Mamluks ( DMG Mamluks, other spellings: Mamelukes , Mamluks , Mamluk , Mama hatches , Mamalukken ) or Ghilman were (DMG Gilman) in many Islamic dominions military slaves of Central Asian (mostly Turkish) or Eastern European origin (mostly South Russian and Caucasian Christians , from the 14th century. Century also partly non-Muslim subjects of the Ottoman Empire ). From the Abbasid CaliphsInstitutionalized as a power factor, they often used their dominant position as military leaders and kingmakers from the 9th century to establish their own empires. The two most important of these empires were the Sultanate of Delhi (1206–1526) , which at times ruled almost all of India , and the Egyptian Sultanate of the Bahri and Burji Mamluks . The latter was subjugated by the Ottomans in 1517 - after 267 years of existence - but Mamluks remained in Egypt as the local ruling elite until Napoleon's invasion in 1798 and its final elimination by Muhammad Ali Pasha (1811).
The Arabic wordمملوك / mamlūk (pl.مماليك / mamālīk ) is the passive participle of the Arabic word malaka (dt. possess ) and literally means "the possessed" or "the possessed". In a specific sense, this word denotes a white male slave who was imported for the purpose of military service.
Mamluks have been used in the Abbasid Empire especially since the 9th century. Al-Mu'tasim (833–842) in particular built a bodyguard out of slaves. The Samanids in Transoxania controlled the trade in slaves from the conquered peoples and had developed their own training system. However, they were replaced in 1005 by a slave dynasty ( Ghaznavids ).
Saladin's bodyguard also consisted of soldiers, most of whom were enslaved as Christians in their childhood and adolescence and who were prepared for their service through forced conversion to Islam and training as cavalrymen. They were mostly devoted to the ruler. They could gain freedom and then in turn acquire mamluks and bind them to themselves. Even if they formed a military elite, the Mamluks were neither aristocrats nor - as allegedly the Fatimids - did they have a special blessing due to their descent from the prophetic family.
Mamluks in Egypt
After the death of the Ayyubid sultan al-Salih in 1249 and the murder of his son Turan Shah , the Mamluk general Aybak seized power over Egypt together with the sultan's widow, Sajjar ad-Dur , whom he married . Aybak, who ruled as al-Malik al-Muizz from 1250 to 1257, founded the Egyptian Mamluk state.
The Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate
After Aybak's death, the Mamluks had to deal with the threat posed by the Mongolian Il-Chane , who conquered Baghdad in 1258 . In 1260 the Mongols conquered Syria , but were defeated by the Mamluks under Qutuz and Baibars in the battle of Ain Jalut . This made the Mamluk Empire in Egypt the only state in the Middle East that could assert itself against the Mongols.
Baibars (1260-1277) took advantage of the victory to gain power in Egypt himself. He consolidated his rule in Egypt and Syria, began to drive out the Crusaders (including the conquest of Antioch , 1268) and had Nubia subdued. In 1261 Baibars set up a shadow caliphate of the Abbasids in Cairo to legitimize the rule of the Mamluks. Despite all his successes, he did not succeed in securing the successor to his son Berke Qan (1277–1279). This was overthrown in 1279 by Qalawun , the founder of the Bahri dynasty . The Bahri sultans were commanders of those Mamluken units that had their headquarters in Cairo on the bank of the Nile (bahr = river) - in contrast to the Burji commanders, whose units were camped in the tower (burdsch) of the citadel.
Qalawun (1279-1290) and his son Chalil (1290-1293) finally conquered the Crusader states (the last bastion, Acre , fell in 1291). The castles and cities of the crusaders were destroyed. Above all, the agricultural foundations were so permanently destroyed during the fighting against the Crusaders and the Mongols that Palestine remained relatively sparsely populated until Jewish immigration.
The crackdown on the crusaders was not based on religious intolerance; Qalawun was more interested in promoting economic ties with Europe. The military successes against crusader states and Il-Chane were possible because massive Caucasian mercenaries were recruited; 100 years later they were to overthrow the Bahri dynasty and take power themselves.
