Henry III. becomes
king of France .
|Murad III becomes Sultan of the Ottoman Empire .|
discovers the Juan Fernández Islands .
|1574 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1022/23 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2117/18 (southern Buddhism); 2116/17 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||71st (72nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||936/937 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3907/08 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||981/982 (turn of the year 22/23 April)|
|Jewish calendar||5334/35 (September 15/16)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1884/85 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1885/86 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1630/31 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
On January 29, the rebellious Netherlands succeeded in conquering Middelburg , a city that sympathized with the Spaniards, during the Eighty Years War . They then try to come to the aid of the city of Leiden, which is besieged by the Spanish troops under Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens , but suffer a heavy defeat at Mook en Middelaar on April 14th in the battle of the Mooker Heide , in which two brothers Wilhelm von Orange fall. The siege of suffering continues. It was not until October 3rd that the Wassergeusen succeeded in relieving the city after they had flooded the surrounding area by breaking the dykes .
France / Poland-Lithuania
The French King Charles IX. dies of consumption on May 30th at the age of 23 . He is followed by his brother Heinrich III. on the throne of France ; he renounces the throne of Poland-Lithuania , which he ascended only last year . A follow-up discussion then breaks out in the Polish aristocratic republic .
Russia / Siberia
- The Ottoman Empire , with the help of the corsairs, recaptured Tunis and the Algerian coast from the Hafsids and Spain.
- Murad III follows Selim II (called Mest "the drunk") as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire.
- January 1st : The city of Cochabamba in today's Bolivia is founded.
- November 22nd : The Spanish navigator Juan Fernández discovers the archipelago in the Pacific that was later named after him . One of the islands is today's Robinson Crusoe Island , on which Alexander Selkirk was released in 1704 . In November, Juan Fernández also discovers the islands of San Ambrosio and San Félix .
- Duke Julius to Braunschweig and Lüneburg , Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel , let the first solver , a medallion shape of silver.
- April: After 15 years of work, Torquato Tasso completes his main work, the epic The Liberated Jerusalem .
- July 13th : After the death of the last Franciscan in Berlin, Elector Johann Georg von Brandenburg established the Berlinische Gymnasium zum Grauen Kloster in the secularized Gray Monastery .
- November 27 : The Selim Mosque in Edirne , named after Selim II, opens after six years of construction.
- Giacomo della Porta creates the Neptune Fountain on the Piazza Navona in Rome as a simple fountain without figures.
- The construction of the Red Palace in Weimar begins.
The thirteenth and last published volume of the Magdeburg Centuries , a church history from the perspective of the Reformation , appears. The initiator of the work is Matthias Flacius , the main processor is Johannes Wigand . Most of the work took place on the premises of the St. Ulrich and Levin Church in Magdeburg . The Basel humanist Johannes Oporinus acts as the publisher .
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- March 3 : Jacob Studer , Swiss bibliophile and librarian († 1622 )
- March 5 : Frederick IV of the Palatinate , Elector Palatinate and leader of the Protestant Union († 1610 )
- March 5 : William Oughtred , English mathematician († 1660 )
- March 7 : John Wilbye , English Renaissance composer († 1638 )
- April 20 : Gottlieb Aenetius , German physicist († 1631 )
- May 6 : Giovanni Battista Pamphilj, Pope Innocent X († 1655 )
- July 2 : Dorothea Maria von Anhalt , Duchess of Saxe-Weimar († 1617 )
- July 20 : Wilhelm Kettler , Duke of Courland († 1640 )
- July 24th : Thomas Platter , Swiss doctor and writer († 1628 )
