Johann III. after his father's death I. Manuel
king of Portugal .
Juan Sebastián Elcano
takes command of the Victoria after the death of
Ferdinand Magellan .
|Martin Luther defends his teaching at the Diet in Worms .|
Stockholm by Gustav Wasa
ends for the time being without success.
|1521 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||969/970 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||2. Feuerstein - Ome Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 1st tubes - Ce Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2064/65 (southern Buddhism); 2063/64 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||883/884 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3854/55 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||927/928 (turn of the year November 30th / December 1st)|
|Jewish calendar||5281/82 (September 1st and 2nd)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1831/32 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1832/33 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1577/78 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- December 13th: Johann III. from the House of Aviz his father after the death of Manuel I King of Portugal . The accession to the throne takes place on December 19th. The country is at the height of its power at this point . Johann continues the expansive colonial policy of his predecessors .
Comuneros uprising in Castile
- February: The rebels of the Comuneros uprising in Castile under Juan de Padilla win at Torrelobaton against the troops of the Spanish King Charles I , but this does not endanger his military superiority, as he draws reinforcements from the rest of the Habsburg Empire.
- April 23: In the Battle of Villalar succeeds Charles I of Spain a decisive victory. Juan de Padilla and other leaders of the Comuneros uprising , which began in Spain in 1520 , are executed the day after their defeat.
- October 25: Maria Pacheco, the widow of Juan de Padilla, who was executed in April, negotiates the surrender of the city of Toledo with King Charles I , in which the lives of the insurgents who are in the city are to be spared.
Holy Roman Empire
- April 28: At the Reichstag in Worms , it is decided for the first time to divide the two Habsburg domains of Spain and Austria. This house contract included the succession in Lower Austria and Inner Austria in favor of Ferdinand I , while Emperor Charles V received Spanish rule. Furthermore, for the time of Charles's absence from the empire, an imperial regiment is formed under the chairmanship of Ferdinand.
- no later than May 26: At the Diet of Worms is further a Reichsmatrikelordnung decided.
- May 26th: Wedding in Linz : The future Emperor Ferdinand I marries Anna of Bohemia and Hungary in Linz , which paves the way for the Habsburg Danube monarchy .
The 86-year-old Antonio Grimani was elected Doge of Venice on July 6th to succeed Leonardo Loredan , who died on June 21st , although he had to flee Venice convicted of high treason in 1499 after a military defeat and only in 1510 after generous payments of his Family could return. Grimani inherits from his predecessor a treasury that is heavily indebted because of the enormous costs of the war.
King Charles V allies himself with Pope Leo X of the Medici family and Henry VIII of England against the French King Francis I , who wanted to attack the Kingdom of Naples via Milan in an alliance with Genoa , Venice and Ferrara , including the Habsburg kingdom To release the clutch. In November, the imperial general Fernando Francesco d'Avalos di Pescara recaptured the Duchy of Milan for the Holy Roman Empire.
As a result of last November by King Christian II. And Archbishop Gustav Trolle damage done Stockholm bloodbath at the Swedish nobility begins at Gustav Vasa of Dalarna in the Swedish war of liberation . The anti-Danish propaganda is still fired when Christian II allegedly sacked the Nydala monastery on his way back from Stockholm to Denmark in February and drowned the abbot and the monks in the lake.
The rebels under Gustav Wasa win their first victory over Christian's troops at Brunnbäck at the beginning of April . At the end of April Gustav Wasa is the master of Dalarna , Gästrikland , Västmanland and Närke . In June he stands with his peasant army in front of Stockholm , but storming the city is out of the question as he lacks the people and material suitable for warfare.
After Gustav Wasa succeeded in bringing large parts of Sweden under his control, he was proclaimed imperial administrator on August 23.
A surprise advance by Crimean Mehmed I. Giray across the Oka on June 28th caught the units deployed to defend Moscow's southern border unprepared and triggered a panic-like escape. The Tatars penetrated almost to the walls of Moscow in July , but withdrew again surprisingly on August 12th.