An-Nasir , who was only 9 years old , was proclaimed Sultan after the murder of his brother Chalil. In his place, various emirs initially took over the government: The reign of Kitbugha (1294–1296) was marked by epidemics, famine and conflict. The Emir Ladschin (1297–1299) tried a fresh start. His successors Anwar and Baibars found themselves again in conflict with the Ilchans and with the Hospitallers, who invaded Lower Egypt; both could be pushed back, but a severe earthquake in Lower Egypt (1303) triggered a new economic crisis.
In 1309 the then 25-year-old an-Nasir managed to take over the rule himself. He made the emirs swear to only use Bahris as sultans. In the years that followed, the economy began to flourish. The tax burden was transferred from the poor and middle classes to the big landowners, corruption was fought radically, and “pharaonic” large-scale building projects created work.
After an-Nasir's death, the Bahri dynasty formally remained in office for 40 years; in fact, however, the Mamluk emirs ruled again. During this phase, the Mamluks succeeded in transforming themselves into a caste of large landowners, thereby bringing both politics and the economy under control. In terms of foreign policy, the Mamluks were able to hold out against their rivals.
In the late 14th century, the Circassians ousted the Kipchaks as the dominant element within the Mamluks. The Circassian Burji dynasty (1382–1517) was initially able to successfully defend the borders of the Mamluk empire . But Egypt got increasingly into a severe economic crisis due to the high tax burdens of the wars, bad harvests, famines and the population decline triggered by the plague epidemics. After the battle of Marj Dabiq near Aleppo and the battle of Raydaniyya near Cairo , the empire was conquered by the Ottomans in 1516/17 and incorporated into their empire.
See also: List of Egyptian Mamluk Sultans
Mamluks during the Ottoman rule
Immediate consequences of the Ottoman conquest
After the conquest of Lower Egypt, Selim I had the Mamluks systematically killed, but pronounced a general amnesty in September 1517 and integrated the Mamluks into the new regime , so that they became part of the now Ottoman-dominated military-administrative elite. However, the Ottoman rule ended some of the Mamluks' traditions: They were forced to dress and hairstyle according to Ottoman tradition. Instead of Turkish names, they had to have Arabic names. In contrast to the time of the Mamluk Sultanate, the Mamluks passed on their status and wealth to their male descendants.
The first governor posts in Syria and Egypt were given to emirs of the Mamluk Sultanate who defected to the Ottomans during the war: Janbirdi al-Ghazali in Syria and Khai'r Bey in Egypt. After unsuccessful attempts to restore the Mamluk Sultanate (1520–1521 by Janbirdi al-Ghazali, 1522 by Janim Bey al-Sayfi and Inal Bey and 1523–1524 by Ahmed Pasha al-Kha'in ), the rest of the 16th century was shaped in Egypt peaceful.
Fragmentation of power by households
The military leadership in Egypt consisted of the high officers of the regiments ( Aghas and Katkhudas or Kahyas ) and the Beys (Beylikat). In traditional Ottoman administration, Bey was the title of governor of a sanjak . The Tımar system was not used in Egypt , which is why the sub-provinces were not organized as sanjaks. Instead, the sub-provinces of Egypt as were Iqlim or as kushufiyya , and their governor as kashif referred. The kashif was responsible for ensuring security in the province and overseeing agricultural production. In Egypt, the title of the bey was not tied to a specific function. Instead of a sanjak as a fiefdom, the Bey received a regular wage and could be appointed to various positions: Beys were installed as governors of the sub-provinces, held positions such as Defterdar (highest tax officer), Amir al-Hajj (commander of the pilgrim caravan), Kaymakam (deputy or acting governor in the absence of the official governor) and from the 18th century Sheikh al-Balad of Cairo , were appointed as commander-in-chief ( sirdar ) for special tasks and were members of the high command of the provincial army. However, the title was not a prerequisite for this position.
