History of Spain

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Spain around the year 1200, around the historic turning point of the Reconquista
Monument in memory of the Cortes of Cádiz (1810–1813), who created the first Spanish constitution .

The history of Spain in terms of human settlement goes back 1.4 million years. The Neanderthals probably disappeared 45,000 years ago, possibly without having met modern humans. The Neolithic (from the 6th millennium BC), the transition from the appropriating way of life of hunters, fishermen and gatherers to the producing, ultimately rural way of life , began with immigration from the central Mediterranean region.

From the 10th century BC The trade of Phoenician seafarers with the southern Spanish coastal regions can be proven. No later than the 8th century BC. They founded colonies that served as bases for trade; Greeks followed later, especially from the Phocean Massalia . In the 5th and 4th centuries BC Celtic tribes came to the peninsula from the north and mixed with the indigenous Iberians in the northern and western regions (see Celtiberians ). During the Punic Wars , the Carthaginians, going back to the Phoenicians, conquered large parts of the south and east of the peninsula. After the defeat of Carthage, the Romans conquered the entire peninsula in a long process. The province of Hispania developed into an important part of the Roman Empire.

When the Western Roman Empire collapsed in the 5th century, Visigoths conquered the country. Their rule was ended from 711 by Muslim armies. These Berber groups , known as Moors , conquered most of the Iberian Peninsula until the Goth Pelayo (it is only documented in a fake chronicle) ended their advance at the Battle of Covadonga in northern Spain. In retrospect, this event should mark the beginning of the reconquest of the country by the Christians, the so-called Reconquista . Moorish Spain became independent from the Arab world empire after 750 , 929 called Abd ar-Rahman III. Al-Andalus to its own caliphate . Disputes between the noble families led to the fact that after a century the caliphate disintegrated into numerous small empires .

In the meantime, the unification process in the north was mainly driven by Castile . The Kingdom of León was conquered by King Ferdinand the Great in 1037 ; In addition, the Castilians pursued imperial goals and temporarily assumed the imperial title. The two kingdoms fell apart again in 1157 when King Alfonso VII divided the estate. Around 1230 they were by Ferdinand III. reunited in the Kingdom of Castile . In 1469 Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile married ; later Aragon and Castile were united.

In 1492 the united empires conquered Granada, the last Muslim dominion. Columbus also discovered America in 1492 . The endeavor to make a unified Catholic empire out of Spain founded the inquisition there . Spain developed into one of the most powerful multiethnic states. When the heir daughter Philip married the son of the Roman-German emperor, the connection with the House of Habsburg began . Charles I (of Spain, also Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire) united one of the largest colonial empires in history in 1517 . After retiring in 1556, it was split between the Spanish and Austrian lines of the Habsburgs. The country was involved in extensive wars with France, the Netherlands and England, but also with the Ottoman Empire.

When the last Habsburg king, Charles II, died in 1700 without a successor, he was followed by Philip of Bourbon , the grandson of the French king Louis XIV. The War of the Spanish Succession took hold of large parts of Western Europe. Almost a century later, Napoleon , who had taken power in France after the French Revolution , conquered Spain and installed his brother as king; the Spanish fought back in a protracted guerrilla war . After the defeat of Napoleon, Ferdinand VII was reinstated as king. He ruled absolutistically until his death in 1833; he was followed by his (then two-year-old) daughter Isabella II. She ruled until 1868. Economic recession, political instability and the loss of almost all overseas holdings characterized the Bourbon rule .

After the revolution of 1868 , the First Spanish Republic was established for one year in 1873 . A rebellion in the colony of Cuba that began in 1895 eventually led to war against the United States , through which Spain lost its last colonies. Spain did not take part in the First World War. The global economic crisis hit Spain much less strongly than other countries because of its low level of foreign trade integration. The king's association with the dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera discredited the monarchy; on April 14, 1931 Niceto Alcalá Zamora proclaimed the Second Republic .

The tensions between the republican government and the anarchists rooted in Catalonia and the nationalist opposition finally culminated in the civil war of 1936 to 1939, in which Germany, Italy and the Soviet Union intervened militarily. The nationalists under Francisco Franco prevailed in 1939. Franco kept Spain out of World War II , but his dictatorship led to political and economic isolation.

This isolation could only be broken after his death in 1975 and a constitutional monarchy came into being. Juan Carlos I opposed an attempted coup in 1981 . Prime Minister Adolfo Suarez implemented reforms that brought about the transition to democracy. Spain joined NATO in 1982 and the European Community in 1986 and introduced the euro as cash in 2002 . In 2007 a real estate bubble burst in Spain ; In 2008 the country got into the financial crisis . At the same time, separatist movements, especially in Catalonia , grew stronger.


Early Paleolithic

Skull No. 5 of the Sima de los Huesos , excavated in 1992

The oldest human remnant in Spain is a 1.4 million year old tooth that was discovered in 2013 in the Barranco León, a gorge near Granada . The fossils from the Sierra de Atapuerca were dated 1.3 million years ago.

Finds from around 800,000 before today are comparatively common in Spain, as in the Cueva de Santa Ana in Extremadura , whereas those from the time before 550,000 are rare, again more often between 524,000 and 470,000. A certain increase in population can be determined for the time between 339,000 and 303,000 years ago. Hand axes have been about 900,000 years ago by the reference Cueva Negra del Estrecho del Río QUIPAR known in the southeast, but they are controversial. Flint hand axes from La Solana del Zamborino , which is also in southeastern Spain, are dated to around 760,000 years .

Important sites of the early Acheuléen , which is defined by the existence of said hand axes, are Villapando, San Quirce, La Maya III, El Espinar, La Mesa and Espinilla Sima de los Huesos . Important sites of the middle Acheuléen are Cuesta de la Bajada, Gran Dolina 10-11 or Galeria Torralba and Ambrona , the later phases including the end-Acheuléen El Castillo (Cantabria), Lezetxiki, Solana del Zamborino (Granada) or Oxigeno (Madrid).

Cleaver des Acheuléen , Torralba .

At the Sima de los Huesos site , around 1,300 bones and teeth from 25 individuals who lived 600,000 years ago were found. The average height of men was 174.4 cm, that of women 161.9 cm. It is believed that the place was a burial place. Only one stone tool was found under the bones, an unused quartzite hand ax with ocher . Excalibur could be a burial object, which could indicate emotional feeling, symbolic and reflective thinking, as well as an examination of death.

Middle Paleolithic: Neanderthals

The everyday use of fire had established itself no later than 300,000 years ago.

Skull of a Neanderthal man, discovered in 1848, later called Gibraltar 1 . Forbes' Quarry, Gibraltar

In contrast to the earlier Neanderthals , a large-scale cultural differentiation can be demonstrated for the later Neanderthals , such as in central and north-western Europe, in Italy, in central and south-western France including the Pyrenees region, then on the rest of the Iberian Peninsula. The Neanderthal was a big game hunter. Some of the finds, such as in Jarama VI ( Guadalajara province ) not far from Madrid, and Zafarraya , a cave near Málaga , were dated 45,000 years ago.

The question of whether Neanderthals and the Cro-Magnons who immigrated from Africa lived on the peninsula at the same time plays an important role in the discussion on the genesis of the Upper Paleolithic small art . Around 39,600 years BP there was a cold steppe north of the Ebro, but south of the river there were forests that are typical of the temperate and warm-temperate climate zone. This limit must have opposed considerable resistance to the expansion of modern man. This could explain the relatively late arrival of Homo sapiens in the south of the peninsula.

The north-eastern Spanish site of Las Fuentes de San Cristóbal in the east of the province of Huesca , the finds of which can be no more than 55,000 years old, shows a phase of non-use in which neither Neanderthals nor ancestors of modern humans used the cave. This would feed the thesis that Homo sapiens and Neanderthals never met in Western Europe. The Cova Gran de Santa Linya also shows a time gap between the use of a site by Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans . Between the layers of the find lies a “sterile” layer without human traces.

Upper Paleolithic: anatomically modern man

Distribution area of ​​the Aurignacien
Wall paintings in the El Castillo cave . At 40,800 years old, it is probably the oldest works of art in Europe left behind by anatomically modern humans.

The aurignacia , which corresponds to a calendar age of at least 40,000 (possibly 45,000) to around 31,000 years ago, is certainly to be assigned to the Ice Age, anatomically modern man (the so-called Cro-Magnon man ) .

The following archaeological culture is the Gravettian , for which the sprinkling of the dead with ocher is typical. Its expansion to the southwest of the peninsula by 32,000 BP has long been considered a uniform process. The Gravettian found its way into the Betic Cordillera of the south and thus for the first time Homo sapiens between 34,000 and 25,000 cal BP.

Some groups switched their food spectrum to marine animals. Follow-up examinations at the Tito Bustillo Cave showed that the group there ate particularly on the common limpets and the great periwinkle .

Paintings of Homo sapiens can be found in the cave of Altamira near Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, where more than 150 murals from the period 16,000 to 14,000 BC. Can be seen. Further cave paintings, some up to 20,000 years old, were discovered in La Pileta near Ronda and in a cave near Nerja (both in the province of Málaga ). In the caves of Ekain and Altxerri B , both near San Sebastián , a number of engravings and wall paintings were found (see Paleolithic cave painting in Northern Spain ). In the Cueva del Mirón in Cantabria, the elaborately decorated, almost 19,000-year-old skeleton of a young woman, known as La Dama Roja de El Mirón, was recovered .


The Mesolithic , also known as the Epipalaeolithic in the Mediterranean , describes the post-glacial period up to the Neolithic (around 9600 to the middle of the 6th millennium BC). The food base changed in the course of the warming, which not only melted the glaciers, but also made the cold steppes disappear. The large herds, especially aurochs and horses, disappeared.

The cave Los Azules in Cantabria belongs to the Azilien (approx. 12,300 to 9,600 BC), the early Epipalaeolithic, as the oldest burial site. The grave on the rock overhang of Molino de Gasparín comes from Asturias (8000-5000 BC). The shin of a red deer can be considered grave goods , but above all three Asturian picks, one of which was sharpened. In contrast to these two dead, the man of Tito Bustillo (7590-7470 BC) lay on the left side with his left leg bent and without any additions on the flat floor of the cave. Remnants of paint indicate a ritual environment.

It can be seen that the burial area, which was often used for centuries, was avoided. Personal items were increasingly used as grave goods, and there are also references to funeral meals. It is possible that the long-term use of the burial grounds shows a tendency towards increasing sedentariness or seasonal mobility as well as the formation of territories.

Neolithic (from 5600 BC)

The cardial or imprint culture spread from the 7th millennium BC. Around the western Mediterranean, with the exception of the Balearic Islands . The first Neolithic farmers and shepherds came around 5600 BC. From the eastern Mediterranean to Andalusia. Einkorn and Emmer reached Spain at the latest around 5500 BC. BC, as proved in the Coveta de l'Or and in the neighboring Cova de Cendres. However, grain has not yet made a major contribution to nutrition. Livestock farming was documented for the eastern foothills of the Pyrenees in the Cova Gran de Santa Linya .

Neolithic rock carving from the Barranco de la Valltorta ( Castellón de la Plana in the Region of Valencia )

Independently of this, the Meseta Neolithic arose in the hinterland. Excavations in the Ambrona area could be carried out for the second half of the 6th millennium BC. A fully developed early Neolithic with animal husbandry and plant cultivation.

The earliest Iberian Neolithic around Valencia apparently consisted of a kind of garden culture. A large number of different types of grain and vegetables were grown on small beds with the help of hoes; the villages were concentrated in river valleys, the locations changed frequently. In addition to wheat and barley, einkorn and emmer were processed. From the beginning, vegetables such as peas, seed pea, field beans , vetch , lentil vetch and lentil were also present. Storage tanks reached a volume of up to 100 l. Only in the Cova de les Cendres were silos with a capacity of around 500 liters.

It was not until the 5th millennium that people switched to larger fields and the cultivation of hard and soft wheat and barley. The Benàmer site proved that the stockpiling took on considerably larger proportions from the second half of the 5th millennium, namely up to 6000 liters. Overall, the settlements grew larger. The animals were increasingly kept in caves, in which no more ritual acts can be proven.

In the 4th and 3rd millennia, supplies were no longer stored in this way, but were found around the houses. Storage was no longer regulated by the community, but by the house units. Their annual requirement corresponded to the size of the storage vessels of around 1500 l. Some of the storage structures, such as in Missena (Valencia) or Jovades (Alicante), were in use for several millennia.

In the second half of the 3rd millennium, when the amount of rain increased again after a long period of drought, there was another switch to a diversified garden culture. Einkorn came into use again, but so did new plants, such as flax . The large storage structures and settlements gave way to scattered, often higher-lying places in which there are hardly any signs of social differentiation.

In Antequera (Málaga), the two are Neolithic Dolmen de Menga and Dolmen de Viera from the middle of the 4th millennium BC. BC, which belong to several thousand such structures on the peninsula and to the largest such structures in Europe.

Model of Los Millares , the only site where the settlement and burial place are known to be equally well known.

Copper Age

On the peninsula, the first copper smelting in the Cerro Virtud settlement (Almería) is documented for the first half of the 5th millennium. Regular copper processing could, however, have started much later.

Especially in the west, the Copper Age is characterized by multiple articulated fortifications with double walled walls. These include Los Millares (Almería), Marroquíes Bajos (Jaén) and Valencina de la Concepción (Seville). The culture of the 3rd and early 2nd millennium BC BC cultivated wine and olives and produced ceramics decorated with symbols, which were mainly found in megalithic structures and dome tombs.

Bronze age

The El Argar culture began around 2300 BC. The Bronze Age . It consisted essentially in the south. To the north, around Valencia, the Bronce Levantino joined. In addition there are the Guadalquivir culture, the Motilla culture ( Motilla del Azuer ) and the Tejo culture in the west of the peninsula.

El Argar is characterized by fortified settlements on high plateaus, such as El Argar (Antas, near Almería ), or on steep hilltops, such as the not far away Fuente Alamo . Two-shell foundation walls made of rubble stone occupy rectangular, possibly two-story houses. The Copper Age house types were continued on the Meseta. Dating of the associated Loma culture resulted in values ​​between 2250 and 1630 BC. Chr.

Already around 2000 BC There is evidence of pronounced deforestation in the south.

Cultures of the End Bronze Age
The Lady of Ibiza from the Punic necropolis of Puig des Molins, possibly portraying the goddess Tanit
Taula of Trepucó , Menorca

In the Balearic Islands, at the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Iron Age, there is the Talayot ​​culture - from the Catalan word talaia for "observation, watchtower" - a megalithic culture from the 13th to 2nd centuries BC. The Talayotic I is characterized by the appearance of reservoirs , underground tombs and individual towers in megalithic construction, the so-called Cyclops technique . In Talayotic II (from 1000 BC) walled enclosures were added to the settlements. At the latest in Talayotic III there were contacts with Greeks and Phoenicians . After 800 BC In addition to ceramics and figures made of bronze, objects made of lead and iron also appeared. The trade with Carthaginians, which began around 654 BC. Ebusim (Ibis) founded on Ibiza began. In Talayotic IV from around 500 BC. Chr. One went over to the form of burial in fetus position . Sanctuaries were created and replicas of Carthaginian-Phoenician and Roman forms appeared in the ceramics .

In the 1st millennium BC Around-oval enclosures made of stone blocks appeared, enclosing some complexes. These were built around talayots, as in Capocorb Vell in the Llucmajor area . In addition, columns and pilasters are joined together to form regular column rooms on Menorca . Taulas up to 5 m high exist exclusively on Menorca, where 30 locations are known.

Iron Age: Celts, Iberians, Phoenicians, Greeks

The Lady of Elx , discovered in 1897 in La Alcudia, southwest of Alicante , Museu Arqueológic Nacional de Madrid

Phoenicians, almost exclusively from Tire , reached the south as early as the 10th century BC. BC, without settlements were created. Traces of early Phoenician trade contacts have been discovered in Huelva : There imports go up to around 900 BC. BC back. Most of the Phoenician settlements emerged from around 800 BC. At the mouths of rivers that have now dried up and through which one could get into the hinterland, the first in the Bay of Cádiz and near Málaga. On the Morro de Mezquitilla hill settlement (Chorreras, Algárrobo, Málaga), which dates from around 650 to 450 BC. Was inhabited, iron processing can be proven for the early Phoenician period.

Tartessos, location and spread

In the south-west, the culture of Tartessos , a port city at the mouth of the Guadalquivir, was strongly influenced by the Mediterranean . It was known in ancient times for its wealth of metals. The large quantities of imported handicrafts suggest that today's Huelva was a major Tartessian center. While the proportion of Phoenician ceramics was still small in the 8th and 7th centuries, it increased sharply in the 7th and 6th centuries.

The culture of the northwestern peninsula from the 1st millennium BC was considered the Castro culture. Until the 1st century BC Chr. Designated. The fortified settlements were found in an area that stretched to the Río Cares in the east and to the Duero in the south . The northern Portuguese region of Ave , which is at the center of this culture, has larger castros, the Citânias or Cividades (from Latin civitas ).

In the 7th century BC There are richly equipped wagon graves, such as grave 17 from La Joya and El Palmerón (both Huelva). Such graves did not appear in the southeast until the 6th century. The exposed location on long-standing hillside necropolises suggests family or client relationships. In the 5th century, sculptures of warriors, riders and stately animals appeared. On the periphery of the Tartessian sphere of influence, depictions of warriors appeared, with occasional inscriptions.

Lead plaque from La Bastida de les Alcuses (Moixent) with southeast writing ...
... and from la Serreta ( Alcoi , Alicante) with Graeco-Iberian script

Urn fields were often used as an argument in favor of immigration from the northeast, but this is controversial. The southeast was from the 6th to the 2nd century BC. BC strongly influenced by Greek. Phocaeans from the colony of Massilia founded Emporion , Rosas , later Sagunto and Málaga . In the nearby oppidum of Ullastret , in addition to imported Greek ceramics, a Hellenistic city wall, a sanctuary at the highest point of the hill similar to an acropolis and an agora-like square were found. The city minted coins, however, using the Punic standard .

This phase is connected with the “ Iberians ”, who were initially understood less archaeologically than ethnically - they were mainly associated with the Catalans. Their culture spread from the predominantly southern Spanish core areas into what is now southern France. The most important inscriptions on the peninsula in Celtic and Iberian script came from Botorrita near Saragossa . These inscriptions, about 70 in Celtic with a total of 1000 words, were created from the 3rd to the 1st century BC. Chr.

After the First Punic War against Rome , the Carthaginians conquered from 237 BC. The south and east; Cartagena was their main base. After the defeat in the second war , the Carthaginians had to defeat the peninsula in 206/205 BC. Chr. Vacate.

Resistance to the Roman occupation (197-133 BC)

Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, 218–19 BC Chr.

The resistance to the occupation by Rome initially lasted from 197 to 179 BC. After the victory of Tiberius Gracchus d. Ä. the uprising collapsed.

The second great Iberian uprising, which took place from 154 to 133 BC, had even more serious consequences. Chr. Extended. It began with an uprising by the Beller and Avaker under the leadership of the Punicus. In the same year, the Lusitans , another Celtiberian tribe, joined the uprising. A Lusitan embassy submitted in 150 BC BC the Roman praetor Servius Sulpicius Galba an armistice. This pretended to respond and even offered land to settle there. But he had the disarmed killed, the rest were sold into slavery.

Viriathus , one of the few Lusitans who had escaped killing, led the Lusitans from 147 and defeated the Romans in 143 and 140 BC. In 139 BC the Romans broke the peace made with Viriathus and bribed his ambassadors, who then murdered the Lusitan.

Decius Junius Brutus , who lived in 138 BC. He was appointed governor of the province of Hispania Ulterior , had military facilities built in the valley of the Tagus and began to subdue the regions of Alentejo and Algarve . In the north, his troops conquered areas inhabited by the Galicians. One of the last battles was possibly fought near Santarém in the Tagus Valley , with which the Romans saw access to the west coast as secured. 134 BC BC Scipio Africanus the Younger took over command of the troops. They conquered Numantia the following year. Scipio sold the population into slavery and let the city drag.

The confrontations by no means ended with the submission. So the governor of Hispania Ulterior sent between 96 and 94 BC. BC Troops to suppress an uprising in the north-western part of the peninsula, which had already been occupied between the rivers Duero and Miño as part of the campaigns of Decius Junius Brutus. From 81 BC Revolts flared up again in the two provinces of Hispania Citerior and Ulterior, this time as a result of the weakening of the civil war in Italy .

The Roman aqueduct in Segovia
Cantabrian territory

Quintus Sertorius , who had applied unsuccessfully as a tribune of the people , now supported Gaius Marius in his fight against Sulla . The Lusitanians soon made him their leader. He established a rule independent of Rome, which he established in 79 BC. Defended. 77 BC BC Marcus Perperna joined Sertorius, who now set up a counter-senate of 300 Romans and, in addition to Romans, relied on the local population. He fought against Pompey , who died in 76 BC. Came to Spain with 30,000 men. Sertorius closed in 74 BC BC even had an alliance with Mithridates of Pontus , but he was stabbed to death at a banquet in 72 by a conspiracy headed by Perperna. Perperna, in turn, was defeated shortly afterwards by Pompey.

First Caesar , who in 61 BC As a propaetor headed the province of Hispania Ulterior, he succeeded in breaking the resistance of the Lusitan tribes without, however, dominating the northwest of the peninsula. In order to pacify this region as well, the cities of Bracara Augusta ( Braga ), Lucus Augusti ( Lugo ) and Asturica Augusta ( Astorga ) were founded under Augustus . The Cantabrians around Amaia were only defeated by Augustus in the Cantabrian War (29-19 BC) and defeated by Agrippa . Augustus made the previous two provinces Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior three by dividing Hispania Ulterior into the provinces of Lusitania and Baetica .

Urbanization, Romanization, Roman religion

The country received numerous roads and forts for military security . The dense network of roads later promoted economic development. The population was Romanized and the peninsula became a major center of Roman culture. Emperor Vespasian granted Hispania Latin citizenship, while most of the empire's provinces did not receive Roman citizenship until 212. Open fighting only broke out when the Mauri invaded the Roman province of Baetica in 171. Through an administrative reform of Emperor Diocletian , two new provinces were separated from Hispania citerior, which was also called Tarraconensis after its capital, Tarraco , namely the provinces of Gallaecia and Carthaginiensis .

Emperor Trajan and the families of Marc Aurel and Hadrian , then Theodosius I , as well as respected writers such as Seneca , Lukan and Martial came from Hispania .

The Roman religion came to Hispania primarily in the form of the triad of Jupiter , Juno and Minerva . Even Mars played an important role as a god of war in certain environments it came up since Augustus the emperor cult. In addition to the official religion, old gods persisted and only received the new names. The Roman gods, for their part, were modified in the new environment.

Christianization, Santiago, Arianism, Priscillianism

The Christianity spread to the peninsula despite the short but violent persecutions of the 3rd century until the reign of Emperor Constantine I the dominant under Theodosius I became the state religion.

The national saint of Spain, St.Petersburg, played a central role, albeit only from the early Middle Ages . James or Santiago . According to legend, Hispania was proselytized by this apostle, his body is said to have been buried in Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, after 44 . His grave was "rediscovered" after 818 and King Alfonso III. of Asturias (866–910) attributed his victories to the intervention of the saint. It was not until the late 8th century that James was referred to as the patron and protector of Spain. The Church of Santiago claimed a special authority with the tomb of the Apostles, which was again rejected in Toledo.

Alfonso III. with his wife Jimena and Bishop Gomelo of Oviedo, Ms. of the 10th century, Archives of the Cathedral of Oviedo

The Synod of Elvira , which took place between 295 and 314, was attended by 19 bishops and 24 presbyters from 37 parishes. In addition to a ban on images , it was stipulated that Christian masters should prevent their slaves from performing pagan cult activities, Christians should not marry Jews or Gentiles, landowners were forbidden from having their crops blessed by Jews, and believers should not have dinner with them.

Missionary work began in the cities. Tertullian claimed as early as 202 that Hispania was Christian. During the persecution under Emperor Valerian , Fructuosus , the bishop of Tarraco, was executed in 259. Under Diocletian there were 304 more martyrs in Girona and Barcino; the relics of St. Eulalia were transferred to Barcelona in the 9th century.

The episcopal see produced regional structures that were as durable as the monasteries with their extensive land holdings. In particular, they became a symbol of overarching group identity and a means of political-religious disputes over rank. The bishops also intervened considerably in imperial politics, such as the advisor to Constantine I, Bishop Hosius of Cordoba . He was bishop from around 296 to 357, and from 312 to 326 court bishop in the emperor's entourage, and an outstanding opponent of Arianism and Donatism . When Emperor Constantius II demanded the conviction of Athanasius, Hosius refused, who protested against interference in the affairs of the Church. In 356 he was forced to sign the Arian Confession of Sirmium, which was immediately published by the emperor as the "Confession of Hosius".

As in North Africa and other regions of the empire, ascetic groups emerged, such as that of the Priscillian of Ávila († 385). Slavery, he taught, was abolished by Jesus, and equality between men and women was commanded. Some of his followers were summoned to the Synod in Zaragoza in 380 and excommunicated there at the instigation of Ithacius of Ossonoba. After Priscillian 380/381 had been appointed bishop of Ávila, Ithacius also brought charges against him. As a result, the Priscillian bishops were driven out of their offices by provincial officials, and eventually Priscillian was executed in 385. In 563 the second Synod of Braga found itself compelled to condemn the doctrine as heresy.

Roman society and the state of late antiquity

The administrative structure of the Imperium Romanum around 400

With the exception of the army and the highest jurisdiction, the Roman state delegated all state tasks to the approximately 2500 cities scattered across the entire empire. The total number of curials who decided how the burdens were distributed among the citizens was about 65,000 in the Western Empire. In the 3rd century the tax burden was extended to all provinces and with increasing consistency and severity the taxes were collected. While in the endangered areas including Rome in the 3rd century the construction of theaters, baths and arenas had to be withdrawn in favor of city walls and other fortifications, this was the case in Iberia much later.

80% of the population worked in agriculture. Except in Egypt, the harvest volumes fluctuated so strongly that one can speak of shock-like jumps. Accordingly, the gods were inclined to an emperor when the harvest was good. In the south of Spain, Christians who wanted to vote their God in favor by means of rituals demanded that the Jews not be allowed into the fields, because they spoil the effect of the rituals. The wealthy could stockpile and wait for higher prices, as they occurred every year before the new harvest, and they could above all cover greater distances to supply cities and armies. The farmers, on the other hand, were dependent on the local markets with their extreme price fluctuations. The largest grain traders were the emperors themselves. With the gold solidus , the borderline between the economy of the wealthy and the rest of society, which was dependent on bronze and silver coins, became constantly visible. The richest Roman senators had more income than entire provinces.

Below this small group, who had vast land holdings and fortunes, there was a group of local landowners in the provinces who owned villas . Since Constantine, the emperors paved the way for them to enter the Roman Senate . This gave them more power and thus much greater wealth. They formed a kind of mediating layer, the members of which were entitled vir clarissimus or femina clarissima , and who often came from established provincial families . But some families had missed this “post-Constantinian gold rush” and feared their decline. The civil service with its privileges formed the boundary line within the leadership group.

Imperial laws created the prerequisites for ceding almost unlimited power of disposition and police power to local masters, whose economic units thereby increasingly isolated themselves from state influence. Since Constantine the gentlemen have been allowed to put fugitive colonies in chains, who had disappeared less than thirty years ago. Since 365 it has been forbidden for the colonists to dispose of their actual possessions, probably primarily tools. Since 371 the gentlemen were allowed to collect the taxes from the colonies themselves. Finally, in 396, the farmers lost the right to sue their master. Under Justinian I , there was no longer any distinction between free and unfree colonies.

The church in late antiquity

Ruins of the Basilica of Empúries in Catalonia

Although the clergy formed a separate class, which was exempt from public services and personal taxation, the emperors denied them access to the upper classes of society. In addition, this generated resistance among the curials, who were not exempt from taxes, because the more members of a community were exempt from taxes, the greater the burden on the others.

The congregation of these fourth-century clerics was by no means composed of the poor and marginalized of society. Recent research shows that the members of the communities were craftsmen and civil servants, artists and traders. They sometimes referred to themselves as "mediocres" who were neither rich nor poor.

Income from the community and caring for the poor earned the church state privileges. A privilege of 329 explicitly states that the clergy should be there for the poor while the wealthy, to whom the clergy did not belong, should go about their business. But leading members of society who became Christians were soon able to move up in one train, displacing long-time comrades-in-arms, instead of long periods of training and experience. Ambrose of Milan was thus able to become bishop directly.

Migration, Suebi, Vandals, Visigoths

Europe with the major migration movements

Vandals, Alans and Suebi crossed the Pyrenees in 409. When Vandals and Alans moved on and conquered Carthage , even Roman naval rule was questioned. In 455 the Vandals sacked Rome, as the Goths had already done in 410. The Suebi were the only Teutons to remain in Hispania, while Rome lost its last bastion with Tarraco in 472. Italy was occupied by the Ostrogoths from 489, while the Visigoths had made themselves independent in Gaul.

Suebenreich in the northwest (409-585)

The core area of ​​the Suebi lay between the Duero and the Ría de Vigo . With the founding of the Dumio Monastery, monasticism was promoted, which later took an enormous boom. It was less the set of rules of the Benedictines than the work of Fructuosus of Braga († 665) central, but also Isidore of Seville .

Kingdom of the Suebi around 455

In Hispania they were assigned the province of Gallaecia , but in 418 the Vandals almost destroyed them and their allied provincial Roman troops in the battle of the Nervasos Mountains. In 429 Vandals and Alans left the peninsula and went to North Africa to conquer Carthage in 439. The Suebi under their first King Hermericus († 441) were the only ones to remain in the country. His son Rechila (438–448) succeeded in conquering the Baetica. In 440 the king received an imperial envoy in Mértola . In the following years Roman troops fought against Bagauden uprisings in the Ebro Valley with the support of the Visigoths . Rechila's Catholic son and successor Rechiar married a daughter of the Visigoth king in 449, advanced into Basque areas and threatened Saragossa . When the Suebi advanced into the Tarraconensis in breach of treaty, Rome asked the Visigoths to move to Hispania. Their King Theodoric II won on Órbigo near today's Astorga . Braga was sacked on October 28, 456, and King Rechiar was executed. Visigoth garrisons were temporarily installed in the Suebian area. The Visigoths signed a new treaty with Emperor Majorian .

The north-western Suebi had appointed an otherwise barely comprehensible Malchras as their king in 456 , while Aiulf (456 to June 457), who perhaps dared an uprising, and Framta (457-458) ruled depending on the Visigoths in the capital Braga . Soon the north-west settlers joined Maldras' son Remismund . Maldras attacked cities far to the south, such as Lisbon in 457 or Porto the following year. Now Remismund was forced to recognize his sovereignty by the Visigoth king Eurich . He converted to Arian Christianity. Since Hydatius, the author of the chronicle named after him, died in 470, we are extremely poorly informed about the second kingdom of the Suebi.

