Calendar overview 1238
|Mongols under Batu Khan conquer the capital Vladimir in the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal .||
Mindaugas I becomes
king of Lithuania .
|1238 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||686/687 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1781/82 (southern Buddhism); 1780/81 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||600/601 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||635/636 (turn of the year 13/14 August)|
|Jewish calendar||4998/99 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1548/49 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1549/50 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1294/95 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Eastern and Northern Europe
- February 7th : In the second year of the Mongol invasion of the Rus , Mongols under Batu Khan conquer Vladimir , the capital of the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal , after a brief siege , massacre the population and burn the city down. A little later the city of Suzdal also falls .
- March 4 : The Grand Duke of Vladimir-Suzdal , Juri II , and his troops on the Sit River in what is now Yaroslavl Oblast, are defeated by the troops of Batu Khan and killed on his flight. The Mongols had previously beaten Juri's sons near Kolomna . Many chroniclers describe the brutality of the Mongolian warfare . For decades, Russia fell under the influence of the Mongols .
- Batu Khan's hordes destroy Moscow after fierce resistance from residents . After seven weeks of siege, Batu Khan conquered and destroyed the city of Koselsk .
- The Principality of Belo Osero in Northern Russia is established.
- Mindaugas I becomes king of Lithuania .
Holy Roman Empire
- Count Adolf IV renounced his rule in Schauenburg and Holstein in favor of his sons Johann I and Gerhard I , who ruled the county together until 1261 .
- The Brandenburg tithe dispute is ended.
- Enzio , illegitimate son of Emperor Frederick II , is knighted by the latter and married the Sardinian noblewoman Adelasia de Lacon-Gunale in the same year . This brings two of the four Sardinian judiciaries into the marriage .
- September 28th : King James I of Aragon and his troops reach the surrender of the city of Valencia held by the Muslim Taifa Balansiya as part of the Reconquista after a five-month siege . Jacob moves into the city on October 9th , which is considered to be the founding date of the Kingdom of Valencia .
- After the conquest of Granada, Muhammad I ibn Nasr from the Nasrid dynasty founds the Emirate of Granada in al-Andalus .
- Jacob I of Aragon conquers Sagunto .
- Johannes I , Emperor and Grand Commander of Trebizond , is killed in a polo game after three years of reign . After his death, his son and heir to the throne Johannikos is forcibly taken to a monastery. Instead of him, Johannes' brother Manuel I Comnenus ascends the throne.
- Al-Kamil , Sultan of Egypt from the Ayyubid dynasty , conquered Damascus and disempowered his younger brother al-Salih Ismail . However, when he wanted to turn against his nephew Nasir Yusuf in Aleppo in order to finally reunite the Ayyubid Empire in one hand, he died on March 6th . He is followed by his 18-year-old son al-Adil II , whereupon power struggles break out again among the Ayyubids. Al-Adil's half-brother al-Salih Ayyub asserts claims to the entire empire from his previous domain in Mesopotamia and marches against Damascus.
Other events in Asia
- The Tarabi uprising in Bukhara against Mongol rule begins.
- The Thai kingdom of Sukhothai becomes independent of the Khmer empire of Angkor under Sri Indraditya . It is considered a forerunner of today's Thailand .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- February 22 : Reichenbach / Oberlausitz is a privilege document of the Czech King Wenceslas for in Ostritz located Cistercian monastery of St. Marienthal first mentioned.
- Buchholterberg , Dully , Jarchau , Lütschental , Opfershofen (today part of the municipality of Bürglen TG ), Reinbek , Unterwurmbach and Schnait are first mentioned in a document
- Bad Oldesloe receives the town charter of Lübeck .
- The Martinstor in Freiburg im Breisgau is first mentioned in a document.
- September 4th : The barons ruling Constantinople in the absence of Emperor Baldwin II pledge the alleged crown of thorns of Christ, one of the most precious reliquary treasures of Christendom, to a Venetian merchant due to lack of money . After four months without payment of the debt, it will become his property in accordance with the contract. When King Louis IX. learns of this from France , he immediately sends a delegation to Constantinople to purchase the relic. She returns to her homeland not only with the crown of thorns, but also with parts of the Holy Cross and the Holy Lance .
- April 30th : Konrad I of Hochstaden , who is under papal spell, becomes Archbishop of Cologne . He succeeds Heinrich von Müllenark , who died on March 26th . After his election, he settled his dispute with Rome and the Provost of Cologne.
- before May 26th: The German settlement counts force the election of Friedrich I von Hagen as Bishop of Schwerin as the successor of Brunward , who died on January 14th, by force of arms .
- Raimund von Penyafort becomes 3rd order master of the Dominicans .
- Consecration of the first stone monastery church - forerunner of the Predigerkirche in Erfurt (see Meister Eckhart )
Date of birth saved
- April 23 : Narathihapate , ruler of Bagan († 1287 )
- May 1 : Magnus Lagabætir , King of Norway († 1280 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Petrus Armengol , Catalan nobleman and Mercedarian († 1304 )
- Emilia Bicchieri , Italian Dominican, prioress, blessed and mystic († 1314 )
- Fina , patroness of San Gimignano and saint of the Catholic Church († 1253 )
- Friedrich III. , Duke of Upper Lorraine († 1302 )
- Ngam Mueang , ruler of Phayao in northern Thailand († 1298 )
- Rinchen Gyeltshen , head of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, imperial teacher of Kublai Khan († 1279 )
- Theobald II , King of Navarre and Count of Champagne († 1270 )
- Waldemar III. , Duke of Schleswig († 1257 )
Born around 1238
- William de Beauchamp , English magnate († 1298 )
- Otton de Grandson , English knight and friend of Edward I of England († 1328 )
- Nicholas Seagrave , English rebel, nobleman and military man († 1295 )
- Baldwin Wake , English nobleman († 1282 )
- Yang Hui , Chinese mathematician († around 1298 )
Date of death secured
- January 14th : Brunward , Bishop of Schwerin
- February 17th : Heinrich von Thun , Prince-Bishop of Basel
- March 4th : Joanna of England , English noblewoman, Queen of Scotland (* 1210 )
- March 4 : Juri II , Grand Duke of Vladimir (* 1188 )
- March 6 : Al-Kamil , Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt (* around 1180 )
- March 19 : Heinrich I , Duke of Silesia and Senior Duke of Poland (* 1163 )
- March 26 : Heinrich von Müllenark , Archbishop of Cologne (* around 1190 )
- June 9th : Peter des Roches , English politician and Bishop of Winchester
- December 10th : Johann von Apremont , Bishop of Verdun and Metz
- December 26th : Alexander Stavensby , English clergyman, theologian and diplomat
- December 30th : Konrad I. von Velber , Bishop of Osnabrück
Exact date of death unknown
- Eleazar ben Juda ben Kalonymos , German rabbi, author and Kabbalist (* around 1176 )
- Ibn Hud , Muslim prince in Andalusia
- Hugo von Ibelin , Cypriot knight
- John I , Emperor and Grand Commander of Trebizond
- Thomasîn von Zerclaere , Middle High German poet (* around 1186 )
Died around 1238
- Gilbert de Turberville , Anglo-Norman nobleman