In connection with the incursion of the Crimean Tatars succeeds the Ryazan Prince Ivan Ivanovich, who on the orders of Vasilis III. was arrested on June 29, fleeing to Lithuania . The Principality of Ryazan is then finally incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow .
Ottoman Empire / Balkans
- June 30th to August 29th: Belgrade is captured by Suleyman I after a two-month siege by the Ottoman army . Central Europe is now open to the Ottomans. In the next few years the conquest of Hungary followed , which led the conquerors to Vienna .
- April 28: Spanish conquest of Mexico : The Spaniards under Hernán Cortés begin again with the siege of the Aztec capital Tenochtitlan .
- August 13: The Spaniards capture and destroy Tenochtitlan, which is sacked for four days. Cuauhtémoc , the last ruler of the Aztecs, is caught on the run and taken prisoner.
The crossing of the Pacific by the expedition under Ferdinand Magellan, which began at the end of the previous year after crossing the Allerheiligenstrasse , takes three months and 20 days, during which, apart from two tiny, uninhabited islands, no land can be seen. A large part of the team fell ill with scurvy ; there is nothing left to eat on board the ships except rusks streaked with worms and rat droppings. Seafarers therefore begin to eat leather that has been steamed and roasted in salt water or soup made from sawdust. Rats, which the sailors sell for half a ducat, are particularly popular. At least 19 men die.
- January 24th: Magellan's circumnavigation of the world reaches an island he baptizes San Pablo . It is probably identical to the island of Puka-Puka in Polynesia . According to the logbook of Francisco Albo, the navigator of the Victoria , the uninhabited island is tree-lined and full of birds.
- March 6th: Ferdinand Magellan's expedition reaches the Mariana Islands . When the fleet anchored off one of the islands, probably Guam , the locals tried to board one of the dinghies. Magellan then has some aborigines killed and their houses burned down. He calls the islands Islas de los Ladrones (Islands of Thieves).
- After taking in the urgently needed supplies, the fleet sails on and reaches the Philippines on March 16, landing on Homonhon Island . At this point in time, around 150 of the original 237 men were still alive. With the help of his slave Enrique as an interpreter, Magellan can exchange gifts with the prince of Limasawa .
- April 7: Ferdinand Magellan reaches Cebu , where he succeeds in converting the local prince and many of his subjects to Christianity. Chief Lapu-Lapu on the neighboring island of Mactan rejects Spanish supremacy and proselytizing . Magellan then tries to subjugate Lapu-Lapu and his village militarily.
- April 27: An attempt to convert the inhabitants of the island of Mactan to Christianity by force leads to a skirmish with chief Lapu-Lapu , in which several Spaniards are killed. Admiral Ferdinand Magellan is among the dead. According to the reports of his chronicler Antonio Pigafetta , he is still standing in the water and one of the last to fight to cover the retreat of his people. Soon after the attack, the prince of Cebu also renounced Christianity.
- May 1: The Malay slave and translator Enrique Melaka escapes a banquet in Cebu where 35 Spanish participants are murdered. The rest of them narrowly escaped, but they are so few now that they sink the Concepción and distribute the survivors to the Trinidad and Victoria . The helmsman João Lopes Carvalho is elected as the new captain general. With the two remaining ships, the survivors sail on to Borneo , where they spend 35 days in Brunei . After a hasty escape, João Lopes Carvalho is relegated as captain general and Gómez de Espinosa is installed in his place. The former master of the Concepción, Juan Sebastián Elcano , is elected as captain of the Victoria .
- November 6th: The expedition reaches the Moluccan island of Tidore , where it can pick up spices. The residents there know Europeans because the Portuguese have already got there via Africa and India.
- December 21: The main ship Victoria sets out for home while the Trinidad is still undergoing repairs.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Landau joins the Alsatian League of Ten cities in place of Mulhouse, which left in 1515 .
- Mulegns is first mentioned in a document.
Architecture and fine arts
The Torre de Belém near Lisbon will be completed after six years of construction. The structure serves as a lighthouse, together with a second tower on the other bank of the Tagus river, as a bulwark against enemy ships and as a prison and arsenal. It is one of the last completed Manueline architecture . With the death of King Manuel I on December 13th, this architectural style, which is only found in Portugal, is coming to an end.
