The Fatimids ( Arabic الفاطميون, DMG al-Fāṭimiyūn ) were an Ismaili dynasty who established a counter-caliphate (to the Abbasid Caliphate ) in 907 and ruled North Africa from 909 to 1171, that is, in the Maghreb and Egypt as well as in Syria .
After the death of the founder of the religion, Mohammed, in 632, the Muslims were split into Sunnis and Shiites . The latter were led by imams who were descendants of ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib and Muhammad's daughter Fatima . However, Shi'aism continued to split as the transition of leadership role was controversial. This is how the movements of the Imamites , Ismailis and Zaidites emerged until the 9th century . The Ismailis recognized as the rightful successor of Jafar as-Sādiq (Jafar as-Sadiq) not Mūsā ibn Jaʿfar al-Kāzim , but Ismail - hence their name. Ismail's son Muhammad plays the central role in the Ismaili teaching system: He was regarded by his followers as the seventh imam and is said not to have died, but to have gone into secrecy , from which he would soon return as Qaim and Mahdi (i.e. as Messiah ).
In the middle of the 9th century, Abdallah al-Akbar began to appear as a deputy for the Mahdi Muhammad ibn Ismail. He announced the imminent appearance of the hidden seventh imam, through whom the Abbasids would be overthrown, all religions of the law (besides Christianity and Judaism also Islam ) would be abolished and the cultless original religion would be established. The sect's founder first appeared in Askar Mukram with his proclamation , but then fled via Basra to Salamya in Syria. He gathered a growing community around him and sent missionaries ( Dais ) to all parts of the Islamic world , who spread the teachings of their Grand Master and built up a network of secret Ismailite cells.
After Abdallah's death, first his son Ahmad and then his grandson Abu sh-Schalaghlagh Muhammad took over the leadership of the sect. Under the latter, the mission achieved great success, including in the Maghreb , where Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Shīʿī worked. Since Abu sch-Schalaghlagh had no son, he designated his nephew Said ibn al-Husain as his successor, who finally revealed himself to be the real Mahdi and thus sparked a split in the Ismailis, since the Qarmatians and other groups were unwavering in the expectation of the the hidden Mahdis Muhammad ibn Ismail.
Rule in North Africa
After the missionary Abū ʿAbdallāh al-Shīʿī had spread the teachings of the Ismailis among the Berbers of the Maghreb , he overthrew the Aghlabid dynasty in Ifrīqiya (eastern Algeria, Tunisia, Libya). In doing so he paved the way for his lord Abdallah al-Mahdi, who fled Salamya, ie Said ibn al-Husain, who founded the Fatimid Empire in Ifriqiya. As the alleged descendant of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq, he traced his descent to the daughter of the prophet Fatima, which is why his dynasty is known as the Fatimids.
Abdallah al-Mahdi (910-934) assumed the title of caliph and founded the capital al-Mahdiya south of Sousse . From the beginning, the aim was to overthrow the Abbasids , who from the perspective of the Fatimids were usurpers . Although Algeria and Sicily were subjugated , campaigns to Egypt were unsuccessful.
Under Abu l-Qasim al-Qaim (934-946) Sicily was again subjugated and the coasts of Italy and France plundered by naval expeditions. In order to pacify Sicily, the calbites were appointed as emirs (see also Islam in Italy ). However, the uprising of the Kharijite Berbers under Abu Yazid (944-947) caused a serious crisis when the rebels temporarily besieged the capital al-Mahdiya.
After the reorganization of the empire by Ismail al-Mansur (946-953) and Abu Tamin al-Muizz (953-975), the Fatimids under the general Jawar al-Siqilli succeeded in advancing to the Atlantic , but could not rule over Morocco asserted that the focus of Fatimid politics was on the conquest of Egypt.
The dynastic color of the Fatimids was white, as opposed to the black of the Abbasids . Red and yellow banners were also associated with the person of the caliph.
After the conquest of Egypt
In 969 Egypt was conquered and the Ichschididen fell . Caliph al-Muizz moved the capital of the empire to Cairo in 972 and installed the Zirids as viceroys in the Maghreb. This was only a marginal area of the Fatimid empire.
