Sweden under Charles X Gustav defeated Poland-Lithuania
in the Second Northern War in the Battle of Warsaw .
|siege of Rapperswil , the First Villmerger War begins in the Swiss Confederation .||
sign the Treaty of Butre
with the Ahanta
on the Gold Coast .
|1656 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1104/05 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1648/49 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1061/62 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2199/2200 (southern Buddhism); 2198/99 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1018/19 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3989/90 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1066/67 (October 19-20)|
|Jewish calendar||5416/17 (September 18-19)|
|Coptic calendar||1372/73 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1966/67 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1967/68 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1712/13 (April)|
Politics and world events
Northern and Eastern Europe
- January 17 : Sweden forces by up to Konigsberg zoom gerückte troops in the time of the Second Northern War of Brandenburg to Konigsberg contract . Elector Friedrich Wilhelm accepts the Duchy of Prussia as a Swedish instead of the previous Polish fiefdom .
- May 17 : Russia declares war on Sweden.
- June 23 : In the Treaty of Marienburg , Sweden's King Karl X. Gustav Brandenburg-Prussia secures himself as an ally in the Second Northern War .
- July 30th : Sweden under King Karl X. Gustav of Sweden and Brandenburgers prevail against a stronger army from Poles and Tatars in the battle of Warsaw .
- August 21 : Beginning of the siege of Riga by the army of Tsar Alexei I in the Russo-Swedish War.
- November 3 : The Treaty of Niemież grants Poland-Lithuania and Tsarist Russia a two-year break in the Russian-Polish war . The armistice was triggered by Sweden's intervention in Poland.
- November 20 : In the Treaty of Labiau , during the Second Northern War, Sweden's King Karl X. Gustav revokes his feudal sovereignty over the Duchy of Prussia and Warmia . The Great Elector Friedrich Wilhelm is recognized by him as the sovereign Prince of Prussia.
First Villmerger War (Old Confederation)
- January 5 : After the end of the previous year with the execution of four in Schwyz City Arth living Reformed and the flight of many other Reformed by Zurich since several years simmering conflicts between Catholic and Reformed places of Confederation have escalated, pull Zurich quotas for Rheinau to to plunder the town and the Rheinau monastery .
- January 6th : The First Villmerger War officially begins with Zurich's declaration of war on Schwyz. The Catholic towns in central Switzerland assure Schwyz of their support. On the Reformed side, only Bern provided full assistance, while Schaffhausen only provided troops for defensive purposes. Most of the other Reformed places remain neutral.
- January 7th : General Hans Rudolf Werdmüller leads the main power of Zurich to Rapperswil , the siege of Rapperswil begins. Small units occupy Frauenfeld , Kaiserstuhl , Klingnau and Zurzach , while others are entrenched near Oberwil and Kappel am Albis . The Schaffhausen residents take a position between Wädenswil and Hütten .
- January 8 : Bern mobilizes its troops. Around two thirds of the soldiers are needed to secure the borders with the Catholic neighbors. The remaining soldiers move towards Aarau under the command of General Sigmund von Erlach . There they want to unite with the people of Zurich, who, however, have tied up their forces in the unfavorable siege of Rapperswil.
- January 24th : In the religiously motivated first battle of Villmergen , the armed forces of the Catholic places, where Lucerne has taken over the top command of the war, defeated the troops of the reformed places.
- February 10 : The Zurich army under Werdmüller has to break off the siege of Rapperswil .
- The third country peace of March 7th restores the old conditions as they were created by the second Kappeler country peace of 1531 . The political hegemony of Catholics in the Confederation is thus still secured.
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- October 8 : After the death of Johann Georg I , his son Johann Georg II becomes Elector of Saxony and Archmarschall of the Holy Roman Empire .
Republic of Venice / Ottoman Empire
- May 1st : Carlo Contarini dies after about a year in office . On May 17th, after 26 ballots, the 81-year-old Francesco Cornaro was elected to succeed him as Doge of Venice . The compromise candidate dies on June 5th . His successor Bertuccio Valier is elected in the first ballot .
- June 26th : The Venetians under Admiral Lorenzo Marcello defeat the Ottomans in the Battle of the Dardanelles .