- 1521/22: Hans Holbein the Younger paints in oil on limewood the body of Christ in the grave . It shows the realistically depicted dead Christ in a stone grave niche. Originally, presumably intended as an epitaph , the painting never made it to the intended installation site because of the Basel iconoclasm . The painting remains in the private possession of the family of the presumed client, Bonifacius Amerbach .
- The epic Judita by the Croatian poet Marko Marulić is published for the first time 20 years after its completion.
- Cesare Cesariano's translation of Vitruvius into Italian appears.
Neacșu's letter is the oldest known document in the Romanian language . The letter will be on 29./30. Writtenin Cyrillic script by the merchant Neacșu Lupu in Câmpulung (Langenau) onJune 6thand addressed to Johannes Benkner, city judge of Kronstadt (Brașov). It contains information about an impending Ottoman attack on Wallachia and possibly also on Transylvania .
Basque nobleman Ignatius of Loyola was seriously injured by a cannonball on May 20th while defending Pamplona against French troops during the Italian wars . As he will later report in his autobiography, instead of reading his favorite chivalric romances on the sick bed, he reads a collection of legends of saints and a description of Christ's life and therefore comes to reflect on his way of life. During his convalescence in the Montserrat monastery , he made his life confession, which, according to tradition, lasts three days.
Pope Leo X dies on December 1st in Rome. His death from a winter flu with attacks of fever is so sudden that he cannot even receive the sacraments. Since his body is quickly disfigured by swelling and black discoloration, supporters of the Medici Pope suspect that he might have died an unnatural death. The suspicion falls on the cupbearer Malaspina, who is said to have poisoned him on behalf of French sympathizers. However, neither the interrogation of the suspect nor the autopsy provide any clear indications of a poisoning and Malaspina is released. Because of the high debts Leo X left behind, allegedly not even the candles for his funeral could be paid for. His bones are buried in the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva . The conclave to elect his successor will be convened on December 27, but will not be able to agree on a successor by the end of the year.
Luther and the Reformation
- January 3: Pope Leo X issues the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem , with which he excommunicated the German reformer Martin Luther after he failed to comply with the request to revoke his theses contained in the bull threatening exsurge domine . Luther and his followers are also declared heretics .
- March 6: Emperor Charles V summons Luther to the Reichstag in Worms and a few days later, through Elector Friedrich, assures him of free imperial conduct to Worms . Presumably on March 29th, Reichsherold Kaspar Sturm presented Luther with the letter of invitation in Wittenberg .
- April 16: Martin Luther arrives in Worms after a two-week journey.
- 17./18. April: Luther defends his teaching at the Diet in Worms .
- April 26th: Martin Luther and his companions leave Worms for Frankfurt am Main.
- May 4th: Martin Luther is kidnapped on his way home by the Worms Reichstag near Altenstein Castle and brought to the Wartburg .
- May 8: The imperial ban is imposed on Luther.
- May 25: The Reichstag in Worms comes to an end.
- May 26th: The Worms Edict on the imperial ban for reformer Martin Luther becomes public.
- Martin Luther begins translating the New Testament in December at the Wartburg in Thuringia .