Idanha-a-Velha Cathedral

In contrast to the Visigoths, the Suebi converted from Arianism to Catholicism shortly after 550. But with De correctione rusticorum Martin von Braga fought against their religious ideas, which rather formed a syncretism of pagan and Christian ideas. Nevertheless, as the parish of 572 shows, the Suebi succeeded not only in building a monastery landscape, but also in establishing a parish structure. Only a few examples of their church architecture have survived, such as in Egitania or in Torre de Palma.

In 573 the Suebi under King Miro supported the rebellious Hermenegild , who besieged Seville. After all, this support of the eldest son could be the reason why the Suebi were subjugated by the Visigoths in 585.

Visigoth Empire (until 711)

Development of the Visigoth Empire.
Red: settlement of the Visigoths in Aquitaine from 418.
Light orange and orange: spread up to 507
Orange: Visigoth Empire (with Septimania) between 507 and 552
Green: Suebian Empire, which belonged to the Visigoth Empire from 585

Eurich dissolved the federation relationship with Rome and extended the empire to the Loire and far into Hispania. In 475 he made peace with Emperor Julius Nepos , who recognized his independence. The Visigoths initially limited themselves to important bases such as Mérida in the south . It was not until the nineties of the 5th century that there were several waves of settlement. The population of their empire is estimated at perhaps 10 million. In 507, Clovis, King of the Franks, defeated the Visigoths under Alaric II , the son of Eurich, in the Battle of Vouillé .

The Codex Euricianus , a code of law named after King Eurich, which was probably introduced around 475 , was the first legal codification of a Germanic empire. It became the basis for the later legislation of Visigothic rulers. The Codex contained the right of the Visigoths, linked to ethnicity and not to residence, while the law of the Romansh population was codified in the Lex Romana Visigothorum . This came into force in 506. It is a revision of the Codex Theodosianus , an influential Roman law collection.

According to older research, the Goths received two thirds and the Romans the rest of the cultivated land, but two thirds of the workforce. But apparently there were still wealthy large landowners in the Tolosan Empire who allowed themselves to be protected by armed men and fortified their country estates. Many provisions of the Codex Euricianus deal with unfree people, the number of whom was evidently considerable. The followers consisted partly of free, partly of unfree. Simple free people evidently often got into trouble; This is evidenced by the provisions of the Codex , which deal with the sale of self and the sale of clients as slaves against their will. After 507 the main settlements were in Septimania, but also around Segovia , Madrid, Palencia , Burgos, where the local graves are assigned to them. In Andalusia, Gothic names appear in inscriptions, especially around Córdoba and Mérida. The Ostrogoths expelled Gesalech , the illegitimate son and successor of King Alaric II, who died in 507, and their King Theodoric took over the rule of the Visigoth Empire, where he ruled until 526.

Thereby 507 novels of senatorial origin fought with the Visigoths against the Franks Clovis. The Romans also had the highest offices in administration. In contrast to the Goths, they had to pay taxes, but their tax burden was much lower than in the Roman Empire. The kings had a knowledge of Latin at least since Theodoric II; at Eurich's court there was an interest in Latin poetry.

The estimates of the number of Visigoths living in the Tolosan Empire, especially around Toulouse, vary between 70,000 and 200,000, which corresponds to a share of about one to two percent of the total population. Marriages between Goths and Romans remained forbidden until the end of the 6th century, because while the Romans were Catholics , the Goths were Arians . Eurich prohibited the Catholics from filling vacant dioceses. Above all, he saw the emperor's potential allies in the bishops. Alaric II again took a course that was friendly to Catholics. In his Lex Romana Visigothorum he took over provisions of Roman law that regulated the position of the Catholic Church, but not a law of Emperor Valentinian III. which the Gallic Church subordinated to the Pope.

After 526 the Visigoths under Amalaric made themselves independent again, but his troops suffered a defeat at Narbonne in 531 against the Frankish king Theuderic I. After the destruction of the Vandal Empire by an army of Emperor Justinian , an Eastern Roman attack threatened. In the first battles with the Eastern Romans for the city of Ceuta, the imperial troops were victorious. Assassinations, rebellions and coups d'état were so frequent in the period that followed that the Franconian chronicler Pseudo- Fredegar coined the term "morbus Gothicus" for them. One of the uprisings gave the Eastern Romans an excuse to intervene; In 552 they landed as allies of a Visigoth rebel on the south coast and occupied an area that reached at least from Cartagena to Málaga.

The Iberian Peninsula in 586

Under King Leovigild (568 / 9–586) the empire expanded against the Cantabrians , the Sappi in the Salamanca area, the Aragonese and the Basques. He was able to push back the Eastern Romans and subdue the Suebi in 585. A Frankish attack on Septimania was repulsed and the rebellion was crushed by Leovigild's son Hermenegild , who fled to Eastern Roman Córdoba in 582 after establishing contacts with Constantinople and renouncing Arianism - Pope Gregory I even called him a martyr. Leovigild's attempt to resolve tensions between Arians and Catholics failed.

An important concern was the "imperialization" of the kingship by imitating the empire. The image of the emperor no longer appeared on the gold coins, the king wore a crown and purple instead, and in the manner of the emperors he founded a new city, which he named after his son Reccared Recopolis . In addition, from around 569 the focus of the empire shifted to Toledo. In addition to 100,000 Goths, around 9 million Romans are said to have lived in this empire. Until the end of the empire, however, the kings could only achieve temporary successes against the Basques.

Leovigild's son and successor Rekkared I (586-601) was able to end the war against the Franks. In 587 he converted from Arianism to Catholicism. The 3rd Council of Toledo ended the religious conflicts. The Council's resolutions also included measures against the Jews. They were forbidden to marry Christian women or to have Christian concubines . In 694, drastic resolutions were passed at the 17th Council of Toledo, which were promoted by the rumor that Jews had established contact with the Muslims of Syria or even planned a conspiracy. The king demanded the expulsion from his kingdom. Children from the already existing connections had to be baptized, from the age of 7 children from Jewish families should be given to Christian ones. Slaves of the Jews should be released. Formally, the king presided over the council, but the content was probably contributed by Bishop Leander of Seville and Abbot Eutropius of Servitanum. Some Arians went to Africa, and there was a rebellion in Mérida. In 633, the 4th Council of Toledo passed the ancient Spanish liturgy, which had a great influence until the 11th century.

Rekkared's son Liuva II was ousted in 603 after only one and a half years of government; a conspiracy of nobles brought his successor Witterich to power. This ended the dynasty founded by Leovigild and the principle of the elective monarchy prevailed again. Despite the unstable conditions, King Suinthila managed to occupy the last Eastern Roman bases around 625.

Crown of Rekkeswinth (653–672)

A reaction of the kingship to the superiority of the nobility came under Chindaswinth . He himself had come to the throne in a coup d'état in 642 and he wanted to enforce the replacement of the nobility with reliable followers. He even succeeded in securing the successor to his son Rekkeswinth , whom he made co-regent in 649, in 653.

But after Rekkeswinth's death there was again a king election in 672; the probably 90-year-old nobleman Wamba was made king. He is the first ruler for whom an anointing based on the Old Testament model is attested. But the almost centenarian 680 was forced to abdicate. The army's unreliability had already shown itself during the uprising of Septimania ten years earlier. His general Paulus had rebelled against Wamba and mocked him in a letter. His own men looted and raped, whereupon the king had the perpetrators circumcised in order to symbolically expel them from the Christian community. In the years 693/694 and again in 701 epidemics broke out, which led to a considerable decline in population. Eventually the number of families capable of kings was reduced to two, both of which were traced back to Chindasvinth.

Fragment of a Catalan version of the Visigoth Liber Iudiciorum, Biblioteca de l'Abadia de Montserrat, Ms. 1109, end of the 12th century

King Rekkeswinth issued a uniform code of law for Goths and Romans ( Liber iudiciorum ) in 654 . This idea represented a pioneering achievement by the Visigoths, because in the other Germanic empires the ethnic principle still prevailed. A division of the empire among the sons of a deceased ruler, as was the case for a long time among the Franks and Burgundians, was out of the question for the Visigoths. Prominent metropolitans such as Isidore of Seville and Julian of Toledo - one of Romanesque, the other of Jewish origin - became propagandists of the imperial idea, to which loyalty was owed.

The kings interfered in ecclesiastical affairs, but also the bishops in politics. As members of the council, bishops passed resolutions on the procedure for electing a king. They also took on ex officio duties in the judiciary and tax collection; the church was treated like a branch of the imperial administration.

The court nobility came to the fore; from 653 onwards only maiores palatii and bishops were allowed to participate in the election of kings , while this right had been granted to all nobles until then. Not only the maiores palatii , but all free imperial residents were sworn in to the king. His followers were bound to him by their own oath. The king lent them lands, but reserved the right to revoke these loans at any time. The 13th Council of Toledo decreed in 683 that no court nobleman could be convicted without a trial; A registry court made up of bishops and court nobles was responsible for such proceedings.

Visigoth bow brooch of the 6th century from Castiltierra ( province of Segovia )

The largest part of the army consisted of unfree, whose number dwindled in the 7th century, although the kings tried to strengthen them with their legislation. The nobles equipped only a small part of their unfree people and led him into battle. King Wamba threatened drastic financial penalties and imprisonment if the duties were not fulfilled.

A very rich upper class, whose fortune consisted mainly of land, was opposed to a large number of unfree and freed people. Episcopal churches, monasteries and parish churches had numerous slaves. The fact that bishops had their church slaves mutilated as a punishment happened so often that councils felt compelled to prohibit this through appropriate regulations. Often slaves escaped from their masters, creating a shortage of labor. The manor was often worked on by servi , while other plots were given to farmers with different degrees of freedom. An approach to manorial production methods can thus be recognized.

Depiction of an artichoke in the Rylands Haggada (narration and instructions for the Seder on Erev Passover , the eve of the feast of the liberation of the Israelites from Egyptian slavery). The manuscript was named after the John Rylands Library in Manchester .

The process of de-urbanization continued. Crafts and metal mining also declined. Greek, Jewish and traders from the Mediterranean region further east conducted foreign trade. After all, it was custom in Mérida that Greek traders first met with the bishop, so that a certain continuity and regularity can be assumed here. Money, which was mainly minted in the north, was used to pay the army and less to meet trade needs. At times even gold coins were issued. The lion's share, however, was made up of tremisis (triens).

After the death of King Witizas (710), two rival factions from the Chindasvinths and Wambas families fought over the successor. Finally, Roderich was enthroned against the resistance of the Witiza supporters who installed Agila II (711-714).

In the spring of 711 a relatively small force consisting of Arabs and - mostly - Berbers , crossed the Strait of Gibraltar. Roderich, who had just fought the Basques, suffered a crushing defeat in July 711 in the Battle of the Río Guadalete . In the Tarraconensis region , the Visigoths resisted until 719 and in Septimania until 725, but practically the entire peninsula fell to the conquerors.


The tribes of the Vascones and Vasci appear in Roman sources, but the latter lived in Aquitaine outside of today's language area. Some pre-Roman place names consist of Basque words, such as Eliumberrum for Auch . As recently as 1349, the use of Arabic, Hebrew and Basque was forbidden in the market in Huesca. At this time Basque was still spoken in Rioja , in the north the language was still in use in the 1st century as far as the Bordeaux area . In the course of Romanization, Latin provincial dialects emerged, which were characterized by Basque pronunciation habits. This is how the French regional language Gascon came into being .

The Tarbelli lived on the northern foothills of the Pyrenees, on the south side Varduli, Caristi, Vascones and Autrigones. Pompaelo ( Pamplona ) was built at the southern end of the most important Pyrenees pass, the Roncevalles valley . There were strongly romanised valleys, which also experienced intensive administrative penetration, as well as a written down of everyday life and urbanization, and parts of the country that were more characterized by livestock farming and transhumance as well as oral traditions. The Basque language was also held there.

Columns built into the city walls of Veleia. As early as the 3rd century, strong fortifications, such as in Veleia, indicate that the Romanized area became a kind of border region.

It is possible that the isolation of the mountain regions went so far that the ancient tribes held each other on a genetic level, as did the dialects. In doing so, considerations were made as to whether the Franks might not have pushed the Vaskonen living on the north side of the Pyrenees to the south. Resistance to this assumption of later immigration went so far that forgeries and misinterpretations, which were intended to underpin a local stability that had existed since antiquity, and which had been fabricated as pieces of text on shards of pottery from Veleia, were unmasked in 2008.

The counties of the Spanish Mark founded in 801. It consisted of the counties of Barcelona , Berga , Besalú , Cerdanya , Conflent , Ampurias , Girona , Manresa, Osona , Pallars , Rasès , Ribagorça , Roussillon and Urgell .

There was ongoing fighting with the Visigoths, so that there can be no question of Germanic rule in the Basque Country. However, they defeated King Leovigild, who had a fortress called Victoriacum built in their country in 581.

The armies that conquered the peninsula from 711 onwards also subjugated the Basques. To protect the Frankish Empire from these conquerors, known as Moors , Charlemagne founded the Spanish Mark in 801 . It was probably the Basques who defeated the Carolingian margrave Roland in the high valley of Roncesvalles . With the support of the local population, the Franks succeeded in conquering 785 Girona and 801 Barcelona. The rule was initially exercised by local or Visigoth counts. However, these strove for greater independence and the Carolingians were forced to replace them with counts of Franconian origin. Nevertheless, the counts enforced the inheritance of their titles. This development led to a kind of supremacy of the Count of Barcelona Wilfried I. After his death, the unity broke up, but the core of the counties of Barcelona, ​​Girona and Vic remained undivided. This was what later became Catalonia.

The Kingdom of Navarre was established in the north, encompassing large parts of the Basque region. Around 816 the local aristocratic family Arista succeeded in driving out the Frankish governor with the support of the Basque or Visigothic noble family of Banu Qasi, who had converted to Islam . This Muladí dynasty, which ruled Tudela and its surroundings from the 8th to 10th centuries , lost its territory to the Taifa Kingdom of Saragossa in the 11th century .

The emirate of Banu Qasi and the allied kingdom of Pamplona in the 10th century

The Banu Qasi were governors of Pamplona at the end of the 8th century and were already related by marriage to a Christian family in the area, namely Musa ibn Musa, who was head of the family in the first half of the 9th century, and Íñigo Arista , from 822 to 852 (now Christian ) King of Pamplona, ​​were half-brothers through their mother. These and other connections made the autonomous emirate of the Banu Qasi an important ally of the Kingdom of Pamplona, ​​the forerunner of Navarre. In 824 they jointly defeated the Franks in the third battle of Roncesvalles .

After the death of the last king of the house of Arista in 905, the house of Jiménez came to power with the husband of his granddaughter, Sancho I. His successor García I acquired the county of Aragón by marriage in 925 . Its most important king was Sancho III. (1000-1035). He was King of Aragon and Navarre, as well as Count Sancho I of Castile. He was called "King of all Basques".

Islamic Empires (711-1492)

The Islamic Expansion:
  • Conquests under the religious founder Mohammed, 622–632
  • among the four "rightly guided caliphs", 632–661
  • under the Umayyads, 661–750
  • The inner-Islamic conflicts were of considerably greater importance than the conflicts with groups of different faiths, because since Mohammed the conquerors monopolized political and military power and offered protection, for which the rest of the population raised the necessary taxes through economic activity. The central power was able to suppress the centrifugal tendencies only temporarily and with great severity. This was due to the fact that the Berbers of north-west Africa were drawn to a direction of Islam that required the equality of all Muslims, regardless of the question of ethnic origin. They defended themselves against the Arabs, who claimed permanent superiority. The dynasty, which ruled most of the peninsula from 756, was based on the one hand largely on Berbers, on the other hand it promoted the independence movements of the North African Berbers in order to maintain a buffer zone against the Arab empire. Against this background, cultural superiority, which was reflected in art and architecture, was a means of gaining prestige and being able to compete with the center of the great empire, Damascus . On this line lies the claim to the caliphate , which from 929 onwards divided the Islamic world even more clearly.

    After this caliphate was split up into petty lords around 1031, strictly religious groups, missionizing with the sword, intervened with considerable violence in internal Islamic conflicts and those with neighboring Christian states. On the other hand, the Muslim part was heavily involved in the fighting between the three large Berber groups.

    Conquest by the Islamic world empire (from 711)

    Count Julian von Ceuta, an opponent of King Roderich, apparently made contact with the Muslims. Musa ibn Nusayr , governor of the caliph, sent around 500 men on a raid in 710 under Tarif ibn Malik. In 711 an army of about 7000 men, consisting mainly of Berbers, landed under Tariq ibn Ziyad near Gibraltar. Tariq defeated the Visigoths on July 19 in the Battle of the Río Guadalete and occupied the capital Toledo. In June 712, Musa landed with a conquering army of 18,000 men from the east of the empire consisting of Arabs and Berbers and continued the conquest together with Tariq.

    Abd al-Aziz , Musa's son, was appointed governor of al-Andalus , as the new masters called the peninsula, with Seville as the capital. His attempt to establish an independent rule led to his assassination in 716. His successor Ayyub made Cordoba the capital. The governor Samh (718–721) occupied 720 Barcelona and crossed the Pyrenees for the first time.

    However, the revolt of the Visigoth Pelayo (Pelagius), who was elected king, began in Asturias in 718 . This led, if one follows the unreliable chronicle, to the establishment of the Kingdom of Asturias, which was stabilized by his son-in-law Alfonso I of Cantabria (739-757). At the same time, the siege of Constantinople (717–718) , which was carried out with considerable forces, failed, ultimately breaking the apparently unstoppable expansion force of the Islamic empire. Insurgent Berbers defeated an army from Andalusia in the Maghreb under Maysara, and in 740 an army from the east, and Maysara even assumed the title of caliph. The Berbers of the Iberian Peninsula drove the Arabs there south. The insurgents were defeated, but the victory was short-lived.

    In the north, development was more dominated by non-Muslim groups and less by internal Islamic conflicts. After a Muslim army failed to break the Asturian resistance in the battle of Covadonga in 718 or 722 , the Muslim raids continued as far as Aquitaine, Provence and 725 Burgundy . In 732 an army conquered Arles and Bordeaux . But as it moved further north, there was the battle of Tours and Poitiers against the Frankish troops under Karl Martell . Abd al-Rahman was killed in the battle and his army withdrew. This initially slackened the expansion force at this point as well. But only the uprisings of the Berbers and the breakup of the world empire finally brought them to a standstill.

    In 741, a whole Arab army under Balğ ibn Bišr, who had defeated the Berbers with his troops and who rose to governor in 742, moved to the peninsula. As in other provinces, this was an expression of an unrest that was mainly due to clashes between northern and southern Arabs, but also between the governors, who had lived in Córdoba since 716, and their commander-in-chief in Kairuan, Tunisia .

    Independence from the Islamic world empire, Emirate of Córdoba (750–929)

    Overthrow of the Umayyads in the east, independence from al-Andalus

    The Christian population dominated the trade, while the conquerors siphoned off part of the proceeds. Even because of their language skills, external contacts were largely handled by Christians.

    In addition, the Berbers, who had mainly supported the conquest of the Visigoth Empire, felt disadvantaged because they were denied settlement in the fertile south and deported to the north to defend the border. As in the western Maghreb, this discrimination against the Berbers led to an uprising (741–746) in Andalusia, which could only be suppressed by sending an Arab army from Syria.

    The governor of Narbonne, Yusuf ibn Abd ar-Rahman al-Fihri , who was responsible for al-Andalus from 747 to 756, made himself practically independent under the impression of the fighting between Umayyads and Abbasids, which ended in a massacre of the Umayyad family in 750 . He led a punitive expedition against the Basques in Pamplona in 755 , but it failed.

    Abd ar-Rahman takes power (756), conflicts with Franconia and Asturias

    The formation of a dynasty was prevented by the arrival of the last Umayyad, Abd ar-Rahman I , who had escaped the massacre of his family. He had fled to the Maghreb, where he found support from the Berber tribe from which his mother came. With this he defeated al-Fihri in May 756 at the Battle of Musarah near Cordoba.

    Abd ar-Rahman founded the Emirate of Cordoba . An Abbasid force could be defeated, in 760 he was the undisputed lord of al-Andalus. But several Berber revolts (766-776) revealed the division of the empire. In contrast to the Arabs, the majority of the Berbers had converted to Ibadiyya, a Kharijite form of Islam.

    Abd ar-Rahman I, who supported the uprisings in the Abbasid Empire, divided Andalusia proper into provinces. In central Spain, the margravates of Mérida, Toledo and Saragossa were established. Families ruled there, some of which ruled quite independently from Córdoba. Zaragoza and the Ebro Basin were ruled by the Banu Qasi until 907 .

    Mosque of Córdoba , begun in 784 and expanded several times until 987

    In 777 rebels of the Fihri clan appeared at the Reichstag in Paderborn and asked Charlemagne for support. In 778 Charles crossed the Pyrenees and took Pamplona , but was unable to conquer Zaragoza. On the way back he suffered a legendary defeat at the Battle of Roncesvalles . In return, the Muslims took 795 Narbonne, 801 the Franks Barcelona, ​​811 Tortosa .

    Under Abd ar-Rahman the increased immigration of Arabs from Syria began, which accelerated the cultural Arabization considerably. In order to symbolically underpin the ruling power, but also the ethnic-religious orientation, he began extensive construction work. In addition to fortifying Cordoba, he built the ar-Ruzafa palace and began building the Great Mosque . The development of agriculture was promoted by irrigation and canal construction techniques. This led to the upswing of small and medium-sized farmers and became the basis for economic expansion.

    Inner dynastic conflicts, uprisings and expulsions

    After the death of Abd ar-Rahman in 788, his second son Hisham I succeeded him, who prevailed against his brothers. In 791 he moved to Old Castile , his army defeated Bermudo I of Asturias further west and then drove the Franks from Girona and Narbonne in 793 in order to move across the Pyrenees to Septimania, where they defeated an army of the Franks. However, intra-family conflicts and rebellions put Hisham on the defensive, so that even the Balearic Islands were fought over between Muslims and Franks from 798 onwards. Under Hisham, the Malikite school of law began to spread, making it one of the four schools of law in Sunni Islam.

    In 796 al-Ḥakam I (until 822) succeeded his father. However, two of the new emir's uncles contested power and moved Karl to embark on a new campaign. King Alfonso II of Asturias pledged support. Charles's son Ludwig the Pious was involved , who plundered the cities of Lleida and Huesca with his army in 800 and occupied Barcelona in 803. The count there assumed the title Margrave of Gothien . Then al-Ḥakam and Karl signed an armistice, the uncles had been left with a comparison of the eastern part of the emirate between Huesca and Murcia .

    In the following years, al-Hakam suppressed aspirations for autonomy in the provinces, especially in the margravates. For example, in 797 in Toledo, 5000 nobles are said to have been murdered on his behalf at a feast in the Alcázar . He built up a mercenary army of Berbers, Franks and Slavic slaves. With their help, a conspiracy in Cordoba was put down in 805 and an uprising in its suburbs in 818. The suburb on the other side of the Guadalquivir was destroyed and the population displaced. Many of his opponents then fled to the Idrisids of Morocco, which the Andalusians settled in Fez . The remaining allegedly 15,000 of the total of 20,000 displaced families temporarily took power in the Egyptian city of Alexandria (until 825) before they conquered Crete in 827 and founded an emirate that lasted until 961. The suspicious emir surrounded himself with a foreign bodyguard ("the silent ones") who were subordinate to the head of the Christian community.

    Artistic bloom, Viking procession (844), dominance of Asturias, uprisings of the Mozarabs (around 866 to 928)

    Hakam's successor was 822 Abd ar-Rahman II , whose reign was characterized by literary and artistic activity. The Arabic prevailed over the Romansh, encouraged by immigration.

    Although there was fighting in the northern border areas, it was generally possible to wage the conflicts without open war. But in 842 the important margravate of Saragossa declared itself independent and in 844 Vikings appeared at the mouth of the Tagus and also reached Cádiz. From there they sacked Seville, but were then defeated by Abd ar-Rahman's troops. In 859, the Vikings again plundered Hispania.

    Beati in Apocalipsin libri duodecim (Beato de Zamora), f. 107r. The Visigoth manuscript consists of 144 ff of parchment with two columns of 33 to 35 lines each; Mosarab miniatures, Biblioteca de Serafín Estébanez Calderón y de San Millán de la Cogolla, 1st half of the 10th century

    Large parts of the Mozarabs had come to terms with Islam, especially the advocates of adoptianism , among whom Bishop Elipanus of Toledo, who was still Primate of Hispania, played a leading role. A group of Christians in Cordoba, on the other hand, reviled Mohammed and Islam in 851 and 859, for which the courts sentenced 45 deaths ( martyrs of Cordoba ).

    Islamic rule around 910

    Since the margravates of Toledo and Mérida in 868 declared their independence, Muhammad could not prevent Alfonso III. of Asturias extended his empire. On the contrary, in 883, after Alfonso had allied himself with Ibn Marwan of Mérida , he was forced to make peace with Asturias. The emirate threatened to collapse when the uprising of Umar ibn Hafsun began in Bobastro in 884 , who ruled the provinces of Malaga and Granada and who established connections with the rebels in Jaén. He relied mainly on Berbers and Mozarabs. 888 the son and successor of the emir, al-Mundhir , was killed before Bobastro. His brother Abdallah continued the fight, but in 889 Murcia and Valencia were lost and other members of the Umayyad clan made independent in Ronda and Seville. Umar ibn Hafsun had to be recognized as governor in Granada, in 895 a son of the emir revolted, so that Abdallah temporarily only ruled the area around Córdoba. The low point of his rule was reached when Abdallah had to recognize the suzerainty of Asturias over all of Iberia around 900. However, this led to resistance from the Muslim clergy, who accused the emir of being a vassal of a Christian king.

    Umar ibn Hafsun eventually established contacts with the Aghlabids and later the Shiite Fatimids in North Africa. However, when he converted to Christianity, he lost many allies. Abdallah was now increasingly able to play off the rebels against each other. When he was finally able to ally with the Banu Khaldun, Umar ibn Hafsun was largely isolated.

    To the grandson of the emir, Abd ar-Rahman III. , managed to win Seville in 913. But only with the death of Umar ibn Hafsun did he get the upper hand. In addition, the outbreak of civil war in the Kingdom of León from 925 onwards weakened the Muslim insurgents in the margravates supported by León. In 927 the Hafsunids had to capitulate, as did the Marwanids of Merida. With the conquest of Toledo, the human life-long fighting ended around 930, in which both Christians and Shiite Fatimids had intervened, but which were mainly carried out by Mozarabs.

    Caliphate of Cordoba (929-1031)

    The Caliphate of Cordoba around 1000

    Sunni supremacy, fight against Shiites and Christians

    Abd ar-Rahman III. took on the title of caliph on January 16, 929, in order to be able to counter the claim of the also appearing as caliphs, but Shiite Fatimids of North Africa. His fleet occupied Melilla in 927, Ceuta and Tangier in 931. Furthermore, alliances with the Berber Banu Ifran or Magrawa as well as with the Salihids prevented further expansion of the Fatimids in Morocco.

    Ruins of the main mosque of the
    Madīnat az-zahrāʾ residence, founded in 936

    'Abd ar-Rahman also won against León and Navarre in 920. However, he suffered a defeat against León in the Battle of Simancas in 939 , in which he narrowly escaped capture. The betrayal of his fellow Arabs prompted him to rely more on Berbers from now on. Finally in 951 he was able to enforce the suzerainty of the Umayyads over León, Castile and Barcelona, ​​which led to considerable tribute payments.

    Cultural and economic prosperity, Islamization

    Art and science reached their peak. The population grew rapidly. Córdoba had 113,000 houses and 600 mosques and magnificent palaces, including the Alcázar. With a population of perhaps 500,000, Córdoba eventually became the largest and wealthiest city in Europe even before Constantinople .

    At the same time, Islamization affected the leadership groups who owed their fortunes and careers to the court. Then came the cities, which were now more shaped by Muslim architecture and economy. The rural areas, on the other hand, were only more strongly affected by it very late, often in the 12th century. Many African and Middle Eastern techniques and products were transferred to Spain, where figs and dates became established, while domestic pigs disappeared and more goats and sheep were kept instead.

    In the same sense as Abd ar-Rahman III. ruled his son al-Hakam II (961–976), who is known as a poet and scholar , whereas under Hisham II (976–1013) the office of caliph lost its importance. Al-Hakam promoted economic development by building irrigation systems, roads and setting up markets. The promotion of art and culture was of great importance to him. A library with 400,000 volumes was built in Cordoba , but it was lost towards the end of the caliphate.

    While the internal administration was largely left to the vizier al-Mushafi, General Ghalib gained considerable influence. He was mainly concerned with repelling the last Norman attacks in 966 and 971, but above all the fighting with the Fatimids and Zirids in northern Morocco. The latter were defeated by Ghalib in Morocco in 974. Al-Hakam was able to maintain the supremacy of the caliphate against the Christian empires of Navarre, Castile and León. Hisham II followed him in 976 at the age of ten. His mother Subh and Jafar al-Mushafi, the first minister, ruled for him.

    Dinar from the time of Hisham II (around 1006/07)

    Beginning of the dynasty's disempowerment, Berber influence

    Militarily, the caliphate reached its greatest power around the turn of the millennium thanks to Almansor , a minister and general of Hisham. In 985 Barcelona was taken, while in the same year the Fatimids abandoned their plan to conquer Morocco; at the same time the flight of the Zanata Berbers to Iberia, which had been defeated, continued. The triumphant advance of the Sunnis began. Subh promoted Almansor and appointed him chamberlain. By 978 he had also prevailed over General Ghalib. Hisham was ousted by the government, in 997 he had to transfer sole government to Almansor. After his death, his son Abd al-Malik (1002–1008) came to the throne, who consolidated his position in the empire through wars against Navarre and Barcelona, ​​but was murdered by Abd ar-Rahman Sanchuelo . When this was again overthrown by a popular uprising under Muhammad II. Al-Mahdi in 1009 , the rebels also deposed Hisham II.

    Sulaiman was the great-grandson of Abd ar-Rahmans III. Used as caliph by the Berber troops in 1009. Although they were able to assert themselves against the troops of Muhammad and the Catalans allied with him, Sulaiman gave the battle prematurely lost, so that Córdoba was sacked again, this time by the Catalans. In 1013, after the re-conquest of Cordoba by the Berbers and after the deposition of Hisham , Sulaiman returned to the throne of the Caliphate until 1016. Now the Zirids of Granada formed an independent Berber dynasty (1012-1090). Sulaiman finally fell in 1016 into the hands of the Hammudids of Málaga and Algeciras (1016-1058) and was executed. Thus the title of caliph went from the Umayyads to the Hammudids under Ali ibn Hammud al-Nasir (1016-1018). With him in 1014 a non-Umayyad and at the same time a descendant of the Idrisid came to the throne for the first time, who was succeeded by his brother after his murder in 1016.

