|Friedrich II wins a victory over an army of the Lombard League in the battle of Cortenuova .|
|1237 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||685/686 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1780/81 (southern Buddhism); 1779/80 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||599/600 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||634/635 (turn of the year 23/24 August)|
|Jewish calendar||4997/98 (September 20-21)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1547/48 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1548/49 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1293/94 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- February: After his election in 1235 still failed, the eight-year-old Konrad IV , son of Emperor Friedrich II , is elected Roman-German king at a court conference in Vienna , but is not crowned. The electoral act contains not only the title of Roman-German king, but also the future successor as Roman-German emperor. Pope Gregory IX does not recognize the choice of the Staufer .
- August / September: Emperor Friedrich II sets off from Augsburg on a new campaign to Italy against the Lombards League . His son Konrad stays in Germany to formally represent his father. The Archbishop of Mainz Siegfried III stands to him. von Eppstein as Reichsgubernator aside.
- Mantua goes over from the Lombard League to the side of the emperor.
- November 27th : In northern Italy , Emperor Friedrich II wins a victory over an army of the Lombard League under the command of Milan in the battle of Cortenuova . Milan loses its flag car , Petrus Tiepolo, son of the Doge of Venice and Podestà of Milan at the same time , is captured. The peace negotiations that followed failed, however, because of Frederick's demand for unconditional submission.
- September 25th : The Treaty of York between Henry III. of England and Alexander II of Scotland sets the border between the two countries on a line between the Solway Firth in the west and the mouth of the Tweed in the east.
Iberian Peninsula / Reconquista
Zayyan ibn Mardanish , ruler of the Taifa kingdom of Balansiya , attacks the strategically important hill El Puig de Santa María held by Aragón when there is only a relatively small garrison under the command of Bernat Guillem I d'Entença , while King Jacob is there I. withdrew from Aragón to Catalonia. Despite his numerical inferiority, Bernat Guillem achieved a complete victory in the battle of El Puig de Santa María , which in the course of the Reconquista contributed significantly to the conquest of Valencia and the establishment of the Kingdom of Valencia the following year. Bernat Guillem himself died at the end of the year from injuries sustained in the battle.
- Seven years after his capture and dazzling after the Battle of Klokotnitsa , Theodoros I Komnenos Dukas is released again by the Bulgarian Tsar Ivan Assen II after he married Theodor's daughter Irene . Theodoros returns to Thessaloniki with his sons Johannes Komnenos Dukas and Demetrios Komnenos Dukas , deposes his brother Manuel and appoints his son Johannes as despot of Thessaloniki. Manuel turns to Emperor John III. from Nikaia for help. In return, he renounced the Byzantine imperial crown.
- March 25th : With the death of his father-in-law Johann von Brienne , Baldwin II becomes sole ruler of the Latin Empire at the age of 20 . At this point in time, however, he is in Namur to challenge the county of Namur from his sister Margarete . However, this is only ready to give up the property after a payment of 7,000 pounds. In Constantinople, meanwhile, the barons under Anseau de Cayeux take over the reign.
- August 27 : Al-Ashraf Musa , Sultan of the Ayyubids in Damascus , dies during a campaign against his nephew an-Nasir Yusuf , which means that the independence of his empire around Aleppo is temporarily preserved. Al-Ashraf's brother al-Salih Ismail takes control of Damascus. Thereupon al-Kamil , another brother and ruler of Egypt, begins a campaign against Damascus.
- December 21 : The Mongol invasion of the Rus begins: The city of Ryazan is almost completely destroyed after a successful siege by Mongols under Batu Khan .
- Lithuanian Wars of the Teutonic Order : The Brotherhood of the Sword is incorporated into the Teutonic Order after the heavy defeat in the Battle of Schaulen . This brought Livonia and Courland into the possession of the order.
- After the death of his father Kai Kobad I, Kai Chosrau II becomes ruler of the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks , the decline of which will begin in the next few years. Kai Kobad originally appointed his younger son İzzeddin Kılıç Arslan as his successor, who is supported by the Khorezm Shahs .