As in the entire Ottoman Empire, local centers of power in the form of households (Arab. Bayt , trk. Kapi ) began to form within the military elite of Egypt from the second half of the 16th century , which fought for political and economic influence and thus competed with the Ottoman central administration formed: The military leadership set up entourages, which they let live in their residences, and promoted their members in order to let them rise to the elite and ultimately to achieve their installation in the economically profitable positions in the regiments or in the beylate . The householders recruited mamluks or freeborn mercenaries to form their entourages. The households could ally themselves to form factions under the leadership of one household. Contrary to older interpretations, these households were not a resurgence of the households of the Mamluk Sultanate, but an imitation of the household of the Ottoman Sultan.
The period from approx. 1640 to approx. 1730 was marked by the power struggle between the Fiqari and Qasimi household factions . The origin of these households is unknown. According to a founding myth, these are said to go back to Dhu'l-Fiqar and Qasim, two sons of a Mamluk emir named Sudun, at the time of the Ottoman conquest. In the Qasimi faction, some traditions from the time of the Mamluk Sultanate were revived by Circassian Mamlukes, without the associated households being pure Mamluk households.
The Kazdughliyya and its transformation to the Mamluk household
In the second half of the 17th century by the free-born mercenaries and Kahya the Egyptian Janissary Regiment, Mustafa Kahya the budget, Kazdughliyya founded. The name of this household goes back to its Nisbe al-Kazdağı . The Kazdughliyya was initially part of the Fiqari faction. Initially, their influence was limited to the Egyptian Janissary Regiment, but began with the leadership of Osman Çavuş (from 1716 to 1736) increasing influence on the Beylikat and began to establish itself as a household independent of the Fiqari faction. In the middle of the 18th century under Ibrahim Kahya , Egypt was in fact under the rule of the Kazdughliyya, with most of the posts of the beylate being occupied by members from this household. With the fall of the Safavids , who ruled eastern Georgia in 1722, and with the Ottoman Empire gaining supremacy over all of Georgia in 1724, a new Mamluken recruiting pool opened up. Following the example of the Ottoman governor of Baghdad, Egyptian households began to recruit on a large scale Georgian Mamlukes, as a result of which the freeborn and non-Caucasian proportion in the military elite fell sharply and households developed into pure Mamluk households, with freeborns taking the influential positions of the military Elite was denied. After the death of Ibrahim Kahya in 1754, the Kazdughliyya was also completely taken over at the management level by Caucasian, especially Georgian Mamluks from his household.
As Ibrahim Bey's successor, Ali Bey rose up in revolt in 1768 and even invaded Syria as a self-proclaimed sultan of Egypt. He was beaten by his own son-in-law Muhammad Bey Abu Dahab , but after his death various Mamluken factions fought for power. Finally, the allied Mamluken emirs Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey succeeded in 1791 in finally ousting the Mamluken faction around Ismail Bey, allied with the Ottomans, from power and again establishing a duumvirate.
The end of the rule of the Mamluk households
Egypt under French occupation
The Egyptian expedition ended the rule of the Mamluk households: At the end of June 1798, Napoleon landed at Alexandria with an army of 33,000 men and defeated the Mamluks, who were clearly inferior in military effectiveness, in the battles at Shubrakit , Imbaba and Salihiyya . As a result, most of the Mamluks, led by Murād Bey, withdrew to Upper Egypt. A small part, led by Ibrahim Bey, fled to Palestine to see the Ottoman governor Ahmed Pasha al-Jazzar . Napoleon had the tax lease areas and the property of the Mamluks confiscated and took up the pursuit of the two Mamluken leaders. General Desaix invaded Upper Egypt in early 1799. Murād Bey succeeded in constantly evading the French troops, thereby preventing this province, which is important for the food supply of Lower Egypt, from coming completely under French control. Napoleon took over the pursuit of Ibrahim Bey, but broke it off after the failure of the siege of Acre in March 1799. In August 1799 Napoleon left Egypt and transferred the supreme command to General Kléber , who was able to reach a peace agreement with Murād Bey and gave him control of Upper Egypt (under French rule). In early June 1801, British troops landed at Qusair as part of the British-Ottoman campaign against the French occupation of Egypt. The Mamluks in Upper Egypt (their leader Murād Bey had previously died) then ended their cooperation with the French. At the end of August 1801 the last French troops surrendered in Alexandria. Ibrahim Bey returned to Cairo from Syria with Yusuf Pasha's Ottoman army.
