Calendar overview 1704
|Battle of Vélez-Málaga in the War of the Spanish Succession .|
|August II of Poland is deposed by the Warsaw Confederation .||Stanislaus I. Leszczyński is declared his successor.|
|1704 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1152/53 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1696/97 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1109/10 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2247/48 (southern Buddhism); 2246/47 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1066/67 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4037/38 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1115/16 (turn of the year 5th / 6th May)|
|Jewish calendar||5464/65 (September 28-29)|
|Coptic calendar||1420/21 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2014/15 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2015/16 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1760/61 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- February 16 : Opponents of the Polish electoral king August II under the leadership of Primate Michael Stephan Radziejowski meet in the Confederation of Warsaw . They dethrone the ruler who also ruled Electoral Saxony and proclaim an interregnum in Poland-Lithuania . Cardinal and Primate Radziejowski is appointed Interrex .
- May 16 : The fortress of the port of Kronstadt , formerly mostly ice-free Baltic Sea port of Sweden in front of the newly created city of Saint Petersburg , Kronschlot, is opened.
- May 20 : Polish supporters of King August II and the personal union of Saxony-Poland join forces in the Sandomir Confederation . You are reacting to the anti-royal Confederation of Warsaw . Stanisław Ernest Denhoff is appointed Confederation Marshal .
- June 4th : The siege of Tartu by Russian troops begins.
- June 27 : The Russian siege of Narva begins after a Russian army corps under the command of Field Marshal Georg Benedikt von Ogilvy had been dispatched from Ingermanland to conquer this Swedish fortress in Estonia. At the same time, another Russian army pushes against Dorpat. The aim of these operations is to take these important border fortresses in the Great Northern War in order to protect Ingermanland, conquered last year, with the new St. Peterburg, and to gain the opportunity to conquer Livonia .
- July 12 : The Warsaw Confederation declares Stanislaus I. Leszczyński King of Poland . She has the support of the Swedish King Karl XII for this step . The affront to King August II subsequently triggers a civil war.
- July 13 : The garrison of the Swedish fortress Dorpat (today Tartu , Estonia) surrenders after a month-long siege of the Russian army under the command of Field Marshal Boris Sheremetew.
- July 26 : The Swedish army under General Adam Lewenhaupt defeats Latvian-Russian forces under the command of Grand Hetman Michał Serwacy Wiśniowiecki in the battle of Jakobstadt .
- 9 August : The siege of Narva ends with the occupation of the Swedish fortress by Russian troops under Field Marshal Georg Benedikt von Ogilvy and Tsar Peter the Great .
- August: Russian troops under Colonel Roman von Bruce repel an attack on St. Petersburg by Swedish troops under the command of Lieutenant General Georg Johann Maydell .
- August 16 : The Russians, under the command of Carl Ewald von Rönne, win the battle of Wesenberg over a Swedish army under Wolmar Anton von Schlippenbach .
- August 30th : The Polish aristocracy loyal to the Saxons concludes the Narva Treaty with Russia as an alliance for protection and attack.
- September 7th : The Swedish army, commanded by King Charles XII. , Has left Warsaw, storms the city of Lemberg after a short siege .
- September: King . Augustus II succeeds in taking Warsaw with the support of Russian troops. The Saxon Elector has all the houses of Stanislaus's followers looted and burned down. Then the army of the Polish king unites with that of the Saxon general Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg and invades Greater Poland . Here all possessions are plundered and pillaged by nobles loyal to Stanislaus.
- 14 October to 2 November : Russian troops under the command of Colonel Robert Bruce from St. Petersburg successfully repel an attack by Swedish troops under the command of Lieutenant General Georg Johann Maydell and supported by a naval squadron under Cornelius Anckarstjerna . During the same period, the Swedish garrison under Arvid Axel Mardefelt managed to repel the siege of Posen by Saxon and Russian units. The city is set on fire and the besiegers manage to break a breach in the city walls. Only on the news that Karl XII. is on the march with an army, the Russians withdraw under Johann Reinhold von Patkul .
- November 7th : The Swedes under King Charles XII. win the battle of Punitz . The defeated Saxon units under the command of Johann Matthias von der Schulenburg can, however, retreat across the Oder.
- November 9th : The Swedes under Otto Vellingk also win over the Russians in the battle near Tillendorf .
War of the Spanish Succession
- January 28th : A foehn suddenly bursting in causes the frozen Kochelsee and the surrounding moor to thaw, preventing Austrian troops from attacking the Bavarian monastery Benediktbeuern . The event is later referred to as the Kochelsee miracle .
- March 9 : An Anglo-Dutch corps under Meinhard von Schomberg lands in Lisbon after Portugal joined the Allies in the War of the Spanish Succession .