    Small states (Taifa kingdoms) (from 1031), suzerainty of Castile (until 1086)

    Taifa kingdoms around 1037 ...
    (Not unproblematic) reconstruction of the Moorish fortress wall (around 1065), plus the moat with corner bastion (from 1593) and the angular "Tower of the Troubadour" in the Aljafería , the city palace of Saragossa. It is one of the few buildings from the Taifa period.

    Between 1009 and 1031 the resistance of the regions increased under the leadership of locally anchored families, but also at court. In the course of the fighting between the different ethnic groups, especially the Berbers, who immigrated as mercenaries from North Africa in the second half of the 10th century, and the long-established “Arab” population, which are primarily the descendants of the mostly Berber conquerors of the 8th century and the Hispano novels ( Muladíes ) converted to Islam, the individual parts of the empire made themselves independent under new dynasties. Initially, up to 30 Taifas emerged, which fought each other in changing alliances.

    These taifas can be divided into three groups, the Taifas of the Berbers, who initially placed themselves under the spiritual leadership of the Hammudids of Malaga and the military leadership of the Zirids of Granada , the Taifas of the Arabs and muladíes and the Taifas of the Amirids , descendants or ṣaqāliba ( i.e. Slavs and other light-skinned and reddish peoples) Almansors. The latter, however, were unable to found a dynasty because the former generals and officials were often eunuchs . An exception was Muğāhid of Dāniya , who founded a dynasty with his Christian wife on the Gulf of Valencia and the Balearic Islands.

    Under the pressure of the Abbadids, the smaller taifas of the Zanata were weakened more and more, so that Granada quickly became the most important taifa of the Berbers. Finally, the Zirids also got rid of the Hammudid caliphs of Málaga and Algeciras. Of the Arab taifas, the most important were Seville, Saragossa, Badajoz, Córdoba and Toledo, some of which also legitimized subordinate themselves to a shadow caliphate. The most important dynasties of this period were the Hūdids of Saragossa, the 'Abbādids of Seville, the Afṭasids of Badajoz , the Dhun-Nunids of Toledo, the Hammudids of Malaga, the Jahwarids of Cordoba and the Zirids of Granada . The Amirids ruled the east coast between Almería and Valencia.

    Although the Abbadids of Seville soon rose to be the most powerful empire, they too had to recognize the sovereignty of Castile in 1064. As Alfonso VI. of Castile conquered Toledo in 1085, then occupied Aledo Castle far to the south, the petty kings turned to the Almoravids in Morocco with requests for help . They defeated the Castilians in 1086 in the battle of Zallaqa near Badajoz.

    The Dove's Collar, manuscript in the Leiden University Library

    Meanwhile there was a renewed cultural flowering, especially in the fields of poetry, art and science. So lived the important historians al-Udri (1002-1085) and Ibn Hayya (987-1076), as well as the geographer al-Bakri († 1094). The lexicographer Ibn Sida (1007-1066) from Murcia wrote two dictionaries, Abu l-Qasim az-Zahrawi († 1010; Latinized Abulcasis ) became famous with his textbook on surgery, the Kitab al-Tasrif , by Gerhard von Cremona (1114–1187) was translated into Latin. Among the astronomers, az-Zarqala († 1087) from Toledo is worth mentioning, who was also known in Christian Europe under the name Azarquiel . Other important men were the polymath Ibn Hazm (994-1064), the poet Ibn Zaidun (1003-1071) and the poet and philosopher Ibn Gabirol (around 1021 to around 1058). The most important head was Ibn Hazm al-Andalusi. He was born in Cordoba, his family was probably of Visigoth descent. He rose to become a universal scholar who was well versed in theology, philosophy and poetry, but as a follower of the law school of the Zahirites , he was banned from teaching in the Great Mosque; in Seville his works were burned. Another reason for his repeated exile was his allegedly pro-Umayyad stance. His work The Separation Between Religious Communities became very important. In it he sought to refute Judaism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism as well as the most important Islamic sects. A treatise he wrote on love, The Dove's Collar, was also widely used.

    Almoravids (from 1085), second Taifa period (from 1144), Almohads (until 1212)

    Empire of the Almoravids in Morocco and Spain

    In 1086 the Almoravids achieved a decisive victory that opened the Iberian Peninsula to them. Seville fell in 1091. The Almoravids took control of al-Andalus, which now became part of an empire centered in northwest Africa.

    Outraged by the “decadent” lifestyle and “softening” of religion they found, they began subjugating the Taifa empires, in agreement with legal scholars who highlighted the minor kings' failure to protect Islam. This ended in 1110 with the fall of the Hudids of Saragossa. When Ramon Berenguer IV (r. 1131–1162) finally conquered the viceroyalty of Siurana in Catalonia in 1153 , the last Taifa empire in the northern part of the peninsula had also disappeared.

    Koran from al-Andalus, 12th century

    The only episode remained El Cid , a disgraced vassal named Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar (around 1043-1099), whom his Muslim followers called sid (lord). At first he supported the King of Saragossa against the Margrave of Barcelona, ​​but above all conquered the kingdom of Valencia in a legendary train in 1094, where he settled until his death in 1099.

    Under Ali ibn Yusuf , Valencia and Zaragoza and the Balearic Islands were conquered, but Zaragoza was lost to Aragón in 1118. Above all, however, a new reformist power led by Zanata Almohads conquered the Almoravid empire in Morocco. After Ali ibn Yusuf's death, the Almoravids had to withdraw from Andalusia, which favored the rise of Ibn Mardanīsch (1143–1172) from Valencia. With the storming of Marrakech by the Almohads in 1147 and the death of the last Almoravid, the dynasty ended.

    The second Taifa period began in 1144 when their empire fell apart. An equally strict religious reform movement followed with the Almohads. They conquered Valencia in 1172, but in 1184 an attack on Lisbon failed. After their victory at Alarcos in 1195, they were finally defeated in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa on July 16, 1212 by the armies of the kingdoms of Portugal, Castile, Navarre and Aragón. With Ibn Hud († 1238) and the Nasrids , Andalusian Muslims came to rule again.

    Emirate of Granada (1232–1492)

    Pavilion in the Lion Courtyard of the Alhambra

    But al-Andalus was limited to the Emirate of Granada under the Nasrids. The dynasty goes back to the Arab Muhammad Yusuf ben Nasri 'Alhamar' ( 'Red Beard '), who was proclaimed Sultan in 1232 . In 1234 he declared himself a vassal of Cordoba, but Ferdinand III conquered . the city and Muhammad then seized Granadas; for this he was enfeoffed by Ferdinand in 1236. In 1238 he entered Granada to occupy the Palace of the Windcock (the old Alhambra). Muhammad soon had to pay homage to him and acknowledge him as Lord.

    Under Muhammad II. Al-Faqih (1272–1302) the Merinids of Morocco gained supremacy over the Nasrids, but in 1340 they were defeated in the Battle of Salado by a fleet led by the Castilians. From now on, the Muslims no longer received any support from North Africa. Economically, Granada became dependent on Aragón and Genoa , which controlled foreign trade.

    The Nasrid Kingdom of Granada

    Under Yusuf I (1333-1354) and Muhammad V (1354-1359) culture and economy flourished again. Granada was expanded and palaces were built in the Alhambra , including the Courtyard of the Lions. The war for Granada was started jointly by Ferdinand V and Isabella I in 1482, while Granada was experiencing a civil war. The last emir Muhammad XII. "Boabdil" surrendered in 1492.

    Asturias-Leon, Castile

    Struggle for independence against Cordoba, Kingdom of Asturias-León

    The Visigoth Pelagius was supposedly elected king (or prince) by his followers in 718. In the Battle of Covadonga he achieved a defensive success, which in retrospect was interpreted as the beginning of the Reconquista . But it was a private dispute with the Muslim governor responsible for Asturias that gave rise to the rebellion. More tangible is King Alfonso I († 757), who created a belt of devastation between his empire and the Muslim area through murders. Under his son Fruela I , the Repoblación began , the repopulation of the depopulated areas by Christians. Galicia was also subjugated.

    Alfonso II (791–842) resumed the conquests. The capital now became Oviedo, founded in 761 . Under Alfonso III. (866-910) Asturias reached its greatest extent and at times the supremacy over the Muslim south. His three sons divided the empire among themselves and the partial kingdoms of León, Galicia and Asturias were created. In 924 they were reunited as the Kingdom of León .

    The Iberian Peninsula with the Kingdom of León in the northwest around 1030

    The first king of León was García I. He married a daughter of the Castilian Count Nuño Fernández, who in 910 had supported García and his two brothers Fruela and Ordoño in a revolt against their common father. García received León, his brothers Ordoño Galicia and Fruela Asturias. The childless García was followed by his brother Ordoño II, who had been sent to Zaragoza to educate the Banu Qasi . He had the cities of Évora and Mérida plundered. Cordoba was defeated in the battle of San Esteban de Gormaz in 917 , but the Christians were defeated in 920 in the battle of Valdejunquera . A counterattack led to the occupation of La Rioja and the conquest of the areas around Nájera and Viguera in Navarre. Ordoño II, who had called up the Counts of Castile, but who had not appeared, summoned them to Tejares and had them murdered without further ado.

    He was followed by his brother Fruela II , which later led to a dispute over the succession with his son Alfonso Froilaz , because Ordoño had three sons named Sancho Ordoñez, Alfonso and Ramiro . Alfonso became king in 925 after the three brothers ousted the heir, his brother Sancho Ordóñez became king of Galicia from 926 to 929, and his other brother Ramiro ruled Portugal. The latter, also known as Ramiro the Great , formed an alliance with Navarre and Aragón, which defeated the caliph's troops at the Battle of Simancas in 939. The southern border of the empire was moved by the Duero at the Tormes .

    But he could not prevent Castile from becoming independent. Rodrigo, the first Count of Castile, conquered Amaya and the area of ​​La Burega and Oca in 860 until he controlled the Pancorbe pass leading into the Ebro Valley. Then followed the expansion into the Duero Basin. Count Diego-Rodréguez founded Burgos in 884. The conquest of the Riója by Sancho García I, King of Navarre, secured the eastern border around 920.

    In 931 the counties into which Castile had split up until then were united by Count Fernán González , who made the county, which was under the sovereignty of the Kingdom of León, independent in 944. With the support of León he was able to repel attacks from Cordoba until then, whereupon he succeeded in conquering Osma and Simanca. He allied himself with the caliph against León, but was stopped by Sancho the Fat in 966 . He left the county to his son García Fernández (970–995), who was exposed to the last attacks of Cordoba, but was able to expand his rule northwards. His son and successor Sancho García temporarily allied himself with Córdoba and intervened there after the death of al-Mansur in 1008.

    Queen Urraca Fernández († 1007; Codex Vigilano o Albeldense , around 976)

    In 955 Ordoño III sent from León an army to Lisbon, whereupon an agreement was reached between him and the caliph. He married Urraca Fernández, the daughter of the Count of Castile Fernán González , but later disowned her because her father was allied with Sancho I , who contested the throne for him. In fact, he succeeded him on the throne after his death in 956. Two years after his coronation, he was again deposed by noblemen under the leadership of the Count of Castile Fernán González. In exile with his grandmother Toda of Navarre, he won the support of Abd ar-Rahmans. He conquered Zamora in 959 and regained his throne. However, there was a break with the caliph and an alliance with Navarre.

    Sancho was eventually poisoned in 966 and his five year old son Ramiro III. followed him on the throne. His aunt Elvira Ramírez, who assumed the title of king for this period, and his mother, Teresa Ansúrez, took over the leadership of the state.

    Vermudo II , son of Ordoños III. and since 982 king of Galicia, overthrew the young king in 984. Under the protection of Córdoba he managed to recapture Zamora, but he was dependent on the local support in the fight against Castile. Córdoba gained a kind of suzerainty over León, whose troops did not withdraw until 987. Almansor , the ruler of Cordoba, then destroyed Coimbra . In addition, Moorish troops captured Gormaz and Cluni ( Coruña del Conde ) in 994 , Astorga in 996 , and sacked Santiago de Compostela in 997 .

    Alfonso V in the Libro de las Estampas or Libro de los Testamentos de los reyes de León , around 1200

    The king was followed in 999 by his five-year-old son Alfonso V , who was under the tutelage of his mother Elvira and Count Menendo González. León, destroyed by Almansor, was resettled. In 1020 the fueros , the customary rights of the historical territories, were adopted by León there.

    As the caliphate fell, the conflicts between the northern empires came to a head. In 1029 the Castilian Count García Sanchez II visited León to marry Sancha, the king's daughter. Once there, however, he was murdered by members of the Vela family in revenge for an insult. Since he died without descendants, the King of Navarre, Sancho III., Attacked Castilian territory in order to enforce the rights he had acquired by marrying Munia, the sister of the victim. He assumed the title of Count of Castile. At the same time, Sancho had the Vela executed. Finally, the son of Sanchos, Ferdinand I, was appointed count.

    Repopulation (repoblación)

    The repoblación, which was partly spontaneous, was already promoted by the counts in the Duero basin. In addition to free settlers, there were village communities ( comunidades de aldea ), which were often based on kinship. Large latifundia therefore emerged much later in Castile than in León or Galicia. However, this was less true of the strong agglomeration of power and possessions of the counts around Lara and Burgos. Monasteries also acquired extensive goods.

    Dependent peasant groups occurred less than commendations to any gentleman ( behetría , derived from the Latin benefactoria). People who had weapons or a horse could easily rise to the nobility as infanzónes . This caballería villana is considered to be indicative of the social mobility of early Castile.

    The counts, whose offices had become hereditary in the meantime, were in a strong position vis-à-vis the king. While in León the legal norms laid down in the Liber iudiciorum applied, in Castile there was an oral tradition based on customary law. This was based on wisdoms of the count's court days or fazañas legendary judges of the past.

    Unification of Asturias-León and Castile under Ferdinand I (from 1035/37), victory over Navarre (1054)

    After the barely of legal age, King of León Vermudo III. had failed to regain the territories lost to Navarre, the claim to the throne and the conquered territories passed to his sister Sancha after his death. This in turn ceded her rights to her husband Ferdinand I. He was the second son of King Sancho III. of Navarre and since 1035 or 1037 King of Castile and Navarre and now also King of León.

    The resulting regional power was relieved by the collapse of the caliphate, and at the same time it intensified contacts with the rest of Western Europe. This is how the Benedictine order spread, and the pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela gained great importance. Ferdinand also had the legal traditions collected.

    His brother García IV of Navarre invaded Castile with Moorish allies in 1054, but he died in a battle near Atapuerca , whereby Ferdinand also won the part of Navarre to the right of the Ebro. From 1058 he succeeded in conquering the cities of Viseu and Lusitania as far as the Mondego . Several Muslim kings had to pay tributes for his patronage from 1055 (pariah).

    Before his death, Ferdinand divided his states among his three sons so that Sancho received Castile, Alfonso León and Asturias, García Galicia and Portugal. The pariah were also divided, so that Sancho II received the pariah from Saragossa, Alfons VI. those of Toledo and Garcia those of Badajoz and Seville.

    Intensified Reconquista, Western Europeanization, setback by Almoravids

    With the division of the pariah the direction of expansion was predetermined, but disputes among the brothers delayed the conquest. Alfonso became king of Léon and Asturias in 1065, but his brother Sancho II , who had inherited Castile, drove him out of his dominion after the death of their mother, Sancha. Alfonso then fled to the Taifa kingdom of Toledo . When Sancho was murdered in 1072, Alfonso returned to Léon and was also recognized as king in Castile. He promoted the cities and organized the church system according to the principles of the Cluniac - Gregorian reform with close ties to Rome.

    Alfonso increased the pressure on the typhoon empire from 1076. He called himself Adephonsus Imperator Toletanus Magnificus Triumphator in memory of the conquest of Toledo in 1085, but also Imperator Totius Hispaniae and ruler appointed by God over all the nation of Spain . The title of Imperator Totius Hispaniae remained in use from 1086 to 1157.

    But Alfonso's army was defeated by the Almoravids in the battle of Sagrajas in 1086 . This ended the expansion to the south, especially since the Almoravids subjugated all the Taifas and thus lost the income to the pariah . The lords of the huge Berber Empire defeated Alfonso in 1097 at Consuegra and in 1108 at Ucles .

    Secession of Portugal, Queen Urraca, fight against Almoravids and Aragón

    Document of the Infanta Urraca and Elvira dated March 11, 1099, archives of the Basilica of San Isidoro in León
    A Privilegium Imperatoris , as the document calls itself. It was issued under Alfonso VII of León and Castile and gives land to an abbot (bottom center) for the establishment of a Benedictine monastery. Behind Alfonso is his majordomo Count Ponç II of Cabrera on the right , holding a sword and a shield with his coat of arms. Alfonso's sons Sancho and Fernando can be seen at the bottom left .

    Alfonso died in 1109 after his son Sancho died at Ucles in 1108 and he had determined the son of his daughter Urraca , another Alfonso , to be his successor. Urraca, who belonged to the French Capetians on her mother's side , became a possible heir to the throne in 1090 due to the lack of male heirs. A few years later her cousin Heinrich von Burgund was married to her younger half-sister Theresia . Raimund was to by Alfonso VI. appointed Count of Galicia. After the birth of the Infante Sancho Alfónsez in 1093, the prospects of Urracas and Raimunds to the throne diminished.

    To secure the southwest border against the Almoravids, Raimund was equipped in May 1093 with the territory south of Galicia, the area of ​​the county of Portugal; however, he lost Lisbon to the Almoravids in 1094. In 1097, Alfonso VI. the county of Portugal to Henry of Burgundy.

    Only the government in the county of Galicia was able to continue Urraca on its behalf. The death of her half-brother Sancho in 1108 put her back at the center of her succession considerations. Probably in August 1108 Urraca was betrothed to King Alfonso I "the warrior" of Aragón . But Sancho III. of Navarre was their great-grandfather together, a kinship that aroused the displeasure of the clergy under the leadership of the Archbishop of Toledo. In addition, this marriage led to a deepening of the family gap between Urraca and her brother-in-law Heinrich von Burgund. Nevertheless, in May 1109, her father proclaimed her heir. On July 22nd, one day after her father's funeral, Urraca wrote “Ego Urraka dei nutu totius yspanie regina”. To confirm her sole rule, she expanded her title from 1110 to include the imperial character led by the kings of Léons in "Vrracha, Dei gratia regina et imperatrix Yspanie".

    But the Pope neither recognized their marriage, nor did the grown-ups accept a foreign mistress. On October 26, 1111, Urraca was defeated in the Battle of Candespina, but she managed to break up the opposing alliance by pulling Heinrich on her side. Then she had her son proclaimed King Alfonso VII on September 19, 1111 in Santiago de Compostela, who was thus built up as a counter-pretender to Alfonso I of Aragón. This occupied both Toledo and León. In 1112 Urraca went on the offensive and was able to lock her husband in Astorga , but Abbot Pontius of Cluny , who appeared as a papal legate, announced the annulment of their marriage . With this the alliance finally broke up.

    In order to stabilize the border province of Zamora against attacks by the Almoravids, Urraca settled the knightly order of the Hospitallers in León in 1116 . With her ex-husband she came to an agreement, with Alfonso renouncing all sovereign rights in León and Castile. The resistance against the government of Urraca came from her half-sister Theresa, who called herself "Queen of Portugal" since November 1117.

    Around the same time, the Almoravids attacked the county of Portugal. Urraca used this to win back Zamora and Toro, which she had once had to cede to Henry of Portugal. As a result of the peace with Aragón Urraca was able to restore her rule in the area south of the Duero and move into Toledo on November 16, 1117 with her son, who was proclaimed emperor over all of Spain there.

    In 1117 Urraca's lover, the Castilian Count Pedro Gonzáles de Lara, became her first adviser. She deepened her connection to the Lara house , one of the five most important Castilian families, by marrying her half-sister Sancha with the brother of her lover. However, against the growing influence of the Castilians at the royal court, a group of Leonese aristocrats rose up in 1119. The differences between Urraca and their Leonese vassals could be settled by September. In relation to her vassals, she received support from Pope Calixtus II , a brother of her first husband.

    Now Urraca's rule was so firmly established that her army could take action against Theresa, who had been independent since 1109. It won at Tui . In Braga she was able to receive the submission of her nephew Alfonso Enríquez and the Portuguese nobility.

    The Christian empires in the 12th century

    Archbishop Diego Gelmírez and the Galician nobility allied with him, however, made a secret pact with Theresa. When Urraca had him captured in 1120, there was a popular uprising, and when Count Pedro Froilaz recruited an army against her, which her son joined, she had to release the archbishop again. The Archbishop and Count Pedro Froilaz also raised an army against them, to which their son belonged again. Urraca had to recognize the archbishop in all rights of rule in Santiago de Compostela. In agreement with the papal legate, however, he continued to depose Urracas and enthrone her son. On the other hand, Urraca received the support of Pope Calixtus II , who curtailed Diego Gelmírez's power by appointing the Archbishop of Braga to the upper metropolitan over the dioceses of Portugal and Galicia and installing Archbishop Bernardo of Toledo as primate of the Church of all Spain. Meanwhile, Theresa had again fought for an independent rule in southern Galicia since 1121.

    Coronation of the emperor Alfonsus VII (1135), union of Catalonia and Aragon (1134), Kingdom of Portugal (1139)

    After a protracted war, which his mother Urraca, who died in 1126, had already started, Alfonso VII asserted himself against his stepfather and retained Castile, Leon, Asturias and Galicia in the partition in 1127; only his share in Navarra, Álava, Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa he ceded to Aragón in the Peace of Támara. On May 26, 1135, he was crowned Emperor of all Spain in Léon.

    However, after the death of Alfonso I of Aragon in 1134, the emperor had to accept the unification of Catalonia and Aragon, as well as the restoration of Navarre's independence. In Portugal, Alfonso, Teresa's son, assumed the title of king in 1139. Alfonso VII had to recognize this fact in 1143, albeit as an integral part of the empire.

    In 1146 Cordoba was conquered. Shortly afterwards, the Almoravids, oppressed by the Almohads, also lost Calatrava and Almería. However, the Almohads soon retook Córdoba. The inheritance of Castile and León-Galicia among his sons Sancho III. and Ferdinand II split the regional power again.

    Time of the Five Kingdoms

    Alfonso VIII and Queen Eleonor hand over the city of Uclés to the Master of the Order of Santiago

    Ferdinand II (1157–1188) became king in León, followed by Alfonso IX. (until 1229). The five Christian empires stood opposite the Almohads, a cohesive empire that was able to consolidate itself until 1172. The five empires were able to balance this power imbalance by mobilizing vigilante groups of the urban conséjos, brotherhoods (cofradías) and orders of knights. The latter included the Order of Alcántara in León since 1156 , the Order of Calatrava in Castile since 1157 and the Order of St. Jacob in both kingdoms since 1170 .

    1158 died in León Sancho III. and Ferdinand took over the guardianship of his underage son Alfonso VIII. He invaded Castile and from then on called himself King of Spain . In 1162 he conquered Toledo; In the same year, after the death of Raimund Berengar IV of Barcelona , he took over the guardianship of his son and thus power in Aragon. His influence on Portugal grew in 1165 through his marriage to Urraca, a daughter of Afonso I. As a result of a dispute over Badajoz , war broke out with Portugal in 1168, from which Ferdinand, who had allied himself with the Almohads in 1169, emerged victorious. A second war with the Portuguese ended in 1177 with his victory at Argannal. But in Castile he increasingly lost influence. The Castilian nobility conquered Toledo as early as 1166. A war against Castile, begun in 1178, dragged on until 1183.

    Land development, Cortes of León (1188), first university (1219), victory over Almohads (1212)

    Alfonso IX von León pursued an extensive resettlement and town-building policy, and he also weakened the nobility by supporting the towns against him. One of his main innovations was the convening of a curia regis , in which city representatives took part for the first time. From here the Cortes started. With the Magna Carta were Cortes of León compared by 1188, which should protect against abuse of power and arbitrariness. Unlike in Aragón, the Cortes (from 1217 in Valladolid) never succeeded in restricting the royal power to a greater extent.

    Foreign policy is linked to the constant conflict with Alfonso VIII of Castile. Alfonso IX after the battle of Alarcos even united with the Almohads against the Castilian, which resulted in his excommunication . The fighting initially ended with the marriage between Leóner and Berenguela of Castile . But Pope Innocent III. excommunicated the couple because of too close relatives, which led to the resumption of the war. Alfonso IX was at the victory at Las Navas de Tolosa against the Almohads. from León accordingly not involved. On the contrary, he attacked Castilian territory, but also took the opportunity to occupy Muslim cities such as Mérida and Badajoz. The orders of knights conquered other cities, so that the way to Seville was almost free. Finally, the University of Salamanca was founded in 1219 , the oldest university in Spain and one of the oldest universities in Europe.

    The winner of the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa on July 16, 1212, which was decisive in retrospect , was King Alfonso VIII of Castile, who led a coalition with Aragon, Portugal and Navarre against the Almohads. Even if the number of participants in the battle, which should underpin the enormous importance of the fight, has since been reduced - Joseph F. O'Callaghan estimates the number of fighters involved on both sides in each of these battles at no more than 3000 to 5000 men -, so it was Pope Innocent III. but succeeded in establishing a real crusade mentality on the peninsula for the first time.

    Union of Leon and Castile (1230), conquest of Seville (1248)

    Ferdinand III. , the son of Alfonsus IX. of León and the Berenguela of Castile, became king of Castile after the death of his uncle Enriques I in 1217 - against the resistance of an aristocratic and urban opposition under the imperial administrator Álvaro Núñez de Lara - and after the death of his father in 1230 also of León. The empire was no longer divided and became indivisible with the amalgamation of the Córtes in the 14th century.

    Ferdinand won after several victories over the divided Muslim empires, especially at Jerez de la Guadiana in 1233 and 1236, the city of Cordoba . Ten years later the conquest of Jaén followed, in 1248 the kingdom of Seville fell, and in 1250 Cádiz. Only the Emirate of Granada , founded in 1247, survived until 1492.

    The resettlement, now understood as an imperial task, was intensified, with the king's followers and the bishops being provided with extensive land areas. Numerous Moors left the country. During the settlement, livestock farming, especially sheep breeding, played an increasing role (privileges of the Mesta, 1270–1273). The adoption of urban forms of society, the stronger enforcement of market mediation and the monetary economy, but also the intensification of Mediterranean trade largely took over from the Muslim cities. But the primacy of religious policy with recourse to imagined Visigoth traditions now took precedence. Cistercians, Franciscans and Dominicans were promoted. There were also Trinitarians and Mercedarians who specialized in ransoming prisoners.

    Ferdinand donated several bishoprics, founded the Cathedral of Toledo, made a contribution to legislation through the Código de las Partidas, completed by his son, and the translation of the code of law applicable to the Moors of Córdoba. In terms of foreign policy, he tied himself and his family into the European world of states through marriages to Norway, England, France and the Empire, the latter giving rise to claims on Sicily, but especially on the monarchy and the Roman Empire.

    "Translation school" and national languages, legislation, imperial politics of Alfonso X.

    The “ Toledo School of Translators ” was a translation tradition that began in the 12th century, not an institution. The contact between Mozarabs and Jews who knew Arabic and Latin authors led to a transfer of knowledge that was promoted by episcopal or royal initiative. The first phase, which lasted from about 1130 to 1187, was shaped by Archbishop Raimund of Toledo . Scientific and philosophical writings were translated that had been translated from Greek into Arabic under the Abbasids , but also Arabic writings, for example on astronomy and mathematics. In 1142 the Abbot of Cluny , Petrus Venerabilis , came to Spain and commissioned a translation of the Koran, which was completed in 1143 by the Englishman Robert von Ketton , the Croatian Hermann von Carinthia , the Castilian Petrus Alfonsi and the Saracen Mohammed and by the abbot's secretary , Peter of Poitiers. New translation initiatives came from Alfonso X. and his court, whereby the focus was no longer on the translation into Latin but into Castilian, and the dialect of the Toledan court in particular played a standardizing role.

    The Tabulae Alphonsinae , an astronomical work with tables for calculating the position of the sun , moon and the five planets , in a late medieval manuscript

    Alfonso X. , King of León and Castile from 1252 to 1282, was the first son of Ferdinand III. the saint and Elisabeth, a daughter of the German King Philip of Swabia . He promoted astronomy and the recognition of Ptolemaic cosmology and had the Ptolemaic planetary tables improved between 1252 and 1270, which were named after him Tabulae Alphonsinae .

    Alfonso X. and the editors of the Partidas , one of the most important collections of laws, illustration from the Livro de las Legies

    Alfonso, himself a poet, is also considered the founder of Castilian national literature. From around 1270 onwards, he had his historiographers write an Estoria de España and a world history in the Castilian language and set up documents in the national language. He also commissioned many works, for example the Cantigas de Santa Maria , 427 songs in Galician , the lyrical language of the time. Above all, however, he directed the compilation of the code of law begun by his father, later known as Las Siete Partidas or simply Partidas , Livro de las Legies .

    Alfonso, like other European rulers, was an exponent of an imperial policy that focused on family relationships and the claims to titles and domains derived from them. His descent from the Hohenstaufen through his mother Elisabeth gave him the opportunity, after the death of King Conrad IV. In 1255, to claim his duchy of Swabia , to be raised to the rank of emperor by the Ghibellines of Pisas in March 1256 and to run for king. But in 1265 the Pope diverted the ambitions of Charles of Anjou , whose mother Blanka of Castile was the daughter of Alfonso VIII, to southern Italy, which thwarted the Franco-Castilian plans. Thereupon Alfonso tried to raise the necessary funds to carry out a procession to Rome to obtain the imperial crown, a crown which he did not renounce until 1275.

    The Castilian nobility fought against the king's imperial plans and centralization efforts through alliances with the Muslims of southern Spain and with Jacob of Aragon, even though he was Alfonso's father-in-law. Nevertheless, he put down the Mudéjares uprising in Murcia for Alfonso in order to prevent Alfonso from supporting the Muslim population of Valencia in return.

    City gate of Tarifa

    Alfonso's far-reaching marriage plans with the northern neighbor initially failed. In 1275 it came to war with France. After the end of the war, Alfonso initiated a crusade and conquered Jerez , Medina-Sidonia , San Lucar , Cádiz, part of the Algarve and united Murcia with Castile. Ultimately, only Tarifa, which was occupied in 1292, remained Castilian. As early as the Treaty of Monteagudo of 1291, “spheres of interest” were agreed between Aragon and Castile with a view of the Maghreb. Aragón, which had diplomatic and trade relations with the Hafsids in Tunisia and the Abdalwadids in Algeria since about 1250 , claimed privileges there, while Castile did the same in Morocco's Merinid Empire. In addition, the Merinids had refused in 1276 to conclude a peace and trade treaty with Aragón. When the two Iberian powers were at war, Aragón attempted an alliance with the Merinids against Castile in 1286, but this was also rejected. The Merinids remained neutral, as did the Iberian Nasrids.