In the power struggle against Muhammad Ali
The evacuation of French troops left a power vacuum in Lower Egypt . The Mamluks emerged from the clashes considerably weakened: the costly battles in 1798 and the outbreak of plague epidemics decimated them from 11,000 before to 1,200 after the French occupation. With their invasion of Egypt, the Ottoman government intended not only to drive out the French, but also to eliminate the Mamluk households and to put Egypt under their direct administration again. In 1802 the High Porte imposed a slave embargo on Egypt, which cut off the Mamluks from their usual recruitment pool. In addition, the Mamluks split into two rival factions: Ibrahim Bey transferred the leadership to Uthmān Bey al-Bardīsī , who favored cooperation with the Ottomans. Murad Bey's successor was Muḥammad Bey al-Alfī (known as Alfī Bey ), who was supported by the British, who preferred a Mamluk rule in Egypt.
The British presence in Egypt prevented the Ottomans from taking any open action against the Mamluks. When some Mamluk emirs were captured by Hüseyin Pascha , the commander-in-chief of the Ottoman fleet , on October 22, 1801 , they were released again on intervention by the British. However, in the Peace of Amiens signed in March 1802, Great Britain accepted the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire over Egypt and withdrew its occupation army a year later. Alfī accompanied them to solicit British support for his intention to bring Egypt under his control. The Ottoman troops proved to be too undisciplined to take effective action against the Mamluks. On April 29, 1803, the Albanian contingent mutinied in Cairo against the Ottoman governor of Egypt, Hüsrev Pascha , because of the lack of pay and expelled him. Its commander, Tahir Pasha , was murdered a month later by the janissaries because he was also unable to pay their wages. His deputy Muhammad Ali took command, allied himself with Bardīsī and exercised supreme power with him in Cairo. On February 27, 1804, a revolt broke out again among the troops in Cairo because of non-payment of wages, as a result of which Bardīsī was forced to collect high taxes from the population, which led to a revolt of the city elite on March 7, 1804. Muhammad Ali took their side and drove Bardīsī and the Mamluks from Cairo. In June 1805, Muhammad Ali Pasha was confirmed as governor of Egypt by the Ottoman government after the Cairo city elite had proclaimed him to do so. Attempts by Bardīsīs to retake Cairo failed, so he withdrew to Upper Egypt. Thereupon Muhammad Ali turned against Alfī, who settled in the area around Fayyum after his return from England . The Ottoman government sent the Kapudan Pasha with his fleet with the aim of removing Muhammad Ali as governor and restoring the privileges and functions of the Mamluks - the Ottoman sultan had issued a general amnesty. Supported by the Cairo city elite, who feared the loss of the tax lease areas that they had taken over from the Mamluken, Muhammad Ali succeeded in bribing the Kapudan Pasha and again receiving official confirmation in his office from the Ottoman government. With the deaths of Bardīsī (November 12, 1806) and Alfī (January 29, 1807) the leadership of the Mamluks was further weakened. Alfī was succeeded by Shahin Bey al-Alfī . During the Alexandria expedition of 1807, Shahin Bey refused to form an alliance with British forces. In 1810, Shahin Bey's faction was defeated by Muhammad Ali. Some Mamluks fled to Upper Egypt while others, including Shahin Bey himself, surrendered and entered Muhammad Ali's service. Since the latter did not trust the defected Mamluks, he forced them to reside in Cairo and got rid of them on March 1, 1811 in the Cairo Citadel during the parade march on the occasion of the investiture of his son Tusun Pasha as commander of the expedition against the Wahhabis . Around 450 Mamluks were killed in this massacre, including 24 Beys including Shahin Bey. Legend has it that there was a survivor named Amin Bey al-Arnauti .