After Abu Tamin al-Muizz had founded the new imperial capital Cairo , Fatimid rule in Egypt was consolidated under al-ʿAzīz . Despite the Shiite-Ismaili creed of the Fatimids, the Sunni Muslims were tolerated. At the same time, Palestine and Syria were conquered by 978 and control of Mecca and Medina were gained. The most important shrines of Islam were thus subordinate to the Fatimids.
Under the Fatimid rule, Egypt's economy flourished by building roads and canals and promoting trade between India and the Mediterranean . In the 11th century, the Fatimid Empire had the greatest economic strength of the Islamic empires. Culture and science were also supported by the Fatimids, with the establishment of al-Azhar University , now a Sunni center, of importance.
Under al-Hakim (995-1021), the tolerant religious policy towards non-Muslims was increasingly abandoned. Public processions and ritual acts by Christians and Jews were forbidden, as was the consumption of wine and beer . At times, Christian churches and monasteries were also looted to raise funds for the army and the construction of mosques. In 1009 the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem was destroyed . Around 1017, a sect emerged in Egypt that regarded al-Hakim as the incarnation of God. The Druze religious community later developed from this . During the time of the Tulunids and Fatimids, the Christian population of Egypt was tolerated. Under the Mamluks this changed to the disadvantage of the Copts .
Az-Zahir (1021-1036) pacified the empire and put down some Bedouin uprisings in Syria. The height of power was reached by the Fatimids under al-Mustansir (1036-1094), when Ismaili missionaries seized power in Yemen and the Abbassids in Baghdad were briefly overthrown in 1059.
However, this extensive power politics led to national bankruptcy and the decline of the dynasty. Although the Zirids in Ifrīqiya could be forced back under the domination of the Fatimids by the deportation of the Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym , Syria and Palestine were lost to the Seljuks in 1076 . Internally, too, the government increasingly had to be left to the commanders of the troops and the viziers .
The Fatimids could not prevent the conquest of Jerusalem by the Crusaders during the First Crusade in 1099 and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem , and after unsuccessful attempts at recapture ( Battle of Ramla ) they came increasingly under the influence of the Crusaders in 1130. With the successful conclusion of the siege of Askalon (1153) by King Baldwin III. of Jerusalem , the Fatimids lost their last base in Palestine. To forestall a conquest of Egypt by the Crusaders, Nur ad-Din , the ruler of Damascus, led a campaign to Egypt as early as 1163 until his officer Saladin overthrew the Fatimids in 1171 and founded the Ayyubid dynasty.
Important Arabic sources on the history of the Fatimids in Egypt are the two works “A walk of the two eyeballs to the news of the two states” ( Nuzhat al-muqlatain fī aḫbār ad-daulatain ) by Ibn at-Tuwair (d. 1220) and “Exhortation of the Muslims with the News of the Fatimid Imam Caliphs ”( Ittiʿāẓ al-ḥunafāʾ bi-aḫbār al-aʾimma al-Fāṭimīyīn al-ḫūlafāʾ ) by al-Maqrīzī (d. 1442).
The Fatimid Empire was a clearly Ismaili-oriented state. At the top of the religious hierarchy was an upper Dāʿī , who often also served as an upper kadi . He held public teaching sessions every Thursday in the palace of Cairo, the so-called madschālis al-ḥikma ("sessions of wisdom"), in which the adepts were instructed in the Ismaili secret doctrine after taking a vow. Al-Qāḍī an-Nuʿmān , who served the Fatimids in both offices until 974, developed his own Ismaili school of norms.
Outwardly, the Fatimids continued to work towards the overthrow of the Abbasid caliphs. To this end, they sent numerous missionaries out. The Fatimid mission achieved its greatest success in Yemen, where in 1047 the missionary ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad founded with the Sulaihids a new Ismaili dynasty loyal to the Fatimids and brought Sanaa and Aden into his power.
In the country itself no opportunity was missed to emphasize the descent of the dynasty from the Prophet. For this purpose, a new festival was introduced at court in the 11th century, namely the birthday of the prophet . It was celebrated on the 12th Rabīʿ al-awwal , the actual day of the Prophet's death. The caliph played a central role in the celebrations; public sermons and readings of the Koran took place.
