Nasīr ad-Dīn at-Tūsīs Taǧrīd al-iʿtiqād . It was completed before 1510.

The implementation of the Twelve Shia in Iran was initially difficult because not enough religious personnel with the right orientation were available. Ismāʿīl and his successor Shah Tahmasp I (ruled 1524–1576) therefore called Shiite scholars from abroad into the country, especially those from the Arabian Gulf coast and from the Jabal Amil . During the reign of Ismāʿīl and Tahmasp alone, 22 Shiite scholars moved from Syria to the Safavid Empire. One of the most important of these imported scholars was the Usūlī scholar ʿAlī al-Karakī (1466-1534) from the Lebanese Bekaa Plain. He is said to have visited Ismāʿīl in Isfahan as early as 1504/05 . Al-Karakī developed the theory of the “general proxy” ( niyāba ʿāmma ) of Shiite legal scholars. He also related this to the Friday prayer. While many Shiites previously believed that no one was allowed to hold Friday prayer during the absence of the Twelfth Imam, al-Karakī declared that Friday prayer could be held. In his view, it was even compulsory if a qualified scholar was available. Al-Karakī also received authority from Tahmasp to set up Shiite prayer leaders ( piš-namāz ) everywhere in Iran . The Safavids themselves built a new family tree in the course of time in which they traced their descent to the seventh Imam Mūsā al-Kāzim.

Twelve Shiite confessions were only written shortly before or during the reign of Shah ʿAbbās I (r. 1588–1629). The first script of this kind was the Arabic text Iʿtiqādāt al-Imāmīya (or just al-Iʿtiqādāt ) by Bahā 'ad-Dīn al-ʿĀmilī (d. 1621), which, however, is primarily aimed at non-Twelve Shiites, like the author clarifies. The aim was to provide them with a means of preventing them from confusing the views of the Twelve Shiites with the flawed teachings of other Shiite groups.

India: the Shiite Deccan empires, Kashmir

Map with the Deccan sultanates Ahmadnagar, Bijapur and Golkonda, which changed to the Twelve Shia at the beginning of the 16th century.

In the Deccan in India, three rulers who had succeeded the Bahmanids , the ʿĀdil-Shāhīs of Bijapur , the Qutb-Shāhīs of Golkonda and the Nizām-Shāhīs of Ahmadnagar , were inspired by the model of the Safavid state. In the early 16th century they also introduced the Twelve Shia as the official direction in their empires. In the case of the ʿĀdil-Shāhīs, the influence of the Safavids can be seen particularly clearly, because Yūsuf ʿĀdil Schāh, the founder of the dynasty, has demonstrably stayed with the Safavids in Ardabil before he came to power, before he emigrated to India, in 1490 he ruled Bijapur and had the Friday sermon performed on behalf of the twelve imams in 1502. Sultan Quli Qutb Shāh (r. 1518-1543), the founder of the Qutb-Shāhī Sultanate, who proclaimed the Twelve Shia in Golkonda in 1512 and also had the first three caliphs regularly cursed, was very careful to point out that he was had not adopted this idea from the Safavids. Among the Nizām-Shāhīs, it was the ruler Burhān Nizām Shāh (r. 1508–1554) who converted to the Twelve Shia in 1537 and made this the official direction of the state.

In the conversion of Burhān Nizām Shāh, the Shiite preacher and scholar Shāh Tāhir Dakanī (d. Between 1545 and 1549), who immigrated from Persia, played the decisive role. He is also known as the author of a commentary on the confessional al-Bāb al-Ḥādī ʿAšar by al-ʿAllāma al-Hillī . In addition to Shāh Tāhir Dakanī, another Shiite scholar was active at the court of Burhān Nizām Shāh, namely Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Chawādschagī. He wrote for the ruler a separate twelve Shiite confession with the title an-Niẓāmīya fī maḏhab al-Imāmīya . Al-Chawādschagī also worked for the ʿĀdil-Shāhī ruler, for whom he wrote the confessional al-Maḥaǧǧa al-baiḍāʾ fī maḏhab āl al-ʿabā , and spent a time in Golkonda, where in 1547 he wrote an Arabic and a Persian commentary on it Nasīr ad-Dīn at-Tūsīs Twelve Shiite confessional al-Fuṣūl completed. In the period that followed, numerous Twelve Shiite scholars immigrated from Iran to the Deccan sultans and helped establish the Twelve Shiite doctrine there.

Twelve Shiite Architecture in Bangladesh: The Husainī-Dālān in Dhaka . The first building dates from 1642.

Further north, in Kashmir , the twelve-shia was promoted by the princely house of the Chaks, which ruled this region with interruptions between 1505 and 1586. A considerable part of the Kashmiri peasantry went over to the Shia during this period. The rulers of the Mughal Empire did not support the Twelve Shiites, but let them have their way most of the time. One of the most important Twelve Shiite scholars among the Mughals was Nūrallāh ash-Shūschtarī, who was appointed Qādī of Lahore by Akbar (r. 1565-1605) . He wrote a Twelve Shiite confession with the al-ʿAqāʾid al-Imāmīya , a treatise on infallibility , a treatise on the knowledge of God, and several commentaries and super-commentaries on earlier confessions. However, the Twelve Schia had many opponents in the Mughal Empire. Mullā ʿAbdallāh Sultānpūrī (d. 1597) alias Machdūm al-Mulk, for example, who worked at Akbar's court, wrote Minhāǧ ad-dīn wa-miʿrāǧ al-muslimīn, a work against the doctrine of the Twelve Shiites and had several Shiite writings burned. Nūrallāh al-Shūschtarī was whipped to death on the orders of Jahangir in Agra in 1610 after he had refuted two anti-Shiite writings, including the treatise aṣ-Ṣawāʿiq al-muḥriqa by Ibn Hajar al-Haitamī (d. 1567). The so-called Husainī Dālān in Dhaka is a twelve-Shiite building from the time of the Mughals . It was built around 1642, during the rule of Shāh Shujāʿ over the Mughal province of Bengal , by a private citizen named Saiyid Murād as a building for the Shiite mourning meetings and restored in the early 19th century by the British East India Company . The rulers of the ʿĀdil-Shāhī and Qutb-Shāhī dynasties continued their promotion of Twelve Shiite scholarship in the 17th century until their territories were conquered by the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb in 1686 and 1687 , respectively.