The final end in Sudan
In the summer of 1812, Muhammad Ali sent his son Ibrahim Pasha to Upper Egypt to conquer the area from the Mamluks. He pursued the Mamluks as far as Nubia , who then fled to the Dar Dunqula area (Northern Sudan). There they drove out the Shaigiya Arabs and built a settlement from which (New) Dunqula arose. Ibrahim Bey, who had taken over the leadership of the Mamluks, died there in 1816. In 1820, Muhammad Ali sent his son Ismail Pasha to conquer Sudan. The remaining 300 or so Mamluks fled from the Egyptian troops to Shendi , but were turned away by the ruler and camped outside the village. When Ismail Pasha's troops reached Shendi, some Mamluks continued their flight to Arabia or via Kordofan to Darfur , Wadai or into the rule of Tripoli . Others capitulated and were then sent to Cairo and given amnesty by Muhammad Ali . Many of them became officers in the newly formed Egyptian army, the Nizam al-Jadid, founded by Muhammad Ali in the early 1820s . The descendants of these Mamluks were the poet, politician and officer Mahmud Sami al-Barudi Pascha and the officer and finance minister Mahmud Nami Bey .
The end of the Mamluk imports
After the slavery embargo of the Ottoman Empire on Egypt was lifted, the import of Mamluks continued. These came from Georgia, Circassia and, during the Greek Revolution, from Greece due to Egyptian participation. The buyers included members of the Egyptian elite, although they were not trained there for military purposes. The main buyers were the ruling household of Muhammad Ali and his successors Ibrahim and Abbas . There they were trained to be loyal followers and in adulthood as servants at the court, but mostly as senior officers, thus giving them access to the ruling elite of Egypt (trk. Zevat , arab. Dawat ). Occasionally they took on high positions in administration (such as Aḥmad Pasha Abū Widān and Muhammad Ratib Pascha ). Other notable Mamluks from the first half of the 19th century were Latif Agha , who, encouraged by the Ottoman government, tried to overthrow Muhammad Ali in his absence in 1813, and Muhammad Agha (known as Türkçe Bilmez ), who led a revolt of Egyptian soldiers in Arabia in 1832 .
Due to the Russian expansion into the Caucasus , access to white slaves became more and more difficult, so that the import of Mamluks declined sharply from the middle of the 19th century and concentrated primarily on the import of female white slaves for the harem . The rulers of Egypt following Abbas did not use Mamluks to recruit their entourage. The then insignificant trade and possession of white slaves were forbidden by the Anglo-Egyptian Convention in 1895. The descendants of the Mamluks were absorbed by the Egyptian population.
Mamluks in India
The Ghaznavids were a Mamluk dynasty in Khorasan , Transoxania and the Five Rivers land . The dynasty was founded by the Samanid military slave Alp-Tigin , who rebelled against the Samanids in 962, captured Ghazna and made it his capital.
The dynasty founded by the Turkish military slaves of the Ghurids (successors of the Ghaznavids), which established the Sultanate of Delhi over northern India in 1206 (until 1526), is also known as the Mamluk or slave dynasty .
See also: List of Sultans of Delhi
Mamluks in France
Napoleonic France had its own Mamluks. In his memories of the war, Colonel Descaves reports on her deployment under Napoleon on his Egypt campaign. In his instructions to General Jean-Baptiste Kléber , Napoleon mentions the acquisition of Mamluks from Syrian hands. He himself was accompanied by a Mamluk bodyguard , Roustam Raza , for 15 years .
On September 14, 1799, Kléber set up a mounted company of captured Turkish Mamluks and Janissaries . In July 1800, after Kléber's murder , this was divided into three units of 100 men on the orders of the new commander in chief of the expedition, General Jacques-François Menou . The new companies were given the designation "Mamluken der Republik". In 1801 General Jean Rapp took command of a squadron Mamluken in their garrison in Marseilles, which had now been shipped to France ; the following year the strength of this force was reduced from 250 to 150. A list of effects from April 1802 finally shows a strength of three officers and 155 ranks of the crew. According to the decree of December 25, 1803, this equestrian company was attached to the hunters on horseback of the Imperial Guard .
After their probation in the Battle of Austerlitz in 1805, the Mamluks were granted their own standard and a trumpeter. In April 1806, 160 Mamluks served, including 13 officers. The Mamluks took part in missions such as the suppression of the Madrid uprising on May 2, 1808 and also the Belgian campaign in 1815, most recently as a squadron of two companies, "old" and "young" guards. With the restoration, these units were integrated into the Royal Hunters Corps and the 7th Hunters on Horseback.
