Tahmasp II

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Obverse of an Ashrafi dinar (approx. 3.46 g) defeated under Tahmasp II : around the Shahada with the Shiite addition "and Ali is the friend of God" are the names of the twelve imams .

Tahmasp II ( Persian طهماسب, DMG Ṭahmāseb [ tæhˈmɔːseb ]; * 1704 ; † 1740 in Sabzevar ) was the son of Shah Sultan Hosein (1694-1722) and was crowned penultimate ruler of the Safavid dynasty on November 16, 1729 . In October 1722 the Afghan Gilzai under Mir Mahmud Hotaki conquered the capital Isfahan and forced Tahmasp's father to abdicate. Tahmasp had fled the city towards Qazvin in June 1722 and tried to organize the resistance. He made himself the new ruler in November 1722. From Qazvin he first went to Azerbaijan in December 1722 and from there to Māzandarān to gather an army and to negotiate with the Russians , who used the instability of the Safavid Empire for their expansion. At the same time, the Ottomans had marched across the border in the west and occupied cities like Hamadan and Kermanshah .

Tahmasp managed to get the two powerful Turkish tribes, the Afshars and the Qajars, behind them. Together with his military slave ( Ghulam ) and later General Nadir Khan Afshar , Tahmasp was able to push back the Afghans. In the meantime (1725) Mir Mahmud Hotaki had been replaced by his cousin Ashraf Khan . He lost two battles at Isfahan and Shiraz and fled to Kandahar , but was killed on the way. Tahmasp returned to Isfahan in late 1729, and the Safavids regained control of the empire. Nadir Khan was also able to push back the Ottomans and a peace treaty was signed with the Russians. When Tahmasp later drew and lost against the Ottomans on his own initiative, Nadir Khan took advantage of this, deposed Tahmasp in August 1732 and brought his eight-month-old son Abbas to the throne ( Abbas III ). On March 8, 1736, however, Nadir crowned himself Shah ( Nadir Shah ) and thus became the first ruler of the Afsharid dynasty. If the Safavids only existed in name from 1722, their time was finally over from 1736. Tahmasp II and his son Abbas III. were executed in 1740.