Mısır Hidiviyet-i (Turkish)
|Official language||Ottoman Turkish , Arabic and English|
|Form of government||monarchy|
|Head of state||
Ismail Pasha (1867–1879)
Abbas II (1892–1914)
|Head of government||Prime Minister
The Prime Minister
The Khedivat or Chedivat Egypt ( Ottoman خديويه مصر Hidiviyet-i Mısır , modern Turkish Mısır Hidivliği , Arabic خديوية مصر[ xedeˈwejjet ˈmɑsˤɾ ]) was founded as a sub-state of the Ottoman Empire in 1867 and existed in this form until the beginning of the First World War .
Egypt was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1517 . Under Muhammad Ali Pasha , who became governor of Egypt from 1805, the country achieved relative independence. He and his successors were able to achieve a certain degree of independence under Ottoman rule. The members of the dynasty of Muhammad Ali had been using the title of a khedive since 1867. The title of a khedive instead of a wali was intended to give the Ottoman Empire nominal sovereignty over the de facto independent and increasingly under the influence of the great European powers (especially Great Britain ) Egypt to be expressed.
After the death of his uncle Muhammad Said on January 18, 1863, Ismail Pasha was proclaimed Wali of Egypt. In 1867, after lengthy negotiations and against the doubling of the tribute to the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Abdülaziz gave him the hereditary title of Khedive . The state was autonomous, but owed tribute to the Ottoman central government in Constantinople . In 1869 Ismail opened the Suez Canal . In 1875 Egypt was effectively bankrupt. At the instigation of the European powers, Ismail was forced to abdicate on June 26, 1879 by the Turkish sultan because of wastefulness. His office was taken over by his son Tawfiq (also spelled "Tewfik"), who was more compliant to the wishes of the powers that be.
The nationalist Urabi movement developed in 1881 against the international financial control of the country that had already been imposed on Ismail . This turned against the dominant European influence and the autocratic government of the Khedives. Tawfiq turned to Great Britain , which occupied Egypt in the course of the Anglo-Egyptian War in 1882 and crushed the movement. The country remained occupied even after the movement was put down. The British rule in Egypt was the Consul General responsible, who was an adviser to the Khedive, the actual ruler of the country. Egypt was in fact a protectorate of the United Kingdom . In 1885, rule over Sudan was lost due to the Mahdi uprising . The so-called Caliphate of Omdurman existed for 15 years and was destroyed in 1898 by an Anglo-Egyptian force under the sirdar of the Egyptian army, Horatio Herbert Kitchener , in the Battle of Omdurman . After the reconquest of Sudan, a British-Egyptian condominium was built in 1899 .
From 1898, English was the only administrative language in the country. After the Ottoman Empire entered the First World War on November 1, 1914 and the subsequent proclamation of the British Protectorate over Egypt , Abbas Hilmi II , who had ruled since 1892, was deposed and the title of his successor was changed to " Sultan " to by the title to clarify the separation of Egypt from the Ottoman Empire. The khedivat went up in the Sultanate of Egypt . From 1922, after Egypt's independence was declared , the rulers bore the title of “ King ” (Arabic Malik ).
Khedives of Egypt
- Otto Freiherr von Dungern: The constitutional law of Egypt . Leykam, Graz 1911.
- Rainer Büren: The Arab Socialist Union. Unity party and constitutional system of the United Arab Republic taking into account the constitutional history of 1840–1968 . Leske, Opladen 1970.
- Ferdinand von Lesseps, Wilhelm Treue (introduction): Origin of the Suez Canal . Reprint of the edition, Berlin 1888, ISBN 3-18-400642-5
- MW Daly: Empire on the Nile: The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, 1898-1934 . Cambridge 1986. ISBN 0-521-30878-X (Hardback), ISBN 0-521-89437-9 (Paperback)
- Clive Holes: Modern Arabic. Structures, Functions, and Varieties. Georgetown University Press, Washington DC 2004, ISBN 978-1-58901-022-2 , p. 44 ( limited preview in Google Book Search).
- Official text of: "British Proclamation on the Establishment of the Protectorate over Egypt". In: The London Gazette , December 18, 1914.