    Economic crisis and revolts, Merinids and Granada, enforcement of royal power (1348)

    Between about 1275 and 1325, Castile experienced a severe social and economic crisis. Agricultural production and population decreased. At the same time, Cortes, the nobility, and ecclesiastical institutions faced kingship, which tried to break the regional powers. After the conquests had come to an end, the nobles sought new income, but the royal administration had concentrated this in its own financial administration. Although the powerful noble families achieved a share, unlike Aragón they did not form a unit and so they did not succeed in forcing contractual rights from the king. From 1295 to 1302 and 1313 to 1325 Hermandades appeared, city alliances. The families of Caballeros came to power in the cities , against which the civil parish, which was defeated by común .

    Alfonso XI. defeated many of the nobleza vieja ancient families . During the Hundred Years War he remained neutral and allied himself with the Caballero nobility and the Hidalgos. The latter exercised power in the city councils in the 1330s and 1340s. From 1342 he implemented a general consumption tax, the alcabala , then a new regulation of the sale of salt and a levy on the raising of cattle. Above all, however, he enforced the primacy of royal law through the Ordenamiento de Alcalá in 1348 against regional and legal fragmentation .

    Dispute over Portugal, coin policy, rise of new families, western schism

    King Pedro I on a gold coin, a Dobla from 1360
    Enrique von Trastámara murdered his half-brother Pedro I in 1369 (illustration from the Chroniques of Jean Froissart , around 1410)

    Pedro I (1350-1369) sought help from England against Enrique von Trastámara - he had murdered the legitimate heir to the throne and put himself on the throne - while Enrique relied on France from 1366 onwards. After his victory, Enrique II (1369–1379) reaffirmed the lasting Castilian-French alliance.

    His successor intervened in the struggle for succession in Portugal after the death of Ferdinando I (1383). This had not recognized Enrique of Trastámara as King of Castile and instead made his own claims to the throne. But in the Peace of Alcoutim, the Portuguese had to renounce all claims to the Castilian throne. He also committed to marry a daughter of Enrique. Instead, however, he married Leonore Teles de Menezes , whereupon Enrique attacked Portugal and looted Lisbon in 1373. Portugal in turn allied itself with England, which also asserted claims to the Castilian throne. This made Portugal a sideline to the Hundred Years War between England and France. However, since England did not send troops as promised, Ferdinando had to make peace in the Treaty of Santarém in 1373. In 1381 he attacked Castile again, but had to ask for peace again after the Portuguese fleet had been destroyed. Ferdinando, who had no male heirs, had to consent to his daughter's marriage to the new Castilian King John I , which confirmed Castile's inheritance claims. But Johann von Avis , an illegitimate half-brother of Ferdinando, took power and was crowned the new king after defending against the Castilian claims through his victory in the Battle of Aljubarrota in 1385.

    The royal power was further strengthened in Castile. The Consejo real received its final form, with the Real Audiencia a supreme court emerged, and the Contadurías Mayores emerged as the supreme authority of the financial administration . But only under Heinrich III. (1390–1406) a certain stability of the currency and the rehabilitation of finances could be achieved again.

    The Cortes often met in times of crisis, but the calming of the situation and the consolidation of new noble families - they benefited above all from the Trastamara coming to power - prevented the representatives of Cortes from having a say in contractual law. When, during the Western Schism , which lasted from 1378 to 1418, Castile was part of the Avignon obedience, the monarchy increasingly claimed rights to fill vacant bishopric positions.

    Enforcement of royal power, union with Aragón

    Henry III. of Castile died in December 1406. While his son John II of Castile was a minor , his mother Catherine of Lancaster and his uncle Ferdinand of Antequera ran the business of government. This double reign split the country into two camps. After Ferdinand died in 1416 and Katharina died in 1418, the Archbishop of Toledo, Sancho de Rojas, ensured that the king was declared of legal age in 1419 on the occasion of his marriage to Marie of Aragón.

    Isabella of Castile, around 1500

    But now there was a confrontation with the Castilian nobility and with the sons of his uncle Ferdinand I , the Infantes de Aragón . Around 1430 Johann was able to assert himself against Ferdinand's sons with the help of Álvaro de Luna . After Johann's victory against the emirate of Granada in the Battle of La Higueruela in 1431, a short-term peace was confirmed by the marriage of John's son Heinrich to Blanka von Aragón, the daughter of his opponent. However, this marriage was later dissolved. It was not until 1445 that Álvaro de Luna, the king's favorite from 1422 to 1453, achieved a victory that by no means ended the disputes. In these struggles, the nobility aimed to oblige the kings to follow government programs developed by them, to occupy the highest offices in the administration and to increase their own income. At the same time they undermined the influence of the representatives of the cities in the Cortes and tried to win over the lower urban nobility as a clientele. Under Henry IV (1454–1474), aristocratic power reached its peak.

    But internal conflicts led from 1465 to civil war, which from 1474 culminated in the Castilian War of Succession , until the party that brought Isabella I to the throne prevailed . In Castile, kingship prevailed in 1480, but the nobility retained privileges and influence. The queen now dominated the Cortes and the cities. With the marriage between Isabella and Ferdinand of Aragón in 1469, after Ferdinand's assumption of government in the lands of the Crown of Aragon, the most powerful empires of the peninsula were ruled in a personal union. The population of Castile had grown to about 4.3 million people.

    Aragón (approx. 809–1469), Barcelona and Catalonia

    The counties of Aragón and Barcelona

    The county of Aragón was established under Aznar I. Galíndez (around 809−820). Under his successor García Galíndez (until 844) the county freed itself from Frankish supremacy under the influence of the Muslims of the Ebro valley and neighboring Navarre.

    Under Galindo I. Aznárez (until 867) the county was forced by Pamplona to become suzerainty . In this context, Aznar II. Galíndez (around 867−893) probably also married Onneca Garcés of Pamplona. A son from this marriage, Galindo II Aznárez (893-922), tried to escape the influence of the Kingdom of Navarre with the help of the Muslims of Huesca , the Counts of Gascony and the Counts of Ribagorza , but only succeeded in 922 to enforce its own diocese.

    Through the marriage of his daughter Andregoto Galíndez (922−970) with García Sánchez I , Aragón and Navarre were united. A count continued to receive the county of Aragón as a fief. Sancho III. Garcés expanded his dominion between 1018 and 1025 to Ribagorza in the northeast of the province of Huesca.

    After the Carolingian Ludwig II , numerous count families tried to enforce the inheritance of their titles. In 897, after the death of Wilfried the Hairy , who had been appointed Count of Urgell and Cerdanya in 870 , rule passed to his sons Wilfried II Borrell (897–911) and Sunyer I (911–947) without any imperial intervention . Wilfried was able to conquer the hinterland near Montserrat and part of the Penedès. In 878 he also received the title of Count of Barcelona and Girona . The Vallès remained largely depopulated in 897 after a Moorish attack in which Wilfried the Hairy was killed, similar to the Penedès. He initiated the repopulation of the hinterland by establishing the county of Osona and the diocese of Vic .

    From 897, his sons ruled all counties together, eventually they shared the inheritance: Wilfried II. Borrell received the now permanently connected counties of Barcelona, ​​Girona and Osona .

    The church of Sant Julià de Boada (Gerona), first mentioned in 934

    Soon the county expanded southwest to the gates of Tarragona . In addition, Borrell II. (948-992) made contacts with the caliphate, but this did not prevent Almansor from sacking Barcelona in 985. In 1010, Count Raimund Borrell (992-1017) moved against Cordoba for his part.

    From 1017, his widow Ermessenda (1017-1057) ruled the counties of Barcelona, ​​Girona and Osona with her son Berengar Raimund I (1017-1035). The latter divided the county up among his three underage sons in 1035: William became Count of Osona, Raimund Berengar I, Count of Barcelona and Girona, and Sanç Count des Penedès. When Raimund Berengar I tried to enforce his claims in the county from 1041, the landed gentry in Penedès rose until 1060. However, the renunciation of Sanç to the county of Penedès and of Wilhelm to the county of Osona (1049 and 1054) made that possible Raimund Berengar I was able to reunite the three counties. From 1076, after the death of Raimund Berengar, the counties were ruled jointly by his two sons: Under the rule of Raimund Berengar II and Berengar Raimund II , the expansion in the west reached today's Comarque Pla d'Urgell .

    At the time of Raimund Berengar III. (1086–1131) the Almoravids devastated the Penedès in 1107 and attacked Barcelona in 1115, but in 1126 they were repulsed. After the extinction of the dynasties in the counties of Besalú and Cerdanya , Raimund Berengar annexed these areas in 1111 and 1118 - in the same year he took over the rule of Tarragona, which he made the bishopric, whose dependence on the archbishopric in Narbonne he also dissolved. The conquest of Tortosa , Lleida and the Waliat Siurana took place under Raimund Berengar IV. In the years 1148 to 1153. The subsequent repopulation was an essential basis for the development of Catalonia.

    Kingdom of Aragon (1035/63), union with Barcelona (1164)

    Ramiro I. (1035-1063) expanded Kernaragón further, in addition, he inherited the territory of his deceased brother in 1045. While trying to conquer Graus , however, he was killed against Muslims who were supported by Castile in the defense of the city. His son Sancho Ramírez carried the title of king. He and Peter I (1094–1104) continued the war against the Moors, occupied the cities of Jaca , Huestra and Barbastro and conquered the area between the foothills of the Pyrenees and the Ebro. After the assassination of the Navarre ruler Sancho IV Garcés, his territory also fell to Aragón.

    "Map" of the Iberian Peninsula, Catalan monastery of Santa Maria de Ripoll , 11th century, Vatican Apostolic Library

    In response to a legation from Cardinal Hugo Candidus, who first made contact with Rome, Sancho Ramírez I came to the Pope in 1068 on the occasion of a stay in Rome and gave his kingdom under papal protection. In 1071 the adoption of the Roman rite began instead of the Mozarabic. From 1134 the curia was even able to achieve a kind of supremacy through which the king became feudal lords of Tarragona, but the bishops were feudal men of the king. In 1204 the king was crowned by the Pope in Rome, who now became the Pope's feudal man.

    Finally, in a third expansion phase under Alfonso I, Saragossa was added in 1118, which now became the capital, as well as the entire Ebro Valley. He took advantage of the crisis in the caliphate after the death of al-Mustain (1100). This was followed by Tudela , Tarazona and fortresses in the Sierra del Moncayo (1119). This series of successes ended in 1134 with the defeat at Fraga on July 17, 1134. In contrast to Castile, which expelled all Muslims from its newly conquered territories, the Muslims of the territories occupied by Aragon had ceded them by contract and agreed on their right to stay; however, Catalan and French settlers also moved to the region. The new locations were granted privileges that encouraged the development of a local caballería .

    Alfonso II of Aragón receives the homages of the late Count of Roussillon ( Liber Feudorum Ceritaniae , end of the 12th century)

    His will, in which he bequeathed the land in equal parts to the religious knights of St. John, Templars and the Knights of the Holy Sepulcher, was not recognized by the estates. Navarre made itself independent, Castilians invaded the Ebro Valley, Muslims regained some lost positions. The nobility, clergy and communities appointed the king's brother, Ramiro II , who was bishop at the time, king in 1134. He married Agnes von Poitou in 1135 , who gave birth to Petronila on August 11, 1136 . The girl was betrothed to Count Raimund Berengar IV of Barcelona in 1137 , and Petronila became queen a little later. This created a new power structure, the Aragon Crown. With the Treaty of Carrión, the Castilian troops withdrew, and in 1151 common war goals against the Muslims were set out in the Treaty of Tudellén.

    Reaching out to southern France, position of hegemony in the western Mediterranean, Greece

    Alfonso II , the son of Petronella, took over the rule of Catalonia at the age of five in 1162 as Count Alfonso I and, after the abdication of his mother in 1164, the royal rule in Aragón, which remained permanently united with Catalonia. The individual areas retained their internal independence. Alfonso's troops reached out to southern France, consolidating rule in Provence , Millau , Gévaudan and Rouergue . He incorporated the Roussillon into Aragón in 1172 . Caspe was occupied and Teruel repopulated. In a treaty with Castile, however, he renounced Murcia in the Treaty of Cazórla in 1179, which in the long term gave the Castilians the main role in the Reconquista, while Aragón oriented himself towards the Mediterranean and France. Peter II (1196–1213) took his crown from the Pope. He married Maria of Montpellier in 1204 to connect her territory with Aragón. But with his death in 1213, the expansion phase in southern France ended.

    The first ventures of King Jacob I (1213–1276) were in the Mediterranean islands. His fleet conquered Mallorca in 1229 and Ibiza in 1235. From 1232 to 1245 the territory of Valencia was conquered, which was now a third member state of the crown. However, while the Pais Valenciano was populated with Catalans and Aragonese, only Catalans settled in the Balearic Islands. On this basis a considerable linguistic and cultural uniformity of the country arose, which still exists today. In 1265/66 Jacob occupied Murcia, which was rebelling against King Alfonso X of Castile. He settled it with Catalans, but ceded it again to Castile in accordance with the Treaty of Cazorla. The intended division of the land among his sons by the king did not materialize because the eldest son Peter III. (1276–1285), who had received Aragón, Catalonia and Valencia, forced the feudal obligation on his brother James II , who had received the Balearic Islands, Roussillon, Cerdanya and Montpellier. Peter put down the uprising of the Catalan nobility in 1280 and used the opportunity of a popular uprising against Charles of Anjou in Sicily to appropriate the island in 1282. However, this brought him into conflict with the Pope and the French king. The former declared him deposed on the basis of the letter of protection of 1213.

    In order to find internal support, he confirmed the privileges of the nobility, strengthened the power of the Cortes and the communities in Catalonia, which led to so-called pactism , a power-sharing between the Cortes and the king. This was followed by the occupation of Malta , Gozo and Ischia , then Djerba and the Kerkenna Islands off the Tunisian coast , driven by this inner strengthening . James II of Mallorca was stripped of his kingship for support from France and incorporated into the Crown of Aragon.

    Peter's successor was his son Alfonso III. , in Sicily his other son Jakob. Alfonso supported his brother on the island, which earned him the enmity of Rome, Paris and Anjou, which he however outdid with diplomatic means. However, this also only succeeded at the price of further privileges to the nobility, the privileges of the Union of 1287. In the same year the occupation of Menorca succeeded and in the dispute between Sancho IV of Castile, his opponent Alfonso de la Cerda granted him the city of Murcia, which he actually conquered in 1296 and 1300.

    In 1291 the Sicilian ruler Jacob became king following the death of his brother. Under him, Aragón achieved a position of hegemony in the western Mediterranean. The Pope enfeoffed him in 1295 - after the interdict over Aragón had been lifted - with Sardinia and Corsica. A peace treaty was concluded with France. The promised cession of Sicily was undermined by the Sicilians rejecting this part of the contract and enthroning a brother of Jacob, Frederick I (III) of Sicily, in 1296. After 1300, Jacob kept the cities of Alicante , Orihuela and Villena . 1323 to 1324 the claims to Sardinia were also enforced.

    Nobility and Cortes

    Depiction of a meeting of the Catalan Cortes in an incunabulum from 1495

    In 1118 the citizens of Zaragoza received all the rights of born hidalgos , and in 1136 delegates of the parishes discussed taxes and state regulations with ecclesiastical and secular feudal lords at the Cortes' assembly. From then on, the cities of Aragon and Catalonia were particularly careful to maintain their privileges and freedoms. The Cortes, attended at the same time by the representatives of the nobility and clergy, separated into a higher ( ricos hombres ) and lower ( infanzones, caballeros, hidalgos ) class, decided on war and peace, alliances and treaties, taxes, coins, laws and verdicts of the lower courts of justice.

    King Alfonso III had to recognize the annual appeal of the Cortes to Saragossa in 1287 and to grant them the right of obligatory and constitutional resistance to arbitrary violation of the members. He was even forced to acknowledge that if the king were guilty of tyranny, all residents of the country between the ages of 14 and 60 should take up arms together to overthrow the king. Peter IV forced the repeal of these statutes in 1348, but approved the establishment of a person, the Justicia de Aragón , who u. a. mediate in disputes between the crown and the estates. The Justicia de Aragón was proposed by the Cortes and appointed by the king. The various Cortes each elected a standing committee (the Diputación) which always remained together to uphold the rights of the people. The Diputación controlled the tax revenue and the use of public funds and took care of the observance of the local special rights.

    There were general imperial estates (Cortes) in Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia. Despite promises to the contrary, the kings often only called them up at irregular intervals. With the exception of Aragon, the imperial estates were divided into three sections: clergy, nobility and representatives of the municipalities. In Aragon the high and the lower nobility were represented in separate departments. The deliberations of the imperial estates of the various kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon took place in separate sessions , even if they were called several times at the same time for the same place (mostly in Monzón ).

    Economic crisis, plague, war with Castile

    The first signs of an economic crisis appeared under Alfonso IV (1327–1336). In addition, he exhausted his strength in a long sea war against Genoa and so the crusade against Granada did not materialize. From 1343 to 1344 his successor reintegrated Mallorca into the empire, fought against the rebellious Sardinians, allied with Venice , and in 1379 connected the duchies of Athens and Neopatra with the crown. In 1348 there were also internal battles against the nobility of Valencia and Aragón.

    In contrast to Castile, with which war broke out between 1356 and 1369, the king did not succeed in enforcing a centralized, court-oriented monarchy, because his vast empire demanded enormous financial resources that only the Cortes could provide. Peter IV only managed to turn the war in his favor by taking advantage of intra-Castilian opposites by supporting Heinrich von Trastamara , an illegitimate son of Alfonso XI. of Castile ("War of the Two Peter").

    House of Trastamara (from 1412), dispute with the Cortes and civil war (1462–1472), merger with Castile

    John I (1387-1396) had to give up Athens in 1388 and Neopatra in 1390. From 1391 to 1410 there was an uprising in Sardinia. The heir of the lands of the Crown of Aragon, Martin I of Sicily , son of King Martin I, was killed in the fighting . After the king's death in the following year 1410 and an interregnum of two years, the negotiators of Aragon, Catalonia and Valencia agreed in the arbitration award of Caspe on the Castilian Infante Ferdinand of Antequera as the new king. This was supported by the Pope. He was the first king in the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragon to come from the House of Trastamara. In 1413 he put down a rebellion of his Catalan rival Jakob von Urgel; In 1414 he was able to consolidate his power in Sicily and Sardinia, but he came into conflict with the Cortes.

    Alfonso V on a silver medal by Pisanello , 1449

    It was no different for his eldest son Alfonso V ; so he transferred the governorship of Catalonia to his wife Maria, in 1462 Galceran de Requesens from the House of Folch de Cardona , and finally in 1454 to his brother John of Navarra (until 1479). Alfonso often interfered in Castilian politics, where his brothers fought against the regime of the favorite Álvaro de Luna . In 1420 he attacked Corsica, in 1423 the port of Marseille, achieved the annexation of Naples in the war against almost all Italian states in 1442 and from 1454 waged a naval war against Genoa. With his aggressive foreign policy, however, he damaged trade in the entire Mediterranean region. At the same time he maneuvered around the question of the peasant uprisings by supporting the demands of the Remensas, the unfree peasants of Catalonia, against the landowners, but at the same time had the forans (peasants) rebellion put down on Mallorca. On the other hand, he decided in Barcelona in the dispute between the parties of the Biga and Busca for the more popular Busca, which he alienated parts of the nobility.

    Alfonso's successor in southern Italy was his illegitimate son Ferrante (1459-1494), in Aragón his brother John II (1458-1479), who had been King of Navarre since 1425. The latter had drawn the hostility of the nobility because he had supported the king in his politics. The nobility and patriciate believed that the royal house did not respect the pact system of government, surrounded itself with Castilian advisers, and had shifted the focus of power. In 1462 an uprising began against him, from which a ten-year civil war developed. The internal and economic crisis worsened and the trade focus shifted from Barcelona to Valencia.

    Navarre (until 1512)

    The part of the empire that went to Aragón in 1076 became independent again as the Kingdom of Navarre in 1134 when Alfonso I of Aragón died childless. While his brother Ramiro succeeded him on the throne in Aragón, García IV , a great-grandson of García III, was proclaimed king in Navarra . However, the empire was enclosed by Castile-León and Aragón, so that it was unable to expand south. Therefore it looked for stronger ties in France.

    King Sancho VII died in 1234. He was followed by his nephew Theobald I, the first king of the French house of Blois-Champagne . Navarre's King Henry I , Count of Champagne and Brie, was inherited in 1274 by his two-year-old daughter Joan I , who was married in 1284 to a son of the French king, who two years later rose to be King of France as Philip IV . From then on, the French Capetians were also kings of Navarre until 1328.

    Under French law, women were excluded from the line of succession. This did not apply to Navarre, however, so that Charles's niece Johanna II and her husband Philip III. from the house of Évreux came to the throne in 1328, but in France Philip VI. from Valois .

    After 1425 the aristocratic parties of the Agramonteses and the Beaumonteses fought each other . The heir to the throne Blanka I had married Johann , the brother of the Aragonese king , in 1419 . When the succession occurred, both ascended the throne. Blanka died in 1441, leaving behind two daughters, her widower and their son, Karl von Viana . A conflict developed between the father, supported by the Agramonteses, and the son, supported by the Beaumonteses, when Johann remarried in 1444. In 1458, after the death of his brother, he also became King of Aragon.

    In 1479 Eleanor , a daughter from his first marriage to Blanka, inherited the crown; however, she died only a few weeks later. She was followed by her grandson Franz I , who was only supported by one of the aristocratic parties and who was only twelve years old. He died four years later. His sister Katharina , who was only 13 years old, became the new queen .

    The dispute between Agramonteses and Beaumonteses culminated in a civil war between 1512 and 1515 . Fadrique Álvarez de Toledo conquered the part of the kingdom south of the Pyrenees for King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Castile-León. Katharina and her husband Jean d'Albret fled to the realm north of the Pyrenees. The southern part of Navarre, now united with the Kingdom of Castile-León and the lands of the Crown of Aragón to form the Kingdom of Spain, was administered by Spanish viceroys from 1512 to 1702 .

    From the Mediterranean to the world power

    Unification of Castile, federal Aragon, matrimonial union

    Of the five empires that existed on the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century, Castile, with its 6 million inhabitants, was the largest and most uniform. When Isabella took over the crown of Castile in 1474 after the death of her half-brother, her surprised husband had to sign the Segovia Agreement in 1475, which made Isabella the actual Queen of Castile. King Alfonso V of Portugal supported Joan of Castile , the heiress pushed aside by Isabella's half-brother Henry IV. In 1479 the War of the Castilian Succession ended , Portugal declared its renunciation of the Castilian throne in the Treaty of Alcáçovas , in return the Portuguese sovereignty over all waters and lands south of Cape Bojador was affirmed. The Canary Islands , as they were north of the cape, were assigned to Castile. In 1479 Ferdinand became King of Aragón, which practically resulted in a dual monarchy.

    The meeting of the estates, in whose meetings the nobility and clergy no longer participated, consisted only of the 17 privileged cities of Castile, and was also rarely convened. The Santa Hermandad , the protective association of the most important cities, was re-established in 1476 as a municipal militia and rural police. In contrast, the kingdoms of the Crown of Aragón were only individual states held together by personal union, in which the respective assemblies of the estates enjoyed considerable influence. Ferdinand only spent a few years in his crown lands and each appointed a viceroy. The Aragon Council, founded in 1494, represented the link between the king and the viceroys. Aragón was excluded from trade with the New World, which was discovered in 1492. The states of the Crown of Aragon were separated both from each other and towards Castile by customs borders.

    In 1505 the Majorate Law bound the inheritance of property to the firstborn; in addition, it prescribed the inalienability of property. At the same time, half of the land was in the hands of the nobility, patriciate and military orders, which together made up perhaps 1.5 to 1.7% of the population. The royal couple also pursued an absolutist course towards the church. Above all, however, the Pope granted the royal couple the right to bishop investiture, which strengthened the development of the national church. In 1478 the Inquisition "to eradicate heresy" was set up in Castile, which Ferdinand soon took over for Aragón. This established the only institution that spanned both realms.

    Conquest of Granada, expulsion of the Jews, discovery of America (1492)

    In 1492 the Reconquista came to an end on the mainland. This was by no means a uniform process of reconquest that the Christians had purposefully promoted for centuries; the empires in the north fought against each other as well as against the Muslims. The folk hero El Cid , who fought on both sides, was banished by the king and found refuge with the Muslim lord of Saragossa.

    On March 31, 1492, the “Catholic Majesties” signed the deportation order for all Jews prepared by Grand Inquisitor Tomás de Torquemada . Under the influence of the Archbishop of Toledo Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros , Isabella revoked the Edict of Tolerance against the Muslims of 1492 in 1502 and the mudéjares had to convert or flee. Of the perhaps 200,000 Jews, half had already been forced to convert to Christianity at the beginning of the 15th century. In order to keep these new Christians ( conversos ) away from higher offices, purity of blood ( limpieza de sangre ), which is understood to mean non-Jewish descent, was made a prerequisite for these offices. With the expansion of the sphere of influence through the connection with the Habsburgs, this wave of expulsions extended to considerable parts of Europe.

    Connection with Habsburgs, Charles I (V.)

    Charles V's territory Burgundy
    : Castile
    Red: Aragon's possessions
    Orange: Burgundian possessions
    Yellow: Austrian hereditary lands
    Pale yellow: Holy Roman Empire

    Her son Juan was to be the heir of Isabella, who died in 1504 . In 1496 he married Margaret of Burgundy, the daughter of Emperor Maximilian I. But he died in 1497 without an heir. The younger sister Johanna married Philip the Fair in 1497 (1478–1506), who was also a son of Maximilian, and also Duke of Burgundy. However, after she had shown signs of "madness" in the eyes of contemporaries, Ferdinand took over the rule. With the death of Ferdinand, the eldest son from Johanna's marriage, Karl, inherited the Spanish inheritance.

    In order to secure the inheritance, Charles signed the Treaty of Noyon in 1516 for an understanding with France. In 1519, after his grandfather Maximilian died, he also received the Austro-Habsburg inheritance. He was elected Roman-German king and, at his coronation in 1520, assumed the title of "chosen emperor".

    Franz I of France and Henry VIII of England , finally Frederick of Saxony , also applied for Maximilian's successor , and Karl's brother Ferdinand was also under discussion at times as a candidate. The financial support from the Fugger made the difference . The total cost of the election was 851,918 guilders , of which the Fuggers alone raised 543,585.

    Seville became a monopoly port in 1525 for traffic with America, which was discovered in 1492. The central authority of the colonies, the Council of India, was also located there. In 1535 the viceroyalty of New Spain was founded and in 1542 the viceroyalty of Peru was founded. After the development of the Potosí silver mines in 1541, 480 tons of silver and 67 tons of gold reached Spain in the years up to 1560. Despite the high income, the income was insufficient to cover the expenses for Karl's power politics.

    In Spain the Comuneros uprising broke out against the rule of Karl, who was perceived as alien and who had increased taxes to finance his wars. The uprising was mainly supported by the bourgeoisie of the cities of Castile, especially Toledo. He found support from parts of the clergy and the nobility. His aim was to limit royal power in favor of the Cortes. In the Kingdom of Valencia he came to a social revolutionary movement, the Germanía . The rebels under Juan de Padilla were defeated at Villalar in 1521, the uprising finally put down in 1522. After power was secured, Spain became a central power base of the emperor. He decided to marry Isabella , the daughter of the Portuguese king, who brought in one million ducats with the wedding on March 10, 1526.

    Wars with France and the Ottomans (1521–1556)

    At the European level, the battles between France and the Habsburgs were of much greater importance. It became dangerous for the emperor when the Pope and Venice increasingly leaned towards France. In 1525, Charles's troops captured Francis I in the Battle of Pavia . But Karl joined the proposals for a moderate peace. This led to the signing of the Treaty of Madrid in 1526 , in which France renounced its claims in northern Italy. Karl hoped to get Franz to fight together against the Ottomans and the Lutherans. But after Franz was free again, he revoked the contract. He managed to win allies with the Holy League of Cognac from the Pope, Venice, Florence and finally even Milan.

    The Ottomans took advantage of the clashes and threatened the Austrian hereditary lands. In 1529 they stood before Vienna with an army of 120,000 men. But they were also in Algeria and from there they waged a pirate war in the western Mediterranean.

    The imperial troops sacked the city in 1527 at the so-called Sacco di Roma . Charles benefited from the fact that Andrea Doria and the Genoese fleet switched to the emperor's side after he had guaranteed the independence of the Republic of Genoa . Franz I had to make peace again. The Peace of Cambrai signed in 1529 enshrined the French king's renunciation of Italian territory and his feudal claims in Flanders and Artois . The emperor for his part renounced the duchy of Burgundy. In the Peace of Barcelona , Charles granted the Pope favorable conditions for peace and concluded a defensive alliance with him. This reconciliation led to Clement VII. Charles being crowned emperor on February 24, 1530 in Bologna.

    Solemn entry of Charles V and Francis I into Paris in 1540

    The Kingdom of France and the Ottoman Empire were allied from 1534. Charles was able to achieve an important victory in 1535 by conquering Tunis. In 1538 a league directed against the Turks was concluded between Charles, his brother Ferdinand, Venice and the Pope. In the same year Pope Paul III mediated . the ten-year armistice of Nice between Charles and Franz.

    The situation worsened again when French envoys were murdered on their return from Constantinople. Instead of helping his brother in Hungary, Karl decided to attack Algiers in 1541. But the attack failed. The Ottomans, for their part, failed due to the resistance of Morocco. Franz declared war on Karl again in 1543, but with the defeat of Duke Wilhelm von Kleve , who was allied with France , he lost his last ally in the empire. The danger of a train on Paris led him to the Peace of Crépy in 1544 .

    From 1550, his successor Heinrich II worked towards a new alliance with the Ottomans. He also formed an alliance with the Protestant opposition in the empire.

    Division of the Habsburg Empire, Philip II (1556–1598)

    When Charles V resigned in 1556, Spain lost the Austrian possessions of the House of Habsburg and the imperial crown, but retained the Netherlands, Franche-Comté , the Duchy of Milan and the kingdoms of Naples , Sicily and Sardinia .

    Spain became the center of a policy that was implemented with enormous means of power, which wanted to fight for the victory of Roman Catholicism over Turks and "heretics" at the same time ( counter-reformation ). To this end, Philip II suppressed the rest of the political freedoms and subjugated the estates. The permanent wars not only consumed the income of the colonies, but also led to three national bankruptcies .