Other events in Europe
- June 13 : After Oliver Cromwell to 1290 by Edward I has lifted imposed Jews spell, Jews may in return England to settle and the British colonies.
- November 6th : In Portugal , after the death of John IV, his son Alfonso VI climbs the mountain . the throne as the second ruler of the House of Braganza , but practically does not rule because of mental weakness. The regency for the 13-year-old is temporarily taken over by his mother Luisa von Guzmán .
On August 27 in the village is Butre on the West African Gold Coast between the Netherlands and the Ahanta the Treaty of Butre closed. The treaty regulates the sovereignty of the Netherlands and the Dutch West India Company over the place Butre and the surrounding area of the upper Ahanta. In effect, this creates a Dutch protectorate over this area, which will remain in place until the Dutch leave the Gold Coast in April 1872 .
- January 27th : A Dutch armed force finally conquers the Portuguese- held city of Kupang on the island of Timor . Armed units from both colonial powers have fought over its possession for years.
- April 10th : A Dutch fleet captures Colombo on the island of Ceylon .
- from September: The " moving post " runs between Berlin and Hamburg .
science and technology
- Christiaan Huygens equipped a clock with a spiral spring and a balance wheel to replace the clock weight and pendulum that had been in use until then.
- After two years of activity, William Petty completes the Down Survey , which records all of Ireland in a cadastre.
- February 19 : World premiere of the musical drama Orontea by Antonio Cesti in Innsbruck
- July 13 : World premiere of the drama Theti by Antonio Bertali at the Hofburg Vienna in Vienna
- Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez paints one of his most important and most discussed works, Las Meninas .
- Construction of the Cathedra Petri by Gian Lorenzo Bernini until 1666
- January 23 : The French philosopher and theologian Blaise Pascal writes the first of a total of eighteen Lettres provinciales appearing under a pseudonym . In a humorous way, he criticizes the casuistry method and the moral decline of the Jesuits .
- May 2 : Careless use of charcoal in a baker's house triggers the fire in Aachen , in which seven eighths of the city are destroyed. Aachen is later rebuilt as a spa.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 12 : François Le Fort , Swiss confidante of Tsar Peter I, reorganizer of the Russian armed forces and first Russian admiral († 1699 )
- February 5 : Giacomo Genora , Swiss Roman Catholic clergyman and local writer († 1731 )
- February 16 : Anthony Cary, 5th Viscount Falkland , British politician († 1694 )
- March 1 : Hans Heinrich von Ahlefeldt , owner of Gut Seestermühe († 1720 )
- March 10 : Giacomo Serpotta , Sicilian sculptor († 1732 )
- March 31 : Juan Andrés de Ustariz de Vertizberea , Spanish merchant and governor of Chile († 1718 )
- April 5 : Franz Anton Freiherr von Landsberg , General and Governor of the City of Münster († 1727 )
- April 9 : Francesco Trevisani , Italian painter († 1746 )
- April 10 : Heinrich Theobald Schenk , German Protestant theologian and hymn composer († 1727 )
- April 23 : Anton Egon , Imperial Prince and Prince Landgrave of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg († 1716 )
- April 25 : Giovanni Antonio Burrini , Italian painter († 1727 )
- May 16 : Gustav Gabriel Appelmann , Swedish artillery officer († 1721 )
- May 28 : Anton Florian , Prince of Liechtenstein († 1721 )
- May 31 : Marin Marais , French viol player and composer († 1728 )
- June 5 : Joseph Pitton de Tournefort , French clergyman, botanist and explorer († 1708 )
- June 15 : Sebastian Gercken , Mayor of Lübeck († 1710 )
Second half of the year
- July 4th : John Leake , English admiral († 1720 )
- July 20 : Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach , Austrian architect († 1723 )
- July 23 : Har Krishan , eighth guru of Sikhism († 1664 )
- August 1 : Xaver Jakub Ticin , Sorbian Jesuit and linguist († 1693 )