- July 2nd : After the Battle of Schellenberg with Bavarian troops , the army of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough , and the Margrave of Marlborough from Baden, Ludwig Wilhelm, were able to secure the strategically important town of Donauwörth and thus threaten the Electorate of Bavaria with military force.
- August 1st to 4th : Gibraltar is conquered by the British . The leader of the allied fleet is Georg von Hessen-Darmstadt .
- August 13 : Eugene of Savoy and the Duke of Marlborough defeat the French- Bavarian troops in Bavaria in the Second Battle of Höchstädt . The Bavarian Elector Maximilian II. Emanuel has to flee to the Netherlands.
- August 24th : The Battle of Vélez-Málaga ends with a strategic victory for the Dutch-English fleet over French warships. The dispute is viewed as the greatest naval battle in the War of the Spanish Succession .
- November 7th : In the Treaty of Ilbesheim between Austria and Bavaria, the electorate loses its independence and is taken into foreign administration.
Holy Roman Empire
- January 26th : With the death of his brother Rudolf August , Anton Ulrich becomes sole ruler in the Duchy of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel .
- April: Marshal Montrevel is replaced by Claude-Louis-Hector de Villars in the fight against the rebellious camisards supported by England and the Netherlands in the Cevennes . This proclaims an amnesty for all those who lay down their arms. Jean Cavalier , the leader of the insurgents, then reached a settlement with Villars and entered the service of the French army as a colonel. Other camisards continue the fight but are defeated by the end of the year.
- July 1 : The first edition of the magazine La Clef du cabinet des princes de l'Europe appears in the Duchy of Luxembourg , and from now on it appears monthly.
- In Tsarist Russia , a new silver ruble is being issued, the rough (approx. 28 g) and fine weight (approx. 25 g) of the Western European thaler coins , so that international payments are made much easier.
- The Review , the first regular weekly magazine , is founded.
science and technology
- The first edition of a reference work with the name Reales Staats- und Zeitungs-Lexicon appears in the publishing house of Johann Friedrich Gleditsch in Leipzig .
- The first edition of the Memorabilia Tigurina appears in Zurich .
- April 23rd : Under Prince Abbot Adalbert von Schleifras , construction of the Fulda Cathedral begins in the Fulda Monastery . Although the building master responsible for the new building, Johann Dientzenhofer, had decided that the existing building could have been restored and made Baroque , the old Ratgar basilica is partially demolished , on which the new building will be erected in the Baroque style.
- October 20 : The world premiere of the opera Die unfortunate Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt or Die betrrogene Staats-Liebe by Johann Mattheson on the libretto by Friedrich Christian Feustking takes place at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- After 19 years of construction is under Abbot Albert Hausner the basilica in Waldsassen completed and Auxiliary Bishop Franz Ferdinand von Rummel consecrated. Important church builders such as Georg Dientzenhofer and Abraham Leuthner built the baroque basilica.
- February 4th : Duke Ernst Friedrich I of Sachsen-Hildburghausen marries Sophia Albertine von Erbach-Erbach in Erbach .
- June 24th : Duke Johann Georg von Sachsen-Weißenfels donates the Order of Noble Passion . The reason for the foundation is the assumption of office at the Reichstag for the Principality of Querfurt . The purpose of the order , with which noble men are to be honored, is the promotion of true virtue and honor and preservation of language.
- October: The Scottish sailor Alexander Selkirk is left alone on the uninhabited island of Más a Tierra , part of the Juan Fernández Archipelago . His fate becomes the model for the novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe .
- End of the year: Johann Sebastian Bach meets his distant cousin Maria Barbara Bach in Arnstadt .
- Ten-year-old François-Marie Arouet attended the Jesuit college Louis-le-Grand as a boarding school student .
- The Danish King Frederick IV decided to set up an overseas mission in the south-east Indian trading colony of Tranquebar .