    In 1556 the armistice of Vaucelles was signed with France, in which Henry II was awarded the dioceses of Metz , Verdun and Toul as well as Piedmont . The war that broke out again was ended with the Battle of Saint-Quentin in 1557. The new anti-Habsburg alliance between Pope Paul IV. And Henry II. Was again not succeed, instead occupied by the Duke of Alba to the Papal States and the Pope had in 1557 in the Peace of Cave Palestrina comply. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis ended the war in 1559. Heinrich renounced all claims in Italy, Philip received his territories there and the Burgundian possessions confirmed.

    Philipp continued the persecution of heretics that had begun under his father and had already provoked unrest in the Netherlands. He appointed his half-sister Margaret of Parma as governor there . Some members of the Dutch Council of State, led by William I of Orange and Counts Egmond and Hoorn, protested against these changes and forced Granvelle to resign in 1564. The protest reached its first climax in the same year with the iconoclasms of the Calvinists . Philip then lifted the Inquisition, but in 1567 sent the Duke of Alba as the new governor.

    The Eighty Years War began. Alba defeated the Dutch troops led by William I of Orange , but his tough regime was replaced in 1573. Catholics were promised restitution of property confiscated during Alba's governorship, but Protestants were supposed to emigrate within the next six months. The new governor was Juan de Austria , the king's half-brother. On July 24, 1581, the Republic of the United Netherlands declared its independence. William of Orange was appointed governor of the new republic. The parts of the southern provinces that did not join the Union of Arras were subjected between 1581 and 1585 under the new governor Alessandro Farnese .

    Morisk rebellion (from 1568), war against the Ottomans (from 1571), acquisition of Portugal (1580)

    The Ottoman Empire around 1600

    In April 1568 the first Morisk uprising took place in the Alpuaxarras mountains . The Duke of Mondejar prevented the loss of Granada. In January 1570, don Juan took command and stifled the uprising until March of that year.

    The conquest of the island of Cyprus by the Ottomans in 1571 gave the Christian powers an opportunity to seek confrontation. At the same time, these events were used to begin the forced evacuation of the Moriskos to North Africa in November. Venice and Spain sent a joint fleet to the eastern Mediterranean, which was victorious in the naval battle of Lepanto on October 7, 1571. Don Juan's fleet succeeded in conquering Tunis, which, however, was soon recaptured by the Ottomans. The wedding with the Scottish Queen Maria Stuart , brought up by the Pope in conversation, failed because of Philip's contradiction.

    In 1570 Philip II married Anna of Austria (1549–1580), who became the mother of the heir to the throne, Philip . In 1580 Portugal and its colonial empire came to Spain after the death of the childless King Enrique .

    Wars with England (1585–1604) and France (1590–1598)

    The English privateers in the Caribbean stopped the silver flow from Potosí . England also stood behind Henry of Navarre and supported him against the Catholic party of the Duke of Guise, who in turn was supported by Spain. In the Netherlands it supported the insurgents. The beheading of the Scottish Queen Maria Stuart in 1587 and the constant raids on his merchant ships gave Philip the justification for an invasion. His armada left Lisbon with around 130 units and reached the Dutch coast in early August. At Gravelines embarkation strong landing force should be. However , about 30 galleons were lost in counterattacks under Charles Howard and Francis Drake . The withdrawal was started over the Scottish coast and Ireland, storms brought the Armada the heaviest losses only now. Only about 65 ships saved themselves in the port of Santander .

    After the murder of King Henry III. of France, Philip II raised claims to the throne for his daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia, since she was his niece. However, the rightful king under French inheritance law was the Protestant King Henry of Navarre, who ascended the throne as Henry IV . Between 1590 and 1598, Spain intervened on the side of the French Catholics. In 1595 Henry IV concluded a coalition with England and the States General against Spain, where the cost of the war led to a new state bankruptcy. On May 2, 1598, the governor of the Spanish Netherlands, Archduke Albrecht , brokered the Treaty of Vervins with Heinrich , which restored the status quo of 1559.

    End of political domination, national bankruptcies, uprisings and wars, end of the Spanish Habsburgs (until 1700)

    Peace with England (1604), expulsion of the Moriscos (1609), Oñate Treaty (1617)

    The main communication routes between the Habsburg parts of the empire

    Philip III put the government in the hands of favorites, above all in the hands of the Duke of Lerma . This induced the king in 1609 to expel the approximately 275,000 moriscos from Spain. In 1604 he ended the war with England . With the Austrian branch of the Habsburgs, he signed the Oñate Treaty in 1617 . Philip renounced his claims to the successor to Emperor Matthias († 1619) and thus to Hungary and Bohemia. For this he should receive the bailiffs of Ortenburg and Hagenau in Alsace in order to improve the connection between the Dutch and Italian possessions. In a secret supplementary contract, Ferdinand , who took over the Hungarian-Bohemian heritage, confirmed that the male descendants of the Spanish line had priority over the female descendants of the Austrian branch.

    Colonial policy

    The system of viceroys established in the lands of the Crown of Aragon was carried over to the New World. In 1535 the viceroyalty of New Spain was founded and in 1542 the viceroyalty of Peru was founded. The viceroy exercised government power on behalf of the monarch. Because of these "monarchical" duties, he also had to hold his own court and arrange a ceremony similar to that of the king.

    Were handled even jurisprudence and royal jurisdiction in Castilian motherland (Audiencia of Valladolid / Granada) early 16th century, one of the distance and the lack of legal institutions in 1511 decided on the basis of a Real Audiencia , so a royal court of appeal, in Santo Domingo on Hispaniola set . Another Audiencia was to be set up in Mexico City in 1527, followed by Guatemala in 1542 , Guadalajara in 1548 and in the Philippines in 1583 . The Audiencias became the actual colonial authorities. In the capitals of the two viceroys, Mexico City and Lima, the viceroy simultaneously exercised the office of president of the Audiencia, which created an additional control factor, since the viceroys were only appointed by the crown itself.

    With the establishment of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, the regional and local administration began to be built in the Indian communities, based on the model of the Castilian municipal administration, Corregimientos , which was supposed to limit the rule of the Encomenderos over the population. A city council called the Cabildo was set up in each city. Since the second half of the 16th century, the city administration was solely responsible for this.

    In the course of enlightened absolutism , the crown tried to make the city administration more efficient. The city finances were subordinated to the crown by creating their own tax authorities in the capitals of the viceroyalty. Only with the Bourbon reforms was reurbanization possible.

    The Casa de Contratación in Seville, founded in 1503, was a kind of chamber of commerce. She was responsible for the organization of the fleet and received duties and income from trade with the viceroyalty. All ships and people arriving from the New World fell under their jurisdiction, as did criminal matters in the tax and commercial sectors. The emigration to America was regulated by this institution, in that only those who were "pure of blood" were allowed to emigrate, i.e. not Jews, Muslims or conversos. At the same time, it was a navigation center in which knowledge about new travel routes was gathered.

    At the same time, a commission under the chairmanship of the Archbishop of Burgos developed in the Castilian Privy Council, which dealt exclusively with American issues. Around 1516 it was named Consejo de Indias . In 1523 the India Council was spun off from the Privy Council; From then on, both the Casa de Contratación and all colonies were subordinate to this. Finally it was decided to entrust the military defense of the colonies to a separate council, the Junta de Guerra de Indias, founded in 1597 . Its members were called by the crown. In 1596 came out with the Cedulario Indiano a comprehensive text with 3500 laws, which was considered to be the standard work until the Bourbon reforms.

    Over the question of the treatment of the Indians a conflict arose between the exponents Bartolomé de Las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda , then the mission orders and the Council of India as well as the local feudal lords. The crown tried to keep the grandees , who always tended to make their territories independent, under control through an alliance with the petty nobles, the Hidalgos , and with the church. At the same time, the Indians were to be proselytized, grouped together in encomiendas since 1503 , and protected from excessive violence ( Burgos Laws , 1512). They were intended as workers. These laws stipulated that although the Indians were handed over to the feudal lords - hence the term encomienda - they should not be considered slaves.

    However, the exploitation of precious metal deposits was particularly important for Madrid. As a result of the Mita system , the provinces in the Inca Empire were already forced in turn to provide workers for a certain period of time.

    Replacement of the Fugger by the Genoese in state financing, colonial precious metal supplies, national bankruptcies

    While Fugger and Welser represented family trading companies, the Genoese competition managed to rise to dominance in the financial market. In doing so, it relied on a system of bills of exchange due in Antwerp. In this way the Genoese needed little equity capital. They paid for the bills with new bills of exchange. This mere switching back and forth in the Ricorsa process did not end until the loan business was terminated by repayment. The Genoese bankers regularly made arbitrage profits , which enabled them to avoid the national bankruptcies of 1575 and 1596. But in 1607 they took the renewed insolvency as an opportunity to transfer the money they had earned with Spain to Italy. The suspension of payments by France and Spain in 1614 ruined the Welser banking and trading house .

    Despite certain successes in coinless money transactions and in the credit system, Europe's economy still remained dependent on the supply of precious metals. The supply of silver and gold depended heavily on America. Around 1660, precious metals worth around 365 tons of silver came from the Spanish colonies, while Europe only produced 20 to 30 tons. But Spain invested the majority of this flow of precious metals in wars, introduced profitable copper coinage in its own territory, which was only given up after 1660. In the long term, this policy triggered inflationary surges and damaged the economy. Now Amsterdam has become the most important precious metals market.

    The economic impulses of the great powers finally failed to materialize. The Mediterranean began to stagnate. The economy, by and large, continued to be based on mediums of exchange that depended on the returns from the gold and silver mines. The first gold rush in history, triggered by finds in Brazil from 1693/95, brought 10 to 15 tons of gold to Europe annually for almost the entire 18th century. By the middle of the century, the yield from the silver mines in Mexico, which delivered over 700 tons per year around 1800, doubled. These quantities of precious metals boosted trade to Asia immensely. Anyone who wanted to be successful here had to maintain good contacts with the Iberian powers.

    Thirty Years War (1618–1648), war with France (until 1659), independence of Portugal (1640/68), uprising in Catalonia

    Gaspar de Guzmán, Conde de Olivares was the main minister of Philip IV until 1643 (painting by Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez, Conde Duque de Olivares on horseback , 1634, oil on canvas, Prado)

    At the beginning of the Thirty Years War , Philip III sent. Emperor Ferdinand II troops. Philip IV (1621–1665) relied even more heavily on the military. In league with the Austrians, he wanted to restore Catholic supremacy, if not the unity of the Church.

    The rule was in the hands of the royal favorite and first minister Gaspar de Guzmán . He aspired to a central state. This provided for uniform taxes and the creation of a common army, which was rejected in Catalonia. Spain had to declare national bankruptcy in 1627.

    By 1637, the fighting had stalled roughly along today's borders of Belgium and the Netherlands . Ambrosio Spinola conquered the Electoral Palatinate in 1620 , the Spaniards took part in the victorious battle of the White Mountain against the rebellious Bohemians in 1620 , occupied the Valtellina in the same year and took part in the Battle of Nördlingen in 1634 .

    The war of succession around Mantua from 1627 heightened tensions with France. Paris supported the Dutch and Swedes with subsidies, and open war broke out from 1635 onwards. The French succeeded in breaking the connecting roads, the camino español , between Milan and the Netherlands.

    In 1640 the Catalans rose in the uprising of the reapers , which lasted until 1659 . Pau Claris, the President of the General Assembly, knew how to steer the social unrest towards a political goal and proclaimed the Catalan Republic. The Catalans won the battle of Montjuïc on January 26, 1641, but Pau Claris died shortly afterwards and the general assembly elected Louis XIII. from France to Count of Barcelona and thus ruler of Catalonia.

    During the Restoration War from 1659 to 1668 Philip tried in vain to recapture Portugal, which was also lost in 1640. In the peace treaty between Spain and the Netherlands, he had to recognize the independence of the free Netherlands, but was able to secure the continued existence of the Spanish Netherlands against France. However, in connection with the peace treaty, the alliance with the Austrian Habsburgs broke up.

    The desperate financial situation forced the king to raise taxes and introduce more. Eventually he was forced to pawn the silver shipments from America. In 1652 there was another national bankruptcy. In Italy there were popular uprisings in 1647/48, in Aragón and Navarra parts of the nobility rose in 1648.

    Louis XIV and Philip IV at the adoption of the Peace in the Pyrenees

    The war with France, which allied with England in 1655, continued after 1648. The British conquered Jamaica in 1655 and attacked the silver fleet in 1657 . The war against France was ended in 1659 in the Peace of the Pyrenees . Spain had to cede border provinces such as Roussillon , Artois and Cerdagne .

    When Charles II (1665–1700) ascended the throne after the death of Philip IV , the French King Louis XIV raised hereditary claims to the Spanish Netherlands as the husband of Philip's daughter Maria Teresa , but was prevented from entering the country during the war of devolution seize.

    At the end of the reign of Charles II the population had decreased to 5.7 million people. For lack of money, many provinces returned to bartering. Iron processing flourished only in the Basque Country; the iron won and forged near Bilbao was exported to England.

    Succession wars, reforms and backwardness among the Bourbons (from 1701)

    Wars of Succession

    Louis XIV declares his grandson Philippe d'Anjou as the new King of Spain at Versailles

    With the end of the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs, there were succession battles in 1701, in which the major European powers became involved, the War of the Spanish Succession . An alliance around the Austrian Habsburgs and England fought against a coalition led by France. Ultimately, France succeeded in installing Duke Philip (V) of Anjou, a grandson of Louis XIV . England was drawn to war by the fact that, after the death of the English king, Ludwig's son from his second marriage to the Catholic Maria Beatrix of Modena as King James III. recognized by England. In order to counter the hegemonic striving for Ludwig, the Hague Grand Alliance was established on September 7, 1701 at the instigation of England .

    In 1703 Pedro II of Portugal sided with the Habsburgs. In 1704, Archduke Karl landed with an Anglo-Dutch corps as a Habsburg contender for the Spanish throne in Lisbon. At the same time, a French army came to help Philip V. The English fleet succeeded in taking Gibraltar permanently on August 4th, and the French fleet approaching was defeated in the battle of Vélez-Málaga on August 24th.

    Campaigns in the War of the Spanish Succession

    In these operations, the allies benefited from the fact that Catalonia in particular opposed the Bourbon government. The Habsburgs besieged Barcelona , which capitulated on October 7, 1705. Spanish attempts to recapture Catalonia failed in the battle of Fuentes, whereupon the siege of Barcelona had to be abandoned. The Anglo-Portuguese army moved as far as Madrid. After the victory over this army at Almanza on April 25, 1707, the southern provinces fell into the hands of Philip, after he had already won back Madrid.

    The exhaustion of France caused Louis XIV to offer the naval powers the renunciation of Spain. But the sea powers and the emperor wanted to break France's domination. At sea, the allied fleet was victorious off Menorca in 1708. Ludwig was now ready to make extensive concessions, but he rejected the request to help drive his grandson from Spain himself. On July 27, 1710, his troops were defeated at Almenara and again on August 20 at Saragossa . So Karl of Austria was able to move into Madrid on September 28th. Against a French army, however, the allies had to evacuate Madrid on November 11th. On December 10th the battle at Villaviciosa was a draw . The French tried in vain to regain Catalonia.

    On April 17, 1711, Emperor Joseph I died without leaving a male heir. Since his brother, the pretender for Spain, became emperor, the sea powers feared that the Austrian house of Habsburg could become overwhelming through the union with Spain. Therefore, London began secret negotiations with Paris. Despite all the efforts of the Emperor to counteract the negotiations, negotiations began on January 29, 1712 and led to the Peace of Utrecht in 1713 . However, Barcelona was not taken until September 11th, 1714 ( national holiday in Catalonia ).

    In Spain, Philip V, against the resistance of the provinces, implemented the model of a centralized state based on the French model, which was essentially based on the concepts of the French economist Jean Orry . He appointed José de Grimaldo as the first prime minister in this modernized state . His policy was aimed at regaining the lost territories in Italy. The resulting disputes, which culminated in the war of the Quadruple Alliance (1718–1720), were initially unsuccessful. It was not until the War of the Polish Succession (1733–1738) that Spain was able to regain Naples and Sicily for a short time.

    Institutions that opposed centralized state power were abolished, the privileges of the provinces abolished, and a uniform tax collection set up ( Decreto de Nueva Planta 1715). This law ensured the status of Castilian as the official language. Under the influence of his second wife Elisabetta Farnese , he left the rule of the Curia and the Inquisition untouched.

    Cardinal Giulio Alberoni became Minister of State in 1715. He managed to stabilize the economy and finance. Alberoni and Philipp supported the Queen in her efforts to win over Italian territories for their children. Against these efforts and the Spanish claim to succession to the throne in the event of the death of the child who had succeeded Louis XIV to the French throne in 1715, England, the Netherlands and France joined forces on January 4, 1717 in the Triple Alliance .

    When the Austrian Habsburgs joined the Republic of Venice in the war against the Ottomans that had begun two years earlier in 1716 , around 8,000 men landed on Sardinia in November 1717. After the Peace of Passarowitz with Istanbul on July 21, 1718 , Austria joined the alliance, which became a quadruple alliance. Emperor Charles VI. renounced his claims to the Spanish throne, consented to the exchange of Sicily for Sardinia and declared himself ready to allow a Spanish-Bourbon dynasty in Italy.

    But on July 3rd a Spanish army landed in Sicily. Great Britain then defeated the Spanish fleet on August 11, 1718 off the southern tip of Sicily ( naval battle off Cape Passaro ). Around the turn of the year, France also entered the war after a plot by the Spanish ambassador against the regent was discovered ( Cellamare conspiracy ). In 1719 a French army marched into the Basque Country, an advance that was as unsuccessful as a later one to Catalonia. In America, French troops took Pensacola in Spain . In 1719 the Austrians finally succeeded in conquering Sicily.

    In order to weaken Great Britain, Spain supported the Scottish Jacobites in their struggle for independence and sent a fleet of 5,000 men on March 6, 1719, and another in April. But the force was defeated in the battle in the valley of Glen Shiel. In a counter-action, the British landed a small force in Galicia. In August, the Netherlands also entered the war. Under pressure from the allies, Alberoni was released on December 5, whereupon the Hague Treaty was concluded on February 20, 1720 .

    Spain had to evacuate all conquered territories. The son Elisabetta Farneses, later King Charles , was awarded the duchies of Parma , Piacenza and Tuscany , which should fall to him after the male Farnese line had died out. Florida was also returned to Spain. The Habsburgs renounced Sardinia and were awarded Sicily in return. In return, Charles VI. however, renounce his claims to the Spanish throne. Spain was soon able to free itself from political isolation and bring Naples and Sicily under its rule in the War of the Polish Succession (1733–1738).

    Economic recovery and reforms, Bourbon family contract

    In the peaceful reign of the thrifty Ferdinand VI. (1746–1759) the country experienced a significant economic upswing, which, however, mainly extended to Catalonia, Andalusia and the Basque Country. In the second half of the 18th century, the economy of Catalonia in particular developed despite high taxation. Catalonia rose to become a trading power, while Castile was relatively stagnant.

    The government of Charles III took a step in the development of the modern state . (1759–1788). Pedro Pablo Abarca de Bolea, conde de Aranda , José Moñino y Redondo , Count of Floridablanca and Pedro Rodríguez de Campomanes assisted him in his reforms .

    However, Spain was obliged by the Bourbon Family Treaty of August 15, 1761 to take part in France's war against Great Britain as part of the Seven Years' War , which delayed the reforms. This also intensified competition with Great Britain in the colonies. Spain had to cede Florida to London in the Peace of Paris in 1763. West Louisiana , which was thought to reach as far as the Rocky Mountains , remained under Spanish control until the secret treaty of San Ildefonso of October 1800 and was acquired for the United States in April 1803 by Thomas Jefferson of France.

    The reforms were driven forward in 1767 by the expulsion and in 1773 by the repeal of the Jesuit order by Pope Clement XIV under pressure from the dominant heads of France, Spain and Portugal. The gap in agriculture, trade and education compared to other European countries increased nonetheless. The government invested in settlements, mines, factories, and infrastructure, and allowed trade with America. The population grew in relation to the competing powers only slowly and in 1788 was 10,270,000. The second war against Great Britain (1780–1783), to which Spain was again obliged under the Bourbon family contract, was financed by means of interest-bearing paper money. This led to the establishment of the Banco de España in 1782 .

    Colonial policy

    Reforms fundamentally changed the apparatus of authorities and civil servants and thus enabled a tight administration of the provinces by Madrid. This new concept, later referred to as the intendant system, was under Charles III. gradually transferred to the colonies in the New World as well.

    Together with his “India Minister” José de Gálvez y Gallardo, Karl wanted to fundamentally change the administrative structures. Initially, Charles ordered the new division of the provinces into the viceroyalty. The offices of Alcaldes Mayores and Corregidores were abolished and replaced by the subdelegados , who were no longer appointed by the crown, but by the responsible director. From now on, silver exports were no longer processed via Lima, but via Buenos Aires . In the border area protracted conflicts with the Portuguese of Brazil continued; in addition, there were fears about the Jesuit reductions that had settled there that they could form a state within a state.

    Main trade routes of the Spaniards and the Portuguese
    The archive of the Casa de Contratación in Seville, on the left the cathedral

    Charles III abolished the Casa de Contratación , which raised the colonial taxes, i.e. the royal fifth, until then. At the same time, Seville lost its status as a monopoly port. The Consejo de Indias remained as a colonial authority until 1834, but more and more of its powers were transferred to the newly created Secretaría de Marina e Indias .

    Resistance to the reforms arose at all levels, so that they were gradually withdrawn. In 1787 the powers of the superintendent were transferred back to the viceroys. The directors, in turn, developed into mere executive organs of the viceroys.

    French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars (1789–1815)

    Manuel de Godoy, overthrow of the French Bourbons, Napoleon

    Charles IV was ruled by his wife Maria Luise von Parma , who from 1788 to 1808 burdened the finances with favoritism and waste. Her favorite Manuel de Godoy , offspring of a Hidalgo family and a member of the bodyguard since 1784, who was also in high favor with the king, she procured the top management of state affairs until May 1798.

    Spain did not intervene in the overthrow of the French Bourbons, but in 1793 it saw itself with the execution of Louis XVI. made France declare war. France responded with an invasion of Navarre, the Basque provinces and Aragon, and in the second Treaty of San Ildefonso in 1796 committed Spain to a joint war against Great Britain. However, the Spanish fleet was defeated in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent on February 14, 1797.

    From November 1800 Napoleon corresponded only with Godoy, who had come back to power. In 1801 Godoy waged another war against Portugal in the French interest, being the first to claim the title of generalísimo . In the Peace of Amiens in 1802, Spain had to cede Trinidad to Great Britain and Louisiana went to France.

    Godoy had to commit exhausted Spain to war against Great Britain in 1803 through another unfavorable treaty with France, in which the Spanish fleet was destroyed on July 22nd at Cape Finisterre and on October 20th, 1805 at Trafalgar . The population protested against Godoy, whose secret diplomacy established contacts with France's opponents, Prussia . However, these plans became obsolete when Prussia was defeated by Napoleon in 1806. When Godoy allied himself with France in the Treaty of Fontainebleau against Portugal on October 27, 1807 - he himself wanted to become sovereign Prince of the Algarve in the south of the country - and Napoleon had his troops deployed, a popular uprising took place in Aranjuez on March 18, 1808 . Godoy was overthrown and only saved from being lynched by the intervention of a French general. The king abdicated on March 19 in favor of his son Ferdinand. As Ferdinand VII , he entered Madrid on March 24, 1808, but his father had to withdraw his renunciation of the throne in a letter to Napoleon. The emperor summoned the royal family to Bayonne , where Ferdinand renounced the crown in favor of his father on May 5th. Charles immediately ceded his rights to Napoleon. This in turn appointed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on July 6, 1808 King of Spain.

    War of Independence (1808–1813), People's War

    Swearing-in of the deputies of the Cortes in 1810, José Casado del Alisal, 1861

    The resistance against Napoleon soon took on the character of a people's war, and the Junta Suprema Central , established in Aranjuez in September 1808, took over.

    In January 1810 the French ruled Andalusia and in August an army of 80,000 men invaded Portugal to drive the British out. The said central junta fled from Seville to Cádiz, where it was forced to abdicate on February 2, 1810. In 1812, the Cortes of Cadiz adopted the first modern constitution in Spain, known colloquially as La Pepa , because it was promulgated on the feast day of St. Joseph (Pepe). On July 22nd the French lost at Salamanca and on August 12th the British entered Madrid under Wellington . But they had to withdraw again to the Portuguese border before the French overwhelming power.

    It was only Napoleon's defeat in the Russian campaign in 1812 that forced King Joseph to leave Madrid on May 27, 1812 and retreat with his army to Vitoria . Here she was defeated by Wellington on June 21, 1813. On December 11th, the Treaty of Valençay was signed between Spain and France . He determined the return of Ferdinand VII to the throne and the recognition of the Spanish possessions.

    Constitution of 1812, Spanish Revolution (until 1823)

    In 1808 the Junta Suprema Central met in the palace of Aranjuez . She saw her task in taking power during the king's absence. It did not recognize King Joseph and acted on behalf of King Ferdinand without commission. This junta convened an assembly on January 1, 1810, the constitution of which was promulgated on March 19, 1812. This was the first time that the sovereignty of the people was assumed, liberal economic laws were also passed and the compulsory guild no longer applies. Catholicism remained the state religion and any other religion continued to be forbidden, but the Inquisition and feudal jurisdiction were abolished.

    On February 3, 1814, the Cortes invited Ferdinand to Madrid to swear by the constitution. Ferdinand set foot on Spanish soil in Girona on March 24, but refused to recognize the constitution after General Elío joined him with 40,000 men. On May 11th he had the Cortes dispersed and ruled absolutistically.

    The independence of some colonies led to the loss of almost all state revenues. Ferdinand was under the influence of advisors who suppressed all reforms. Spain lost its Latin American property in the wars of independence there , and Florida ceded it to the United States in 1819 for $ 5 million . But the army felt neglected and so on January 1, 1820, a rebellion broke out among the troops destined to fight the insurgents in America.

    Rafael del Riego (1785–1823), Museo Romántico de Valencia
    Cardinal Luis María de Borbón y Vallabriga, Chairman of the Junta Provisional Gubernativa, Goya

    In a coup d'etat, Lieutenant Colonel Rafael del Riego forced the king to recognize the liberal constitution of 1812 ( Trienio Liberal ). On March 7, 1820, a crowd formed in front of the royal palace in Madrid. General Francisco Ballesteros refused to use gun violence against the crowd. Thereupon the king felt compelled to announce to his ministers by a new decree that he intended to swear on the constitution of Cadiz. On March 9, the king convened a Junta Provisional Gubernativa , which should initially exercise the duties and rights of the Cortes. A decree of the same day abolished the Inquisition. A general amnesty was issued on April 23rd.

    On March 18, Ferdinand appointed a new cabinet at the urging of this junta. Then on March 22nd he convened the Cortes for the years 1820 and 1821. In the opening session of July 9, 1820, a majority of the moderate wing of the Liberals ( Moderados ) resulted . The Doceañistas (from doce twelve, 1812, the year of the adoption of the Constitution of Cadiz) were mostly participants in the Cortes of Cadiz. They saw that the constitution had essentially achieved their goals. The other wing, the Veinteañistas (from veinte = twenty, short for the year 1820), called for further changes.

    The constitution gave the king a veto right. This led to clashes with the cabinet. After the opening of the second session on March 1, 1821, the king dismissed the ministers. But the new cabinet again consisted of politicians from the moderate wing. The budget presented by this Cabinet showed a deficit of 550 million reales , which was to be covered by borrowing abroad and by a national loan. The Cortes carried out two administrative reforms, both of which served to strengthen centralized administration. On the one hand, the country was divided into 49 provinces with corresponding tax authorities, on the other hand, the education system was divided into basic, middle and higher education by the law on public education. The number of universities was set at ten.

    The elections of 1822 resulted in a majority of the Veinteañistas in the Cortes. Rafael del Riego was elected chairman of the Cortes. But the work of parliament almost came to a standstill as a result of the fighting among the liberals. In August, the king named Evaristo de San Miguel, a politician from the more radical wing, prime minister.

    At the end of 1822 this wing faced absolute monarchists. A counter-government that found a large number of supporters, especially in Catalonia, Aragón and the north, was suppressed under General Francisco Espoz y Mina, and the members of this Regencia de Urgel fled to France.

    The Holy Alliance called for November 22, 1822 the approval of the representatives of Austria, France, Prussia and Russia, but without the voice of England, the French government to re-establish in Spain the status quo. Paris put together an army under the command of the Duke of Angoulême . Almost 80,000 soldiers crossed the border near San Sebastián, another 21,000 advanced through Figueras to Barcelona. The Duke of Angoulême set up a Regency Council in occupied Madrid. This exercised the rights of King Ferdinand until October 1, 1823.

    As a result, the Cortes moved from Madrid to Seville on March 22, 1823. At the first meeting on June 11th, they issued a decree in which they set up a Regency Council because, in their opinion, the king was mentally incapable of performing his duties. The chairman of the three-member council was Cayetano Valdés y Flores , former captain general of Cádiz. In mid-June, the Cortes moved their seat and that of the government to Cádiz. The last meeting took place on September 19, 1823. Cayetano Valdés y Flores had to hand over the king to the Duke of Angoulême at the end of September .

    On October 1st, the king declared that he had not been free in his actions since March 7th, 1820 and therefore all actions of the governments of the past three years were to be considered invalid. General Rafael del Riego, who had been captured by French troops in Arquillos in the province of Jaén on September 15, 1823 , was handed over to the new government and executed in Madrid on November 7, 1823.

    Carlist Wars (1833–1876)

    When Ferdinand died in 1833, his brother Don Carlos contested the throne of his daughter Isabella II . Since the followers of Don Carlos - the Carlist - were traditionalists, Isabella's mother sought support from the Liberals. This led to the First Carlist War , which the Liberals won after six years. The Liberal Constitution of Cadiz was reinstated in August 1836.

    In 1840 a coup by General Baldomero Espartero forced the regent Maria Christina to flee. The English-friendly Espartero effectively ruled as a dictator and considered opening the Spanish market to British products, especially cotton fabrics. This threatened the thriving Catalan cotton industry. On November 13, 1842, citizens and textile workers in Barcelona rebelled against Espartero, whose general Antonio Van Halen bombed the city with over 1000 bullets on December 3 and had around 100 people executed. 462 houses were destroyed. This violent reaction and other punitive actions against the city of Reus and republican forces led to the strengthening of the opposition to Espartero. After Isabella was declared of age in 1843, rebellions broke out in Catalonia, Andalusia, Aragon and Galicia. General Ramón María Narváez and other military officers forced Espartero to flee to England. In 1845 a constitution was adopted. The Second Carlist War began in 1847 and ended with Isabella's victory in 1849.