The heyday of the Achbārīya and the initiative of Nadir Shah

In the early 17th century, two opposition movements formed against the rationalism and scholastic scholarship of the Usūlīs: the theosophically oriented school of Isfahan and the traditionalist Achbārīya . The Persian scholar Muhammad Amīn Astarābādī (d. 1626), who lives in Mecca and Medina, is considered the founder of the modern achbārīya. He and his followers criticized the Usūlīs for their Idschtihād and wanted to base the Fiqh solely on the Koran and the hadiths or Achbār handed down from the Ahl al-bait . For a few years the Achbārīs were also able to gain the upper hand in the Iraqi Shiite stronghold of Karbala.

The Achbari scholars tried to make one collection out of the four canonical collections of hadiths. A first result of these efforts was the work of al-Wafī by Muhammad ibn Mahmūd al-Kāshānī (d. 1680). Muhammad Hurr al-ʿĀmilī (d. 1692–93) went beyond the four canonical collections in his Wasā'il al-Shīʿa . These efforts came to a climax with Muhammad Bāqir al-Majlisī (1616–1689) and his 110-volume traditional collection Bihār al-Anwār . There are also similarly extensive encyclopedias, but they have never been published. For example, ʿAbdallāh ibn Nūrallāh Bahrānī, a contemporary of Majlisī who did not have the same influence at court, wrote al-ʿAwālim , an extensive collection that also includes 100 volumes. Another important representative of the Achbārīya was the Bahraini scholar ʿAbdallāh ibn Sālih as-Samāhīdschī (d. 1722), of whom an extensive Ijāza has been handed down, which illuminates the twelve Shiite scholar networks of the time. The text contains some isnaads , which are traced back to the Prophet via earlier scholars and the Imams, and is an important source especially for the Twelve Shiite scholarly culture of Bahrain.

The Achbari scholars also spread traditions relating to the forgery of the Koran. The first evidence of this can be found in Dābistān-i Maḏāhib , a handbook on the various religions and denominations in India, written between 1645 and 1658. As the author relates, he met three Twelve Shiite scholars in Lahore in 1643 , who told him that ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān had omitted some suras about the virtues of ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib and his family in the preparation of the official Koran edition . As evidence, they brought him a text entitled “Two-Lights Surah” ( Sūrat an-Nūrain ), 42 verses in length , and praising ʿAlī and his family. The text itself is reproduced in the Dābistān-i Maḏāhib . Theodor Nöldeke , who has dealt extensively with the "Two Lights Surah", has classified it as a "Shiite forgery". Although various Shiite scholars have tried to show that the report in the Dābistān-i Maḏāhib is an “anti-Shiite slander”, Rainer Brunner has shown that the “two-light sura” was also used by other twelve- Shiite scholars of the 17th century as evidence of a falsification of the Koran by ʿUthmān. They also referred to another sura allegedly withheld by ʿUthmān , the Sūrat al-Wilāya , which with seven verses was considerably shorter.

Nadir Shah

In 1722 the Safavid dynasty was overthrown by the Afghan tribal leader Mir Mahmud Hotaki . After the Afghans withdrew in 1729, Afshare Nadir Khan seized power. As Nadir Shah , he ruled Iran, large parts of the Caucasus and what is now Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan from 1736 to 1747. Nadir Shah, who himself probably came from a Shiite family, but relied on mostly Sunni troops, was very interested in a balance between Shiites and Sunnis in his empire. On his accession to the throne in 1736 he demanded that the Sunni faith should replace the "heretical" Shiite doctrine, but in 1743 he convened a conference in connection with a campaign in Iraq, attended by Sunni and Shiite religious scholars from Iran, Afghanistan , Balkh , Bukhara, Karbala, Najaf and al-Kāzimīya participated. At the end of the conference, a declaration was passed in which, on the one hand, the Jafariya was recognized as the fifth legitimate madhhab , and on the other, the Shiites of the Twelve were required to recognize the legitimacy of the first three caliphs, whom they usually cursed during Friday prayers. At the same time, the declaration condemned the Safavid sectarian religious policy.

Nadir Shah campaigned for at least the legal school of the Twelve Shiites to be recognized, but he weakened the position of the Twelve Shiite scholars by confiscating Waqf property, restricting the jurisdiction to Urf courts and abolishing the office of Sadr. Both during his reign and before that during the Afghan interregnum, many scholars emigrated to Iraq and settled at the Shiite shrines there.

The resurgence of the Usūlīs and the Shiite culture bloom in Lucknow

Around the middle of the 18th century there was a resurgence of the Usūlīs within the Twelve Shiite scholarship. One of the sharpest opponents of the Achbārīs was the scholar Mohammad-Bāqer Behbehānī (1705–1793) from Isfahan. He studied in Karbala and, after completing his training, stayed at the shrines in Iraq to fight against the Achbārīs, whom he declared to be incredulous and against whom he also used violence. During this time the Achbārīs lost more and more support in Iraq.

Twelve Shiite architecture in Lucknow : The great Imambara built by Āsaf ad-Daula, who served the performance of Shiite elegies and martyrologies.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the Indian city of Lucknow developed into a new center for the Twelve Schia. Lucknow had been the capital of the wealthy Nawab Principality of Awadh since 1782 , which was emancipated from the Mughal court during this time and developed a clear Shiite orientation. The Nawabs of Awadh themselves were of Persian origin and professed to be of the Twelve Shiite faith, and the nobility of Awadh also consisted largely of Twelve Shiite families. They were related to each other and to the family of the Nawab. As a mark of demarcation from the officially Sunni Mughal court, they erected Shiite representative buildings in Lucknow, which they called Imām-bā Ima ("Imam district") and in which Shiite elegies and martyrologies were presented. The largest building of this type is the Imām-bāra-yi Āsafī , also called the "Great Imambara" and which later served as an architectural model for many other buildings on the subcontinent, by order of Āsaf ad-Daula (r. 1775–1799) .

The Imambara district of Lucknow also has a Friday mosque.