First half of the year
- January 14 : Giovanni Domenico Barbieri , a builder from Graubünden who worked in the Prince Diocese of Eichstätt († 1764 )
- February 5 : Anna Christine Luise , Countess Palatine von Sulzbach, Duchess of Savoy and Crown Princess of Sardinia-Piedmont († 1723 )
- February 13 : Johann Josef Kittel , Bohemian doctor († 1783 )
- February 17 : Johann August von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg , German nobleman and field marshal general († 1767 )
- February 27 : Johann Gottfried Höre , German pedagogue († 1778 )
- February 28 : Hans Hermann von Katte , lieutenant in the Prussian army and childhood friend of Frederick II († 1730 )
- April 1 : Amalie Sophie von Wallmoden , German noblewoman and mistress of British King George II († 1765 )
- April 17 : Andrija Kačić Miošić , Croatian Franciscan and poet († 1760 )
- May 3 : Johann Gottfried Teske , German physicist († 1772 )
- May 16 : Johann Joachim Gottlob am Ende , German theologian and teacher († 1777 )
- June 4 : Benjamin Huntsman , English watchmaker and inventor († 1776 )
- June 11 : José Antonio Carlos de Seixas , Portuguese composer and harpsichordist († 1742 )
- June 24th : Johann Georg Platzer , Tyrolean Baroque painter († 1761 )
Second half of the year
- August 2nd : Maria Caroline Charlotte von Ingenheim , Bavarian nobleman and imperial mistress († 1749 )
- August 12 : Caroline of Nassau-Saarbrücken , Countess Palatinate and Duchess of Pfalz-Zweibrücken († 1774 )
- August 21 : Johann Georg von Sachsen , General Elector of Saxony and Governor of Dresden († 1774 )
- September 5 : Maurice Quentin de La Tour , French pastel portrait painter († 1788 )
- September 16 : Louis de Jaucourt , French doctor, writer and scholar († 1779 )
- October 2 : František Ignác Tůma , Czech composer († 1774 )
- October 26 : Johannes Oosterdijk Schacht , Dutch physician († 1792 )
- before October 29: John Byng , British admiral and politician († 1757 )
- November 1 : Paul Daniel Longolius , German encyclopaedist († 1779 )
- November 10 : Auguste von Baden-Baden , Duchess of Orléans († 1726 )
- November 13 : Paul Wilhelm Schmid , German legal scholar († 1763 )
- November 24 : Ebba Margaretha De la Gardie , Swedish countess († 1775 )
- December 24th : Pedro Vicente Maldonado , Ecuadorian cartographer and polymath († 1748 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Eugene Aram , British philologist and murderer († 1759 )
- Franz Anton Baumann , Austrian church musician and composer († 1750 )
- Moses Browne , English poet, writer, translator and cleric († 1787 )
- Carl Heinrich Graun , German composer and singer († 1759 )
- Johann Jacob Haid , German engraver, mezzotint artist, portrait painter and publisher († 1767 )
- Charles Knowles , British admiral († 1777 )
- Marijona Kosakovskienė , Lithuanian countess († 1776 )
- Isaac Lawson , Scottish physician and mineralogist († 1747 )
- Na'od II. , Negus negest of Ethiopia († 1722 )
- Tahmasp II , Shah of the Safavid dynasty in Iran († 1740 )
Born around 1704
- Martin Hannibal , German coin die cutter and medalist († 1766 )
- Gottfried Sellius , German lawyer, natural scientist and translator († 1767 )
January to April
- January 8 : Lorenzo Bellini , Italian anatomist (* 1643 )
- January 13 : Hans Jakob Gessner , Swiss Protestant clergyman (* 1639 )
- January 26 : Rudolf August , Prince of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (* 1627 )
- January 31 : Christian Andreas Siber , German educator and Lutheran theologian (* 1662 )
- February 2 : Guillaume Francois Antoine l'Hospital , French mathematician (* 1661 )
- February 3 : Antonio Molinari , Italian painter and graphic artist (* 1655 )
- February 8 : Philipp Jeningen , Jesuit, people's missionary and mystic (* 1642 )
- February 18 : Johann Philipp von Arco , imperial field marshal lieutenant (* 1652 )
- February 21 : Johann Karl , Count Palatine near Rhine, Duke in Baiern, from Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld to Gelnhausen, Count to Veldenz and to Sponheim (* 1638 )
- February 23 : Georg Muffat , French musician and composer (* 1653 )
- February 24th : Marc-Antoine Charpentier , French composer at the time of the Sun King Louis XIV (* 1643 )
- February 25 : Isabella Leonarda , Italian nun and composer (* 1620 )
- March 1 : Joseph Parrocel , French painter (* 1646 )
- March 19 : Imbert Rollaz du Rosey , Prussian major general (* 1640 )
- John Gadbury , English astrologer (* 1627 ) March:
- April 5 : Christian Ulrich I , Duke of Württemberg-Oels (* 1652 )
- April 8 : Job Ludolf , founder of Ethiopian Studies (* 1624 )
- April 10 : Wilhelm Egon von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg , Bishop of Strasbourg and Prime Minister of Kurköln (* 1629 )
- April 14th : Johann Adolf von Fürstenberg , Provost of Münster and Paderborn (* 1631 )