Mamluks in Iraq
At the beginning of the 18th century, the Georgian pasha of Baghdad, Hasan (1704–1723), received from Sultan Ahmed III. permission to build up a Mamluks own armed forces. The background was the instability of the economically backward region, which was repeatedly plagued by military clashes with local tribes and the Safavids in neighboring Persia, which also disrupted the flow of taxpayers' money to the Ottoman central authority. Under Hasan and his son and successor Ahmed (1723–1747), the province was pacified with the help of the Mamluks. At the same time, they increasingly assumed important positions in the military and administration.
After Ahmed's death, the appointment of a pasha by the grace of the sultan failed due to the resistance of the self-confident "Georgian Guard", which now numbered around 2,000. Ahmed's son-in-law Suleyman Abu Layla drove the sultan's governor from Baghdad and became the first Mamluk pasha. His rule was eventually recognized by the Ottoman government. For 84 years, the Mamluks held themselves as a militarily and economically stabilizing local rule in Iraq. The rule of the Mamluk pashas was in tension with the central power, against which greater autonomy was desired and which intervened several times against the Baghdad pashas, but without ending the rule of the Mamluk, although they were never able to successfully establish a succession of dynastic rulers. The fragmentation of the Mamluk into influential, competing groups posed a constant internal threat to Mamluk rule.
In 1776 the Persian Karim Khan conquered Basra and appointed his own brother Sadiq Chan as governor. Taking advantage of this crisis, the Sublime Porte placed a non-Mamluk on the Baghdad throne as the successor to the unfortunate Umar (1764–1776). When Karim Chan died in 1779 and Sadiq had evacuated Basra, the Mamluk general Suleyman, who had been defeated in the Persian conquest, returned from exile in Shiraz and assumed governorship in Baghdad, Basra and Shahrazor . As Suleyman the Great , he ruled from 1780 to 1802. At first he skillfully strengthened his own group within the Mamluks, limited the influence of the Janissaries and strengthened trade with the European powers (permanent British representation in Baghdad in 1798). Towards the end of his reign, however, he suffered severe military defeats (1801 conquest of Kerbela by the Wahhabis ), he was defeated in a power struggle in 1802 by Ali Pasha, who was able to partially push back the Wahhabis but was murdered in 1807.
In this crisis situation, the new Sultan Mahmud II attempted to drive the Mamluks from rule in Iraq: Ottoman troops killed Ali's nephew and successor in office, Süleyman "the little one" (1807-1810), but were able to gain power the province not take over. From the struggle for the succession, in which a son of Suleyman the Great (Said, 1813-1816) temporarily ruled Iraq, Daud, a Georgian, emerged victorious who captured Baghdad and achieved recognition by the Ottoman central authority.
Daud Pasha was supposed to be the last Mamluk ruler. Continuing the modernization policy of Suleyman the Great, he continued to find himself in recurring conflicts with the various forces in the troubled region, i.e. the Arab tribes, the clergy, the Kurds and the Persians (1818 conquest of Sulaimaniyyas ). In 1830, the final decision was made in Istanbul to break the troublesome Mamluk rule in Iraq and to return the province to the direct rule of the Sultan. After an envoy with Daud's certificate of discharge was executed in Baghdad, an Ottoman army from Aleppo under Ali Rida Pasha moved to Baghdad. The defenders, weakened by floods and epidemics, soon surrendered. Daud was spared and spent the rest of his life as a religious overseer in Medina , where he died in 1851. Iraq, on the other hand, has been firmly under the control of Istanbul since the sultan's appointment of a governor in 1831.
Mamluks in Tunisia
Mamluken in the quote
The word Mamelu (c) k became known through Friedrich Schiller's line from the ballad Der Kampf mit dem Drachen : "Mameluck also shows courage, / obedience is a Christian's jewelery."