- September 29th : Ludovic Stewart, 2nd Duke of Lennox , Scottish nobleman († 1624 )
- October 9 : Elisabeth Renata of Lorraine , Electress of Bavaria († 1635 )
- October 25 : François d'Escoubleau de Sourdis , French archbishop and cardinal († 1628 )
- November 10 : Maria Christina of Austria , Princess of Transylvania († 1621 )
- December 12 : Anna of Denmark , Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland († 1619 )
- December 12 : Adam Wenzel , Duke of Teschen († 1617 )
- December 18 : Maria Anna of Bavaria , Archduchess of Austria († 1616 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Claudio Achillini , Italian philosopher, theologian, lawyer, mathematician, poet and librettist († 1640 )
- Feng Menglong , Chinese poet († 1645 )
- Robert Fludd , English philosopher, theosophist and physician, one of the spiritual fathers of Freemasonry († 1637 )
- Veit Holzlechner , Seidensticker and Mayor of Wittenberg († 1642 )
- Wilhelm Kinsky von Wchinitz and Tettau († 1634 )
- Samuel de Champlain , French explorer and colonizer († 1635 )
- Simon Reiffenstuel , Bavarian court builder and builder of the brine pipeline from Bad Reichenhall to Traunstein († 1620 )
First half of the year
- January 16 : Joachim Westphal , Lutheran theologian (* 1510 or 1511 )
- January 21 : Abu Muhammad Abdallah al-Ghalib ibn Muhammad , second Sultan of the Saadians in Morocco (* 1517 )
- March 4th : Anna II. Von Stolberg , 28th abbess of the Reichsstift von Quedlinburg (* 1504 )
- March 5 : Helena of Austria , Austrian Archduchess, co-founder and nun of the women's monastery in Hall in Tirol (* 1543 )
- March 22nd : Benedictus Aretius , Swiss theologian, botanist, pedagogue, geographer and reformer (* around 1522 )
- March 27 : Takeda Nobutora , Japanese feudal lord (* 1494 )
- April 5 : Johann VIII von Hoya , Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück, Münster and Paderborn (* 1529 )
- April 5 : Catalina Thomás , island saint of Mallorca (* 1531 )
- April 6 : Georg Aff , Mayor of Heilbronn
- April 14th : Heinrich von Nassau-Dillenburg , brother of Wilhelm I of Orange (* 1550 )
- April 14th : Ludwig von Nassau-Dillenburg , Dutch general, brother of Wilhelm I of Orange (* 1538 )
- April 17 : Joachim Camerarius the Elder , German humanist, polymath and poet (* 1500 )
- April 21 : Cosimo I de 'Medici , Duke of Tuscany (* 1519 )
- May 16 : Katharina von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Margravine of Brandenburg-Küstrin (* 1518 )
- May 18 : Albert Hardenberg , German theologian and preacher of the Reformation period (* 1510 )
- May 27 : Gabriel de Lorges , Count Montgomery (* around 1530 )
- June 12 : Renée de France , Duchess of Ferrara (* 1510 )
- June 16 : Caspar Pfreund , pharmacist and mayor of Wittenberg (* 1517 )
- June 27 : Giorgio Vasari , court artist and biographer (* 1511 )
Second half of the year
- July 7th : Johann Neefe , personal physician to Electors Moritz and August von Sachsen (* 1499 )
- August 20 : Sebastian Ochsenkun , German lutenist and composer (* 1521 )
- August 27 : Bartolomeo Eustachi , Roman physician and anatomist (* 1500 / 1513 )
- September 1st : Amar Das , Guru of the Sikhs (* 1479 )
- September 1 : Ludwig zu Stolberg , German regent (* 1505 )
- September 15 : Marguerite de Valois-Angoulême , Duchess of Berry and Duchess of Savoy (* 1523 )
- September 17th : Pedro Menéndez de Avilés , Spanish admiral, explorer and colonial administrator (* 1519 )
- September 26th : Elisabeth von Anhalt , Countess von Barby (* 1545 )
- September 28 : Guidobaldo II. Della Rovere , Duke of Urbino (* 1514 )
- October 1 : Maarten van Heemskerck , Dutch painter (* 1498 )
- October 5 : Felix Lindtmayer the Younger , Swiss glass painter (* around 1524 )
- November 12 : Francesco Stancaro , Italian humanist, physician, Hebraist, Unitarian theologian and reformer (* around 1501 )
- November 15 : Tobias Egli , Swiss pastor (* 1534 )
- November 28 : Georg Major , German Lutheran theologian (* 1502 )
- December 13 : Selim II , Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (* 1524 )
- December 26 : Charles de Lorraine-Guise , French cardinal and diplomat (* 1524 )
- December 31 : Lütke Namen , Danish Franciscan and theologian (* 1497 )