While the Achbārī school, which considered Friday prayer inadmissible, was also predominant among the Shiites of Awadh until the 1770s, Āsaf ad-Daula and his chief minister Hasan Rizā Chān promoted the Usūlī school, which considered Friday prayer to be compulsory. The most important Shiite scholar in Awadh was Saiyid Dildār ʿAlī (1753-1820), an Indian student of Behbehānī. He declared himself a mujahid and devoted himself primarily to the fight against the Sufis. From 1786 he acted as a prayer leader in the palace. Because of the great importance that was attached to Friday prayers at the court of the Nawabs, the Great Imambara was also provided with a Friday mosque .

At that time, the Nawabs of Awadh were also heavily involved in the Shiite holy places in Iraq. For example, Āsaf ad-Daula donated half a million rupees for the construction of the Hindiyya Canal , which was supposed to supply Najaf with water from the Euphrates. He and his successors gave the shrines in Iraq and the scholars and students who worked there with rich donations. After the establishment of direct British rule over Oudh in 1858, however, the Twelve Shiite culture in Lucknow experienced a decline.

The Qajars in Persia: Tobacco Fatwa and Constitutional Revolution

The Takye-ye Doulat in Tehran, where the state Taʿziye performances took place, painted by
Kamal-ol-Molk in 1892

While the Safavids in Iran were still able to stage themselves - more or less credibly - as members of the house of the prophets in order to use the awakening of the Shia for themselves and their political authority, the (Turkmen) Qajars were no longer able to defend themselves because of their origins stylized as members of the prophets, which is why their influence waned. At the same time, the influence of the scholars who were appointed by the rulers as advisors at court and as judges grew. At the turn of the 19th century, the new Twelve Shiite ritual was the Taʿziye Passion Play. Since the middle of the 19th century, fixed, circus-like theaters, which were called Takye , were built for this purpose . The best-known building of this type was the Takye-ye Doulat ("State Takya"), which Nāser ad-Din Shāh had built in 1873 on the model of the London Royal Albert Hall near the Tehran Palace. The Shah's court and foreign guests attended the Taʿziye performances in it.

In the 19th century, the mardschaʿīya developed as a new concept. The best-known role models for later scholars were Sheikh Murtadā al-Ansārī and Mirzā Muhammad Hasan Schīrāzī (1815–1895), both of whom had been accepted as undisputed religious authorities in their time. The former was above all an ideological model, since today's mardjas are still based on the structure of his fatwa collections. The latter was best known for his tobacco fatwa of 1891, with which he successfully brought down the tobacco monopoly of the British colonial rulers in Iran. The suggestion for the publication of this fatwa came from the pan-Islamic activist Jamāl ad-Dīn al-Afghānī .

At the beginning of the 20th century, many Shiite Twelve scholars supported the Constitutional Revolution in Iran, above all Mohammad Kāzem Chorāsāni . A minority, led by Fazlollah Nuri , opposed and opposed the constitution. The constitution , which was finally passed in December 1906, was provided with an addition in Article 1 in October 1907, which declared Islam and "the true Jafaritic doctrine of the twelve" to be the official teaching ( maẕhab-e rasmi ) of Iran and obliged the ruler of the country to To be a member of and supporter of this discipline.

The emergence of the twelve Shiite Khoja communities in India and East Africa

In the second half of the 19th century, the Twelve Shia in India grew even further because many members of the Khojas merchant caste converted to this form of Islam. Since their conversion to Islam in the 15th century, the Khojas have been active in trade in the Indian Ocean , particularly between India and East Africa . By the middle of the 19th century, the majority of them were still Nicarite Ismailis , with a small twelve Shiite minority. After the Aga Khan Case of 1866, however, more and more Khojas turned away from the Ismāʿīlīya and went over to the Twelve Shia. In the 1870s these Twelve Shiite Khojas asked Sheikh Zain ad-Dīn Māzandarānī (d. 1892) of Karbala, whom they considered to be their religious leader, to send them someone who could instruct them in the doctrine of the Twelve Shiites. In 1873 a certain Mullā Qādir Husain was sent who stayed in Bombay until 1900 and built up the first twelve Shiite congregation there. Another scholar from Iraq, Āyatullāh Sheikh Abū l-Qāsim Najafī, built twelve Shiite communities in Bhavnagar and Mahuva in Gujarat . After he moved to Bombay in 1891, with his support, the first Twelve Shiite mosque was built in the Palla Galli district. Between 1880 and 1904 the first twelve Shiite communities arose in Khojas on Zanzibar , in Mombasa , on Lamu , in Bagamoyo , Lindi , Pangani , Daressalam and Kilwa . In 1881 Devji Jamal, a wealthy merchant from Bombay, founded the first twelve Shiite Khoja Madrasa in Zanzibar.

A Muharram memorial service in a Husainīya in Dar es Salaam , Tanzania

Around 1905, the number of twelve Shiite Khojas increased significantly because of the fact that many Ismaili Khojas, who followed the centralization policy of Aga Khan III. did not want to bend, switched to the twelve-schia. In Karachi , too , a separate twelve Shiite Khoja community has now been founded. In East Africa around this time, further churches emerged in Kenya, Mozambique, Uganda , Zaire , Mauritius and Madagascar . In the conflict with the Khojas who remained Ismaili, some Twelve Shiites were killed, who are venerated as martyrs in the Twelve Shiite communities to this day .

In November 1945, delegates from various twelve Shiite Khoja communities in Dar es Salaam came together for a first conference with the aim of founding a regional organization. From these efforts the Federation of Khoja Shia Ithna Ashari Jamaats of Africa emerged in May 1946 , which still exists today. The Federation standardized the curriculum of religious education, developed various educational activities, and in 1964 founded the Bilal Muslim Mission to convert Africans to the Twelve Shia. By 2002 it should have won around 100,000 new followers for the Zwölfer-Schia. Most of them were previously Sunni Muslims.

The Twelve Shiite scholarship during the reign of the Pahlavis

During the rule of the Pahlavi dynasty , which came to power in 1925, the Twelve Shiite scholars initially behaved quietist . The Grand Ayatollah Hossein Borudscherdi , who taught in Qom and was widely recognized as the highest Marjaʿ-i taqlīd since 1949 , invited around 2000 Shiite scholars to a congress in Qom in February 1949 and obliged them not to join any party and not to interfere in political affairs . However, that did not prevent him from resisting the land reform planned by the Shah in 1960 .