The Fatimids did not impose the Ismaili creed on their own Muslim subjects, but the intensive advertising resulted in numerous conversions. In the early 12th century, more and more Sunnis rose to influential positions in the Fatimid Empire and founded their own madrasas . This led to a restoration of Sunni Islam in Egypt at that time .
Family tree of the Fatimid caliphs
Persons officiating as caliphs or counter-caliphs are shown in bold and the period of reign is given in brackets.
Ali Zain al-Abidin
died around 760
died before 809
After his proclamation in 910, the first Fatimid caliph al-Mahdi had already delegated the handling of day-to-day state affairs to someone he considered trustworthy, establishing the institution of the leading chief minister as the highest in the Fatimid state hierarchy. Although the first holder of this post, al-Baghdadi, had been given the supervision of the ministries (dīwān) and his office thus corresponded to the usual definition of a vizier, he was simply referred to as a “secretary” (kātib) , which was also true for his own immediate successor in office. The introduction of the title of "helper" (Arabic: wazīr ), originally derived from the Persian nomenclature, was apparently deliberately omitted, as this was already given to their chief minister by the warring Abbasid caliphs in Baghdad. The Fatimids, on the other hand, continued the practice already practiced by the Prophet, who only had his affairs dealt with by secretaries.
The first Fatimid chief minister to hold the vizier title was Yaqub ibn Killis (d. 991), who received it on April 18, 979 from Caliph al-Aziz as an expression of a special honor. His successors in office, however, were not allowed to use this title, instead they mostly used that of “mediator” (wāsiṭa) . It was not until al-Jardjarai (died 1045) that the title of vizier became mandatory for all other incumbents until the end of the caliphate.
At the end of the 11th century, the character of the Fatimid vizier had undergone a fundamental change from a purely civil-administrative authority to a sovereign power endowed with unrestricted powers. Contemporary authors knew how to differentiate the viziers into “those with the pen” (arbāb al-qalam) and “those with the sword” (arbāb al-saif) , whereby in the Muslim theory of the state the first group is a “vizier of execution” ( wizārat at-tanfīḏ) , in which the incumbent was merely an executive organ for the actually ruling caliph. However , this relationship began to change during the reign of the caliphs al -Zahir and al-Mustansir from 1021, when the viziers themselves took over the rule due to the caliphs' inability or unwillingness to rule. The functionality of the state became dependent on the personal authority of the respective incumbent, and when this ceased to exist with the overthrow of al-Yazuri in 1058, the state steered first into crisis and then into rapid collapse. The anarchy in the second half of the 11th century, in which the vizier was the prey of various incompetent factions in quick succession, could only be ended by the takeover of power by the military in the form of General Badr al-Jamali in 1074. The redefinition of the official character was completed by the unification of the most important civil competences, which was completed by 1078 at the latest, including the vizier, the supreme jurisdiction and the management of the Ismaili mission, in combination with the military supreme command. The newly created “ vizārat at-tafwiḍ) corresponded to a“ rule ” ( sulṭān ) in which the viziers“ with the sword ”could rule in unrestricted power like secular princes. In fact, some of the viziers who were still in office until 1171 appropriated the Arab prince or king title (malik) , even if at first it was only understood as an honorary title.
The caliphate itself, in whose name the viziers still ruled, was actually degraded to a puppet that the viziers only used to superficially legitimize the power they claimed. The caliphs al-Amir and al-Hafiz made attempts to reverse the existing situation and restore the caliphate to its old perfect power by not appointing viziers during the brief phases of their personal authority, but these attempts each ended with their death. In 1169 Egypt was conquered by the troops of the Sunni ruler of Syria, and the last Fatimid caliph al-Adid was forced to appoint his commander Shirkuh and, after his early death, his nephew Saladin as the new vizier. The latter removed the Fatimid caliphate in Egypt while al-Adid was still alive in favor of a commitment to the formal suzerainty of the Abbasid caliph. In fact, however, he founded the sultanate of his own family, the Ayyubids , into which the Fatimid viziero seamlessly merged.