    Bombing of Barcelona from the Castillo de Montjuïc

    A series of uprisings by the Progresistas (Liberals, Republicans and Socialists) and Moderados (Monarchists and Catholics) led to a revolution under General Juan Prim in 1868 , which ended the rule of Isabella while General Francisco Serrano Domínguez temporarily took over the government. A search for a new king became necessary, which dragged on due to a lack of candidates.

    In 1869 the Cortes proclaimed a new constitution that provided for a parliamentary monarchy as the form of government. A very promising king candidate was Prince Leopold von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen , offspring of a Catholic branch of the Hohenzollern family . In the spring of 1870 he was persuaded by Otto von Bismarck to accept the candidacy. A French objection to Leopold led to the Franco-German War . Finally, on November 16, 1870, the Cortes elected Amadeus of Savoy as king. When the Third Carlist War broke out in 1872 and Amadeus was unable to restore order, he abdicated in February 1873.

    First Republic (1873 to 1874), industrialization, war over Cuba and the Philippines

    The First Republic proclaimed by the Cortes lasted barely eleven months. In January 1874, General Serrano's coup put an end to it. He dissolved the Cortes and ruled as a dictator with the title of president. A rebellion led by Martínez-Campos in December 1874 restored the monarchy.

    The new regime was constitutional. It had limited voting rights and the power of the armed forces was channeled through missions abroad. The son of Isabella II, Alfonso XII. , became the new king. After his death in 1885, his wife Maria Christina ruled for the minor Alfonso XIII. (Alfonso himself ruled from 1902 to 1931). The Third Carlist War ended in 1876 and the end of the Ten Years' War in Cuba heralded a longer period of peace. In 1893, however, the First Rif War broke out in Morocco .

    The new era of the Restauración was marked by a relatively stable power agreement, the Pardo Pact of 1885 to secure the monarchy, between the Conservative Party (whose leader Cánovas del Castillo had supported the re-establishment of the monarchy) and the Liberal Party under Práxedes Mateo Sagasta . The pact was implemented through election collusion, falsification and the so-called Kazikentum . Local caciques were large landowners, mayors or pastors. The assassination of del Castillo in August 1897, the foreign policy disasters ( Spanish-American War 1898) and finally Sagasta's death in January 1903 put an end to this stability.

    Late industrialization with foreign aid

    Old winding tower, Pozo Espinos Mining Museum in the Turón Valley

    During this phase there was a boom in industry due to the development of iron and steel production and (since 1890) the exploitation of the Asturian, albeit poor quality, coal mines in the Valle de Turón . The old ore mines in Minas de Riotinto , which were leased by a Swedish entrepreneur in 1775, fell into English hands in 1873 and became the nucleus of the British-Australian Rio Tinto Group . In the 1870s, the Basque Country steel industry was developed on the basis of British and German practices and through the construction of railroads, mostly with British and French capital.

    Industrialization began on the coast, which was favored by long-distance trade and imports of cheap English coal, on the periphery of the country. With the exception of the Catalan textile industry, in which steam engines and mechanical looms were used from around 1830, many new branches of the economy, above all the mining of iron, lead, copper and mercury and the chemical industry as well as the expansion of the railway network, remained foreign (mostly English and French) imports and foreign capital, as the bourgeoisie invested primarily in the expansion of their land holdings or in the high-interest bonds of the notoriously indebted Spanish state. Investments in mining also had hardly any multiplier effects . Capital formation stalled, as did the development of higher technical education.

    The Rothschild family was the most important financier of the railways, mining and the Spanish state until around 1890. She owned about 50 percent of foreign investments; it dominated large parts of the trade in mining products (thus the entire trade in mercury from 1830 to 1921) and only withdrew from the Spanish business in the 1930s. But some Basque industrialists like Francisco de las Rivas y Ubieta could her for. In some cases, capital acquired in the land trade is invested in the iron and steel industry and becomes rich. The Compañía de Diques Secos shipyard with the oldest dry dock in Spain (later the Euskalduna shipyard) and the first dynamite factory in 1872 were established in Bilbao , which marked the birth of a Spanish chemical industry. In 1854, the first trade union association was formed in Barcelona, ​​the Unión de Clases with the core of the textile workforce .

    It was not until 1897 that soda production started with German help and the production of hydrogen and acetylene with Swiss capital. Almost all aniline dyes for the not insignificant textile industry had to be imported from Germany. With increasing economic integration, Spain became the scene of a struggle for influence between the major trading powers, which intensified until 1914. During the Great Depression in the 1890s, some sectors of the economy got into trouble precisely because of these interrelationships. In 1893, the partly British-owned iron and steel production in the industrial area of Altos Hornos de Marbella , which had started in 1832, ended. Around 1900 a phase of boom set in again, which led to the creation of some export-strong companies such as the Altos Hornos de Vizcaya . But as early as 1910 the financing conditions deteriorated and the development of a broad class of Spanish entrepreneurs lasted until the beginning of the 1930s.

    Economic development was particularly difficult where there were no ore deposits, such as in the center of the country, which is still dominated by agriculture. Large parts of the rural population, which in the 1880s still made up more than 70 percent of the total population, went into poverty, and their hopes for land acquisition were disappointed because, in addition to the large landowners, more and more townspeople were buying up the land from the field and farm communities. Spanish anarchism has one of its roots in the landless rural working class. In the more industrialized regions, however, autonomy movements grew stronger. In 1894, the Basque Country flag was flown in Bilbao for the first time , and in 1895 Sabino Arana founded the Partido Nacionalista Vascoa (PNV), the Basque National Party.

    Loss of the last important colonies to the USA and Germany (1898/99)

    In the war with the USA from April 25 to August 12, 1898, Spain lost most of its remaining colonies. When the War of Independence began in Cuba in 1895 and nationalist groups rose up in the Philippines in 1896 , Spain declared the preservation of its colonies a national question. The government dispatched hundreds of thousands of soldiers by 1898, but failed to quell the uprisings. On June 12, 1898 Emilio Aguinaldo declared the independence of the Philippines.

    The French ambassador to the USA Jules Cambon signs the declaration of ratification of the peace treaty on May 1, 1899 on behalf of Spain.

    The war increasingly strained domestic politics, which was marked by the arrogant patriotism of many newspapers. Madrid was looking for a compromise solution in the form of limited autonomy rights. But the USA's entry into the war resulted in a rapid defeat, which was often referred to as El Desastre . The First Philippine Republic was proclaimed in 1899 , but a slim majority in the United States was not interested in an independent state. Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico had to be ceded to the USA at the end of 1898, even if the Philippines still offered resistance against the Americans until 1916 ( Philippine-American War ). This left Spain with only enclaves in Morocco, Western Sahara and Equatorial Guinea . Finally, the German Empire forced a treaty in which Spain had to cede the Carolines , the northern Marianas and Palau .

    Exacerbation of social tensions, war in the Rif

    In literary terms, the “disaster” shaped a number of writers and artists, the so-called Generación del 98 . Domestically, tensions intensified, and socialist and anarcho-syndicalist groups were strengthened . The discontent of the army was initially diverted by new colonial adventures, as in the 1893 war in the Rif . In 1909 another military conflict took place between Morocco and Spain, again in the Rif area ( Rif War (1909) ). As early as 1904, Paris and Madrid had agreed on the division of Morocco. After initial defeats, Spain was able to deploy 40,000 soldiers and expand its enclave Melilla with the loss of 2,500 men. Together with France, it established a protectorate. In the Treaty of Fez of March 30, 1912, Spain and France agreed to create two zones as Spanish Morocco and French Morocco .

    Between July 25 and August 2, 1909, there was the Semana Trágica , a workers' uprising in Barcelona and other cities. Over 2500 people were arrested, 1700 convicted by military courts, 17 sentenced to death. The constitution was suspended until November, newspapers were banned, cultural workers' centers and meeting places and well over 100 secular schools were closed.

    Second Republic (1931–1936), dictatorships (1923–1930, 1939–1975), civil war (1936–1939)

    Neutrality in the First World War, dictatorship Miguel Primo de Rivera 1923–1930

    In the First World War, Spain remained neutral. Dissatisfaction with the promotions, which were rejected by a large part of the officer corps, caused a state crisis in 1917 in which the "Juntas" made up of mainland army units forced a change of government. At the same time, a general strike by workers and socialists, particularly in Barcelona, ​​shook the government.

    The Spanish territory in northern Morocco, 1955

    The "pacification" campaign against the Berbers of the Rif, which had practically no parliamentary control, was unsuccessful. During an advance in 1921 under General Manuel Fernández Silvestre, the Battle of Annual occurred , in which the Berbers under Abd el-Krim killed over 8,000 Spanish soldiers. Spain lost almost all positions with the exception of the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla . The then escalating domestic political tensions led from September 13, 1923 to the dictatorship of General Miguel Primo de Rivera , King Alfonso XIII. agreed. The constitution of 1876 was repealed.

    Primo de Rivera and the King, 1930. In 1922 and 1923 he was Captain General of Catalonia, where his actions against the insurgents earned him the resentment of the population.

    De Rivera and the French colonial government took action together against the Berbers. A total of half a million Spanish and French soldiers entered the remaining Rif republic. It took until July 1927 for the Spaniards to subdue the entire area. At the initiative of the king, who wanted to exterminate the Rif-Kabylen, poison gas from the German Munster- Reloh was used from October 1921 . The two colonial powers used 500–600 t of phosgene and chlorine-arsine warfare agent . During the Spanish occupation of Al Hoceïma in 1926, mustard gas was also used. The Spanish army put its losses in the years 1921 to 1926 at 17,020 men.

    Despite widespread support at times, including among workers and intellectuals, Primo de Rivera was only able to hold out until 1930. He was replaced by General Berenguer , who announced municipal elections for April 1931. Republican candidates, disadvantaged by the constituency, were only able to win a fifth of the seats, but they received 40% of the votes, which led to the proclamation of the Second Republic . The king left the country without relinquishing the throne.

    Second Republic 1931–1936

    Celebrations for the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, 1931

    The large landowner Niceto Alcalá Zamora , who proclaimed the second republic on April 14, 1931, became president, while a coalition of left-wing Republican parties and the Socialist Workers' Party under Manuel Azaña ( Acción Republicana ) took over government. Since 1931 the constitution provided for women's suffrage , as well as civil marriage . Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country were granted autonomy rights in 1932 and 1936 respectively .

    But economic problems and the lack of a political culture of consensus prevented consolidation. Reform projects came about only slowly, and laws were withdrawn after a change of government. In August 1932, under the leadership of General José Sanjurjo, the first attempted coup took place.

    After the elections of 1933, a center-right coalition made up of the conservative Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas and the liberal Partido Radical took over the government under the new Prime Minister Alejandro Lerroux . There were several uprisings against them in October 1934 by left groups. In Barcelona the regional government proclaimed its independence, but failed with the uprising in Madrid, as did the supporters of the socialist trade union leader Francisco Largo Caballero . The largest survey took place in Asturias, where various organizations of railway workers and miners had founded a “workers alliance ” made up of the socialist union Unión General de Trabajadores , the anarcho-syndicalist Treinistas and the few communists . The uprising was put down by government troops under General Francisco Franco .

    The instability worsened after the victory of the Popular Front ( Frente Popular ) made up of left-wing liberal, socialist and communist parties in the parliamentary elections on February 17, 1936. During this time there were street battles and attacks; Finally, leading generals took the murder of the monarchist opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo by members of socialist militias and the republican security police on July 13, 1936 as an opportunity to carry out a long-prepared coup four days later.

    The Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)

    Basic constellation

    Between July 1936 and April 1939, Republicans and Socialists faced each other on one side and Franco's coup leaders on the other. At the same time, Catholic- nationalist , bourgeois- liberal and social-revolutionary groups faced one another in long-standing hostility. Because of the world economic crisis and the rise of fascism , the situation worsened. The anarchists again fought the republic almost from the beginning; The previously reformist socialist trade union UGT turned from 1933 on a revolutionary course out of disappointment over the government alliance with the republicans and propagated the dictatorship of the proletariat . Large sections of the socialist party PSOE , on the other hand, continued to rely on cooperation with the liberals. Large parts of the bourgeoisie feared a dominance of the working class and were therefore ready to support a dictatorship. Added to this were the efforts of the Catalan and Basque bourgeoisie to leave the Central State, which was dominated by Castilian.

    A first military coup was thwarted in 1932 by an anarchist general strike . At the end of 1933 the first coalition broke up, followed by a center government that was tolerated and elected by the right-wing parties. It amnestied the coup plotters and reversed the reforms. In October 1934, socialists and the Catalan bourgeois government called for an uprising, which, however, failed, as did the uprising in Asturias. The Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas , the Catholicist gathering movement that partly sympathized with European fascism, pushed to power, but failed because of the president.

    At the end of 1935 the second coalition was also over. In order to use the majority vote this time, socialists, republicans, liberal Catalanists, the Partido Comunista de España and the left-communist Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista formed the Frente Popular . They were supported by Basque nationalists and anarchists. In contrast, there was the Frente Nacional made up of CEDA, monarchists, a landowner party and the Carlists. In between stood the parties in the middle, which had little influence.

    The 1936 elections, victory of the Popular Front

    On February 16, 1936, the Popular Front won the elections. According to the most cited statements by Javier Tussell, its parties received 4,654,116 votes in the first ballot, those of the right-wing National Front received 4,503,505 votes. Other parties, including the Center, Basque Nationalists and the Partido Republicano Radical, received 562,651 votes.

    Despite the moderate reform program of the new government under Manuel Azaña , there were land occupations, strikes and street fights, and the fascist Falange carried out terror. On July 13, the monarchist opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo was murdered by members of the Guardia de Asalto and the Guardia Civil . This moved the Carlist to support the officers' coup with their paramilitary groups.

    The role of the European powers, Hitler and Mussolini, Stalin

    A sentry's hut destroyed during the Battle of Guadalajara

    Some European powers formed the Committee on Non-Interference in the Affairs of Spain under the aegis of the League of Nations , but only France and Great Britain practiced a policy of non-interference. The fascist powers Italy and Germany, however, supported the putschists; the Soviet Union supplied the republic with weapons and advisors.

    After Franco's request for help, Hitler supported the putschists. For the Nazi regime , the civil war was a battlefield in the conflict with " Bolshevism ". This happened against the background that France had also had a Popular Front government since July 1936 .

    Immediately after the coup, all employees of German corporations either went to Franco-controlled areas or left Spain. Probably 15,000 Germans fought on the side of Franco, about 300 were killed. Berlin's financial aid in 1939 was around £ 43,000,000, of which 62.6% went to the Condor Legion . The Portuguese Prime Minister António Salazar admitted on August 21, 1936 that the Portuguese Navy supplied war material and fuel. Because the putschists did not have enough currency reserves , it was agreed with Berlin to offset military equipment against mining concessions. Franco later signed six mines over to the German Reich for 480 million Reichsmarks. IG-Farben and Siemens supported the Legion Vidal, a medical force of the putschists. According to a US government report, a total of 104 people were identified who worked as informers for German companies.

    On July 27, 1936, the "Sonderstab W" was formed under Hermann Göring , which was headed by Helmut Wilberg and Erhard Milch . With the company Feuerzauber , troops were flown from Spanish Morocco to the mainland. The relocation of 14,000 Foreign Legionnaires and 500 tons of material took place from July 28 to October 1936. In addition, the armored ships Deutschland and Admiral Scheer secured ships as escorts that were transporting troops across the Strait of Gibraltar.

    By November 26, 12,000 members of the Condor Legion , to which 19,000 men belonged, had arrived in Cádiz. It soon had around 100 aircraft and intervened in all the major battles from 1937: around Bilbao (June 1937), Brunete (July 1937), Teruel , Ebro-Bogen . The air raid on Gernika on April 26, 1937, in which the religious capital of the Basque Country was destroyed, became notorious . The Legion was also involved in the Málaga massacre (February 1937) in which around 10,000 people were killed. The supply of petroleum products was provided by Royal Dutch Shell , Texaco and the Standard Oil Company .

    Overview map of the operational areas for the enforcement of the arms embargo (area of ​​the German Navy in gray)
    Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler with Karl Wolff at a meeting with Franco in Spain, October 25, 1940

    In 1937, the putschists set up a German-style concentration camp in Miranda de Ebro , which was run by SS and Gestapo member Paul Winzer . The cooperation also included the mutual extradition of "political criminals".

    In addition to Berlin, Rome in particular intervened, and to a far greater extent. There, unlike in Berlin, they knew about the intentions of the generals in advance. In the first phase, Benito Mussolini sent militiamen to demonstrate the effectiveness of his regime. On November 18, 1936, Italy and Germany recognized the Franco regime as the legitimate government. Mussolini provided Franco with four destroyers and a cruiser, among other things. In July 1938, during the Battle of the Ebro , Italian submarines attacked Soviet and British ships carrying war material for the republic. From November 1936 to February 1938 they carried out 108 attacks against war and merchant ships. The intervention, which cost Italy around 10,000 dead and 4.5 billion lire, only rewarded Franco with 100,000 tons of iron and a protocol guarantee that relations between Italy and Spain should be "further developed".

    Up to 12,000 Portuguese volunteers fought on Franco's side. In March 1939 Portugal signed a 'friendship and non-aggression pact' with Spain.

    In addition, around 700 Irish volunteers fought in the Irish Brigade . On December 12, 1936, Joseph Veltjens shipped 600 men from Galway to the northwestern Spanish port of El Ferrol on behalf of the German Empire .

    On September 18, 1936, Eugen Fried announced in Paris that Stalin had decided to set up international brigades . Communist parties in various countries then organized their recruitment. The brigades consisted of 40,000 to 48,000 volunteers. The Soviet Union (along with Mexico ) remained the only significant ally of Madrid. Mexico, which provided over $ 2,000,000 and 20,000 rifles, mainly offered diplomatic aid and the reception of around 50,000 Republican refugees.

    With the help of General Commissioner Alvarez del Vayo, it was possible by spring 1937 to dominate the military system to such an extent that 125 of the 168 battalion commissioners were partisans of the PCE and PSUC or members of the Association of Communist Youth Associations of Spain . The exact number of Soviet specialists is given as a maximum of 2150, with no more than 800 of them staying in the country at any time. The chief military advisor was Jan Karlowitsch Bersin .

    The first Soviet arms deliveries arrived in October 1936: 42 Polikarpow I-15 biplanes and 31 Polikarpow I-16 fighters. On October 29, Tupolev SB-2 bombs attacked Seville. The Soviet Union, however, gave the government hardly any loans; the arms deliveries were paid for with significant parts of the gold reserves.

    There followed a wave of terror against the anarchist Confederación Nacional del Trabajo , the Marxist Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista and against Trotskyists . The clashes culminated in the May events of Barcelona, ​​a "civil war within a civil war". It is unclear why Stalin almost completely stopped his support, which had long been denied, from 1938 onwards.

    The socialist government of Léon Blum ruled Paris from July 1936 , but the Third French Republic , which was influenced by a pacifist movement, was divided in a similar way to the Spanish; a small division of right-wing French fought in the Spanish Foreign Legion , while the left sympathized with the republic. From March 1938 onwards, a larger delivery of arms allowed the resistance to be reorganized once again, which hoped to turn the world around.

    In Great Britain, conservative elites harbored sympathy for the coup plotters, as they left property relations intact. The policy of non-interference was intended to "neutralize" Spain and limit the conflict to the peninsula. Franco came to the British here by declaring his neutrality in 1938 as a precautionary measure in a possible larger conflict.

    It was clear to observers that Franco's victory was due to the overwhelming superiority of the air and the more powerful artillery.


    Fanelli (at the top in the middle) together with the first Spanish internationalists in Madrid in 1869

    Anarchism in Spain has an idiosyncratic history. The Italian Giuseppe Fanelli came to Spain in 1868 on a trip planned by Michail Bakunin to win members for the International Workers' Association . The first sections were created in Barcelona, ​​Cádiz, Seville, Saragossa and Palma. After 18 months there were already 150 sub-societies in Spain with around 40,000 members. Before the Hague Congress of the International in 1872, the Spanish Federation was by far the largest national organization with 848 local sections. In 1872 Bakunin was expelled from the International, whereupon the Spanish sections became the driving force behind the formation of the Anti-Authoritarian International .

    Execution of insurgents in Jerez de la Frontera in 1892

    By 1870 the Spanish Federation had most of its members in the rural areas of Andalusia and Catalonia. After strikes for the eight-hour day had taken place in the Alcoi region in 1873 , the government tried to stop the Federation's activities. The anarchist sections reached their temporarily largest membership in 1883 with almost 60,000 members.

    Demonstrations followed the 1886 Haymarket massacre in Chicago , which started the May Day tradition . May 1st, 1890, marked the beginning of the largest wave of strikes in Europe to date. In 1891 the majority of the organizations were dissolved. More than 400 anarchists were arrested after a bomb attack in Montjuïc prison in Barcelona in 1892, and five were executed.

    In 1900 a new organization emerged, the Federación de Trabajadores de la Región española , which combined syndicalism with libertarian principles and whose participants were estimated at 52,000.

    Assassination attempt on Alfonso XIII., 1906. 28 people died and around 100 were injured.

    In 1909 a textile factory was closed and wages in the entire industrial sector were cut. At the same time, the government announced that it wanted to collect military reserves for the war in Morocco. A general strike began in Barcelona on July 26; about 1,700 people were indicted, 450 convicted and five executed. Unions and their newspapers were banned and liberal schools were closed.

    Founding congress of the CNT 1910

    In 1910 the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) was founded, which was immediately declared an illegal organization. In 1917 there was a general strike in Barcelona organized by socialists, with substantial support from anarchists. In 1919, workers at a power station triggered a 44-day general strike. Barcelona was placed under martial law, and the government summoned all workers to military service. The strikers demanded the eight-hour day, Spain became the first country with a law of this kind. In 1921, Prime Minister Eduardo Dato was attacked . The CNT had nearly a million members at the time.

    In 1927 the Federación Anarquista Ibérica was founded, which was based on autonomous reference groups . Dominated by militants such as Buenaventura Durruti , it also supported moderate efforts against the dictatorship and helped create the Popular Front in 1936. At that time, when the anarchist organizations began to work with the government, the FAI became a de facto political party and the reference group model was abandoned.

    Workers and farm workers collectivized land and industry, administered it themselves and set up councils . Anarcho-syndicalism prevailed in Catalonia. There were also other types of anarchism, especially in Saragossa, and in the form of farmers' associations in Andalusia. The most important groups were the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo , then the 20,000 Mujeres Libres and the followers of the Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista .

    As the war progressed, the government and the communist party succeeded in gaining control of the war-essential production through their access to Soviet weapons. At the same time, the communist troops carried out purges. The aim was to smash the anarchists of the CNT and the left-wing Marxists of the POUM. After that, resistance collapsed in the anarchist-controlled regions.

    The CNT adhered to the principle that all state power is destructive. Some anarchists - including Durruti - were deported to Africa. The anarchists demanded: “First social reforms before elections!” In December 1933 another uprising took place in Catalonia, as well as in Saragossa. The miners' strike sparked in Asturias was carried out jointly by anarchists, socialists and communists. The strikers occupied cities, including the provincial capital Oviedo. The Spanish Foreign Legion , led by General Lopez Ochoa, put down the uprising.

    Following the French model, the left-wing parties decided to join forces in a popular front with republicans, socialists and communists, but the anarchists rejected this. Strikes and rebellions broke out in the months following the rise of the Popular Front. In view of the threat posed by what was going on in Morocco, members of the CNT robbed an arsenal. The survey was brought forward by two days to July 17 at short notice, but it was defeated by armed workers' militias in many areas, such as Barcelona. Some anarchist strongholds, such as Zaragoza, fell.

    The most famous anarchist unit was the Durruti column . It started with 3,000 militiamen and at its peak numbered 8,000 men. Durruti's death on November 20, 1936 resulted in the men being incorporated into the regular army.

    Ticket to a cinema run by anarchists

    Many companies were subjected to the "rule of the workers"; in anarchist strongholds like Catalonia to three quarters. Factories were run by workers' committees, lands were collectivized and run as “free communes”. In the collectivized areas, the basic principle was “everyone according to their abilities, everyone according to their needs.” The anarchist communes produced more than they did before collectivization. Instead of 25 factories in September 1936, 300 factories with a total workforce of 150,000 were working in the war industry in July 1937, where production rose by 30 to 40%; the same was true for civil operations. Agriculture in Catalonia increased its yield by 40%.

    Demonstration during the “Tragic Week” in Barcelona in May 1937

    During the May events from May 4 to 8, 1937, street fighting broke out in Barcelona that killed 500 residents. The FAI was banned and the anarchists had to surrender their weapons. During the Second World War, the anarchists collaborated with the French Resistance .

    The guerrilla resistance against Franco did not end until 1960. The CNT split in 1979 into the CNT / AIT and the CNT / U. The CNT / U changed its name to Confederación General del Trabajo (CGT) in 1989 ; with around 60,000 members it is larger than the CNT and the third largest union in the country. While the CGT, like all other unions, participates in syndicate elections in which employees elect their representatives for collective bargaining, the CNT does not participate. The split ensures that no factories can be returned to the unions that the Franco regime had seized and handed over to the only authorized union, Sindicato Vertical . The FAI has reorganized and is a member of the International of Anarchist Federations .

    Course of the Civil War

    Initiated by a military revolt in Spanish Morocco, the coup began on July 17, 1936. The putschists relied mainly on the colonial troops (the Regulares , an army of Moroccan mercenaries, and the Spanish Legion). They soon gained control of Seville, Cádiz, Jerez de la Frontera, Córdoba, Saragossa, Oviedo, as well as Galicia, Mallorca and the Carlist Navarre; however, they failed in the provinces of Madrid, Valencia and Barcelona , seat of 70% of Spanish industry.

    The leader of the military coup was General Sanjurjo, who had failed with a coup in 1932 and was therefore in exile in Portugal. On the return flight from exile, the general had a fatal accident. The resulting power vacuum was filled by the generals Emilio Mola , Franco and Gonzalo Queipo de Llano .

    A Condor Legion bomber on a Spanish airfield in 1939

    In the republican zone, Prime Minister Casares was replaced on July 19 by the moderate Martínez Barrio, who promised the insurgents a say and the restoration of public order. However, this was exchanged for the more radical Giral just one day later, when efforts to mediate had failed. The majority of the generals, two-thirds of the navy and half of the air force remained loyal to the republic. The loyal troops with the paramilitary Guardia Civil and the Guardia de Asalto formed the military backbone of the republic with militia groups of the Social Democrats, the Communists, the Socialists and the Anarcho-Syndicalists at the beginning of the civil war.

    There were around 300 international militia officers who organized themselves into grupos after the military coup in Barcelona. They formed international militias with the first volunteers and fought primarily on the Aragon Front at the beginning of the civil war. Communist volunteers fought mainly in PSUC, socialist volunteers in POUM and anarchist in CNT militia units. George Orwell and André Malraux fought with these international militiamen .

    During the entire war, 1533 German and Italian aircraft faced 806 Soviet aircraft. The number of Italian volunteers far exceeded the military personnel sent by the Soviet Union. The democratic countries of Europe invoked their neutrality, only France opened its border on two occasions to support the Frente Popular with material. Poland did not officially support the coup plotters, but did supply weapons. Polish citizenship was revoked from any Pole who entered the International Brigades of the Republic .

    Four stages of the front line by October 1937

    Franco's forces captured Toledo on September 27th. Two days later, Franco declared himself Generalísimo and Caudillo (leader). The nationalists began an offensive towards Madrid in October with a power ratio of 1: 3. Increasing resistance brought the advance to a halt on November 8th. In the meantime, the government withdrew from Madrid to Valencia on November 6th.

    The Guernika destroyed by the Condor Legion

    The Axis powers recognized the Franco regime after the liberation of the Spanish national soldiers trapped in the fortress of Toledo on November 18th and on December 23rd Italy sent volunteers. With forces reinforced by the Italian troops and colonial troops from Morocco, Franco tried again to conquer Madrid in January and February 1937, but failed again. Malaga was captured on February 8th and Franco's troops entered Guernica on April 28th , two days after the bombing by the Condor Legion .

    In May the government began a campaign to recapture Segovia, and in early July the government even launched a counter-offensive near Brunete in the Madrid area. However, the nationalists were able to repel them using the Condor Legion. Then Franco was able to conquer Santander and Gijón . On August 28, the Pope recognized Franco under pressure from Mussolini. At the end of November the government went to Barcelona.

    On March 6th, the Republican side won the greatest naval battle of the civil war ( Battle of Cabo de Palos ), but on April 14th the nationalists broke through to the Mediterranean Sea, splitting the Republican area into two parts. In May the government asked for peace, but Franco demanded unconditional surrender.

    The government began an offensive to reconnect their territories: The Battle of the Ebro began on July 24th and lasted until November 26th, 1938. The nationalists conquered Catalonia during the first two months of 1939. Tarragona fell on the 14th, Barcelona on January 26th and Girona on February 4th. Five days later, the last resistance in Catalonia was broken. On February 27, the governments of Great Britain and France recognized the Franco regime.

    On March 28, Madrid fell to Franco with the help of the infamous “ fifth column ”. The following day Valencia gave up and Franco announced victory on April 1st. Between 100 and 150,000 people were killed on the battlefields alone and around 500,000 went into exile. Up to 400,000 people were interned in Franco's concentration camps; the last camp was only closed in 1962.

    Repressions and political murders

    At least 6,832 clergymen were killed between 1931 and 1939. However, the information on the total number of those murdered varies widely. For the nationalist zone, the estimates have so far been between 75,000 and 200,000, in the republican zone between 35,000 and 65,000 victims. Antony Beevor wrote in The Spanish Civil War : “The killing did not proceed in the same way on both sides. While the cruel purges of "Reds and Atheists" in the nationalist area continued for years, the acts of violence on the part of the Republicans were mainly spontaneous and hasty reactions to suppressed fears, reinforced by the desire for retribution for atrocities committed by the enemy ”. However, César Vidal, a prominent proponent of historical revisionism , rejects this assumption and points to the active and ongoing involvement of Republican institutions in crimes.

    When massacre of Málaga at the fleeing population of the city in February 1937 about 10,000 people were killed. In the concentration camps, medical experiments were also carried out on the prisoners - with National Socialist support. After the war, the Republican army was captured. After the end of the war, a total of around 275,000 people were imprisoned in bullring and football stadiums.

    In February 1939 there were nearly 500,000 refugees. Initially, they were mostly interned in the south of France. More than half returned to Spain in the next few months. About 150,000 remained in France, many of whom were taken to various main camps as prisoners of war and, from August 6, 1940, to Mauthausen concentration camp . Over 7000 Spanish prisoners lived there, 5000 of whom died. Some Spaniards were extradited to Franco by the Gestapo , others, such as the former head of government Francisco Largo Caballero , were deported to various German concentration camps.