During the 1940s and 1950s, a movement of rapprochement ( taqrīb ) emerged between Sunnis and Shia Twelve. A key role was played by the Egyptian scholar Mahmūd Schaltūt , who published a fatwa on October 1, 1958, in which he recognized the Jafari school of law as having equal rights with the four Sunni schools of law. The fatwa says: “The madhhab of the Jafariya, known as the madhhab of the imamite twelve- shia , is a madhhab according to which one may worship ( taʿabbud ) in the sense of the Sharia ( šarʿan ) . The Muslims should know this. ”However, the Hanbali publicist Muhibb ad-Dīn al-Khatīb spoke out against these approaches . In 1960 he published a pamphlet in which he claimed that the Twelve Shia was an independent religion that was detached from Islam because the Twelve Shiites would not recognize the Koran in the form in which the Sunnis transmitted it.

Mohammad Kazem Shariatmadari , one of the most influential Grand Ayatollahs in Iran in the 1960s and 1970s.

After Borudscherdi's death in 1961, the Twelve Shiite scholars no longer had a generally recognized head. Three camps emerged within Iran's Twelve Shiite scholarship, namely the conservative, the central and the radical. The conservative scholars wanted to stay out of politics to a large extent, but strove to enforce the principles of the Twelve Shia in the state and to maintain their religious leadership position. This camp included, for example, Mohammad Reza Golpayegani (d. 1993), Mohammad Hoseyn Tabātabā'i (d. 1981) and Mohammad Kazem Schariatmadari (d. 1986). The central camp was headed by Mortazā Motahhari (d. 1979) and Mohammad Beheschti (d. 1981). They became politically active and advocated state legal reforms based on the Jafaritic school of law. The main representative of the radical group was Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini . As early as the 1960s, he criticized the Shah's regime very fiercely and worked out the theory of the Welāyat-e Faqih ( governorship of the legal scholar ) during his exile in Iraq . According to this, a state can only claim legitimacy during the absence of the twelfth imam if the twelve Shiite scholars themselves assume the most important political offices in it.

In Iraq, after Borudscherdi's death, Grand Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakīm in Najaf was the most important mardschaʿ. After his death in 1970, his rank was passed to the Iranian Abū l-Qāsim al-Chū'ī (d. 1992), who largely stayed out of political issues. Alongside him, Ayatollah Muhammad Bāqir as-Sadr was very influential as an economic theorist and political activist. He also helped build the Islamic Daʿwa Party , the main Shiite party in Iraq. In April 1980 he was sentenced to death by an Iraqi court for high treason and executed.

The Twelve Shia as an ideology of salvation after the Islamic Revolution

Ayatollah Khomeini on his return from exile on February 1, 1979 at the airport in Tehran

The so-called Islamic Revolution in 1979 led to the political ideas developed by Khomeini being transformed into a state system in Iran. The political system of the "Islamic Republic of Iran" established in 1979 is significantly shaped by Khomeini's theory of Welāyat-e Faqih . The basis for this was the constitutional referendum of December 1979 , in which a constitution based on this theory was adopted with 99.5 percent. Within the history of the Twelve Shia, the Khomeinist discourse was revolutionary in two ways: On the one hand, the Shiite clergy entered the open fight against a regime with it for the first time, with the aim of replacing it and taking themselves to the fore State to provide; On the other hand, the Khomeinist discourse has shed the political reluctance that had prevailed up until then, broke away from classic casuistry and integrated Marxist concepts into its vocabulary.

In connection with this development, the Twelve Shia in the sense of an ideology of salvation became one of the most politicized directions in Islam in the early 1980s. This ideology was also spread to other Islamic countries through revolutionary exports, especially those with a Twelve Shiite population. In Lebanon, Hezbollah, a militant Shiite organization that is committed to the principles of the Islamic Revolution, came into being in the early 1980s . In November 1981 in Bahrain, a Shiite majority country, Shiites demonstrated in the streets shouting : Allāhu akbar, Ḫumainī rahbar (“God is great, Khomeini is the leader”), and in the following month 70 people were charged with attempted coup arrested. In September 1982, Huddschat al-Islām Mūsawī Chu'ainī led a group of Shiite pilgrims to Mecca with the aim of revealing the "machinations of the stray people," i.e. H. of the Saudi dynasty, and in the fall of 1983 there was an attempted coup by Khomeini supporters in Qatar . The Iraqi Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Bāqir al-Hakīm founded the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq in 1982 while in exile in Iran , the main goal of which was the overthrow of Saddam Hussein .

Ibrahim Zakzaky, leader of the Twelve Shiites in Nigeria since the 1980s

Even in countries without a Shiite population, Muslims sympathized with the Islamic Revolution. Fathī Schaqqāqī , the founder of Islamic Jihad in Palestine , wrote a book as early as 1979 in which he praised Khomeini as an “Islamic solution”. In Nigeria , Senegal and Indonesia , the revolutionary mood even led Sunni Muslims to convert to the Twelve Shia. In Nigeria, Sheikh Ibrahim Zakzaky founded a pro-Iranian organization that tried to implement the principles of the Islamic Revolution. After visiting Iran several times in the early 1980s and converting to the Shia, he carried out several Shiite missionary campaigns in Kano , Zaria, and Sokoto . Later he founded the "Islamic Movement in Nigeria" as an association of the Shiites of Nigeria. In Senegal, Sidy Lamine Niass founded the Islamist magazine Wal-Fajri at the end of 1983 , which was ideologically strongly aligned with the Islamic Republic of Iran and disseminated Shiite teachings. In Indonesia, the two hadramitic scholars Hussein al-Habsyi and Abdul Qadir Bafaqih began to spread Shiite teachings in the 1980s.

