|Department||Pas-de-Calais ( prefecture )|
Arras-1 (main town)
Arras-2 (main town)
Arras-3 (main town)
|surface||11.63 km 2|
|Residents||41,019 (January 1, 2017)|
|Population density||3,527 inhabitants / km 2|
Downtown Arras with the Place des Héros with the Town Hall (left) and Grande Place
Arras [ aʁɑːs ] ( Dutch and German, outdated Atrecht ) is a French city in the region Hauts-de-France . It is the administrative seat of the Pas-de-Calais department . The first documentary mention can be dated to the year 407.
When the Franconian Empire was partitioned , Arras fell to Lothar I. In the West Franconian imperial annals , the Annales Bertiniani , it says in relation to the Treaty of Verdun : "Outside these borders he (Lothar) only received Arras through the kindness of his brother Karl".
Arras was on the border between France and the Holy Roman Empire for many centuries . The rulership of the city changed frequently. Finally, fortifications were built by the architect Vauban , which helped to keep the city permanently under French rule.
With the help of mediators as representatives of Pope Eugene IV and the Council of Basel , the Peace of Arras between France and Burgundy, which had been allied with England until then , came about in 1435 (→ Hundred Years War ). But other contracts were also negotiated and concluded in this city. From 1459 to 1461, citizens of the city committed denunciations, heretic and witch hunts that became known under the name “Vauderies d'Arras”, which the Polish writer Andrzej Szczypiorski processed in his novel “A Mass for the City of Arras”.
Economically, the city lived for a long time from trade with Flanders and later became an important center for the cultivation and processing of sugar beet . The city gained great importance as one of the main centers of tapestry production in the South of the Netherlands . These products from the factories are still known by name as Arrazzi .
During the First World War Arras was near the front. From September 6, 1914, the city was briefly occupied by German troops, but they were pushed back to the outskirts during the month. From autumn 1914 to 1918 several major battles took place in the northern suburbs, for example the Loretto Battle in May / June 1915 and the Battle of Arras in April / May 1917. The Allies were able to defend Arras against all attacks by the Germans - not least thanks to one thing gigantic tunnel system created below the city, in which up to 24,000 soldiers could be accommodated. The city was almost completely destroyed during the war: the town hall burned down on October 7, 1914 and the belfry collapsed on October 21, 1914. The cathedral was destroyed on July 6, 1915. After the war, Arras was rebuilt in historical form.
During the Second World War , the city was occupied by German troops from June 1940 ( western campaign ) to the end of August 1944, who stationed the Arras defense post here from 1943 to 1944 . 240 French were executed by the occupiers as members of the Resistance in the citadel of Arras . On September 1, 1944, two rapidly advancing divisions of the British XXX Corps reached Arras, namely the 11th Armored Division and the Guards Division.
coat of arms
The coat of arms has been on seals since 1355 . The small blue shield with the golden lilies and the red tournament collar , located in the red heraldic shield above the soaring blue-armored golden lion , is the family symbol of the first gentleman Robert d'Artois.
The city's landmarks are two large squares in the center, the Grande Place and the Place des Héros . They are surrounded by an ensemble of restored buildings.
The most important buildings in the city are the late baroque - classicist cathedral (1778–1833) and the Gothic town hall (1462–1572) with a belfry , which has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site “Belfries in France” since 2005 .
The Boves are a well-preserved underground network of tunnels 10 meters below the city. They were built in the 10th century and can be visited. The idea was to build a huge underground network to connect the cellars of all residents through tunnels. The excavated material (chalk) was used to build houses. During the world wars, the boves were used as an underground bunker to protect residents and valuable items from falling bombs.
- Jean Bodel (≈ 1165–1209), old French minstrel (Ménestrel) and medieval poet
- Adam de la Halle (around 1237 - 1286/87 or 1306?), Trouvère (Troubadour)
- Matthias von Arras (1290–1352), architect and builder who worked in Bohemia
- John IV of Brabant (1403–1427), Duke of Brabant, Lothier and Limburg and Count of Hainaut, Holland and Zealand
- Jean Crespin (≈1520–1572), lawyer, Reformed author and printer in Geneva
- Charles de l'Écluse (1526–1609), doctor and botanist
- Jean Sarazin (1539–1598), Prince Archbishop of Cambrai and Abbot of Saint-Vaast in Arras
- Charles Bonaventure de Longueval, Comte de Bucquoy (1571–1621), Field Marshal in the Thirty Years War
- Ambroise Marie François Joseph Palisot de Beauvois (1752–1820), natural scientist
- Jean Charles Joseph de Laumond (1753–1825), politician and director general of the French mines
- Maximilien de Robespierre (1758–1794), politician and one of the most influential men during the French Revolution
- Louis-Charles Caigniez (1762–1842), theater writer
- Augustin Robespierre (1763–1794), politician and brother of Maximilien de Robespierre
- Joseph Le Bon (1765–1795), revolutionary
- Eugène François Vidocq (1775–1857), criminal and later crime fighter
- Jean-Paul Adam Schramm (1789–1884), Infantry General and Minister of War
- Alexandre Georges (1850–1938), organist, music teacher and composer
- Léon Molon (1881–1952), racing car driver and aircraft pioneer
- Lucien Molon (1883–1957), racing car driver
- Lucien Gaudin (1886–1934), fencer, world champion and Olympic champion (1924 and 1928)
- Pierre Jean Jouve (1887–1976), writer and supporter of Sigmund Freud
- Gabriel Hanot (1889–1968), soccer player, journalist and editor of the sports newspaper L'Équipe
- Louise Weiss (1893–1983), European politician, writer, journalist and feminist
- André Dufau (1905–1990), sprinter
- Violette Leduc (1907–1972), writer
- Jean Douchet (1929–2019), cineast, historian, film critic, director, actor and writer
- Christophe Gardié (* 1964), soccer goalkeeper and soccer coach
- Sébastien Laudenbach (* 1973), animator
- Frédéric Makowiecki (* 1980), racing driver
- Benoît Assou-Ekotto (* 1984), Cameroonian-French football player
- Lucas Tousart (born 1997), football player
- Chemnitz in Saxony , since 1967
- Herten in North Rhine-Westphalia , since 1984
- Oudenaarde in Flanders since 1990
- Ipswich in the English county of Suffolk , in 1992
- Deva in Romanian Transylvania
A school partnership between the Lycée Robespierre and the Lycée Gambetta and the König-Wilhelm-Gymnasium in the North Rhine-Westphalian town of Höxter has existed since 1956/57 .
- Angelika Franz: Tunnel city under hell . In: Der Spiegel from April 16, 2008
- "Mur des Fusilliers"
- Nobody hears us there. In: Der Spiegel 37/1950 of September 13, 1950