Date of birth saved
- January 2: Hermann tom Ring , German painter († 1596)
- January 25: Paul von Eitzen , German theologian and reformer († 1598)
- February 6: Sebastian Ochsenkhun , German lutenist and composer († 1574)
- March 21: Moritz of Saxony , Duke and Elector of Saxony († 1553)
- March 25: Simon Musaeus , German Protestant theologian and reformer († 1576)
- April 5: Francesco Laparelli , Italian engineer and builder († 1570)
- April 11: Johann Ulrich Zasius , Vice Chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire († 1570)
- April 14: Johannes Marbach , German Lutheran theologian, reformer and denominationalist († 1581)
- April 18: François de Coligny-d'Andelot , Colonel General of the French Infantry († 1569)
- May 8: Petrus Canisius , German theologian, doctor of the church and counter-reformer († 1597)
- June 18: Maria of Portugal , Infanta of Portugal, patroness of literature and the arts († 1577)
- June 29: Johann , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Hadersleben († 1580)
- July 25: Reichard , Count Palatine and Duke of Simmern († 1598)
- August 4: Giambattista Castagna, under the name Urban VII Pope († 1590)
- August 12: Jacob Heerbrand , German Lutheran theologian, reformer and Chancellor of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen († 1600)
- August 19: Lodovico Guicciardini , Italian merchant, cartographer, humanist, geographer, politician, chronicler and writer († 1589)
- September 1: Beat Ludwig von Mülinen , mayor of Bern († 1597)
- September 10: Thomas Wyatt , English rebel leader († 1554)
- September 13: William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley , English politician († 1598)
- October 1: Friedrich Magnus I , Count of Solms-Laubach († 1561)
- December 1: Takeda Shingen , daimyo of the Japanese Sengoku period († 1573)
- December 13: Felice Peretti di Montalto, under the name Sixtus V Pope († 1590)
Exact date of birth unknown
- Anne Askew , English Protestant martyr († 1546)
- Andrea Lancelotto Avellino , Italian religious priest and Catholic saint († 1608)
- Francesco Ciceri , Italian humanist and university professor († 1596)
- Johannes Criginger , German Lutheran theologian, cartographer and writer († 1571)
- Valentin Erythräus , German educator († 1576)
- Xu Wei , Chinese painter, poet and playwright († 1593)
Born around 1521
Date of death secured
- January 6th: Guillaume III. de Croÿ , Prince-Bishop of Cambrai and Archbishop of Toledo (* 1498)
- January 21: Henning Göde , German lawyer, clergyman and Saxon electoral council (* around 1450)
- February 25: Johann Schönsperger , German book printer and dealer publisher (* around 1455)
- March 4: Rudolf Agricola , German printer and author (* 1490)
- March 7: Benedetto Buglioni , Florentine sculptor and terracotta artist (* 1459/60)
- March 15: Johann II , Duke of Kleve and Count von der Mark (* 1458)
- April 2: Erasmus Stella , German doctor, historian and mayor of Zwickau (* 1460)
- April 12: Piero di Cosimo , Italian painter and draftsman (* 1462)
- April 24th: Juan de Padilla , leader of the Comuneros uprising in Spain (* 1490)
- April 27: Ferdinand Magellan , Portuguese navigator in the service of the Spanish crown (* 1480)
- April 28: Suzanne de Bourbon-Beaujeu , Duchess of Bourbon (* 1491)
- May 10: Sebastian Brant , German humanist and author, author of the ship of fools (* 1457)
- May 17th: Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham , English nobleman (* 1478)
- May 28: Guillaume II. De Croÿ , Burgundian-Dutch politician (* 1458)
- June 8: Zhengde , Emperor of China from the Ming Dynasty (* 1491)
- June 15: Tamás Bakócz , Hungarian cardinal and politician (* 1442)
- June 21: Leonardo Loredan , 75th Doge of Venice (* 1436)
- July 9: Raffaele Riario , Italian cardinal and patron of the arts (* 1460)
- August 27: Charles de Clèves , Count of Nevers, Eu and Rethel (* around 1491)
- August 27: Josquin Desprez , Franco-Flemish composer and singer (* around 1450/1455)
- September 15: Neagoe Basarab , voivode of Wallachia (* around 1481)
- November 13: Valentin , Duke of Troppau-Ratibor (* 1485)
- November 26th: Martin Karith , Bishop of Cammin
- December 1: Giovanni de 'Medici, Florentine patrician, under the name of Pope Leo X (* 1475)
- December 8: Christina of Saxony , Queen of Denmark, Sweden and Norway and Duchess of Schleswig and Holstein (* 1461)
- December 13: Manuel I , called "the lucky one", King of Portugal (* 1469)
Exact date of death unknown
- Jean Bourdichon , French painter and illuminator of manuscripts (* 1457)
- Jörg Syrlin the Younger , German sculptor and guild master of carpenters in Ulm (* around 1455)