    The racial doctrine advocated by National Socialism found hardly any echo in Spain. Around 20 to 35,000 European Jews were able to save themselves from persecution via Spain. Franco is said to have campaigned for part of the Sephardic communities in Greece. Some of these Sephardi were able to take on Spanish citizenship in the 1920s as descendants of expelled Jews in 1492. Franco's engagement related only to these Sephardi, which were relatively few in number with 4500 of 175,000 Sephardi. Franco had been informed in detail about the extermination of the Jews in Auschwitz since 1944 at the latest , and it can be seen that he “knew exactly the extent of the extermination”.

    In December 1943 Franco expressed his position to the German ambassador by saying that “… the attitude of the Spanish government towards Bolshevism and communism would not change, and that this struggle would continue at home and abroad, as well as against it Judaism and Freemasonry ” . In 1938 the synagogue in Madrid was closed, and the parishes established in several cities during the war were dissolved again. They were not admitted again until after 1945.

    For Andalusia alone, the number of "disappeared" Republicans is given as 70,000. In a report by Deutschlandfunk from September 2008, it was said: “It was less than ten years ago that the number of those shot and disappeared was put at around 30,000. Historians recently suspected 100,000 victims. ... Empar Salvador, spokeswoman for an association of survivors' associations that has been researching mass graves in all regions of Spain for years, names 143,353 cases ".

    It was not until the beginning of the 2000s that some events, such as the trial of the former Chilean dictatorship Augusto Pinochet , the efforts to exhumate Federico García Lorca from a mass grave, or the public confrontation with the ETA re-stimulated the debate about the past. This led to the Ley de Memoria Histórica passed in 2007 , a law that recognized the victims of tyranny and publicly named the dictatorship as such. In May 2011, the government released a map with information on anonymously buried victims of the civil war.

    On the other hand, there are ratings such as that of the American historian Stanley G. Payne , in his work The Spanish Civil War, the Soviet Union and Communism . Antony Beevor sees:

    “... that many leftist leaders have welcomed the prospect of civil war. They mistakenly believed that conflict would lead to a revolutionary victory much faster than the Russian Civil War, largely because they assumed they would get outside help. […] The war in Spain was never a war between liberal democracy and fascism […] There were only two options: a Stalinist dictatorship that would have crushed all its rivals on the left, or the cruel - reactionary, military and clerical - regime with superficial fascist plaster that the victorious Franco brought about. "

    Francisco Franco's dictatorship (until 1975)

    In 1934 the Falange Española, founded in the previous year, merged with the ideologically related Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (JONS), in German "Associations of the National Syndicalist Offensive" to form the Falange Española de las JONS . The new organization propagated the abolition of democracy and a "national syndicalism ". By the latter, she understood the population to be recorded in class organizations. Their program also contained calls for nationalization of the banking system and agrarian reform.

    The leader of the Falange, José Antonio Primo de Rivera , son of Miguel Primo de Rivera, was convicted and executed on November 20, 1936. Franco took control of the leaderless and divided Falangist movement and became its caudillo . He had neither belonged to the Falange nor had any political ties to him. Franco soon showed that he had seized the Falange mainly for the purpose of seizing power and as a bracket for the parties and movements of the frente nacional .

    On April 19, 1937, the revolutionary-anti-monarchist Falange merged with the monarchist-absolutist and therefore exactly opposite in the spectrum of right-wing movements, Carlist Comunión Tradicionalista to form the unity party Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS . A loose coalition had become a movement under Franco's sole leadership. Soon after, the legitimist monarchists joined the movement.

    Phases of the Francoist regime

    Franco declared the end of the civil war on April 1, 1939: “Today the Red Force has been captured and disarmed, and the national troops have achieved their final military objectives. The war is over. "

    According to the party color of the Falange, the five-year purges were referred to as "blue terror". Behind the crimes of the “national” camp stood a “genocidal intention” which Spain wanted to purify by “physically destroying all life that was perceived as unspanish”. Bernecker gives the number of those who died from political murder and judicial crimes between 1936 and 1944 at up to 400,000. In the literature, the number of political prisoners after the civil war is mostly estimated at around 1.5 million. The last concentration camps , of which there were around 190, and into which half a million partisans of the republic and during the Second World War also some tens of thousands of refugees from all over Europe were interned, were not closed until 1962. In the area of ​​the western Pyrenees (Navarra) alone, 15,000 political prisoners were forced to work as "slave workers" to build roads.

    In 1946 the UN imposed a diplomatic boycott on Spain, and the regime was almost completely isolated for a time. France closed its borders with Spain until February 1948. Wheat deliveries from Argentina saved Spain from economic collapse. On March 27, 1947, Great Britain and Spain signed a trade agreement. At the end of 1948, Winston Churchill demanded that Spain no longer be denied entry to the UN, after the Soviet Union and some Eastern Bloc countries had also become UN members. On September 26, 1953 Franco was able to conclude a troop stationing agreement with the USA against the backdrop of the Cold War . A little later a concordat was concluded with the Vatican . On December 14, 1955, Spain and 15 other countries were admitted to the UN.

    However, the foreign policy offensive was not followed by any domestic policy freedoms. It was only under the pressure of an imminent economic collapse and after popular protests that economic policy liberalization took place, supported by conservative groups such as members of Opus Dei .

    With the increasing prosperity of broader layers of the population, Franco consolidated his rule again. He granted the population hardly any rights or freedom of association outside of the syndicates controlled by the system and reserved the right to use instruments of repression at any time at his discretion.

    Francisco Franco (1969)

    Franco made sure that no one after him would unite with the same power. He transferred the office of head of government to Luis Carrero Blanco in 1967 , and after his assassination by ETA in 1973 to Carlos Arias Navarro . Franco had re-established the monarchy in law as early as 1947, but left the throne vacant. Franco probably saw himself as an imperial administrator who wanted to prepare for the re-establishment of the monarchy, but surrounded himself with monarchical splendor, even with divine right . His personal title was por la gracia de Dios, Caudillo de España y de la Cruzada . He took over the education of Juan Carlos I , whom he finally appointed in 1969 as his successor.

    Even if Franco occupied the government offices predominantly with civilians, the military remained a power which he could not neglect due to its influence on the security forces as well as its position in the administration and in economic life, although the civil war army was reduced to 220,000 men in 1939. It proved to be a reliable support in the “de-fascization” of the system in the post-war years, but was largely politically disempowered. Franco later increased the military to 380,000 men to fight the guerrillas.

    The state party was the said Spanish Traditionalist Phalanx of the Associations of the National Syndicalist Offensive , FET y de las JONS for short . It was called Movimiento Nacional from 1970 or simply " Falange " after the part that had dominated for a long time . Their abundance of power was particularly great when Franco tried to maintain the balance between the parties of the world war and to overcome the foreign policy isolation after the end of the war. However, Franco continued to reduce the influence of the Movimiento. Since numerous old Falangists rejected Franco's course, there were even right-wing opposition groups. The ideological orientation of the Falange was already unclear during the civil war and became even more diffuse after the influx of new members from 1939. Their leaders were installed by Franco on the basis of a relationship of trust.

    With the anti-monarchism of the Falangist faction, Franco was able to create a counterweight to the Carlist. For the same reason, the Falange was useful against the Conservatives and the old right because of its socialist streak. The Carlist labor movement MOC called for free and democratic trade unions in a draft of the Syndicate Act; the Carlist fraternity attacked the state student union. When Francisco Javier I , the Carlist pretender to the throne , expressed understanding for Basque and Catalan aspirations for autonomy in 1968, Franco had him and all the princes of the II Carlist dynasty expelled.

    The Movimiento retained its important position through the estates organization of the state, through its representation in the Cortes Generales and through its influence on the university system and on the mass media. Radio and television were completely controlled by the state party, the press to a considerable extent. The number of students rose from 65,000 to over 400,000 between 1961 and 1976. In 1969 university unrest gave rise to the abolition of fundamental rights.

    The corporate state model - called "organic democracy" - was enshrined in the Law on the Principles of the Movimiento Nacional of 1958. The model was called “organic” because it assumed that all groups of a common interest would be held together. As a result, everyone who dealt with metal was brought together in the metal syndicate, all those working in agriculture in the agricultural syndicate, all legal scholars in the bar association. Organizations with union-like functions were disbanded. Their ban was not fully enforced, however, as the Hermandades Obrera de Acción Católica (Workers' Brotherhoods of Catholic Action, HOAC) continued to appear as an alternative to the Sindicatos verticales until the HOAC management team was finally dismissed under pressure from the regime in the early 1960s. The syndicate system remained essentially unchanged until Franco's death, but was infiltrated from 1967 by illegal interest groups such as the Comisiones Obreras (CC.OO) to almost insignificance. They represented a kind of councils and were formed between 1958 and 1962, from then on they became permanent institutions that were not dissolved again.

    During the first two decades of Franco's clericalist rule, the church was one of the most effective pillars, especially since there were hardly any non-Catholics in the country (around 2,000 Muslims, 6,000–8,000 Jews, 31,000 Protestants). In 1937 a pastoral letter to all bishops in the world, written by the bishops except for two, was published, in which the fight against the Republicans was justified as a “crusade” and a “national movement”. Franco secured this ally by presenting his coup as a struggle for Christianity in the form of western civilization and hispanidad .

    Catholicism was the only denomination allowed to hold public ceremonies and rallies. The Church was represented in the Cortes , clerics were represented in top political positions. With the help of lay organizations, the Church had succeeded in reducing the influence of the Falange. A gesture characteristic of the Franco regime was to grant the Mother of God the rank of Honorary General of the Army.

    With the Concordat of 1953, the church was largely given over to education. There were also tax exemptions and compensation for expropriations. Furthermore, the state should pay for the upkeep of the priests and the maintenance of the church buildings. Civil divorce was abolished and there were no civil marriages until 1979. It was not until 1967 that the non-Catholic denominations were bettered within the framework of a law on freedom of worship, although this did not result in equal rights. After the Vatican had asked Franco in vain to waive his right to participate in the investiture of bishops, he left bishopric seats vacant and only appointed auxiliary bishops , an office which Franco was not entitled to participate in according to the Concordat. It was not until 1979 that most of the provisions of the Concordat were deleted.

    From around 1960 an opposition stance spread among the grassroots. The Church - first in the Basque Country - abandoned the role of legitimizing the regime. The government arrested priests without the consent of their bishops in order to put them in a separate prison for clergy near Zamora .

    The mainstays of the system are the large estates and the financial circles. They profited especially in the autarky phase after 1939 and were even able to maintain their influence after Franco's death. The large landowners were the main bearers of the caciquismo clientele system , which controlled the voting behavior of the rural population. The dictator thanked them with state-guaranteed purchase prices.

    The banks were given a monopoly from 1936 to 1962, with Franco ignoring the Falange's 1934 party program, which called for the nationalization of the banks. Seven big banks were established, while the number of banks was halved through takeovers and mergers. These big banks were still controlled by a few clans for a long time after the banking reform of 1962.

    The Opus Dei was founded as a lay order by the Franco admirer Josemaría Escrivá . When the self-sufficiency policy led the regime to the brink of disaster, Franco appointed a cabinet of technocrats in 1957 , whose key areas of trade and finance were occupied by members of Opus Dei. Soon its members were able to fill all economically important positions in the cabinet. Behind it stood its sponsor Luis Carrero Blanco , who was considered the gray eminence of the regime. Opus Dei made it possible for Franco to expose Spain to a comprehensive burst of modernization, without the Congregation being interested in bringing about political liberalization at the same time. The "Spanish economic miracle" was largely due to their reforms. With the death of Carrero Blanca in 1973, Opus was largely deprived of its ability to influence politics.

    The Catholic-academic lay movement Acción Católica had  formed a political arm in 1931 with the Acción Nacional - later Acción Popular . Their leader José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones took the corporatism of the Austrian corporate state under Engelbert Dollfuss as a model. With a few smaller groups of a similar orientation, the Acción Popular formed the Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas (CEDA), which became the ruling party for two years in the Second Republic.

    In addition to Opus Dei, the Acción Católica had numerous members in leading positions from 1957. In the Concordat, this movement was the only lay organization granted the right to be active. Parts of the movement, namely the HOAC, developed partly alongside, partly together with the illegal free trade union movement of the Comisiones Obreras, traits of a union, although this was forbidden outside the Sindicatos verticales. In the vicinity of the HOAC, the illegal independent trade union USO ( Unión Sindical Obrera , "Workers' Union") was founded with a left-wing Catholic program, which temporarily allied with the trade union movement of the Comisiones Obreras.

    Population movements in Spain between 1950 and 1981 (from blue to red)

    Franco strove in the sense of a Falangist-motivated economic policy to make Spain independent of imports and essentially to produce for the needs of the country. The Instituto Nacional de Industria, founded in 1941, was an important instrument of this policy . Apart from the fact that Spain remained an agricultural country with an internationally uncompetitive economy, this policy led to persistent stagnation with steadily falling real wages and the consequences of a shortage economy such as black markets, high unemployment, nepotism and the manufacture of poor quality goods.

    The crisis came to a head around 1957 when inflation reached levels that were not offset by wage increases. Strikes, which could not be appeased by decreed wage increases and which were treated as insurrections, brought the economy to a standstill. The Falangist economic policy was abandoned. The new policy was under the catchphrase desarrollo (development), non-political strikes were allowed from 1965.

    The Seat 600 became the symbol of the economic miracle .

    Spain joined the International Monetary Fund , the World Bank and the OECD . By 1974 the percentage of people employed in agriculture fell from 50 to 28%. This was related to rapid urbanization . The population of Madrid grew from 1.6 to 3.2 million in two decades. Spain became the tenth largest industrial nation. It was also discovered as a tourist destination - 35,000 tourists in 1951 compared to 33 million in 1972.

    The average per capita income rose from $ 315 to $ 827 between 1960 and 1971. In addition, numerous Spaniards - there were a million in the early 1970s - hired themselves out as guest workers abroad.


    Strongholds of the Maquis in Spain

    In the later years of the Franco regime, groups that were largely independent of the traditional parties and movements emerged. The illegal free trade unions in particular are to be seen as a new form of opposition that was not active in general politics and was supported by the traditional left and parts of the church. In addition to the HOAC and the USO, the Comisiones Obreras (CC.OO, workers' commissions) deserve special mention. From 1956, when the Francoist system was paralyzed by strikes and the economic crisis, as a free trade union movement they became one of the most important oppositional groups. They combined socialists, communists and the Catholic labor movement.

    Franquism and the non-Castilian territories

    500 peseta note depicting the post-Franco Galician poet Rosalía de Castro

    The centralist regime was extremely mistrustful of the attempts to achieve autonomy in the non-Castilian areas, especially Catalonia and the Basque Country, which had always been poorly integrated into the state. The Basque Country, whose three provinces Franco described as “traitor provinces” because of their role in the civil war, suffered the most. From around 1960 - the year ETA was founded  - resistance began to form there. From 1967 there were bomb attacks. Teaching in non-Castilian languages ​​was abolished, so that only teaching in “Christian” (Castilian) was permitted. The use of the Catalan , Basque and Galician languages ​​was banned by the authorities and in public.

    The leader cult and the commemoration of the civil war are expressed in the Valle de los Caídos (Valley of the Fallen) near El Escorial . It was carved into the rock of the Sierra de Guadarrama by prisoners .

    End of Franquism

    In his will, Franco admonished the Spaniards that the enemies of the country and Christian civilization would not rest and that they, the Spaniards, should rally around the future king and preserve the unity of Spain.

    Initially, there was little room for maneuver King Juan Carlos , who was enthroned in the same year and delivered a speech from the throne in which he stated that “a free and modern society requires the participation of everyone in the decision-making centers, the media, the various levels of education and the control of national prosperity ”.

    Initially, Prime Minister Carlos Arias Navarro , who expressly stated that he wanted to continue Franquism, and his government remained in office. Under the influence of demonstrations and at the request of the king, Arias soon submitted his resignation. He was succeeded on July 3, 1976 by Adolfo Suárez , General Secretary of the Movimiento Nacional . His reforms, which were driven forward with the approval of political parties and trade unions and crowned by a referendum in December 1976, earned him the respect of the democratic opposition. In 1976 the formation of parties was legalized again as part of a reform of the criminal law. At the center of the reform initiated by Suárez, however, was a new constitution that transformed the Cortes, which had previously been a state parliament, into a general, free, equal and secretly elected bicameral parliament. In a referendum, the new system received 95% of the vote.


    Mass grave with 26 dead near Estépar in the province of Burgos, excavated in 2014. The victims were identified as Republicans killed in 1936.

    The process of coming to terms with the dictatorship began late and has recently been pushed back by the conservative government. The mass graves have been opened since around the turn of the millennium. An exhumation of 13 civil war victims in autumn 2000 led to the establishment of the organization Asociación para la Recuperación de la Memoria Histórica (ARMH, Association for the Reclamation of Historical Memory ), which takes care of the exhumation and dignified reburial. The number of unidentified victims is estimated at 30,000. In 2002 parliament unanimously condemned the dictatorship and promised support to those relatives who wished to find and exhume their "disappeared" relatives ( Desaparecidos ). Since November 2007 the “Law on Historical Remembrance” has provided that the municipalities support the private initiative of the exhumation work.

    Formerly: Monumento al General Franco; today: Monumento al Ángel Caído in Santa Cruz de Tenerife

    The Zapatero government passed a law in which the judgments of the Franco era were declared unlawful and the last symbols and monuments of the dictatorship may be removed even against the resistance of the communities ( Ley de Memoria Histórica ). Refugees from the civil war and the post-war period, as well as their descendants, can accept or regain Spanish citizenship.

    Parliamentary monarchy

    Democratization 1976–1982

    Spain's Autonomous Communities and Provinces

    Between 1975 and the military coup of February 23, 1981 (" 23-F "), there were attacks against Carlist members on the Montejurra, and on January 24, 1977 in Madrid there was a bloodbath of Atocha against lawyers of the CC.OO. During these years, the terrorist organization GRAPO, which was only disbanded in 2007, with its Marxist-Leninist objectives and the ETA continued to be active. The most important successor organization to the Falange, the Fuerza Nueva (later Frente Nacional ) no longer played a role from the 1980s.

    In 1978, 88% of the population adopted the constitution, which made Spain a parliamentary monarchy. Among other things, women's suffrage was re-established in it, which was abolished during the Franco regime. On February 23, 1981, members of the army under General Jaime Milans del Bosch and the Guardia Civil under Colonel Antonio Tejero attempted a military coup. Tejero stormed parliament and took the parliamentarians hostage. The coup was thwarted by a televised speech by the king, who spoke out in favor of democracy and pulled the military on his side.

    Spain joined NATO in 1982 . In 1986 Spain became a member of the European Community and in 1988 of the Western European Union . In 1999 it decided to adopt the euro as its currency from 2002. The Partido Popular won the 1996 elections and José María Aznar became Prime Minister. His domestic political priorities were the restructuring of the state finances in the neoliberal sense, economic growth and the fight against the ETA; In terms of foreign policy, he sought proximity to the USA. In 2000, Aznar succeeded in gaining an absolute majority. Under the leadership of the USA, he joined the “ coalition of the willing ” despite popular resistance . Germany, Russia and France refused to participate in the war in Iraq.

    Madrid train attacks, government of the socialists (2004-2011)

    On March 11, 2004, there was a series of Islamistically motivated terrorist attacks on local trains in Madrid, killing 191. In 2004 the Socialist Party under José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero surprisingly won the election. Internally, social liberalization and the separation of church and state were promoted and the decentralization of the country continued, with the nationalist claims in Catalonia and the Basque Country receiving increasing attention. In the summer of 2006, the government started negotiations with ETA after it had announced a "permanent ceasefire" in March; however, after the armistice was broken by an ETA attack on December 30, 2006 at Madrid airport, these negotiations were suspended again. In terms of foreign policy, Spain came closer to Germany and France. Prime Minister Zapatero withdrew the army from Iraq by July 2004, but shortly afterwards increased the military contingent in Afghanistan , where 34 Spaniards had died by November 2013, in consideration of the relations with the USA that had been damaged by this withdrawal .

    Economic crisis (since 2007), emigration and immigration

    The expansion phase of the real estate market, which lasted from 1996 to 2006, caused the share of the construction and real estate sector to swell to around 18% of the gross domestic product . When this real estate bubble burst in 2007. the economy fell into recession . The unemployment rate rose from 8.6% at the end of 2007 to 21.5% at the end of 2011. In March 2013 it was 27.16%, and 57.22% of those under 25 were unemployed.

    Investment ruin on Ibiza ( Cala de Bou, Sant Josep )

    In 2008 the Zapatero government , re-elected in the March 9 elections, launched an economic stimulus program . The minimum wage should be increased and the wealth tax abolished in 2009. Further stimulus packages followed, in December an increase in the minimum wage and an increase in pensions by 2.4 to 7.2% were decreed. The economic stimulus programs led to an increase in the budget deficit with increased social benefits ; this was covered with borrowings of over 220 billion euros. In January 2010, budget cuts of 50 billion euros followed, along with tax increases and wage cuts.

    In the early elections on November 20, 2011, the Partido Popular under Mariano Rajoy won an absolute majority. In August 2012, Rajoy tightened the austerity rate (from 65 billion euros to around 102 billion euros). He was reacting to the rise in lending rates. There were repeated mass protests, such as in Madrid in 2012 when 500,000 people gathered. On June 9, 2012, the finance ministers of the euro area promised the government a loan of up to 100 billion euros for their banks. These had debt securities worth around 670 billion euros in their portfolio . In June 2014, Juan Carlos announced his resignation. His son became his successor . There were calls for a Third Republic to be proclaimed and the monarchy to be abolished. Against the background of a corruption scandal, Prime Minister Rajoy was overthrown by a vote of no confidence on June 1, 2018.

    While the population increased from around 18.3 to 47.3 million between 1900 and 2012, the population decreased for the first time in 2012. -, it could drop to 41.5 million by 2052.


    Overview works

    • Walther L. Bernecker : Spanish history. From the 15th Century to the Present , 1st edition, Beck, Munich 1999, 6th edition 2015, ISBN 978-3-406-48087-4 .
    • Walther L. Bernecker, Horst Pietschmann : History of Spain. From the early modern era to the present , 4th edition, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2005.
    • Walther L. Bernecker: Spanish history. From the Reconquista until today. Knowledge Book Society, Darmstadt 2002.
    • Peer Schmidt (Ed.): Small history of Spain , Reclam, Stuttgart 2004.
    • Carlos Collado Seidel : The Basques. A historical portrait . CHBeck, Munich 2010.
    • Michael Kasper, Walther L. Bernecker: Basque history in fundamentals . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1997.
    • Carlos Collado Seidel: Brief history of Catalonia . Beck, Munich 2011.
    • Klaus Herbers , Nikolas Jaspert (eds.): Integration - Segregation - Displacement. Religious minorities and marginalized groups on the Iberian Peninsula (7th to 17th centuries) . LIT Verlag, Münster 2011.
    • Georg Bossong : The Sephardi. History and Culture of the Spanish Jews . Beck, Munich 2008.
    • José Andrés Gallego: La Historia de la Iglesia en España y el mundo hispano . Universidad Católica San Antonio, 2001.


    Overview works

    • Barbara Sasse-Kunst:  Spain and Portugal. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 29, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-018360-9 , pp. 285–321.
    • Antonio Arnaiz-Villena: Prehistoric Iberia. Genetics, Anthropology, and Linguistics , Springer, London 2012.
    • Mario Menéndez Fernández, Alberto Mingo Álvarez, José Manuel Quesada López, Martí Mas Cornellá, Eduardo García Sánchez, Antonio Rosas González, Jesús Francisco Jordá Pardo, Mariano Ayarzagüena Sanz, Miguel Ángel Fano Martínezula: Prehistoria , Universidad Nacional de la Penínezi a Distancia, Madrid 2012.
    • Mario Menéndez Fernández, Luis Benítez de Lugo Enrich, Victor Fernández Martínez, Ana Fernández Vega, Eduardo García Sánchez, Amparo Hernando Grande, Jesús Jordá Pardo, Martí Mas Cornellá, Alberto Mingo Álvarez, José Manuel Quesada López Rob Pedraz, Pilar San Nicoliz Sanz, Gonzalo Trancho Gayo: Prehistoria Reciente de la Península Ibérica , Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid 2013.

    Paleolithic and Mesolithic

    • Jesús Carballo: El Paleolítico en la costa cantábrica , Ediciones de la Universidad di Cantabria, Santander 2012.
    • Labib Drak, María Dolores Garralda: Restos humanos mesolíticos en la cordillera cantábrica (Norte de España) , in: Estudios de Antropología Biológica 14 (2009) 261–282. ( online )

    Neolithic, metal age

    • Katina T. Lillios: Heraldry for the Dead. Memory, Identity, and the Engraved Stone Plaques of Neolithic Iberia. University of Texas Press, 2008.
    • Guillem Pérez Jordà, Leonor Peña-Chocarro: Agricultural production between the 6th and the 3rd millennium cal BC in the central part of the Valencia region (Spain) , in: Maaike Groot, Daphne Lentjes, Jørn Zeiler (eds.): Barely Surviving or More than Enough? The environmental archeology of subsistence, specialization and surplus food production. Sidestone Press, Leiden 2013, pp. 81-99.
    • María Cruz Berrocal, Leonardo García Sanjuán, Antonio Gilman: The Prehistory of Iberia. Debating Early Social Stratification and the State. Routledge, 2013.
    • Alexis Gorgues: Économie et société dans le nord-est du domaine ibérique (III. - I. s. Av. J.-C.). Editorial CSIC, 2010.
    • Thomas X. Schuhmacher: Contacts, trade and shipping in the western and central Mediterranean area. The role of the Iberian Peninsula at the beginning of the Bronze Age , Habilitation , 2005.
    • Luis Valdés: Gastiburu. El santuario vasco de la Edad del Hierro , Real Academia de la Historia, 2009.
    • Gregorio Carrasco Serrano: Los pueblos prerromanos en Castilla-La Mancha. Universidad de Castilla La Mancha, 2007.
    • Dieter Kremer (Ed.): Onomástica galega. Con especial consideración da situación preromana , Universidad Santiago de Compostela, 2007.
    • Pedro Damián Cano Borrego: Los celtas. La Europa del hierro y la Península Ibérica , Silex Ediciones, 2002.
    • Jesús Álvarez-Sanchís: Los Vettones , Real Academia de la Historia, Madrid 2003.

    Carthaginians and Romans

    • Maria Paz García-Bellido, Laurent Callegarin: Los cartagineses y la monetización del Mediterráneo occidental , Madrid 2000.
    • Martin Luik : The difficult path to world power. Rome's conquest of the Iberian Peninsula 218–19 BC Chr. Mainz 2005.
    • Tanja Gouda: The Romanization Process on the Iberian Peninsula from the Perspective of the Iberian Cultures , Kovač, Hamburg 2011.
    • Leonard A Curchin: The Romanization of Central Spain. Complexity, Diversity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland , Routledge, 2013.

    Suebi, Visigoths, Basques, Byzantium

    • Pablo C. Díaz Martínez: El reino suevo (411-585). Madrid 2011.
    • Manuel Koch: Ethnic Identity in the Development Process of the Spanish Visigoth Empire. de Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2011.
    • Javier Martínez Jiménez, Isaac Sastre de Diego, Carlos Tejerizo García: The Iberian Peninsula between 300 and 850. An Archaeological Perspective (= Late antique and early medieval Iberia. Volume 6). Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam 2018, ISBN 978-90-8964-777-1 .
    • Jaime Vizcaíno Sánchez: La presencia bizantina en Hispania, siglos VI – VII. La documentación arqueológica. Murcia 2009.
    • Herwig WolframVisigoths. In: Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (RGA). 2nd Edition. Volume 33, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2006, ISBN 3-11-018388-9 , pp. 536-540.

    Muslim era, Reconquista, civil wars, union of Castile and Aragon

    • Klaus Herbers : History of Spain in the Middle Ages. From the Visigoth Empire to the end of the 15th century . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2006.
    • Roger Collins : Caliphs and Kings. Spain, 796-1031 , Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester 2012 (as TB 2014).
    • Ludwig Vones : History of the Iberian Peninsula in the Middle Ages (711-1480). Reiche, Kronen, Regions , Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1993.
    • Hans-Rudolf Singer : The Maghreb and the Pyrenees Peninsula up to the end of the Middle Ages , in: Ulrich Haarmann (Ed.): History of the Arab World , Beck, Munich 2001, pp. 264–322.
    • Georg Bossong : Moorish Spain. History and culture , Beck, Munich 2007, 2016.
    • Vincent Lagardère: Les Almoravides. Le djihâd andalou (1106–1143) , L'Harmattan, Paris 1999.
    • Patrice Cressier, María Isabel Fierro: Los Almohades. Problemas y perspectivas , Casa de Velázquez, 2005.
    • Francisco Bautista: La Estoria de España en época de Sancho IV. Sobre los reyes de Asturias , Department of Hispanic Studies, Queen Mary, University of London, 2006.
    • Theresa Earenfight: The King's Other Body. Maria of Castile and the Crown of Aragon , University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.
    • Gregory B. Milton: Market Power. Lordship, Society, and Economy in Medieval Catalonia (1276–1313) , Palgrave Macmillan, New York 2012.

    Habsburg Empire, Bourbons

    • Regine Jorzick: Symbolism of Power and the State. Mediating royal rule in early modern Spain (1556–1598). Oldenbourg, Munich 1998.
    • Regina Grafe: Distant Tyranny. Markets, Power, and Backwardness in Spain, 1650-1800. Princeton University Press, 2011.
    • IAA Thompson, Bartolomi Yun Casalilla (Ed.): The Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century. New Perspectives on the Economic and Social History of Seventeenth-Century Spain. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
    • Friedrich Edelmayer : Philipp II. Biography of a world ruler. Kohlhammer, 2009.
    • Isabel Pérez Molina: Honor and Disgrace. Women and the Law in Early Modern Catalonia. Universal Publishers, 2001.
    • Antonio Acosta Rodríguez, Adolfo Luis González Rodríguez, Enriqueta Vila Vilar (eds.): La Casa de la Contratación y la navegación entre España y las Indias. Universidad de Seville, 2003.
    • Roland Bernecker: The persecution of the Conversos by the Spanish Inquisition. GRIN, 2005.
    • Carsten Schapkow: role model and counterpart. Iberian Judaism in the German-Jewish culture of remembrance 1779–1939. Böhlau, 2011.
    • Angel Smith: Anarchism, Revolution, and Reaction. Catalan Labor and the Crisis of the Spanish State, 1898-1923. Berghahn, 2007.
    • Niels Wiecker: The Iberian Atlantic trade. Shipping traffic between Spain, Portugal and Ibero America, 1700–1800. Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2012, ISBN 978-3-515-10201-8 .
    • Chris Ealham: Class, Culture and Conflict in Barcelona, ​​1898-1937. Routledge 2013.

