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Heads of State · Nekrolog · Year of Literature

The Swedish King Charles X in action with Polish Tatars during the Battle of Warsaw, painting by Johann Philipp Lemke
Sweden under Charles X Gustav defeated Poland-Lithuania
in the Second Northern War in the Battle of Warsaw .
Siege of Rapperswil 1656, pen drawing (detail), City Archives Rapperswil-Jona
With the siege of Rapperswil , the First Villmerger War begins in the Swiss Confederation .
Treaty of Butre
The Netherlands sign the Treaty of Butre
with the Ahanta
on the Gold Coast .
1656 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1104/05 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1648/49 (September 10-11)
Bengali solar calendar 1061/62 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2199/2200 (southern Buddhism); 2198/99 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 72nd (73rd) cycle

Year of the fire monkey丙申 ( at the beginning of the year wood sheep 乙未)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1018/19 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 3989/90 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1034/35
Islamic calendar 1066/67 (October 19-20)
Jewish calendar 5416/17 (September 18-19)
Coptic calendar 1372/73 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 831/832
Seleucid era Babylon: 1966/67 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1967/68 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1712/13 (April)


Politics and world events

Northern and Eastern Europe

Battle of Warsaw, painting by Johann Philipp Lemke

First Villmerger War (Old Confederation)

  • January 5 : After the end of the previous year with the execution of four in Schwyz City Arth living Reformed and the flight of many other Reformed by Zurich since several years simmering conflicts between Catholic and Reformed places of Confederation have escalated, pull Zurich quotas for Rheinau to to plunder the town and the Rheinau monastery .
  • January 6th : The First Villmerger War officially begins with Zurich's declaration of war on Schwyz. The Catholic towns in central Switzerland assure Schwyz of their support. On the Reformed side, only Bern provided full assistance, while Schaffhausen only provided troops for defensive purposes. Most of the other Reformed places remain neutral.
The city of Rapperswil from the point of view of the Zurich troops
First battle of Villmergen
Hans Rudolf Werdmüller
  • February 10 : The Zurich army under Werdmüller has to break off the siege of Rapperswil .
  • The third country peace of March 7th restores the old conditions as they were created by the second Kappeler country peace of 1531 . The political hegemony of Catholics in the Confederation is thus still secured.

Other events in the Holy Roman Empire

Johann Georg II.

Republic of Venice / Ottoman Empire

The Battle of the Dardanelles of 1656, Pieter Casteleyn 1657

Other events in Europe


On August 27 in the village is Butre on the West African Gold Coast between the Netherlands and the Ahanta the Treaty of Butre closed. The treaty regulates the sovereignty of the Netherlands and the Dutch West India Company over the place Butre and the surrounding area of ​​the upper Ahanta. In effect, this creates a Dutch protectorate over this area, which will remain in place until the Dutch leave the Gold Coast in April 1872 .



  • from September: The " moving post " runs between Berlin and Hamburg .

science and technology


Rembrandt: Jacob's Blessing
Las Meninas



Painting of the great fire of Aachen
  • May 2 : Careless use of charcoal in a baker's house triggers the fire in Aachen , in which seven eighths of the city are destroyed. Aachen is later rebuilt as a spa.

Historical maps and views


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Born around 1656


First half of the year

Second half of the year

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1656  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files