Tahmasp I.

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Shah Tahmasp I on a fresco from the Tschehel Sotun Palace in Isfahan (detail).

Abul-Fath Tahmasp I. ( Persian طهماسب, DMG Ṭahmāseb [ tæhˈmɔːseb ], Abu'l-Fatḥ Ṭahmāsp ( Azerbaijani : I Təhmasib); * February 22, 1514 in Shāh-ābād near Isfahan ; † May 14, 1576 in Qazvin ), Shah of Persia , was crowned second Shah of the Safavid dynasty in 1524 at the age of only 10 as the successor to his father, Ismail I (1501–1524) .

Tahmasp I's term of office was marked by violent domestic and foreign political upheavals: Immediately after Ismail's death, the Kizilbash took control of the state, and rivalries broke out within the various Turkoman tribes; in 1526 there was a civil war. At that time, the real power in the state was in the hands of the Kizilbasch, whose rule Tahmasp was finally able to break through the execution of Husayn Khan in 1533.

The phase of domestic political unrest had enabled the Ottomans in the west and the Uzbeks in the east to penetrate deep into Safavid territory. During the 52-year tenure of Tahmasp I, there were numerous Ottoman attacks under Sultan Suleyman I , but the peace of Amasya was agreed in 1555, which ushered in a 30-year period of peace.

Between 1540 and 1553 the Safavids undertook four campaigns in the Caucasus , the constant bone of contention between the two empires. Georgian, Circassian and Armenian prisoners of war were brought to Persia in large numbers, where their commercial and handicraft skills were used. This population transfer caused, among other things, a considerable change in the previously deeply divided Safavid society (between elements of Turkish and Iranian origin).

Shah Tahmasp I died on May 14, 1576. He was considered a very religious person, but also as stingy and greedy. Under his rule, the Safavid capital was transferred from Tabriz to Qazvin . There he took his seat of government in the Tschehel Sotun pavilion .

See also


  • Colin P. Mitchell: Tahmasp I . In: Ehsan Yarshater (Ed.): Encyclopædia Iranica , as of July 15, 2009, accessed on June 9, 2011 (English, including references)
  • Hans Robert Roemer: Persia on the way into modern times: Iranian history from 1350-1750 . Steiner, Stuttgart 1989.

Web links

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