Within the Islamic Republic of Iran, the two Grand Ayatollahs Hossein Ali Montazeri and Yusof Sanei rose to important positions in the state. Khomeini's theory of the Welāyat-e Faqih, however, by no means met with unanimous approval within the Twelve Shiite scholarship. In Iran itself, for example, the scholars Hassan Tabatabaei Qomi and Ahmad Azari Qomi have spoken out against this concept. The vast majority of Shiite scholars in Iraq, India, Syria and Bahrain are also very critical of the concept. Many traditional marjahs do not interfere in political affairs, which is increasingly difficult for them in the increasingly troubled region. Both the Islamic Revolution in Iran and the US invasion of the predominantly Shiite Iraq prompted many apolitical Marjahs to redefine their position.

The blossoming of the Twelve Shia in Syria

The shrine Saiyida Zainab in the south of Damascus

In Syria, the Shia Twelve make up around three percent of the population. Although smaller, twelve Shiite minorities have lived in the country for several centuries, an intellectual life of its own only developed at the beginning of the 20th century when the Shiite reform scholar Muhsin al-Amīn (1865–1952) from Jabal ʿĀmil followed Damascus moved. Upon his arrival in 1901, local Twelve Shiite traders helped him set up a school and foundation. These institutions continued to flourish after his death and benefited from the rapprochement between the Twelve Shia and the Alawite minority, which has dominated the Syrian state apparatus since the late 1960s. This rapprochement intensified after the leader of the Lebanese Shiites Mūsā as-Sadr officially recognized the Alawis as Shiite Muslims. A large number of twelve Shiite institutions emerged within Syria. The most important center of the Twelve Shiites is the Saiyida Zainabs shrine in the south of Damascus, where the Iraqi scholar Hasan al-Schīrāzī founded a new Hauza in 1976. His movement, the so-called Schīrāzīya, is also the most active Twelve Shiite group in Syria. In contrast to Khamenei and Hezbollah in Lebanon, it allows Shiite believers to practice tatbīr .

The Uwais-al-Qaranī Mosque in Raqqa before its destruction

In the 1980s and 1990s, numerous Iraqi refugees settled at Saiyida Zainab's shrine, and a separate Shiite town of twelve with around 200,000 inhabitants was created. In addition, some Syrian Sunnis and Alawites converted to the Twelve Shia. In 2001, for the first time, twelve Shiite processions passed through the old town of Damascus, during which revenge for the martyrdom of Husain was demanded. When in the years after 2003 the number of Shiite refugees from Iraq increased again and numerous new Shiite teaching institutions were founded, anti-Shiite sentiments rose up on the Sunni side. Supporters of the Muslim Brotherhood accused the Iranians present in Syria of using financial incentives to spread the Twelve Shiite doctrine among the Syrian population and of wanting to change the demographic composition of the country by accepting Syrian citizenship on a massive scale. Shiitization also spread to the eastern parts of Syria. In 2009, the Uwais-al-Qaranī Mosque was built in Raqqa as a new Twelve Shiite center . When the uprising against the Syrian regime broke out in the spring of 2011 , thousands of Iraqi Shiites fled the violence that accompanied the uprising back to their homeland. Since the Shia Twelve both supported and received support from the Alawite government, they were increasingly targeted by insurgents. The Uwais-al-Qaranī Mosque was destroyed in 2014 by the Islamic State Organization in Iraq and the Levant .

The Twelve Shia in Western countries


Approximately 225,500 Twelve Shiites live in Germany . Most of the Twelve Shiites living in Germany originally come from Iran , Iraq , Lebanon , Afghanistan , Pakistan , India and Azerbaijan .

The Twelve Shiites in Germany are organized in the umbrella organization of the Islamic Community of Shiite Communities in Germany (IGS) , which was founded in Hamburg in 2009 and to which over 150 Shiite mosque communities belong. The first chairman of this association was Ayatollah Sayyid Hosseini Ghaemmaghami . The current chairman is Hodschatoleslam Mahmood Khalilzadeh . The IGS has been a participant in the German Islam Conference since 2014 . The largest and best-known member of the IGS is the Islamic Center Hamburg (IZH) with the Imam Ali Mosque , which is also the center of the Twelve Shiites in Germany.

The Shia library of the Oriental Seminary at the University of Cologne , which was founded in the early 1960s by Abdoldjavad Falaturi (1926–1996), houses one of the most important collections of twelve Shiite literature in Europe.

other European countries

There are approximately 300,000 Shiites twelve live in the UK . Most of them are immigrants from Iran, Iraq, Pakistan and East Africa. There are Shiite education centers in London and Birmingham . The al-Chu'i Foundation , one of the most important twelve Shiite organizations in the world, is also based in London. Another twelve Shiite organization based in London is the World Federation of Khoja Shia Ithna-Asheri Muslim Communities , which has its headquarters in the London borough of Stanmore.

The number of Shiites twelve in France is estimated at around 100,000. A special group among them are the twelve Shiite Khojas from Madagascar, who immigrated to France after the country gained independence in 1960 and now live in the suburbs of Paris. You have had two associations since 1994, one based in Bagneux and the other based in La Courneuve .