    Republic, Franquism, recent history

    • Stanley G. Payne : Fascism in Spain, 1923-1977. University of Wisconsin Press, 1999.
    • Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War. 1st edition. 1982, 2nd edition. Goldmann, Munich 2008. (Critical review: Walter Lehmann: Review of Walther L. Bernecker / Sören Brinkmann: Combat of memories , in: Sehepunkte 7 (2007))
    • Paul Preston : The Spanish Civil War. Reaction, Revolution and Revenge , HarperCollins, 2012.
    • Walther L. Bernecker : Spain's History since the Civil War , Beck, Munich 1997.
    • Walther L. Bernecker: History of Spain in the 20th Century , Beck, Munich 2010.
    • Anna Lena Menny: Spain and Sepharad. On the official handling of Judaism in Franquism and in democracy , Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2013.
    • Kubilay Yado Arin: Franco's 'New State'. From fascist dictatorship to parliamentary monarchy , Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, Berlin 2012.
    • Paul Preston: The Spanish Holocaust. Inquisition and Extermination in Twentieth-Century Spain , Norton & Company, New York / London 2012.

    Web links

    Commons : History of Spain  - collection of images, videos and audio files


    1. Horst Hans Hergel (1963): Industrialization Policy in Spain since the End of the Civil War , p. 15 (footnote 3) ( online )
    2. Isidro Toro-Moyano et al .: The oldest human fossil in Europe, from Orce (Spain) , in: Journal of Human Evolution 65.1 (2013) 1-9.
    3. José María Bermúdez de Castro , María Martinón-Torres, Aida Gómez-Robles, Leyre Prado-Simón, Laura Martín-Francés, María Lapresa, Anthony Olejniczak, Eudald Carbonell : Early Pleistocene human mandible from Sima del Elefante (TE) cave site in Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain): a comparative morphological study , in: Journal of Human Evolution 61.1 (2011) 12–25, doi: 10.1016 / j.jhevol.2011.03.005
    4. ^ Gary R. Scott, Luis Gibert: The oldest hand-axes in Europe , in: Nature 461 (2009) 82-85. doi: 10.1038 / nature08214
    5. Mario Menéndez Fernández et al .: Prehistoria Antigua de la Península Ibérica , Madrid 2012, table 2, p. 223, map on p. 229.
    6. Eric Delson , Ian Tattersall , John Van Couvering, Alison S. Brooks: Encyclopaedia of Human Evolution and Prehistory. Routledge, 2013, p. 101.
    7. James L. Bischoff, Ross W. Williams, Robert J. Rosenbauer, Arantza Aramburu, Juan Luis Arsuaga , Nuria García, Gloria Cuenca-Bescós: High-resolution U-series dates from the Sima de los Huesos hominids yields 600 kyrs: implications for the evolution of the early Neanderthal lineage , in: Journal of Archaeological Science 34.5 (2007) 763-770.
    8. Adrián Pablos, Ignacio Martínez, Carlos Lorenzo, Ana Gracia, Nohemi Sala, Juan Luis Arsuaga: Human talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) , in: Journal of Human Evolution 65 (2013) 79-92.
    9. Wil Roebroeks , Paola Villa: On the earliest evidence for habitual use of fire in Europe , in: PNAS 108,13 (2011) 5209–5214.
    10. Rachel E. Wood, Cecilio Barroso-Ruíz, Miguel Caparrós, Jesús F. Jordá Pardo, Bertila Galván Santos, Thomas FG Higham : Radiocarbon dating casts doubt on the late chronology of the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic transition in southern Iberia , in: PNAS , Volume 110, No. 8, 2013, pp. 2781-2786. doi: 10.1073 / pnas.1207656110 .
    11. ^ Joan Daura, Montserrat Sanz, Nuria García, Ethel Allué, Manuel Vaquero, E. Fierro, José S. Carrión, Juan-Manuel López-García, Hugues Alexandre Blain, Antonio Sánchez-Marco, C. Valls, Rosa Maria Albert, Joan J. Fornós, Ramon Julià, Josep M. Fullola, João Zilhão : Terrasses de la Riera dels Canyars (Gavà, Barcelona): the landscape of Heinrich Stadial 4 north of the “Ebro frontier” and implications for modern human dispersal into Iberia , in : Quaternary Science Reviews 60 (2013) 26-48.
    12. ^ Cova Gran Archaeological Project, Spain: Human Settlement in the Pyrenees in the Past 50,000 years .
    13. New dating of cave paintings: Spanish Stone Age art older than expected ( Memento from December 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), in: Archeology online, June 15, 2012.
    14. Tom Higham et al.: The earliest evidence for anatomically modern humans in northwestern Europe , in: Nature 479 (2011) 521-524 doi: 10.1038 / nature10484
    15. PJ Reimer et al: IntCal09 and Marine09 radiocarbon age calibration curves, 0–50,000 years cal BP , in: Radiocarbon 51 (2009) 1111–1150 (PDF)
    16. Paloma de la Peña: The beginning of the Upper Paleolithic in the Baetic Mountain area (Spain) , in: Quaternary International (23 August 2013).
    17. Esteban Álvarez-Fernández: La récolte des coquillages dans la région Cantabrique au Magdalenien: la grotte de "Tito Bustillo" (Asturies, Espagne) / Shellfish gathering in Cantabrian Spain during the Magdalenian: The cave of "Tito Bustillo" (Asturias, Northern Spain) , in: L'Anthropologie 117.1 (2013) 62–93.
    18. C. González-Sainz, A. Ruiz-Redondo, D. Garate-Maidagan, E. Iriarte-Avilés: Not only Chauvet: Dating Aurignacian rock art in Altxerri B Cave (northern Spain) , in: Journal of Human Evolution 65, 4 (2013) 457-464.
    19. This and the following according to: Pablo Arias, Angel Armendariz, Rodrigo de Balbín, Miguel A. Fano, Juan Fernández-Tresguerres, Manuel R. González Morales, María José Iriarte, Roberto Ontañón, Javier Alcolea, Esteban Álvarez-Fernández, Francisco Etxeberria , María Dolores Garralda, Mary Jackes, Álvaro Arrizabalaga: Burials in the cave: new evidence on mortuary practices during the Mesolithic of Cantabrian Spain , in: Alvaro Arrizabalaga: Burials in the cave: New evidence on mortuary practices during the Mesolithic of Cantabrian Spain , Pp. 648-654.
    20. Jörg Linstädter, Ines Medved, Martin Solich, Gerd-Christian Less: Neolithisation process within the Alboran territory: Models and possible African impact , in: Quaternary International 274 (2012) 219–232.
    21. ^ Daniel Zohary, Maria Hopf, Ehud Weiss: Domestication of Plants in the Old World. The Origin and Spread of Domesticated Plants in Southwest Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean Basin , 4th Edition. Oxford University Press, New York 2012, pp. 39, 44.
    22. Ambrona, Kastilisches Hochland ( Memento from July 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), website of the German Archaeological Institute.
    23. I am following: Guillem Pérez Jordà, Leonor Peña-Chocarro: Agricultural production between the 6th and the 3rd millennium cal BC in the central part of the Valencia region (Spain) , in: Maaike Groot, Daphne Lentjes, Jørn Zeiler (eds. ): Barely Surviving or More than Enough? The environmental archeology of subsistence, specialization and surplus food production , Sidestone Press, Leiden 2013, pp. 81-99, here: p. 88.
    24. Ignacio Montero Ruiz, Arturo Ruíz Taboada: Enterramiento collectivo y metalugía en el yacimiento neolitico de Cerro Virtud (Cuevas de Almanzora, Almería) , in: Trabajos de Prehistoria 53.2 (1996) 55-75 ( online ) and Arturo Ruiz-Taboada , Ignacio Montero-Ruiz: The oldest metallurgy in western Europe , in: Antiquity 73 (1999) 897-903.
    25. ^ Benjamin Roberts: Creating traditions and shaping technologies: understanding the earliest metal objects and metal production in Western Europe , in: World Archeology 40,3 (2008) 354-372 ( online ).
    26. ^ Heinrich Beck , Dieter Geuenich , Heiko Steuer (Ed.): Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. Volume 29, Walter de Gruyter, 2005, pp. 290f.
    27. ^ Heinrich Beck, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer (Ed.): Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde. Volume 29, Walter de Gruyter, 2005, p. 295.
    28. A. García-Alix, FJ Jimenez-Espejo, JA Lozano, G. Jiménez-Moreno, F. Martinez-Ruiz, L. García Sanjuán, G. Aranda Jiménez, E. García Alfonso, G. Ruiz-Puertas, R. Scott Anderson: Anthropogenic impact and lead pollution throughout the Holocene in Southern Iberia , in: Science of The Total Environment 449 (2013) 451-460.
    29. Fernando González de Canales Cerisola: Tarshish-Tartessos, the Emporium Reached by Kolaios of Samos. CIPOA 2, 2014, pp. 559f. ( online ).
    30. ^ Hans Georg Niemeyer , Hermanfrid Schubart : Trayamar. The Phoenician chamber tombs and the settlement at the Algarrobo estuary , von Zabern, Mainz 1975.
    31. Michael Blech: Archaeological Sources for the Beginnings of Romanization , in: Walter Trillmich , Annette Nünnerich-Asmus (Ed.): Hispania Antiqua - Monuments of the Roman Age , von Zabern, Mainz 1993, p. 74.
    32. José Mattoso (Ed.): História de Portugal , Vol. 1, Lisbon 1993, p. 217 f.
    33. José Mattoso (Ed.): História de Portugal , Vol. 1, Lisbon 1993, p. 218.
    34. Klaus Herbers : Politics and Adoration of Saints on the Iberian Peninsula. The development of the “political Jakobus” , in: Jürgen Petersohn (Ed.): Politics and veneration of saints in the high Middle Ages , Sigmaringen 1994, pp. 199–202.
    35. Jan van Herwaarden: The origins of the cult of St James of Compostela , in: Journal of Medieval History 6 (1980) 1-35, here: pp. 7-18.
    36. On the Concilium Eliberritanum cf. Eckhard Reichert: The canons of the Synod of Elvira. Introduction and commentary. Dissertation. Hamburg 1988, Hamburg 1990 and Concilium Eliberitanum in the Documenta Catholica Omnia .
    37. ^ Virginia Burrus: The Making of a Heretic. Gender, Authority, and the Priscillianist Controversy , University of California Press, 1995.
    38. ^ Peter Brown : Through the Eye of a Needle. Wealth, the Fall of Rome, and the Making of Christianity in the West, 350-550 AD. , Princeton University Press, 2012, p. 6.
    39. Codex Theodosianus 5, 18, 1; Elisabeth Herrmann-Otto: The social structure of late antiquity , in: Alexander Demandt , Josef Engemann (ed.): Konstantin der Große. Imperator Caesar Flavius ​​Constantinus , Mainz 2007, p. 188.
    40. Peter Sarris : Empires of Faith. The Fall of Rome to the Rise of Islam, 500-700. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2011, p. 31.
    41. ^ Hans-Georg Beck : The Byzantine Millennium , Munich 1994, p. 47.
    42. ^ Pablo C. Díaz Martínez: El reino suevo (411-585) , p. 76.
    43. ^ Klaus Herbers: History of Spain in the Middle Ages. From the Visigoth Empire to the end of the 15th century . Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2006, p. 36; EA Thompson: Romans and Barbarians. The Decline of the Western Empire , University of Wisconsin Press, 1982, p. 190.
    44. ^ Klaus Herbers: History of Spain in the Middle Ages. From the Visigoth Empire to the end of the 15th century , Stuttgart 2006, p. 35.
    45. Isidore of Seville emphasizes Eurich's pioneering role: Historia Gothorum 35.
    46. ^ Dietrich Claude : History of the Visigoths , Stuttgart 1970, p. 52f.
    47. ^ Dietrich Claude: History of the Visigoths , Stuttgart 1970, p. 37f.
    48. ^ Klaus Herbers: History of Spain in the Middle Ages. From the Visigoth Empire to the end of the 15th century , Stuttgart 2006, p. 38.
    49. ^ Klaus Herbers: History of Spain in the Middle Ages. From the Visigoth Empire to the end of the 15th century , Stuttgart 2006, p. 63.
    50. ^ Dietrich Claude: History of the Visigoths , Stuttgart 1970, p. 112.
    51. For background cf. Dietrich Claude: Investigations into the fall of the Visigoth Empire (711-725) , in: Historisches Jahrbuch 108 (1988) 329-358.
    52. Pomponius Mela : "Nam a Pyrenaeo ad Garumnam, Aquitani [...] Aquitanorum clarissimi sunt Ausci [...] Urbes opulentissimae in Auscis Eliumberrum" (III 15).
    53. This and the following according to Carlos Collado Seidel: The Basques. A historical portrait , Munich 2010, p. 17.
    54. ^ Carlos Collado Seidel: The Basques. A historical portrait , Munich 2010, p. 24.
    55. Hans-Rudolf Singer : The Maghreb and the Pyrenees Peninsula to the End of the Middle Ages , in: Ulrich Haarmann (Ed.): History of the Arab World , Munich 2001, pp. 264–322, here: p. 265.
    56. ^ Robert Lawrence Trask: The History of Basque , London 1997, p. 12.
    57. ^ Tertius Chandler: Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census , St. David's University Press, 1987 ( etext.org ( Memento of December 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive )).
    58. On Pelayo's uprising, cf. Jan Prelog: The Chronicle of Alfonso III. Frankfurt 1980, p. 154 f.
    59. This and the following to Castile after Art. Castilla, Kgr. In the lexicon of the Middle Ages , Volume V, Sp. 1038-1049.
    60. Antonio Riera Melis: Alfonso V . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 1, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1980, ISBN 3-7608-8901-8 , Sp. 398.
    61. ^ Andrés Gamba (Ed.): Alfonso VI. Cancillería, curia e imperio , Centro de Estudios e Investigación “San Isidoro”, 1998, p. 236.
    62. Chronica Gothorum, ed. by Alexandre Herculano in Portugaliae Monumenta Historica, Scriptores 1 (1856), p. 10 f.
    63. Ibn Challikan : Wafayāt al-a'yān wa-anbā 'abbā' az-zamān , in: Tom Drury (Ed.): The Image of Alfonso VI and His Spain in Arabic Historians , Princeton University, 1974, p. 326.
    64. María del Carmen Pallares Méndez, Ermelindo Portela: La Reina Urraca, Editorial Nerea, Domostia - San Sebastián 2006, p. 16.
    65. Quoted from Therese Martin: Queen as King. Politics and Architectural Propaganda in Twelfth-Century Spain , Leiden 2006, p. 97, note 5.
    66. Charles Julian Bishko: The Spanish Journey of Abbot Ponce of Cluny , in: Ricerche di storia religiosa. Studi in onore di Giorgio La Piaña 1 (1957) 311-319.
    67. ^ Joseph Delaville Le Roux (ed.): Cartulaire général de l'ordre des hospitaliers de Saint Jean de Jérusalem, 1110-1310. Volume 1, 1894, p. 34.
    68. Rui Pinto de Azevedo (ed.): Documentos Medievais Portugueses, Dosumentos Régios , Vol. 1, 1958, No. 48-49, p. 59 f.
    69. Luiz Gonzaga de Azevedo (Ed.): História de Portugal III. 1940, pp. 123-125.
    70. For the founding dates I follow the Art. In the Lexicon of the Middle Ages. Volume V, Col. 1042.
    71. ^ Emilio Sáez: Alfons IX . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 1, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1980, ISBN 3-7608-8901-8 , column 400 f.
    72. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan: Reconquest and Crusade in Medieval Spain. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, pp. 145 f.
    73. ^ Miguel Dolan Gomez: The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Culture and Practice of Crusading in Medieval Iberia , PhD Dissertation, University of Tennessee, 2011, passim .
    74. On Ferdinand I follow Ludwig Vones: Ferdinand III. 'el Santo' . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 4, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7608-8904-2 , Sp. 359 f.
    75. ^ Emilio Sáez, Odilo Engels, Alberto Várvaro: Alfons X. the Wise . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 1, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1980, ISBN 3-7608-8901-8 , Sp. 396-398.
    76. ^ Digitized version of the complete works ( Memento from December 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) and f. 290r ( Memento from December 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
    77. Fernando I el de Antequera. In: La Monarquia Hispánica. Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, accessed on July 12, 2015 (Spanish).
    78. Vicente Ángel Álvarez Palenzuela: Enrique, Infante de Aragón, Maestre de Santiago , in: Medievalismo: Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Estudios Medievales 12 (2002) 44 ff. ( Online ).
    79. Joseph Perez: Ferdinand and Isabella , Munich 1989, p. 89 (from the Franz. Von Antoinette Gittinger).
    80. ^ El Justicia de Aragón. (PDF) Versión consolidada. (No longer available online.) In: Normas Basicas de Aragón. Gobierno de Aragón, January 2015, archived from the original on March 26, 2015 ; Retrieved March 23, 2015 (Spanish).
    81. Joseph Perez: Ferdinand and Isabella . Callwey, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-7667-0923-2 , pp. 26 (from the French by Antoinette Gittinger).
    82. Cortes de Aragón , in: Gran Enciclopedia Aragonesa OnLine, last updated April 26, 2011 [1] Retrieved January 20, 2015 (Spanish).
    83. Joseph Perez: Ferdinand and Isabella . Callwey, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-7667-0923-2 , pp. 25 (from the French by Antoinette Gittinger).
    84. Fernando I el de Antequera. In: La Monarquia Hispánica. Fundación Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, accessed on July 12, 2015 (Spanish).
    85. Vicente Ángel Álvarez Palenzuela: La guerra civil castellana y el enfrentamiento con Portugal. (1475-1479). Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes, accessed October 18, 2014 (Spanish).
    86. ^ Walter L. Bernecker, Torsten Esser, Peter A. Kraus: A Little History of Catalonia . Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-45879-2 , p. 43 .
    87. Joseph Perez: Ferdinand and Isabella . Callwey, Munich 1989, ISBN 3-7667-0923-2 , pp. 142 (from the French by Antoinette Gittinger).
    88. ^ Alfred Kohler: Karl V. (1519–1556) , in: Die Kaiser der Neuzeit , Munich 1990, p. 35.
    89. Michael North: The Money and Its History. From the Middle Ages to the present. Beck, Munich 1994, p. 86.
    90. Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600. Munich 1989, p. 152.
    91. ^ Alfred Kohler: Karl V., Kaiser , in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 11 (1977), p. 196; online .
    92. Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600. Munich 1989, p. 153.
    93. Horst Rabe: Empire and religious split. Germany 1500–1600. Munich 1989, pp. 205f.
    94. Gerhard Hartmann, Karl Schnith (ed.): The emperors. Wiesbaden 2006, p. 494.
    95. ^ Alfred Kohler : Karl V., Kaiser , in: Neue Deutsche Biographie 11 (1977), p. 209. (online)
    96. Mauricio Drelichman, Hans-Joachim Voth: . The Sustainable Debts of Philip II A Reconstruction of Castile's fiscal position, 1566-1596. ( Memento of September 7, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), in: The Journal of Economic History 70.4 (2010) 813-842.
    97. See Horst Pietschmann: The state organization of colonial Ibero America. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, pp. 120-123.
    98. ^ Horst Pietschmann: The state organization of colonial Ibero America. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, p. 46f.
    99. ^ Horst Pietschmann: The state organization of colonial Ibero America. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, p. 133.
    100. On the role of the Church, cf. Hans-Jürgen Prien : The history of Christianity in Latin America. Göttingen 1978.
    101. ^ Horst Pietschmann: The state organization of colonial Ibero America. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, p. 67ff.
    102. ^ Horst Pietschmann: The state organization of colonial Ibero America. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, p. 67ff.
    103. ^ Horst Pietschmann: The state organization of colonial Ibero America. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 1980, p. 85.
    104. Julia Ortiz Griffin, William D. Griffin (Eds.): Spain and Portugal: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. Infobase, 2007, p. 207.
    105. ^ Josep Fontana: La época del liberalismo. (= La Historia de España , Vol. 6, edited by Josep Fontana and Ramón Villares.) Barcelona 2007, pp. 188 ff. ISBN 978-84-8432-876-6 .
    106. Bernecker 2002, pp. 132f.
    107. Bernecker 2002, p. 126 f.
    108. Miguel Ángel López-Morell: La Casa Rothschild en España. Historia, Madrid 2005. ISBN 84-95379-84-8 .
    109. Javier Loscertales: German investment in Spain from 1870 to 1920. Franz Steiner Verlag, 2002, pp. 255 ff.
    110. Bernecke 2002, p. 125.
    111. See Thomas Hugh: The Spanish Civil War. Penguin, 2013, p. 29.
    112. ^ Dirk Sasse: French, British and Germans in the Rif War 1921–1926. Speculators and sympathizers, deserters and gamblers in the service of Abdelkrim. Dissertation. Münster 2003, p. 40.
    113. ^ Dirk Sasse: French, British and Germans in the Rif War 1921–1926. Speculators and sympathizers, deserters and gamblers in the service of Abdelkrim. Dissertation. Münster 2003, p. 58f.
    114. Rudibert Kunz, Rolf-Dieter Müller: Poison gas against Abd el Krim. Germany, Spain and the gas war in Spanish Morocco 1922–1927. Rombach, Freiburg 1990, p. 72.
    115. ^ Dirk Sasse: French, British and Germans in the Rif War 1921–1926. Speculators and sympathizers, deserters and gamblers in the service of Abdelkrim. Dissertation. Münster 2003, p. 56.
    116. a b Jad Adams: Women and the Vote. A world history. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, ISBN 978-0-19-870684-7 , page 441
    117. ^ After Pío Moa: El derrumbe de la segunda república y la guerra civil. Encuentro, 2001, pp. 258f.
    118. ^ Hugh Thomas: The Spanish Civil War. Eyre and Spottiswoode, London 1961, p. 634.
    119. IG FARBEN in the Spanish Civil War, “A matter of course to help Franco” .
    120. Hugh Thomas: The Spanish Civil War. Ullstein, Berlin 1962, p. 194.
    121. ^ Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War. 2nd Edition. Goldmann, Munich 2008, p. 101.
    122. ^ Antony Beevor : The Spanish Civil War. 2nd Edition. Goldmann, Munich 2008, p. 255.
    123. ^ Robert H. Whealey: Hitler and Spain: The Nazi Role in the Spanish Civil War, 1936-1939 . University Press of Kentucky, 1989 (Paperback 2005), 122.
    124. Stranger Freedom , in: Die Zeit 20 (1992).
    125. ^ Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War. 2nd Edition. Goldmann, 2008, p. 407.
    126. ^ Arno Lustiger : Schalom Libertad, Jews in the Spanish Civil War , Construction Taschenbuch Verlag, 2001, p. 32.
    127. ^ Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War. 2nd Edition. Goldmann, 2008, p. 253.
    128. ^ Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War. 2nd Edition. Goldmann, Munich 2008, p. 203.
    129. Walter Lehmann: Review of Walther L. Bernecker / Sören Brinkmann: Combat of memories , in: Sehepunkte 7 (2007), No. 12.
    130. ^ Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War. 2nd Edition. Goldmann, Munich 2008, p. 260.
    131. ^ Walter L. Bernecker: The international dimension of the Spanish civil war: Intervention and non-intervention p. 23 (PDF; 68 kB).
    132. ^ Carlos Collado Seidel: The Spanish Civil War. History of a European conflict. Beck, Munich, 2010, p. 136f.
    133. ^ Carlos Collado Seidel: The Spanish Civil War. History of a European conflict. Beck, Munich, 2010, p. 136.
    134. For a more recent study focusing on Barcelona, ​​see Chris Ealham: Class, Culture and Conflict in Barcelona, ​​1898–1937. Routledge 2013.
    135. Max Nettlau: Bakunin and the International in Spain 1868–1873 , in: Archives for the history of socialism and the workers' movement 4 (1914) 243–303, here: p. 264.
    136. Wolfgang Eckhardt (Ed.): Michael Bakunin. Conflict with Marx. Part II: Texts and letters from 1871 onwards. Karin Kramer Verlag, Berlin 2011, p. 409.
    137. Max Nettlau: Anarchists and Social Revolutionaries . ASY-Verlag, Berlin 1931, p. 289.
    138. Max Nettlau : The first heyday of anarchy 1886-1894. Topos Verlag, Vaduz 1981, p. 335ff. May 1st has only been celebrated in Spain since 1977.
    139. Max Nettlau: The first heyday of anarchy: 1886-1894. Topos Verlag, Vaduz 1981, p. 343.
    140. ^ Walther L. Bernecker: War in Spain 1936–1939 . Darmstadt 2005, p. 167.
    141. Heleno Saña : The Libertarian Revolution. The anarchists in the Spanish Civil War. Nautilus, 2001, p. 129.
    142. ^ Larry Gambone: The Spanish CGT - The New Anarcho-syndicalism. ( Memento of the original from December 17, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. November 11, 2004. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.infoshop.org
    143. ^ Walter Lehmann: Review of Walther L. Bernecker, Sören Brinkmann: Combat of memories , in: Sehepunkte 7 (2007).
    144. See Gregor Ziolkowski: The darkest chapter of the Franco dictatorship . Report by Deutschlandfunk, September 23, 2008.
    145. ^ Antony Beevor: The Spanish Civil War , in: Die Zeit, July 13, 2006.
    146. See Javier Tusell: El revisionismo histórico español. July 2004.
    147. ^ César Vidal: La guerra que ganó Franco. Barcelona 2007, p. 246.
    148. Javier Bandrés, Rafael Llavona: La psicología en los campos de concentración de Franco , in: Psicothema 8,1 (1996) 1-11. Cf. Rafael Llavona y Javier Bandrés: Psicología y anarquismo en la guerra civil española: La obra de Félix Martí-Ibáñez in: Psicothema 10,3 (1998), pp. 669-678. ([online, PDF])
    149. Bernd Rother: Spain and the Holocaust. Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 2001.
    150. Walther L. Bernecker: Spain's history since the civil war. Beck, Munich 1997, p. 82.
    151. Excelencia, esto ocurre en Auschwitz , in: El País , March 21, 2010.
    152. The Spanish Government and the Axis ( Memento of the original dated August 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.yale.edu
    153. The Difficult Return to Sepharad. ( Memento of March 28, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), in: Jüdische Zeitung , March 2007.
    154. ↑ For more details on the repression against Jews in the early Franco era, see j-zeit.de The difficult return to Sepharad. ( Memento of March 28, 2008 in the Internet Archive ), in: Jüdische Zeitung, March 2007.
    155. Walther L. Bernecker, Sören Brinkmann: Battle of the memories. The Spanish Civil War in Politics and Society 1936–2006. Munster 2006.
    156. ^ Gregor Ziolkowski: The darkest chapter of the Franco dictatorship. Report by Deutschlandfunk, September 23, 2008.
    157. La ley de memoria se aprueba entre aplausos de invitados antifranquistas , in: El País, November 1, 2007.
    158. https://www.diepresse.com/657929/spanien-veroffentlicht-karte-mit-franco-massengrabern
    159. In: The Times Literary Supplement , March 11, 2005, cited above. in Die Welt , March 15, 2005.
    160. Ernst Nolte : The fascist movements. (= dtv world history of the 20th century. Volume 4). Munich 1966, p. 141.
    161. See also this Francoist propaganda poster .
    162. ^ Carlos Collado Seidel: The Spanish Civil War. History of a European conflict. Beck, Munich 2006, p. 187.
    163. Carme Molinero, Margarida Sala, Jaume Sobrequés (eds.): Una inmensa prisión. Los campos de concentración y las prisiones durante la guerra civil y el franquismo. Crítica, Barcelona 2003.
    164. Fernando Mendiola, Edurne Beaumont: Esclavos del franquismo en el Pirineo, La Carretera Igal-Vidángoz-Roncal (1939–1941) . Navarra 2007, pp. 74-76.
    165. Walther L. Bernecker (2010): History of Spain in the 20th Century , p. 220 ( online )
    166. BITS : US bases in Spain
    167. ^ Resolution 109
    168. Walther L. Bernecker : Spain's history since the civil war. Beck, Munich 1997, p. 69.
    169. Walther L. Bernecker: Spain's history since the civil war. Beck, Munich 1997, p. 77.
    170. Rote Mützen , in: Der Spiegel , January 6, 1969.
    171. Walther L. Bernecker: Spain's history since the civil war. Beck, Munich 1997, p. 154.
    172. Walther L. Bernecker: Spain's history since the civil war. Beck, Munich 1997, 162.
    173. Walther L. Bernecker: Spain's history since the civil war. Beck, Munich 1997, pp. 145 f.
    174. Bernecker: Spain's history since the civil war. P. 71.
    175. Walther L. Bernecker: Spain's history since the civil war. Beck, Munich 1997, p. 138 f.
    176. ^ David Zurdo, Angel Gutiérrez: La vida secreta de Franco. El rostro oculto del dictador. Edaf, Madrid 2005, p. 210.
    177. On the topic of coming to terms with the past during and after the Transición, cf. Julia Machter: repression for the sake of reconciliation? (PDF; German; 504 kB) as well as this interview with Walther L. Bernecker and interview with Paul Preston: Das Ende des Schweigens , in: Die Welt, May 26, 2005.
    178. Cf. for example Franco still divides Spain , in: Die Welt, November 19, 2005.
    179. Spain wants to remove Franco symbols ( memento of October 24, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), in: Tages-Anzeiger , October 11, 2007.
    180. Late Homecoming , in: Die Welt, January 26, 2009.
    181. Montejurra: La Operación Reconquista y el acta fundacional de las tramas antiterroristas ( Memento of February 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) , Partido Carlista de Euskalherria.
    182. ^ Walter Laqueur: Fascism. Yesterday Today Tomorrow. Ullstein, 2000, p. 177 f.
    183. Operation Enduring Freedom, Coalition Deaths by Nationality ( Memento from June 29, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    184. Europe's concrete bubbles , in: Manager-Magazin , December 20, 2007.
    185. ^ Crash of the real estate market , in: Manager-Magazin, April 3, 2008.
    186. Real estate crisis in Spain. Einstürzende Neubauten , in: Süddeutsche Zeitung , May 21, 2008.
    187. Unemployment in Spain rises to a record level , in: Welt online , January 3, 2012.
    188. Spain reports the highest unemployment rate of all time. AFP, April 25, 2013.
    189. Spanish government is planning an economic stimulus plan worth billions , in: Wirtschaftsblatt , April 16, 2008.
    190. Spanish Economics. Current economic situation. Foreign Office March 2010.
    191. ^ Crisis: Spain. Parliament approves austerity package , in: EuroNews , May 27, 2010.
    192. debt crisis. Spain cuts salaries of ministers and officials , in: faz.net , May 12, 2010.
    193. Spain promises a 102 billion euro savings program , in: spiegel.de , August 3, 2012.
    194. Spain's risk premiums rise alarmingly , in: spiegel.de , July 19, 2012.
    195. Spain pressed to inflict losses on savers , in: Financial Times , July 10, 2012.
    196. Spaniards call for the abolition of the royal family , in: zeit.de , June 2, 2014.
    197. ^ New citizens from the south , in: zeit.de , January 10, 2013.
    198. Doubts about Spain's bad bank profit due to falling house prices , in: Die Welt , December 13, 2012.