Calendar overview 1257
|In the double election of 1256/57 are Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso X of Castile to the German king selected.|
|1257 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||705/706 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1800/01 (southern Buddhism); 1799/1800 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||619/620 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||654/655 (turn of the year 18/19 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5017/18 (9/10 September)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1567/68 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1568/69 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1313/14 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- January 13th : With the votes of the Archbishops of Cologne and Mainz as well as the Count Palatine of the Rhine , Richard of Cornwall is elected Roman-German King at the gates of Frankfurt am Main . Ottokar II Přemysl , King of Bohemia , agrees with this decision.
- April 1 : The electors of Trier , Saxony and Brandenburg elect Alfonso X of Castile and León as German king in Frankfurt . Ottokar von Böhmen, who received election gifts from both sides, also supports this decision. With the double election of 1256/57 , a further highlight of the German interregnum , the seven electors had the sole right to elect a king .
- May 17th : Richard of Cornwall is crowned in Aachen and receives the scepter and the imperial crown sitting on the throne of Charlemagne. Nevertheless, like his opponent Alfons, he was just as unable to assert himself decisively in the Reich in the next few years.
- With the money that Gerhard I von Dhaun , the Archbishop of Mainz , received for his election from Richard of Cornwall, he can buy himself free from the captivity of Duke Albrecht I of Braunschweig-Lüneburg .
- The Rheinische Städtebund , founded in 1254 , dissolves again.
- June 2 : In the Battle of Cymerau , the Welsh princes Maredudd ap Rhys and Maredudd ap Owain inflict one of their most devastating defeats on the English army. As a result of the victory, the Welsh are able to capture some English castles such as Llansteffan , Laugharne and Narberth Castle , whose crews fell in battle while Kidwelly Castle resists the siege. Rhys Fychan undertakes further raids as far as Gower , where he threatens the rule of William de Braose, 1st Baron Braose . The English King Henry III. leads an English army to North Wales in August, but apart from the relief of Dyserth and Deganwy Castle he achieves little and has to retreat to Chester after four weeks. Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, on the other hand, can completely drive the Prince Gruffydd ap Gwenwynwyn, who is allied with the English, out of Powys Wenwynwyn and conquer his empire. The Prince of Powys Fadog , Gruffydd Maelor ap Madog , also submits to Gruffydd.
- Henry III. of England calls the barons to the "great council" due to growing dissatisfaction.
Other events in Europe
- July 26th : Pope Alexander IV repeats the Rieti Bull , with which his predecessor Gregory IX. in 1234 the Teutonic Order confirmed the rule over the Kulmer Land east of the lower Vistula, as well as over all other lands conquered by the Teutonic Order in Prussia ( "for perpetual and free possession" ).
- Konstantin Tich rises to become the most influential boyar and opponent of Tsar Mizo Assen in the Bulgarian Empire , which sunk into civil war last year. After Mizo fled to Constantinople, Constantine is elected as the new tsar by the council of boyars.
- King Afonso III. of Portugal conquered Monforte from the Moors and gave the place its first city rights.
Levant / North Africa
- June 23 : In the war of Saint-Sabas , the numerically inferior Republic of Venice under Admiral Lorenzo Tiepolo defeats a Genoese fleet in a sea battle off Acre .
- When the Egyptian sultan Izz ad-Din Aibak entered into an alliance with the ruler of Mosul and wanted to seal this with a marriage, he was murdered by his wife, Shadjar ad-Durr . After Aibak's son Ali I was made the new sultan, she was murdered by the Mamluks .
- After his return from Karakoram to the capital Sarai , Sartaq Khan , Khan of the Golden and Blue Horde, dies of a "stomach ailment" and is believed to be murdered. His successor, ten-year-old Ulaqchi Khan , was also removed or killed after a short time. Berke then becomes Khan of the two hordes.
- Kai Kobad II , Sultan of the Rum Seljuks is believed to be murdered by his emirs. The Mongolian Great Khan Möngke then installed his brothers Kai Kaus II. And Kılıç Arslan IV. As partial rulers of the sultanate, which was dependent on the Mongol Ilkhan under Hülegü , in order to pacify its border with Anatolia.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- Krakow receives Polish King Boleslaw V the Magdeburg rights . Then the main market in its current form is created.
- First documented mention of Breitenbrunn am Neusiedler See , Diemerswil , Diemtigen , Gundelsheim , Gurtnellen , Havighorst , Möhra , Rain , Scheppach and Walterswil .
science and technology
- Court chaplain Robert von Sorbon founds the school of theology in Paris ( called Sorbonne in the 14th century ; becomes the seat of the theological faculty of Paris University in 1554 ) (see Stein , cultural timetable ).
- around 1257: Ulrich von Liechtenstein writes the women's book . It is originally written in Middle High German in rhyming verses and can be classified literarily as Minnerede . The work describes a dialogue between a noble lady and a knight, which the narrator reproduces.