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supporting documents

  1. Momen: Shi'i Islam. 2016, p. 219.
  2. Momen: Shi'i Islam. 2016, p. 219.
  3. Fığlalı: "İsnâaşeriyye" in Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi . 2001, Vol. XXIII, p. 146c.
  4. See Silvia Tellenbach: Investigations on the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran from November 15, 1979. Schwarz, Berlin, 1985. P. 64. Digitalisat
  5. Fığlalı: "İsnâaşeriyye" in Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi . 2001, Vol. XXIII, p. 143a.
  6. Jarrar: “Al-Manṣūr Bi-Llāh's Controversy with Twelver Šīʿites.” 2012, p. 326.
  7. Momen: Shi'i Islam. 2016, p. 218.
  8. Cf. Fığlalı: “İsnâaşeriyye” in Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi . 2001, Vol. XXIII, p. 146c. He puts the number of Shiites twelve at 1 million and their share at 0.15% considerably lower.
  9. ^ Rizvi / King: The Khoja Shia Ithna-asheriya Community . 1974, 194, 203.
  10. Nasr: "Ithnā ʿAshariyya" in Encyclopaedia of Islam Vol. IV, p. 278b.
  11. Eliash: “The Ithnā'asharī-Shī'ī Juristic Theory of Political and Legal Authority”. 1969, p. 17f.
  12. Sachedina: Art. "Ithnā ʿAsharīyah". 2009, Vol. III, p. 217b.
  13. ^ Meir Michael Bar-Asher: La place du judaïsme et des juifs dans le shï'isme duodécimain in Mohammad Ali Amir-Moezzi (ed.): Islam: identité et altérité; hommage à Guy Monnot , Brepols, Turnhout, 2013, pp. 57–82. Here p. 74.
  14. Nasr: "Ithnā ʿAshariyya" in Encyclopaedia of Islam Vol. IV, p. 278a.
  15. See Lynda Clarke: The Rise and Decline of Taqiyya in Twelver Shiʿism. in Todd Lawson (Ed.): Reason and Inspiration in Islam: Theology, Philosophy and Mysticism in Muslim Thought ed. IB Tauris, London 2005, pp. 46–63. Here p. 47, 55.
  16. ^ Schmidtke: Theology, Philosophy and Mysticism in Twelve Shiite Islam . 2000, p. 262.
  17. Kohlberg: The term muḥaddath in Twelver Shi'ism 1979th
  18. Brunner: Le charisme of songeurs. 2009, p. 109.
  19. See Amir-Moezzi: Visions d'imams en mystique duodécimaine modern . 2003.
  20. Kohlberg: From Imamiyya to Ithna-'Ashariyya . 1976, p. 532.
  21. ^ Turner: Still waiting for the Imam? 1993-1995, pp. 31-33.
  22. Etan Kohlberg: “Safīr. 1. Sh ī'ism "in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Vol. VIII, pp. 811b-812b.
  23. ^ Amir-Moezzi: “Contribution à la typologie des rencontres avec l'imam caché”. 1996, p. 122f.
  24. Kohlberg: From Imamiyya to Ithna-'Ashariyya . 1976, p. 521.
  25. Kohlberg: From Imamiyya to Ithna-'Ashariyya . 1976, p. 529.
  26. Fığlalı: "İsnâaşeriyye" in Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi . 2001, Vol. XXIII, p. 143b.
  27. See Article 5 of the constitution, quoted in Silvia Tellenbach: Investigations into the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran from November 15, 1979. Schwarz, Berlin, 1985. P. 62. Digitalisat
  28. Muhammad Bāqir al-Maǧlisī: Biḥār al-Anwār . 3rd edition. Dār Iḥyāʾ at-turāṯ al-ʿArabī, Beirut, 1983. Vol. LII, p. 376, no. 177. Digitized
  29. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 46f.
  30. See Colin P. Turner: The “Tradition of Mufaḍḍal” and the doctrine of the rajʿa: evidence of ghuluww in the eschatology of Twelver Shiʿism? in Iran: Journal of the British Institute of Persian Studies 44 (2006), 175–195.
  31. Wilferd Madelung "Badā'" in Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol III, p 354f.. Online .
  32. Georges Vajda: "The problem of the vision de Dieu (ruʾya) d'après quelques auteurs šīʿites duodécimains" in: Le Shîʿisme imâmite. Colloque de Strasbourg (May 6-9, 1968) . Presses universitaires de France, Paris, 1970. pp. 31-54.
  33. ^ Marcinkowski, "Some Reflections On Alleged Twelver Shīʿite Attitudes Toward the Integrity of the Qur'ān". 2001, p. 144.
  34. Momen: An Introduction to Shiʿi Islam. 1985, p. 172.
  35. See Brunner: "The Schia and the Koran falsification". 2001.
  36. Momen: An Introduction to Shiʿi Islam. 1985, pp. 173f.
  37. Eliash: “The Ithnā'asharī-Shī'ī Juristic Theory of Political and Legal Authority”. 1969, p. 18.
  38. Momen: An Introduction to Shiʿi Islam. 1985, p. 174.
  39. Robert Gleave: "Between Hadith and Fiqh: The 'Canonical' Imami Collections of Akhbar" in Islamic Law and Society 8 (2001) 350-382.
  40. Falaturi: “The Twelve Shia from the perspective of a Shiite.” 1968, p. 68.
  41. ^ Colin Turner: "Aspects of devotional life in Twelver Shiʿism: the practice of duʿā " in Paul Luft and Colin Turner (eds.): Shiʿism. Vol. III: Law, rite and ritual. Routledge, London 2008, pp. 375-408. Here p. 380.
  42. Momen: An Introduction to Shiʿi Islam. 1985, p. 180.
  43. Werner Ende: “Stones of contention. The mausoleum of the Ahl al-bayt in Medina ”in Hinrich Biesterfeldt and Verena Klemm (eds.): Difference and dynamics in Islam. Festschrift for Heinz Halm on his 70th birthday. Ergon, Würzburg, 2012. pp. 181-200. Here p. 196.
  44. See Hamid Algar: “ʿAtabāt” in Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol. II, pp. 902-904. On-line
  45. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 170.
  46. Hartung: "Everywhere is Kerbala" . 2005, pp. 275f.
  47. Purnaqcheband: The suffering of the Imams from the perspective of the Twelve Shia . 2008, p. 146.
  48. Szanto: "Beyond the Karbala Paradigm". 2013, p. 75f.
  49. See the overview in Strothmann: Die Zwölfer-Schīʿa . 1926, pp. 170f.
  50. Purnaqcheband: The suffering of the Imams from the perspective of the Twelve Shia . 2008, p. 147.
  51. Cf. Gustav Thaiss: "Rawza Khvānī" in John L. Esposito (ed.): The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. 6 Vols. Oxford 2009. Vol. IV, pp. 510-512.
  52. Keshani: Architecture and the Twelver Shi'i tradition . 2006, p. 219a.
  53. Hartung: "Everywhere is Kerbala" . 2005, p. 262f.