Architecture of the Egyptian Mamluk
The architecture of the Mamluks was based on that of their predecessors, the Ayyubids . The Syrian influences predominated in the construction activity. But other components, such as Iraqi and Anatolian strategies, also found access. Likewise, Maghrebian and Romanesque-Gothic art suggestions. Overall, the Mamluk architecture is considered hypothermic.
Significant legacies of the Bahri era are seen in the mosque construction of the Sultan Rukn ad-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari , who had a mosque built in Cairo in 1266-69, which formulated a basilical tripartite division of the main sofa . Other noteworthy buildings are the complex of the Sultan al-Mansur Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi from the years 1284–85, the Altinbugha-al-Maridani Mosque from 1340 and the Arghun-Ismaili Mosque from 1347. The special features of the large building complex of Sultan Qalawuns are that a hospital has been added to a mausoleum and a madrasa . The prayer hall tended to be the focus of mosque construction everywhere.
During the rule of the Circassian Burji dynasty, the tendencies of the Bahritic building examples continued. However, the construction of mosques with (large) courtyards was increasingly pushed back in favor of the madrasa mosque type. In 1475, in Cairo's so-called “ city of the dead ”, the tomb mosque of Sultan al-Ashraf Saif ad-Din Qayit-Bay was built with a four-iwan enclosure, which is a typical example.
Dome of the burial mosque of Sultan Qaitbays in the Cairo City of the Dead (1472–74)
Tomb of Sultan az-Zahir Qansuh in the Cairo City of the Dead (1499)
Tomb complex of the Emir Qurqumas in the Cairo City of the Dead (1506-07)
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- Jane Hathaway: The politics of households in Ottoman Egypt - The rise of the Qazdağlis . Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997, pp. 60-65.
- Jane Hathaway: The politics of households in Ottoman Egypt - The rise of the Qazdağlis . Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997, pp. 74-79.
- Jane Hathaway: The politics of households in Ottoman Egypt - The rise of the Qazdağlis . Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997, pp. 95-101.
- Jane Hathaway: The politics of households in Ottoman Egypt - The rise of the Qazdağlis . Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997, pp. 101-102.
- Darrell Dykstra: The French occupation of Egypt, 1798-1801 . In: The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 2: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the end of the twentieth century . Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 113-138.
- Khaled Fahmy: The era of Muhammad ʿAli Pasha, 1805-1848 . Pp. 139-141. In: The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 2: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the end of the twentieth century . Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 139-179.
- Khaled Fahmy: The era of Muhammad ʿAli Pasha, 1805-1848 . Pp. 141-147. In: The Cambridge History of Egypt, Volume 2: Modern Egypt, from 1517 to the end of the twentieth century . Cambridge University Press, 1998. pp. 139-179.
- Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid Marsot: Egypt in the reign of Muhammad Ali (= Cambridge Middle East Library, Book 4). Cambridge University Press, 1984. pp. 36-74.
- PM Holt: A modern history of the Sudan . London 1961. pp. 35-36.
- Richard Hill: Egypt in the Sudan 1820-1881 . London 1959. pp. 7-8.
- Richard Hill: Egypt in the Sudan 1820-1881 . London 1959. p. 9.
- Arthur E. Robinson: The Mamelukes in the Sudan . Pp. 93-94. In: Sudan Notes and Records , Volume V, 1922, No. 2.
- Felix Konrad: The court of the Khedives of Egypt . Würzburg 2008. pp. 59-61.
- Felix Konrad: The court of the Khedives of Egypt . Würzburg 2008. pp. 66-68.
- Gabriel Baer : Slavery in Nineteenth Century Egypt . In: The Journal of African History, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 417-441 (1967). P. 418.
- Gabriel Baer : Slavery in Nineteenth Century Egypt . In: The Journal of African History, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 417-441 (1967). Pp. 423-424.
- Felix Konrad: The court of the Khedives of Egypt . Würzburg 2008. pp. 66-68.
- Gabriel Baer : Slavery in Nineteenth Century Egypt . In: The Journal of African History, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 417-441 (1967). P. 434.
- Umberto Scerrato: Islam - Monuments of Great Cultures , pp. 89-90 (see bibliography // applies to the entire section)