List of viziers of the Fatimid caliphs:
|Short name||full name in DMG||Time||Remarks|
|Abū l-Yusr al-Baġdādī||910–?||last secretary of the Aghlabids in Africa, taken over by al-Mahdi|
|Jahar al-Saqilli||Ǧauhar aṣ-Ṣiqillī||1st time, 969 conquered Egypt|
|Abū l-Faḍl Ǧaʿfar ibn al-Faḍl ibn Ǧaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Furāt||969-973||1st time, Sunni, last chief minister of the Ichschidids in Egypt|
|Jahar al-Saqilli||Ǧauhar aṣ-Ṣiqillī||973-978||2nd time, al-Aziz enthroned|
|Yaqub ibn Killis||al-Wazīr al-Aǧall Abū l-Faraǧ Yaʿqūb ibn Yūsuf ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Hārūn ibn Dāwūd ibn Killis||978-984||Jew converted to Ismaili Islam|
|Ǧabr ibn al-Qāsim||984||two months|
|Yaqub ibn Killis||al-Wazīr al-Aǧall Abū l-Faraǧ Yaʿqūb ibn Yūsuf ibn Ibrāhīm ibn Hārūn ibn Dāwūd ibn Killis||984-991||2nd time, died in office|
|Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn ʿUmar al-ʿAddās||991||Acting for 7 days|
|Abū l-Faḍl Ǧaʿfar ibn al-Faḍl ibn Ǧaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Furāt||992||2nd time, Sunni|
|Isa ibn Nasturus||ʿĪsā ibn Nasṭūrus ibn Sūrus||994-996||Coptic Christian|
|Ibn Ammar||Amīn ad-Daula Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAmmār ibn Abī l-Ḥusain al-Kutāmī||996-997||Kutama Berbers , enthroned al-Hakim|
|Bardjawan||Barǧawān al-Ustāḏ||997-1000||killed by al-Hakim|
|al-Ḥusain ibn Ǧauhar||1000-1008||Son of Jawhar as-Saqilli , deposed and later executed|
|Ṣāliḥ ibn ʿAlī ar-Rūḏbārī||1008-1009||deposed and later executed|
|Abū Naṣr al-Manṣūr ibn ʿAbdūn al-Kāfī||1009-1010||Christian, deposed and later executed|
|Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad al-Quṣūrī||1010||Deposed after 10 days and later executed|
|Zurʿa ibn ʿĪsā ibn Nasṭūrus ibn Sūrus aš-Šafī||1010-1012||Coptic Christian|
|al-Ḥusain ibn Ṭāhir al-Wazzān||1012-1014||executed|
|al-Ḥasan ibn Abī al-Sayyid||1014||Brothers, executed after 62 days|
|ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān ibn Abī al-Sayyid|
|Abū l-ʿAbbās al-Faḍl ibn l-Wazīr Abī l-Faḍl Ǧaʿfar ibn l-Faḍl al-Furāt||1014||Sunni, executed after 5 days|
|Quṭb ad-Daula Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Ǧaʿfar ibn Falāḥ||1015-1019||Kutama Berbers , murdered in office|
|Sharaf al-Mulk Ṣāʿid ibn ʿĪsā ibn Nasṭūrus ibn Sūrus||1019||Christian forcibly converted to Islam, son of Isa ibn Nasturus , executed after 6 months|
|Shams al-Mulk Abū l-Fatḥ al-Masʿūd ibn Ṭāhir al-Wazzān||1019-1020||1 time|
|Ḫaṭīr al-Mulk Abū l-Ḥusain ʿAmmār ibn Muḥammad||1020-1021||1st time, az-Zahir enthroned|
|al-Ḥusain ibn Dawwās||1021||Kutama Berbers , executed a few days later, alleged murderer of al-Hakim|
|Ḫaṭīr al-Mulk Abū l-Ḥusain ʿAmmār ibn Muḥammad||1021-1022||Executed 2nd time after 7 months|
|Badr ad-Daula Abū l-Futūḥ Mūsā ibn al-Ḥasan||1022-1023||Executed after 9 months|
|David ben Jitzchak||1023||Jew, only 2 months until March / April|
|Shams al-Mulk Abū l-Fatḥ al-Masʿūd ibn Ṭāhir al-Wazzān||1023-1025||2 times|
|ʿAmīd ad-Daula Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Ṣāliḥ ar-Rūḏbārī||1025-1027|
|al-Jardjarai||Naǧīb ad-Daula Abū l-Qāsim ʿAlī ibn Aḥmad al-Ǧarǧarāʾī||1028-1045||died in office, enthroned al-Mustansir|
|Abū l-Manṣūr Ṣaḍaqa ibn Yūsuf al-Falāḥī||1045-1048||Jew converted to Islam, murdered|
|Abū l-Barakāt al-Ḥusain ibn ʿImād ad-Daula Muḥammad al-Ǧarǧarāʾī||1048-1050||1 time; Nephew of al-Jardjarai|