  54. Hartung: "Everywhere is Kerbala" . 2005, p. 265.
  55. Hartung: "Everywhere is Kerbala" . 2005, p. 266f.
  56. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 175.
  57. Cf. al-ʿAllāma al-Hillī : Muntahā al-maṭlab fī taḥqīq al-maḏhab. Volume 1. Maǧmaʿ al-Buḥūṯ al-Islāmīya, Mašhad 1412q (= 1992), p. 190 f. (al-maqṣad aṯ-ṯānī fī l-wuḍūʾ) .
  58. Savory: "'The Added Touch': Ithnā ʿAsharī Shi'ism as a Factor in the Foreign Policy of Iran". 1986, p. 421f.
  59. Momen: An Introduction to Shiʿi Islam. 1985, p. 180.
  60. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 136.
  61. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 176.
  62. See Rudolph Peters: Crime and Punishment in Islamic Law. Theory and Practice from the Sixteenth to the Twenty-first Century . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2005, p. 36.
  63. Savory: "The Export of Ithna Ashari Shi'ism". 1990, p. 18.
  64. ^ Moussavi: The Establishment of the Position of Marja'iyyat-i Taqlid . 1985, p. 35f.
  65. See Hamid Mavani: Paradigm Shift in Twelver Shi'i Legal Theory (uṣūl al ‐ fiqh): Ayatullah Yusef Saanei in Muslim World 99/2 (2009), 335–355. Here p. 345.
  66. Aš-Šahrastānī: Al-Milal wa-Nihal . 1956, Vol. I, p. 154 - German translation: Th. Haarbrücker, Vol. I, p. 198.
  67. N. Pourjavady: opposition to Sufism in Twelver Shiism . 1999, pp. 614-619, 621-623.
  68. N. Pourjavady: opposition to Sufism in Twelver Shiism . 1999, pp. 619-621.
  69. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, p. 461.
  70. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, pp. 458, 460.
  71. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, p. 465.
  72. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, pp. 466–469.
  73. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, p. 464.
  74. Nasr: "Ithnā ʿAshariyya" in Encyclopaedia of Islam Vol. IV, p. 278a.
  75. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 135.
  76. Cf. Stephan Rosiny: The Twelver Shia Online: Challenges for its Religious Authorities in Alessandro Monsutti (ed.): The other Shiites: from Mediterranean to Central Asia . Lang, Bern 2007, pp. 245-262.
  77. See the official website of as-Sīsitānī .
  78. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 136.
  79. Sachedina: Art. "Ithnā ʿAsharīyah". 2009, Vol. III, p. 217.
  80. Franke: The Hawza of Najaf . 2007, p. 81.
  81. Franke: The Hawza of Najaf . 2007, p. 88.
  82. See the overview in Franke: Die Ḥawza von Nadschaf . 2007, p. 83f.
  83. Franke: The Hawza of Najaf . 2007, p. 84.
  84. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 135.
  85. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 307.
  86. ^ Hossein Modarressi: Crisis and Consolidation in the formative period of Shiʿite Islam. Abū Jaʿfar ibn Qiba al-Rāzī and his contribution to Imāmite Shīʿite thought. Darwin Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1993. pp. 77-79.
  87. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 309.
  88. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 310f.
  89. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 312f.
  90. Klemm: The four sufarāʾ of the Twelfth Imām. 1983, pp. 141f.
  91. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 44.
  92. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 317f.
  93. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, pp. 50f.
  94. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 321f.
  95. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 311f.
  96. Abdulsater: Dynamics of absence . 2011, p. 324.
  97. Abu-l-Ḥasan ʿAlī Ibn-Ismāʾīl al-Ašʿarī: Kitāb Maqālāt al-islāmīyīn wa-ḫtilāf al-muṣallīn. Ed. Hellmut Ritter . Istanbul: Maṭbaʿat ad-daula 1929–1933. P. 17f. Digitized
  98. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, pp. 56-59.
  99. ^ Amir-Moezzi: “Contribution à la typologie des rencontres avec l'imam caché”. 1996, p. 116.
  100. ^ Amir-Moezzi: Réflexions sur une évolution du shiʿisme duodécimain . 1993, pp. 69f.
  101. Ansari / Schmidtke: "The Shīʿī Reception of Muʿtazilism (II): Twelver Shīʿīs". 2016, p. 201.
  102. Ansari / Schmidtke: "The Shīʿī Reception of Muʿtazilism (II): Twelver Shīʿīs". 2016, p. 202.
  103. Stewart: Islamic Legal Orthodoxy. 1998, pp. 61-109.
  104. aš-Sharīf al-Murtaḍā: al-Fuṣūl al-muḫtāra min al-ʿUyūn wa-l-maḥāsin . Al-Muʾtamar al-ʿālamī li-alfīyat aš-Shaiḫ al-Mufīd, 1413h. P. 321.
  105. Al-Baġdādī: Al-Farq baina l-firaq . Ed. Muḥammad ʿUṯmān al-Ḫišn. Maktabat Ibn Sīnā, Kairo o. D., p. 64 ( digitized version) - English translation: K. Ch. Seelye, 1920, p. 66 ( digitized version ).
  106. Ansari / Schmidtke: "The Shīʿī Reception of Muʿtazilism (II): Twelver Shīʿīs". 2016, p. 205.
  107. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, pp. 73-79.
  108. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 77.
  109. Ansari / Schmidtke: "The Shīʿī Reception of Muʿtazilism (II): Twelver Shīʿīs". 2016, p. 203.
  110. Pourjavady / Schmidtke: “Twelver Shīʿī Theology”. 2016, p. 456.
  111. Falaturi: The Twelve Shia from the perspective of a Shiite. 1968, p. 75.
  112. Jarrar: “Al-Manṣūr Bi-Llāh's Controversy with Twelver Šīʿites.” 2012, pp. 319–331.
  113. Pourjavady / Schmidtke: “Twelver Shīʿī Theology”. 2016, p. 457.
  114. ^ Amir-Moezzi: Réflexions sur une évolution du shiʿisme duodécimain . 1993, p. 73.
  115. . See them Strothmann: The Twelver Shi'a . 1926.
  116. Hassan Ansari and Sabine Schmidtke: "Philosophical Theology among Sixth / Twelfth Century Twelver Shīʿites: From Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (d. after 599 / 1201-2 or 600 / 1202-3) to Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (d. 672/1274) “in Shii Studies Review 1 (2017) 194-256. Here p. 207.
  117. Pourjavady / Schmidtke: “Twelver Shīʿī Theology”. 2016, p. 459.
