The Ayyubids ( Kurdish دەوڵەتی ئەییووبی Dewleta Eyûbiyan ; Arabic بنو أيوب, DMG Banū Ayyūb orالأيوبيون Aiyūbiyūn ) were a Sunni-Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin thatruled Egypt from 1171 to 1252. The dynasty is named after Nadschmuddin Ayyub , Saladin's father.
With the fall of the Fatimids in Egypt , increased attacks by the Crusaders of the Kingdom of Jerusalem began . Against this, the Fatimids called the Zengids , who ruled Syria , for help . They sent troops to Egypt under Shirkuh , who was appointed vizier . After his death, his nephew Saladin became a vizier in 1169. In 1171 he eliminated the dynasty of the Ismaili Fatimid caliphs and established the Kurdish dynasty of the Ayyubids.
Under Saladin (1171–1193) Egypt was reorganized and the economy further strengthened by promoting agriculture and trade in order to be able to drive the Crusaders out of Jerusalem and Palestine . By 1181, rule over Syria, Upper Mesopotamia , Yemen and Nubia was extended, so that Saladin ruled most of the Arab core countries. After consolidating his rule, he decisively defeated the Crusaders on July 4, 1187 in the Battle of Hattin near Tiberias and conquered Jerusalem. In the Third Crusade that followed, the crusaders were able to recapture some coastal cities (including Acre ), but initially they did not succeed in recapturing Jerusalem.
Since Saladin had divided the empire before his death, there were initially power struggles among his successors, in which al-Adil I (1200-1218) fought against al-Mansur (1198-1200), al-Aziz's underage son ( 1193–1198), was able to prevail. Although al-Adil also divided the empire before his death, his successor al-Kamil (1218-1238) was able to fend off the Damiette (1217-1221) crusade in Egypt and the crusade of Frederick II (1228-1229) through negotiations end to the emperor , in which the unfortified Jerusalem was ceded. Shortly before his death, al-Kamil was also able to prevail in Syria.
After the outbreak of dynastic power struggles, as-Salih (1240–1249) succeeded in reuniting large parts of the Ayyubid Empire, even if Northern Syria, Upper Mesopotamia and Yemen were finally lost. He was also able to finally conquer Jerusalem from the Crusaders in 1244.
Immediately after fending off the Sixth Crusade (1249-1254), which had targeted Egypt, the last Ayyubide Turan Shah fell victim to a conspiracy of the Turkish Mamluks in the army when he wanted to limit their influence. Until 1257 his stepmother Shajar ad-Dur led the government as regent, where she married the Mamlukenführer Aybak . This rose as al-Malik al-Muizz to sultan in 1252, ended the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt and founded the Mamluk Empire (1252-1517).
Side lines of the Ayyubids ruled in Damascus and Aleppo until 1260, in Homs until 1262 and in Hama until 1341. There were also Ayyubid rulers in Hasankeyf (Hisn Keyfa) who stayed there until the 15th century and only from the Aq Qoyunlu were eliminated.
In contrast to the Fatimids and the following Mamluks, the Ayyubids did not rule a central state. Rather, the ruler's sons and other side branches of the dynasty were involved in the administration of the empire. However, after the death of a ruler, this repeatedly led to battles for the unity of the entire empire.
The architecture of the Ayyubid period is shaped by old regional artistic traditions, mixed with stylistic elements of Iranian origin and the extensive experiences borrowed from the Crusader architecture.
The last-mentioned component is impressively reflected in the architecture serving military purposes, such as the most outstanding work, the citadel of Aleppo . The special architecture is expressed by a large, bare and sharp-edged structure - set back into the slope - through which a mighty archway provides access to the citadel. This monument is connected to the main entrance via a bridge, a porch with stairs.
The establishment of numerous religious foundations, such as madrasas , distributed in cities such as Aleppo, Damascus and the Egyptian Cairo , which was driven by the orthodox religious attitude of Saladin, is also significant . Examples are the al-Zahiriyya -, the Firdaus - and the al-Salihiyya -Medeses.
Ayyubid architecture also concentrated on exterior designs, such as gates (portals) and exterior decorations (niches as structuring elements, stalactite motifs ( muqarnas ) and polychrome stone compositions).