|Abū l-Faḍl Ṣāʿid ibn Masʿūd||1050|
|al-Yazuri||Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Yāzūrī||1050-1058||Sunni, deposed and later executed|
|Abū l-Faraǧ ʿAbd Alāh ibn Muḥammad al-Bābilī||1058||in April / May|
|Abū l-Faraǧ Muḥammad ibn Ǧaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusain al-Maġribī||1058-1060||1 time|
|Abū l-Faraǧ ʿAbd Alāh ibn Muḥammad al-Bābilī||1060-1061||2 times|
|Abū l-Mufaḍḍal ʿAbd Alāh ibn Yaḥyā ibn al-Mudabbir||1061||1st time, from February / March to September / October, Sunni|
|Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid ibn Mālik ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1061-1062||from September / October over the turn of the year to January 17th, died in office|
|Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid ibn Mālik ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1062||1st time, serving for 17 days; Brother of the previous one|
|Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḥusain ibn Sadīd ad-Daula Ḏī l-Kifāyatain ibn Abī l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan ibn ʿĪsā al-ʿUqailī al-Māsakī||1062||from March to August 11th|
|Abū l-Faraǧ ʿAbd Alāh ibn Muḥammad al-Bābilī||1062-1063||3rd time, over the turn of the year until January|
|Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid ibn Mālik ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1063||2nd time, a few days in January|
|Ǧalāl al-Mulk Abū Aḥmad Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1063||1st time, from January 16 to February 9, nephew of the previous one|
|Abū l-Mufaḍḍal ʿAbd Alāh ibn Yaḥyā ibn al-Mudabbir||1063||2nd time, a few weeks until May 20th, died in office|
|Abū Ǧālib ʿAbd aẓ-ẓāhir ibn al-Faḍl ibn al-Muwaffaq fī l-Dīn ibn al-ʿAǧamī||1063||1st time, a few weeks until August 25th|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1063||1st time, a few weeks until November 29th|
|Ǧalāl al-Mulk Abū Aḥmad Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1063-1064||2nd time, over the turn of the year until January 6th|
|Abū l-Makārim al-Mušarraf ibn Asʿad ibn ʿUqail||1064||1st time, from January / February to March / April, Sunni|
|Abū Ǧālib ʿAbd aẓ-ẓāhir ibn al-Faḍl ibn al-Muwaffaq fī l-Dīn ibn al-ʿAǧamī||1064||2nd time, a few weeks from April 8th to May|
|Abū l-Barakāt al-Ḥusain ibn ʿImād ad-Daula Muḥammad al-Ǧarǧarāʾī||1064||2nd time, a few weeks from June 19th to August 28th|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1064||2nd time, a few weeks until November 17th|
|Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn Abī Saʿd Ibrāhīm ibn Sahl al-Tustarī||1064||a few weeks in November / December, a Jew converted to Islam|
|Abū Shuǧa Muḥammad ibn al-Asraf ibn Abī Ġālib Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Ḫalaf||1064-1065||1 time; a few days over the turn of the year|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1065||3rd time, a week in January|
|Abū Shuǧa Muḥammad ibn al-Asraf ibn Abī Ġālib Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Ḫalaf||1065||2nd time, a few days in January|
|Sadīd ad-Daula Abū l-Qāsim Hibatallāh ibn Muḥammad ar-Raʿbānī ar Raḥbī||1065||1st time, a few days until March|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1065||4th time, a few weeks in May / June|
|Abū l-Makārim al-Mušarraf ibn Asʿad ibn ʿUqail||1065||2nd time, a few weeks until September 16, Sunni|