- August 8 : Ferdinando Galli da Bibiena , Italian scenographer, architect and decorative painter († 1743 )
- September 6 : Guillaume Dubois , French cardinal and minister († 1723 )
- September 11 : Ulrike Eleonore of Denmark and Norway , Queen of Sweden († 1693 )
- September 23 : Wilhelm Hieronymus Brückner , German legal scholar († 1736 )
- November 8th : Edmond Halley , British astronomer, recognized the periodicity of Halley's Comet († 1742 )
- November 19 : Abraham Frencel , Sorbian clergyman, historian and linguist († 1740 )
- November 22nd : Philipp Wilhelm von Boineburg , Imperial Count, seventh Erfurt governor, rector († 1717 )
Born around 1656
- Anthony Brockholls , English governor of the province of New York († 1723 )
- Thomas Herbert, 8th Earl of Pembroke , British politician († 1733 )
First half of the year
- January 18 : August , Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg (* 1577 )
- January 19 : Kazimierz Lew Sapieha , Polish-Lithuanian statesman (* 1609 )
- January 22nd : Thomas Franz von Savoyen , Prince of Carignan and Count of Soissons (* 1596 )
- February 1 : Rudolf von Drachenfels , German administrative officer and occasional poet (* 1582 )
- February 16 : Johann Klaj , German poet (* 1616 )
- February 25 : Henriette Catherine de Joyeuse , French nobleman (* 1585 )
- March 19 : Georg Calixt , German theologian (* 1586 )
- March 21 : James Ussher , Irish Anglican theologian and author of numerous theological and historical works (* 1581 )
- April 7th : Krzysztof Arciszewski , Polish nobleman, military leader, engineer, ethnographer, general, vice-governor and admiral (* 1592 )
- April 27 : Jan van Goyen , Dutch painter (* 1596 )
- April 27 : Gerrit van Honthorst , Dutch painter (* 1592 )
- May 1st : Carlo Contarini , 100th Doge of Venice (* 1580 )
- May 17th : Dirck Hals , Dutch painter (* 1591 )
- June 5 : Francesco Cornaro , 101st Doge of Venice (* 1585 )
- June 6 : Charles de Schomberg , French general (* 1601 )
- June 19th : Hempo von dem Knesebeck , member of the " Fruchtbringenden Gesellschaft " (* 1595 )
Second half of the year
- July 15 : Marco Aurelio Severino , Italian anatomist and surgeon (* 1580 )
- July 27th : Salomo Glassius , German Lutheran theologian (* 1593 )
- August 3 : Giangiacomo Teodoro Trivulzio , Italian cardinal and politician (* 1596 / 97 )
- August 7th : Prasat Thong , 26th King of the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya (* 1599 )
- August 8th : Chai , 27th King of the Siamese Kingdom of Ayutthaya
- August 8 : Salomon Koninck , Dutch painter (* 1609 )
- August 11th : Octavio Piccolomini , General Wallensteins and commander of his bodyguard (* 1599 )
- September 4 : Petrus Lucius , German printer (* 1590 )
- September 21 : Christian II , Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg and diary writer (* 1599 )
- Giovanni Giacomo Porro , Italian composer, conductor and organist (* 1590 ) September:
- October 8 : Johann Georg I , Elector of Saxony and Arch Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire (* 1585 )
- October 18 : Gerta die Boltin , victim of the witch hunt in Canstein (* around 1636 )
- October 18 : Susanne Weber , victim of the witch hunt in Wildungen (* 1614 )
- October 23 : Erik Axelsson Oxenstierna , Swedish statesman and Imperial Chancellor (* 1624 )
- Pacecco De Rosa , Neapolitan painter (* 1607 ) October:
- November 6th : John IV , King of Portugal, the first monarch of the House of Braganza (* 1604 )
- November 6th : Jean-Baptiste Morin , French mathematician, astronomer and astrologer (* 1583 )
- December 11th : Johann Rudolf Saltzmann , Strasbourg physician and university professor (* 1574 )
- December 12 : Gabriel Bengtsson Oxenstierna , Swedish statesman (* 1586 )
- December 13 : Konrad Balthasar Pichtel , German lawyer and court official (* 1605 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Thomas Gage , English clergyman (* around 1597 )
- John Hales , English theologian and scientist (* 1584 )
- John Hall , English writer (* 1627 )
- Massimo Stanzione , Neapolitan painter (* 1586 - 1595 )
- Heinrich Vollers , German organist (* 1583 )