Izz ad-Din Aibak

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Izz ad-Din Aybak al-Turkomani (throne name: al-Mu'izz Izz ad-Din Aybak  /المعز عز الدين أيبك / al-Muʿizz ʿIzz ad-Dīn Aibak ; † 1257 ) was a Mameluk of Turkish origin who rose to be Sultan of Egypt in 1250 . His throne name was al-Malik al-Mu'izz .

After the assassination of the Ayyubid sultans Turan Shah (1249–1250) by Faris ad-Din Aktay , the Mamluks were initially unclear about the assumption of power. Therefore, the rule was initially offered to Shajar ad major , the favorite wife of as-Salih Ayyub (1240-1249).

Since this was not recognized by the Ayyubids in Syria, the Mamlukenemire decided to marry her to their respected leader Aybak. Aybak now became sultan and took the throne name al-Malik al-Muizz. In order to strengthen the legitimacy of his rule, the six-year-old Ayyubid prince al-Ashraf Musa was appointed fellow sultan and Egypt was placed under the “protection” of the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad. However, Shajar al-Dur continued to maintain a high level of influence by maintaining control of the state finances.

However, these measures could not prevent the apostasy from Syria under the Ayyubid an-Nasir Yusuf of Aleppo . After the occupation of Damascus , he advanced into Egypt , but was decisively defeated by the Mamluks under General Aktay in the battle of al-Kura on the Nile (February 2, 1251). After securing his rule, the fellow sultan al-Ashraf Musa was deposed in 1254, thus finally eliminating the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt.

However, tensions soon arose with other Mamluk emirs who were also striving for power. For example, General Aktay was murdered in 1254 after suppressing a major uprising in the Nile Delta. In the following clashes, Aktay's followers fled. a. Baibars , to Jordan to the prince of Kerak . After securing his power in Egypt, Aybak tried to extend his rule to Syria. But when he wanted to enter into an alliance with the ruler of Mosul and wanted to seal this by marriage, he was murdered in 1257 by Shajar ad-Dur, who feared for her political influence.

Aybak's son Nur ad-Din Ali was initially elected to succeed Aybak . Since he was only 15 years old, Qutuz exercised the reign, but soon rose to be Sultan of Egypt (1259-1260) himself.

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predecessor Office successor
Shadjar ad-Durr Sultan of Egypt
(1250–1254 with al-Ashraf Musa )
al-Mansur Ali I.