- April 17th : Ulrich Friedrich Gyldenlöwe , Danish governor in Norway (* 1638 )
May to August
- May 3 : Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber , Bohemian violinist and composer (* 1644 )
- May 3 : Estephane Boutros El Douaihy , Maronite patriarch (* 1630 )
- May 21 : Heinrich Elmenhorst , German theologian, hymn poet and librettist (* 1632 )
- May 21 : Hermann Werner von Wolff-Metternich zur Gracht , Prince-Bishop of Paderborn (* 1625 )
- May 24th : Karl Dankwart , Swedish-German church painter
- May 30th : Emanuel Lebrecht , Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (* 1671 )
- June 11 : Johann Ulrich Mayr , German painter (* 1630 )
- June 16 : Georg Franck von Franckenau , German medic and botanist (* 1644 )
- June 24th : Anna Dorothea von Sachsen-Weimar , abbess of the Quedlinburg monastery (* 1657 )
- June 27 : Jakob Potma , Bavarian court painter and valet
- June 27th : Elisabeth Helene von Vieregg , German noblewoman, mistress of the Danish-Norwegian King Friedrich IV. (* 1679 )
- July 2nd : Johann Adolf , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Plön (* 1634 )
- July 2nd : August Ferdinand , Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (* 1677 )
- July 6 : Hieronymus Dürer , German writer and theologian (* 1641 )
- July 9 : Hermann Otto II of Limburg-Styrum , Imperial Field Marshal General (* 1646 )
- July 11th : Marcus Conrad Dietze , German architect and sculptor (* 1658 )
- July 14th : Sofia Alexejewna , regent of Russia (* 1657 )
- July 18 : Benjamin Keach , English Baptist evangelist, pastor, song poet and author (* 1640 )
- July 24th : Honorius Aigner , Austrian Benedictine and abbot of the Kremsmünster Monastery (* 1651 )
- August 7th : Paul von Fuchs , Brandenburg-Prussian minister (* 1640 )
- August 15 : Dominicus Bassus , Swiss-German lawyer (* 1643 )
- August 19 : Jane Leade , English Christian mystic and author (* 1623 )
- August 24th : Ludolf Hugo , German lawyer and politician (* 1632 )
September to December
- September 4 : Anthonius Lucius , German legal scholar (* 1635 )
- September 6 : Francesco Provenzale , Neapolitan composer (* 1624 )
- September 20 : Barbara Dietrich , victim of the witch hunt in Ingolstadt (* 1680 )
- September 21 : Maria Antonia Scalera Stellini , Italian poet and playwright (* 1634 )
- September 28 : Jacob Henning , German Protestant theologian (* 1633 )
- October 1 : Cornelis Dusart , Dutch painter (* 1660 )
- October 3 : Jean-Baptiste Denis , French physician, court physician to Louis XIV (* around 1640 )
- October 7 : Cyriakus Günther , hymn poet (* 1650 )
- October 8 : Mukai Kyorai , Japanese poet (* 1651 )
- October 12 : Hieronymus von Dorne , Mayor of Lübeck (* 1646 )
- October 28 : John Locke , English philosopher (* 1632 )
- October 30 : Friederike Amalie of Denmark , Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf (* 1649 )
- November 1st : Johann Ludwig I , Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (* 1656 )
- November 4 : Andreas Acoluthus , German orientalist and linguist (* 1654 )
- November 11th : Johann Georg Knoll , German architect and builder (* around 1644 )
- November 16 : Friedrich von der Asseburg , Knight of the Teutonic Order
- November 20 : Charles Plumier , French botanist (* 1646 )
- November 28 : Magdalena Claudia of Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld , Countess of Hanau-Münzenberg (* 1668 )
- December 1 : Joan Huydecoper van Maarsseveen , regent and mayor of Amsterdam (* 1625 )
- December 6th : Johann Martin von Eyb , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt (* 1630 )
- December 9 : Johann Rudolf von Wämpl , electoral Bavarian secret council chancellor and conference councilor (* 1638 )
- December 11 : Roger L'Estrange , English pamphlet writer, author and devoted defender of royalty (* 1616 )
- December 22nd : Paolo Boccone , Italian doctor and botanist (* 1633 )
- December 27th : Hans Albrecht von Barfus , Brandenburg-Prussian General Field Marshal (* 1635 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Basile de Glemona , Italian missionary in China (* 1648 )
- Leonhard Heckenauer , German engraver (* 1655 )
- Egbert van Heemskerk II , Dutch painting and drawing (* about 1634 / 35 or 1645 )
- Johann Heiss , German painter (* 1640 )
- Johann Adolph Höltich , town clerk in Mölln and lawyer in Lübeck (* 1641 )
- Gottfried Keller , German-English musician and composer (* around 1650 )
- Elias Loccelius , Brandenburg chronicler (* 1621 )
- Mustafa II , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1664 )
- Wouter Schouten , Dutch ship doctor and author (* 1638 )
- Johann Christoph Sebastiani , German architect and court builder in Trier (* 1640 )
- Selim I. Giray , Khan of the Crimea (* before 1671)