First documentary mentions and city rights
- First documented mentions of Cölln (sister city of Berlin ), Geislingen an der Steige , Babenhausen (Swabia) , Merzalben , Paspels , Tujetsch and Winkels
- The cities of Arras , Gera and Iserlohn receive city rights .
- Boso de Granges succeeds Landri de Mont , who died on April 10th, Bishop of Sion .
- June 5 : Ekbert von Andechs-Meranien dies. He succeeded Siegfried von Öttingen as Bishop of Bamberg , who gave up the office in the same year. In September Poppo von Andechs-Meranien is elected bishop. Because of the tight financial situation of the bishopric, he has to pledge the monastery property.
- After the death of Ulrich von Kyburg on June 17th, Volkard von Neuburg becomes a candidate for the imperial party, bishop of Chur , whereupon the papal party, which Konrad Propst von Ebrach supports, turns to the pope.
- June 29 : Heinrich III. von Ravensburg dies, the previous canon Friedrich II. von Parsberg succeeds him as Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt .
Founding of monasteries and consecrations
- Foundation of the Cistercian monastery Gutenzell
- A Franciscan monastery is founded in Roskilde .
- Second consecration of Bamberg Cathedral
- February 25 : Wichard von Pohlheim , Bishop of Passau († 1282 )
- July: Isabel de Redvers, 8th Countess of Devon , English noblewoman, Countess of Aumale and of Devon, and Lady of the Isle of Wight († 1293 )
- Bohemond VI. , Prince of Antioch and Count of Tripoli († 1275 )
- Árni Þorláksson , Bishop of Skálholt in Iceland († 1298 )
- Margaretha von Staufen , Sicilian princess and landgrave in Thuringia († 1270 )
- Munio von Zamora , Spanish Master of the Dominicans and Bishop of Palencia († 1300 )
- Oringa Menabuoi , Italian founder of the order and blessed of the Catholic Church († 1310 )
- Wladislaw of Silesia , Chancellor of the Bohemian King Ottokar II. Přemysl, Bishop of Bamberg and Passau, Archbishop of Salzburg and Administrator of Wroclaw († 1270 )
Date of death secured
- January 24th : Barthélemy de Roye , French nobleman and Grand Chamberlain of France (* around 1170 )
- March 23 : John of Brienne , French Crusaders, King and Regent of Jerusalem, Latin Emperor (* around 1169 / 1174 )
- April 10th : Landri de Mont , Bishop of Sion
- April 12 : Berengaria of León , Empress of the Latin Empire of Constantinople (* 1204 )
- April 15 : Richard Poore , Bishop of Chichester, Bishop of Salisbury and Bishop of Durham
- May 5 : Fujiwara no Ietaka , Japanese Waka poet (* 1158 )
- June 5 : Ekbert von Andechs-Meranien , imperial governor for Austria and Styria, Bishop of Bamberg (* after 1173)
- June 17th : Ulrich von Kyburg , Bishop of Chur
- June 29 : Heinrich III. of Ravensburg , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
- August 14th : Magnús Gissurarson , Bishop of Skálholt in southern Iceland
- August 27 : al-Ashraf Musa , Sultan of Syria
Exact date of death unknown
- Bernat Guillem I. d'Entença , Catalan nobleman and general of Occitan origin
- Emo von Wittewierum , Dutch Premonstratensian canon and eyewitness to the first Marcellus flood (* around 1175 )
- Friedrich II. , Count of Saarbrücken and Leiningen
- Gerhard I. von Sinzig , German ministerial and burgrave of Landskron
- Guido Pallavicini , Italian crusader, Margrave of Boudonitza
- Joan of Wales , English noblewoman, illegitimate daughter of John Lackland, Princess of Gwynedd
- Jordan of Saxony , Grand Master of the Dominicans (* around 1185 / 1190 )
- Kai Kobad I. , Sultan of the Rum Seljuks
- Kamal ed-Din Esmail , Persian Odendicht (* around 1172 )
- Yahya ibn Ishaq ibn Ghaniya , last Almoravid general