- The cathedral chapter deposed Philipp von Spanheim as Archbishop of Salzburg and installed Ulrich von Seckau as his successor. However, this can not prevail against the Spanheimer, who also defends himself with military means against his deposition and thereby by his brother Ulrich III. is supported by Carinthia .
- Berthold von Leiningen becomes Bishop of Bamberg .
- Guido Fulcodi becomes Bishop of Le Puy .
Spiritual orders and founding monasteries
- Bonaventure becomes the seventh general minister of the Franciscans . His predecessor John of Parma had been forced to resign by Pope Alexander IV as part of the poverty dispute .
- The Nordshausen monastery near Kassel is first mentioned in a document.
- around 1257: The Cistercian monastery in Zagreb is founded.
- March: After the murder of Rukn al-Din Khurschah in the Mongol encampment , his son Shams ad-Din Muhammad becomes the 28th Imam of the Shia of the Nizari-Ismailis .
- Between May and October, the Samalas volcano erupts in the Rinjani volcanic complex on the Indonesian island of Lombok , probably the most powerful eruption in the last 7,000 years. The kingdom of Lombok and the capital Pamatan are completely devastated and buried under 35 meter high volcanic deposits. It is very likely that the volcanic eruption is also the trigger for continuous rain and poor harvests in Europe 1258 .
Date of birth saved
- March 24th : Jolanda I. , mistress of Fougères, mistress of Lusignan, Couhé and Peyrat, and countess of La Marche († 1314 )
- October 14 : Przemysł II , Senior Duke and King of Poland, Duke of Pomerania († 1296 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Agnes of Brandenburg , Queen of Denmark († 1304 )
- Friedrich the Freidige , Margrave of Meissen and Landgrave of Thuringia († 1323 )
- Heinrich von Frauenberg , German baron and minstrel († 1314 )
- Maol Íosa, 6th Earl of Strathearn , Scottish nobleman († 1313 )
- Muhammad III. , Emir of Granada († 1314 )
- Rinchen Gyeltshen , Tibetan monk and imperial teacher in China († 1305 )
Born around 1257
- William Martin, 1st Baron Martin , English nobleman († 1324 )
- Philip III , Lord of Falkenstein, Lord of Munzenberg and Lich († 1322 )
- Seyfried Schweppermann , field captain of the imperial city of Nuremberg († 1337 )
First half of the year
- Around January 16 : John of Lexinton, English Knight and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal
- around 9 March : Rukn ad-Din Churschah , Imam of the Nizarites (* 1230 )
- after March 12th: Johann von Gützkow , German nobleman
- April 12th or May 2nd / 3rd : Shadjar ad-Durr , Sultana in Egypt
- May 1st : Mafalda of Portugal , Queen of Castile and nun, Catholic blessed (* around 1184 or 1200 )
- May 5th : Håkon Håkonsson unge , Norwegian King (* 1232 )
- May 19 : Walter of Suffield , Bishop of Norwich
- May 21 : Roger Weseham , Bishop of Coventry and Lichfield
- June 2 : Stephen Bauzan , English knight and military man (* after 1210)
- June 4 : Przemysł I. , Duke of Greater Poland (* 1220 / 1221 )
Second half of the year
- around July 24th : Heinrich III. von Barmstede , Holstein nobleman
- August 15 : Hyacinth of Poland , Polish nobleman and clergyman, founder of the Dominican order in Poland, Catholic saint (* 1183 )
- August: Robert de Quincy , English nobleman
- September 17th : Heinrich I. von Bilversheim , Bishop of Bamberg and administrator of Chiemsee
- September 25th : Ulrich von Haus , Bishop of Lavant
- about September 26 : Richard Blund , Bishop of Exeter
- October 12 : Mathilde von Courtenay , Countess of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre (* around 1188 )
- November 8 or 29 : Richard von Daun , Bishop of Worms
- December 24th : Johann von Avesnes , Count of Hainaut (* 1218 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Adolf II von Dassel , German nobleman (* 1210 )
- Guillaume de Beaumont , Lord of Beaumont-du-Gatinais, Crusader and Marshal of France
- Heinrich I von Rusteberg , Bishop of Hildesheim (* around 1200 )
- Heinrich II., The giver , Count von Ortenburg
- Henry III. , Augustinian canon and provost of the Berchtesgaden monastery
- Izz ad-Din Aibak , Mameluk of Turkish descent and Sultan of Egypt
- Kai Kobad II. , Sultan the rum Seldschuken (* 1238 / 39 )
- Maelgwn Fychan , Welsh nobleman
- Sartaq Khan , ruler of the Golden / Blue Horde
- Ulaqchi Khan , ruler of the Golden / Blue Horde (* 1247 )
- Waldemar III. , Duke of Schleswig (* 1238 )