|Abū l-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn al-Anbārī||1065||a few days until November / December|
|Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan Sadīd ad-Daula Ḏū l-Kifāyatain al-Māsakī||1065|
|Abū Shuǧa Muḥammad ibn al-Asraf ibn Abī Ġālib Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Ḫalaf||1065-1066||3 times|
|Sadīd ad-Daula Abū l-Qāsim Hibatallāh ibn Muḥammad ar-Raʿbānī ar Raḥbī||1066||2nd time, a few days in March|
|Ǧalāl al-Mulk Abū Aḥmad Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1066||3 times; a few days in May|
|Abū l-Ḥasan Ṭāhir ibn Wazīr aṭ-Ṭarābulusī||1066|
|Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Abī Ḥāmid at-Tannīsī||1066||executed after a day|
|Abū Saʿd Manṣūr ibn Abī l-Yumn Sawīris ibn Makrawāh ibn Zunbūr||1066||Christian converted to Islam as a vizier, fled after a few days|
|Abū l-ʿAlāʾ ʿAbd al-Ġanī ibn Naṣr ibn Saʿīd aḍ-Ḍaif||1066||a few days|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1066||5th time until November 29th|
|Abū l-Qāsim ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Wahb ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Malīgī||1066-1067||1st time, until April 25th|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1067||6th time, a few days|
|Abū l-Qāsim ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Wahb ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Malīgī||1067||2nd time, a few days|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1067||7th time, a few days until September 30th|
|Ǧalāl al-Mulk Abū Aḥmad Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1067||4 times|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1067/68||8 times|
|Abū l-Qāsim ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Wahb ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Malīgī||1067/68||3rd time, acting for 5 days|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1067/68||9 times|
|Abū l-Faraǧ Muḥammad ibn Ǧaʿfar ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn al-Ḥusain al-Maġribī||1069||2 times|
|Ǧalāl al-Mulk Abū Aḥmad Aḥmad ibn ʿAbd al-Karīm ibn ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Sāʿid al-Fāriqī||1069||5th time, a few days|
|Ḫaṭīr al-Mulk Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan al-Yāzūrī||1069||a few days until he was murdered in July / August, son of al-Yazuri|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1069||10th time, a few days in August / September|
|Abū l-Qāsim ʿAbd al-Ḥakīm ibn Wahb ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān al-Malīgī||1069||4 times|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1071/72||11th time|
|Abū Ǧālib ʿAbd aẓ-ẓāhir ibn al-Faḍl ibn al-Muwaffaq fī l-Dīn ibn al-ʿAǧamī||1072/73||3 times|
|Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan ibn Muǧallī ibn Asʿad ibn Abī Kudaina||1073/74||12th time, executed|
|Badr al-Jamali||Abū n-Naǧim Badr ibn ʿAbd Allāh (al-Ǧamālī) al-Mustanṣirī||1074-1094|
|al-Afdal Shahanshah||al-Afḍal Abū l-Qāsim Šāhānšāh ibn Badr al-Mustanṣirī||1094-1121||Son of the previous one, enthroned al-Mustali and al-Amir , murdered|
|al-Maʾmūn Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Fatāk al-Baṭāʾiḥī||1121-1125||executed|
|1125–1130 no vizier.|
|Kutaifat||Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad ibn Šāhānšāh||1129-1131||Son of al-Afdal Shahanshah, murdered|
|Abū l-Fatḥ Yānis||1131-1132||Christ, enthroned al-Hafiz|
|1131–1135 no vizier.|