  118. Momen: An Introduction to Shiʿi Islam. 1985, pp. 90f.
  119. Pourjavady / Schmidtke: “Twelver Shīʿī Theology”. 2016, pp. 459f, 462.
  120. Pfeiffer: Twelver Shi'ism in Mongol Iran . 1999, p. 14f.
  121. Pfeiffer: Twelver Shi'ism in Mongol Iran . 1999, p. 11.
  122. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, pp. 83, 90.
  123. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 96.
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  126. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 107.
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  129. Pourjavady / Schmidtke: “Twelver Shīʿī Theology”. 2016, p. 462.
  130. Miriam Younes: Discussions of Shiite Scholars on Legal Foundations of Legality in the Early Safavid Period: the Example of the Treatises on Friday Prayer . Ergon, Würzburg, 2010. p. 34.
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  140. Ahmed / Pourjavady: "Theology in the Indian Subcontinent". 2016, p. 610.
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  147. ^ Rainer Brunner: The Schia and the Koran forgery . 2001, pp. 12-39.
  148. Fani: Dabistan-i Maḏāhib . 1904, pp. 272f.
  149. Cf. Theodor Nöldeke : History of the Qorāns. 2. The collection of the Qorān. Leipzig 1919. pp. 100-112. Digitized
  150. See also Falaturi: Die Zwölfer-Schia from the perspective of a Shiite. 1968, p. 94f.
  151. ^ Rainer Brunner: The Schia and the Koran forgery . 2001, p. 16f.
  152. Savory: "The Export of Ithna Ashari Shi'ism". 1990, p. 30f.
  153. Savory: "The Export of Ithna Ashari Shi'ism". 1990, p. 32f.
  154. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 131.
  155. Hartung: "Everywhere is Kerbala" . 2005, p. 270.
  156. Keshani: Architecture and the Twelver Shi'i tradition . 2006, pp. 225f.
  157. Hartung: "Everywhere is Kerbala" . 2005, p. 270f.
  158. Keshani: Architecture and the Twelver Shi'i tradition . 2006, pp. 228b-229a.
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  160. Savory: "The Export of Ithna Ashari Shi'ism". 1990, p. 28.
  161. Hartung: "Everywhere is Kerbala" . 2005, p. 271.
  162. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 182.
  163. Savory: "The Export of Ithna Ashari Shi'ism". 1990, p. 33f.
  164. ^ Wilhelm Litten : “The new Persian constitution. Overview of the previous legislative work of the Persian Parliament. ”In: Contributions to the knowledge of the Orient: Yearbook of the Munich Oriental Society. 6 (1908), pp. 1–51 Here, p. 37 digitized . The original Persian text is available here .
  165. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, p. 462.
  166. ^ Rizvi / King: The Khoja Shia Ithna-asheriya Community . 1974, 197f.
  167. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, p. 463.
  168. Michel Boivin: "The Ismaʿili - Isna ʿAshari Divide Among the Khojas: Exploring Forgotten Judicial Data from Karachi." In Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 24 (2014) 381-396. - Reprinted in Justin Jones, Ali Usman Qasmi (eds.): The Shi'a in Modern South Asia: Religion, History and Politics . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2015. pp. 36-56.
  169. Halm: The Schia. 1988, pp. 174f.
  170. Mirza: Traveling Leaders and Connecting Print Cultures. 2014, p. 462.
  171. ^ Rizvi / King: The Khoja Shia Ithna-asheriya Community . 1974, 199f.
  172. See the organization's website .
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  174. Momen: Shi'i Islam. 2016, p. 271.
  175. See Halm: The Schia. 1988, pp. 153-155.
  176. See the reproduction of the fatwa in ʿAbd al-Karīm Abū Āzār aš-Šīrāzī: al-Waḥda al-Islāmīya au at-Taqrīb baina l-maḏāhib as-sabʿa; waṯāʾiq ḫaṭīra wa-buḥūṯ ʿilmīya li-ʿaẓāʾim ʿulamāʾ al-Muslimīn min as-Sunna wa-š-Šīʿa. 2nd edition. Muʾassasat al-Aʿlamī li-l-Maṭbūʿāt, Beirut, 1992. p. 22. Digitized
  177. Fığlalı: İsnâaşeriyye in Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi . 2001, Vol. XXIII, p. 146b.
  178. Halm: The Schia. 1988, p. 170.
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  181. Savory: "'The Added Touch': Ithnā ʿAsharī Shi'ism as a Factor in the Foreign Policy of Iran". 1986, pp. 411f.
  182. Savory: "'The Added Touch': Ithnā ʿAsharī Shi'ism as a Factor in the Foreign Policy of Iran". 1986, p. 414.
  183. Muhammad Dahiru Sulaiman: Shiaism and the Islamic Movement in Nigeria 1979-1991 in Ousmane Kane et Jean-Louis Triaud: Islam et islamismes au sud du Sahara , Paris 1998, pp. 183-196.
  184. Hanspeter Mattes: The Islamist movement of Senegal between autonomy and external orientation: using the example of the Islamist press Etudes Islamiques and Wal-Fadjri. Hamburg 1989. pp. 52-55.
  185. On the Twelve Shia in Indonesia cf. Zulkifli: The Struggle of the Shi'is in Indonesia. PhD thesis Leiden 2009.
  186. Fığlalı: İsnâaşeriyye in Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslâm ansiklopedisi . 2001, Vol. XXIII, p. 146b.
  187. Szanto: “Contesting Fragile Saintly Traditions”. 2013, p. 34.
  188. Pierret: "Karbala in the Umayyad Mosque". 2013, p. 100f.
  189. Pierret: "Karbala in the Umayyad Mosque". 2013, p. 114.
  190. Szanto: “Contesting Fragile Saintly Traditions”. 2013, p. 51.
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  195. Szanto: "Beyond the Karbala Paradigm". 2013, p. 76.
  196. ^ Membership numbers : Islam , in: Religionswissenschaftlicher Medien- und Informationsdienst e. V. (Abbreviation: REMID) , accessed on January 30, 2016
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  199. Momen: Shi'i Islam. 2016, p. 274.
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  202. Pierre Lachaier: Khojas duodécimains de Madagascar in Hommes & Migrations 1268-1269 (2007), 138-143. Digitized
  203. On the problematic question of the author, see Dabestān-e maḏāheb ( EIr ).