Rulers in Egypt
- 1171–1193: an-Nasir Yusuf (Saladin)
- 1193–1198: al-Aziz Uthman , his son
- 1198–1200: al-Mansur Muhammad I , his son
- 1200–1218: al-Adil Abu Bakr I (Saphadin) , brother of Saladin
- 1218–1238: al-Kamil Muhammad I , his son
- 1238–1240: al-Adil Abu Bakr II , his son
- 1240–1249: as-Salih Ayyub , his half-brother
- 1249–1250: al-Mu'azzam Turan Shah , his son
- 1250–1254: al-Ashraf Musa , great-grandson of al-Kamil Muhammad I.
Ruler in Damascus
- 1174–1193: an-Nasir Yusuf (Saladin)
- 1193–1196: al-Afdal Nur , his son
- 1196–1218: al-Adil Abu Bakr I (Saphadin) , brother of Saladin
- 1218–1227: al-Mu'azzam Isa , his son
- 1227–1229: an-Nasir Dawud , his son
- 1229–1237: al-Ashraf Musa , his uncle
- 1237–1237: as-Salih Ismail , his brother
- 1237–1238: al-Kamil Muhammad I , his brother
- 1238–1238: al-Adil Abu Bakr II , his son
- 1238–1239: as-Salih Ayyub , his half-brother
- 1239–1245: as-Salih Ismail (2nd time)
- 1245–1249: as-Salih Ayyub (2nd time)
- 1249–1250: al-Mu'azzam Turan Shah , his son
- 1250–1260: an-Nasir Yusuf , great-grandson of Saladin
Emirs in Aleppo
- 1183–1186: al-Adil Abu Bakr I (Saphadin) , brother of Saladin
- 1186–1216: as-Zahir Ghazi , son of Saladin
- 1216–1236: al-Aziz Muhammad , his son
- 1236–1260: an-Nasir Yusuf , his son
Emirs in hama
- 1178–1191: al-Muzaffar Umar I , nephew of Saladin
- 1191–1221: al-Mansur Muhammad I , his son
- 1221–1229: an-Nasir Kilidsch Arslan , his son
- 1229–1244: al-Muzaffar Mahmud , his brother
- 1244–1284: al-Mansur Muhammad II , his son
- 1284–1299: al-Muzaffar Umar II , his son
- 1310–1331: al-Mu'ayyad Abu l-Fida (chronicler), grandson of al-Muzaffar Mahmud
- 1331-1334: al-Afdal Muhammad III. , his son
Emirs in Homs
- 1164–1169: Asad ad-Din Schirkuh I , uncle of Saladin
- 1178–1186: Nasir ad-Din Muhammad , his son
- 1186–1240: al-Mujahid Shirkuh II , his son
- 1240–1246: al-Mansur Ibrahim , his son
- 1246–1248: al-Ashraf Musa , his son
- 1248–1260: an-Nasir Yusuf , great-grandson of Saladin
- 1248–1263: al-Ashraf Musa (2nd time)
Emirs in Kerak
- 1188–1218: al-Adil Abu Bakr I (Saphadin) , brother of Saladin
- 1218–1227: al-Mu'azzam Isa , his son
- 1227–1248: an-Nasir Dawud , his son
- 1250–1263: al-Mughith Umar , son of al-Adil Abu Bakr II.
For emirs in Yemen see: Ayyubids (Yemen)
- 1173–1179: al-Mu'azzam Turan Shah , brother of Saladin
- 1179–1197: al-Aziz Tughtegin , his brother
- 1197–1202: al-Mu'izz Ismail , his son
- 1202–1214: an-Nasir Ayyub , his brother
- 1214–1215: al-Muzaffar Sulaiman , great-great-nephew of Saladin
- 1215–1229: al-Mas'ud Yusuf , son of al-Kamil Muhammad I.
For emirs in al-Jazira see: Ortoqiden
- 1185–1193: an-Nasir Yusuf (Saladin)
- 1193–1200: al-Adil Abu Bakr I (Saphadin) , his brother
- 1200–1210: al-Wahad Ayyub , his son
- 1210–1220: al-Ashraf Musa , his brother
- 1220–1247: al-Muzaffar Ghazi , his brother
- 1247–1260: al-Kamil Muhammad , his son
Emirs in Hisn Keyfa
Family tree (excerpt)
Persons officiating as Sultans of Egypt are highlighted in bold .
The Ayyubids living in Turkey today bear the family name Eyüboğlu (Ayyub's son).
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