|Tāǧ ad-Daula Saif al-Islām Abū l-Muẓaffar Bahrām al-Armanī||1135-1137||Christian|
|al-Malik al-Afḍal Saif al-Islām Riḍwān ibn Walaḫši||1137-1139||Sunni|
|1139–1149 no vizier.|
|Ibn Masal||Naǧm ad-Dīn Abūʾl-Fatḥ Salīm ibn Muḥammad ibn Maṣāl||1149-1150||enthroned az-Zafir|
|Ibn as-Sallar||al-Malik al-ʿĀdil Saif ad-Dīn Abūʾl-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn al -Sallār||1150-1153||Sunni|
|Abbas ibn Abi l-Futuh||Rukn ad-Dīn Abū l-Faḍl ʿAbbās ibn Abī l-Futūḥ||1153-1154||Stepson of the previous one, enthroned al-Faiz|
|Tala'i ibn Ruzzik||al-Malik aṣ-Ṣāliḥ Abū l-Ġārāt Ṭalāʾiʿ ibn Ruzzīq||1154-1161||Twelve Shiite, enthroned al-Adid|
|al-Malik al-ʿĀdil an-Nāṣīr Abū Shuǧāʿ Ruzzīq ibn Ṭalāʾiʿ||1161-1162||Twelve Shiite, son of the previous one|
|Sharar||Abū Šuǧāʿ Šāwar ibn Muǧīr as-Saʿdī||1162-1163||1 time|
|al-Malik al-Manṣur Abū l-Ašbāl Ḍirġām ibn ʿAmir ibn Suwār al-Lukhamī||1163-1164|
|Sharar||Abū Šuǧāʿ Šāwar ibn Muǧīr as-Saʿdī||1164-1169||2 times|
|Schirkuh||Asad ad-Dīn Šīrkūh ibn Šāḏī ad-Dawīnī||1169|
|Saladin||al-Malik an-Nāṣīr Ṣalaḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Aiyūb ibn Shāḏī ad-Dawīnī||1169-1171||Nephew of Schirkuh|
- Jonathan M. Bloom: The Origins of Fatimid Art. In: Oleg Grabar (Ed.): Muqarnas Volume III: An Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture. EJ Brill, Leiden 1985, pp. 20-38 (online at ArchNet)
- Michael Brett: The rise of the Fatimids. The world of Mediterranean and the Middle East in the fourth century of the Hijra, tenth century CE . In: The medieval mediterranean . tape 30 . Brill, Leiden, Boston, Cologne 2001, ISBN 90-04-11741-5 .
- Herbert Eisenstein : The Wezire of Egypt under al-Mustanṣir AH 452-466. In: Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde des Morgenlandes, Vol. 77 (1987), pp. 37-50.
- Heinz Halm : The Empire of the Mahdi. The rise of the Fatimids (875–973). CH Beck, Munich, 1991. ISBN = 3-406-35497-1
- Heinz Halm: The Fatimids . In: Ulrich Haarmann, Heinz Halm (ed.): History of the Arab world . Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-47486-1 , III., Pp. 166-199 .
- Heinz Halm: The Caliphs of Cairo. The Fatimids in Egypt (973-1074) . Beck, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-406-48654-1 .
- Yaacov Lev: The Fatimid vizier Yaʿqūb ibn Killis and the Beginning of the Fatimid Administration in Egypt. In: Der Islam, Vol. 58 (1981), pp. 287-249.
- Jenny Rahel Oesterle: Caliphate and royalty. Representation of power by the Fatimids, Ottonians and early Salians at religious festivals . Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-21961-2 .
- Cf. Halm: Das Reich des Mahdi. 1991, pp. 180-194.
- Jane Hathaway: A Tale of Two Factions: Myth, Memory, and Identity in Ottoman Egypt and Yemen . SUNY Press, 2012, ISBN 9780791486108 , p. 97.
- Siegfried G. Richter : The Coptic Egypt. Treasures in the shadow of the pharaohs. With photos by Jo Bischof. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2019, ISBN 978-3-8053-5211-6 , pp. 120–121.
- cf. also cf. NJG Kaptein: Muḥammad's Birthday Festival. Early History in the Central Muslim Lands and Development in the Muslim West until the 10th / 16th Century. Leiden et al .: Brill 1993. pp. 7-30.
- See Jonathan Berkey: The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo. A Social History of Islamic Education. New Jersey 1989. p. 131.
- See Halm (1991), p. 142.
- See Halm (2003), p. 323 f.
- See Halm (2014), p. 35 f.